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The Ä•dâm Genome

Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.10.27]

San (bush) !Kun Khoi-San Kalahari, S Africa
Click to enlargeSan: Genetic Ancestors of All Homo Sapiens!Kun Khoi-San; Kalahari, S Africa

•dâm / â•dâm; man, mankind. (Capitalizations in English – e.g. "Man" or "Adam" – are nonexistent in Hebrew and, therefore, artificially superimposed by interpretation). Use of the specifier prefix, - (-; the…), generally differentiates (â•dâm; "a man") from (hâ-â•dâm; "the man").

Cognates include (a•dâm•âh; soil, dirt, earth) and the masc. adjective (â•dom; red, lit. "clay-red" or chestnut) and its feminine counterpart, (a•dum•âh; red, lit. "clay-red" or chestnut), as in "Red Heiffer".

Scientific Update: 2015.03.10

"Linear Evolution From Ape To Human… Proving To Be Inaccurate"

"What these new fossils are telling us is that the early species of our genus, Homo, were more distinctive than we thought. They differed not only in their faces and jaws, but in the rest of their bodies too," said Carol Ward, a professor of pathology and anatomical sciences in the MU School of Medicine. "The old depiction of linear evolution from ape to human with single steps in between is proving to be inaccurate. We are finding that evolution seemed to be experimenting with different human physical traits in different species before ending up with Homo sapiens." (Prof. of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences Carol Ward, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine)

Scientific Update: 2014.07.08

Discovery of Neandertal trait in ancient human skull raises new questions about human evolution

"Re-examination of a circa 100,000-year-old archaic early human skull found 35 years ago in Northern China has revealed the surprising presence of an inner-ear formation long thought to occur only in Neandertals.

"The discovery places into question a whole suite of scenarios of later Pleistocene human population dispersals and interconnections based on tracing isolated anatomical or genetic features in fragmentary fossils," said study co-author Erik Trinkaus, PhD, a physical anthropology professor at Washington University in St. Louis.

"It suggests, instead, that the later phases of human evolution were more of a labyrinth of biology and peoples than simple lines on maps would suggest."

Trinkaus, the Mary Tileston Hemenway Professor in Arts & Sciences, is a leading authority on early human evolution and among the first to offer compelling evidence for interbreeding and gene transfer between Neandertals and modern human ancestors.

"It shows that human populations in the real world don't act in nice simple patterns.

"Eastern Asia and Western Europe are a long way apart, and these migration patterns took thousands of years to play out," he said. "This study shows that you can't rely on one anatomical feature or one piece of DNA as the basis for sweeping assumptions about the migrations of hominid species from one place to another."

The time needed for various regions cited in bᵊ-Reish•it to achieve their respective populations would seem to corroborate a 2003 DNA study (geneticist Spencer Wells; American Journal of Human Genetics, 2003.09) that dates the DNA mutation that produced the first Homo sapiens to ca. B.C.E. 60,000, originating in what is now Ethiopia-Sudan. More recent science (e.g., Stanford, 2014.01) has converged the origins of the MRCA "Y-Adam" and MRCA "mitochondrial Eve" within the period between B.C.E. 120,000-148,000.

This Ethiopia-Sudan region of Africa not only corroborates the general skin color of the first Homo sapiens as â•dâm, the cognate of clay-red soil color, but corroborates as well the genetic mutation of a new microcephalin allele, which mutated ca. B.C.E. 35,000, and, more recently (only about 5800 years ago), the ASPM allele.

First DNA homo sapiens NationalGeographic.com, Frank Bender (sculptor and photographer)
First DNA homo sapiens (and photo) by forensic sculptor Frank Bender. © 1996-2005 NationalGeographic.com.

It seems clear from this that the original color of the first homo sapiens was dark, rather than pallid, as most Caucasian-dominated people from more northerly climates (e.g., Europeans) have always presumed.

The first DNA homo sapiens, dating from B.C.E. 60,000, is far older than the Biblical •dâm estimated to have lived only about 6,000 years ago (i.e., ca. B.C.E. 4131). This suggests that bᵊ-Reish•it, rather than being a record of every generation from •dâm, is an oral proto-history that recorded only milestone paragons, skipping lesser important generations, from ca. B.C.E. 60,000, when man's language suddenly exploded and he began to recount his pre-writing history, up into the time of Av•râ•hâm and his posterity—a period of about 55,000 years.

See also Khaw•âh ("mitochondrial Eve").

Scientific Update:2011.11.02

Shared genes with Neanderthal relatives not unusual

Neanderthal Wilma (NatlGeog 1996)
Click to enlarge"Neanderthal Wilma"

Mother of Nᵊphil•im? Rᵊphâ•im? (NatlGeog 1996)

During human evolution our ancestors mated with Neanderthals, but also with other related hominids. In this week's online edition of PNAS, researchers from Uppsala University are publishing findings showing that people in East Asia share genetic material with Denisovans, who got the name from the cave in Siberia where they were first found.

Our study covers a larger part of the world than earlier studies, and it is clear that it is not as simple as we previously thought. Hybridization took place at several points in evolution, and the genetic traces of this can be found in several places in the world. We'll probably be uncovering more events like these, says Mattias Jakobsson, who conducted the study together with Pontus Skoglund.

Previous studies have found two separate hybridization events between so-called archaic humans (different from modern humans in both genetics and morphology) and the ancestors of modern humans after their emergence from Africa: hybridization between Neanderthals and the ancestors of modern humans outside of Africa and hybridization between Denisovans and the ancestors of indigenous Oceanians. The genetic difference between Neandertals and Denisovans is roughly as great as the maximal level of variation among us modern humans.

Scientific Update:2011.09.07

Anatomically modern humans interbred with more archaic hominin forms even before they migrated out of Africa, a U[niv.]A[rizona]-led team of researchers has found.

It is now widely accepted that the species Homo sapiens originated in Africa and eventually spread throughout the world. But did those early humans interbreed with more ancestral forms of the genus Homo, for example Homo erectus, the "upright walking man," Homo habilis, – the "tool-using man" or Homo neanderthalensis, the first artists of cave-painting fame?

Direct studies of ancient DNA from Neanderthal bones suggest interbreeding did occur after anatomically modern humans had migrated from their evolutionary cradle in Africa to the cooler climates of Eurasia, but what had happened in Africa remained a mystery – until now.

In a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, or PNAS, a team led by Michael Hammer, an associate professor and research scientist with the UA's Arizona Research Labs, provides evidence that anatomically modern humans were not so unique that they remained separate.

"We found evidence for hybridization between modern humans and archaic forms in Africa. It looks like our lineage has always exchanged genes with their more morphologically diverged neighbors," said Hammer, who also holds appointments in the UA's department of ecology and evolutionary biology, the school of anthropology, the BIO5 Institute and the Arizona Cancer Center.

Hammer added that recent advances in molecular biology have made it possible to extract DNA from fossils tens of thousands of years old and compare it to that of modern counterparts…

According to Hammer, the first signs of anatomically modern features appeared about 200,000 years ago…

"We discovered three different genetic regions fit the criteria for being archaic DNA still present in the genomes of sub-Saharan Africans. Interestingly, this signature was strongest in populations from central Africa…"

"We are talking about something that happened between 20,000 and 60,000 years ago – not that long ago in the scheme of things," Hammer said. "If interbreeding occurs, it's going to bring in a whole chromosome, and over time, recombination events will chop the chromosome down to smaller pieces. And those pieces will now be found as short, unusual fragments. By looking at how long they are we can get an estimate of how far back the interbreeding event happened."

Hammer said that even though the archaic DNA sequences account for only two or three percent of what is found in modern humans, that doesn't mean the interbreeding wasn't more extensive.

"It could be that this represents what's left of a more extensive archaic genetic content today. Many of the sequences we looked for would be expected to be lost over time. Unless they provide a distinct evolutionary advantage, there is nothing keeping them in the population and they drift out…"

"We think there were probably thousands of interbreeding events," Hammer said. "It happened relatively extensively and regularly."

"Anatomically modern humans were not so unique that they remained separate," he added. "They have always exchanged genes with their more morphologically diverged neighbors. This is quite common in nature, and it turns out we're not so unusual after all." (http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2011-09/uoa-ahw090211.php accessed 2011.09.07)

Scientific Update:2011.07.18

Genetic Bombshell –
Africans Are Human, Europeans Are Neanderthal!Wha!?!

Now Ain't That An Unexpected Turnaround For Racists!?!

Hold on to your hats, the genetic research ride is getting bumpy. And get a good grip on your personal identity because our genetic origins aren't turning out like anyone expected. Most racists being white (European origin), it turns out, are Neanderthals. Gulp! We white folks, not the black folks, are the knuckle-draggers! The racists will choke on this one. Oy!

"Some of the human X chromosome originates from Neanderthals and is found exclusively in people outside Africa, according to an international team of researchers led by Damian Labuda of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Montreal and the CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center. The research was published in the July issue of Molecular Biology and Evolution.

"This confirms recent findings suggesting that the two populations interbred," says Dr. Labuda. His team places the timing of such intimate contacts and/or family ties early on, probably at the crossroads of the Middle East.

"Neanderthals, whose ancestors left Africa about 400,000 to 800,000 years ago, evolved in what is now mainly France, Spain, Germany and Russia, and are thought to have lived until about 30,000 years ago. Meanwhile, early modern humans left Africa about 80,000 to 50,000 years ago. The question on everyone's mind has always been whether the physically stronger Neanderthals, who possessed the gene for language and may have played the flute, were a separate species or could have interbred with modern humans. The answer is yes, the two lived in close association.

"In addition, because our methods were totally independent of Neanderthal material, we can also conclude that previous results were not influenced by contaminating artifacts," adds Dr. Labuda.

"Dr. Labuda and his team almost a decade ago had identified a piece of DNA (called a haplotype) in the human X chromosome that seemed different and whose origins they questioned. When the Neanderthal genome was sequenced in 2010, they quickly compared 6000 chromosomes from all parts of the world to the Neanderthal haplotype. The Neanderthal sequence was present in peoples across all continents, except for sub-Saharan Africa, and including Australia.

"There is little doubt that this haplotype is present because of mating with our ancestors and Neanderthals. This is a very nice result, and further analysis may help determine more details," says Dr. Nick Patterson, of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard University, a major researcher in human ancestry who was not involved in this study. [Suddenly, Europeans–Google Dr. Patterson's photo–claim Africans as "our ancestors" while describing European ancestors as the Neanderthals. Dr. Patterson apparently has it backward and should have said, "There is little doubt that this haplotype is present because of mating with our Neanderthal ancestors and Africans." It would appear that only an African can legitimately say that "There is little doubt that this haplotype is present because of mating with our ancestors and Neanderthals." What can ya do? Non-logician scientists have such trouble adapting to science.]

"Dr. Labuda and his colleagues were the first to identify a genetic variation in non-Africans that was likely to have come from an archaic population. This was done entirely without the Neanderthal genome sequence, but in light of the Neanderthal sequence, it is now clear that they were absolutely right!" adds Dr. David Reich, a Harvard Medical School geneticist, one of the principal researchers in the Neanderthal genome project." (http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2011-07/uom-grc071411.php; accessed 2011.07.18)

Scientific Update:2010.12.23

"SANTA CRUZ, CA--A 30,000-year-old finger bone found in a cave in southern Siberia came from a young girl who was neither an early modern human nor a Neanderthal, but belonged to a previously unknown group of human relatives who may have lived throughout much of Asia during the late Pleistocene epoch. Although the fossil evidence consists of just a bone fragment and one tooth, DNA extracted from the bone has yielded a draft genome sequence, enabling scientists to reach some startling conclusions about this extinct branch of the human family tree, called "Denisovans" after the cave where the fossils were found.

The findings are reported in the December 23 issue of Nature by an international team of scientists… of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.

By comparing the Denisovan genome sequence with the genomes of Neanderthals and modern humans, the researchers determined that the Denisovans were a sister group to the Neanderthals, descended from the same ancestral population that had separated earlier from the ancestors of present-day humans. The study also found surprising evidence of Denisovan gene sequences in modern-day Melanesians, suggesting that there was interbreeding between Denisovans and the ancestors of Melanesians, just as Neanderthals appear to have interbred with the ancestors of all modern-day non-Africans [i.e., Europeans].

"The story now gets a bit more complicated," said [Richard] Green, an assistant professor of biomolecular engineering in the Baskin School of Engineering at UC Santa Cruz. "Instead of the clean story we used to have of modern humans migrating out of Africa and replacing Neanderthals, we now see these very intertwined story lines with more players and more interactions than we knew of before."

The Denisovans appear to have been quite different both genetically and morphologically from Neanderthals and modern humans. The tooth found in the same cave as the finger bone shows a morphology that is distinct from Neanderthals and modern humans and resembles much older human ancestors, such as Homo habilis and Homo erectus." (http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-12/uoc--ffb121710.php; accessed 2010.12.23)

Scientific Update:2010.10.27

"Many long-held beliefs suggesting why the Neanderthals went extinct have been debunked in recent years. Research has already shown that Neanderthals were as good at hunting as Homo sapiens and had no clear disadvantage in their ability to communicate. Now, these latest findings add to the growing evidence that Neanderthals were no less intelligent than our ancestors… Metin Eren, an MA Experimental Archaeology student at the University of Exeter and lead author on the paper comments: "Our research disputes a major pillar holding up the long-held assumption that Homo sapiens were more advanced than Neanderthals." (EurekAlert).

It is also fascinating that the emergence of the recent ASMP mutation coincides with the distinction between, and convergence of, Neandertal man with Cro-Magnon (manyon) man and the disappearance (or absorption, the jury is still out) of the former. Both shared language, eliminating language as the distinction affected by these genes.

"While Cro-Magnon man had been assumed extinct, modern DNA analyis has shown that Cro-Magnons are a significant subset of today's human population, sharing the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Haplogroup N" (NYT).

In southern China, according to Washington University in St. Louis researchers, "The discovery of early modern human fossil remains in the Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in south China that are at least 100,000 years old provides the earliest evidence for the emergence of modern humans in eastern Asia, at least 60,000 years older than the previously known modern humans in the region.

"These fossils are helping to redefine our perceptions of modern human emergence in eastern Eurasia, and across the Old World more generally," says Eric Trinkaus, PhD, the Mary Tileston Hemenway Professor in Arts & Sciences and professor of physical anthropology.

"The Zhirendong fossils have a mixture of modern and archaic features that contrasts with earlier modern humans in east Africa and southwest Asia, indicating some degree of human population continuity in Asia with the emergence of modern humans.

"The Zhirendong humans indicate that the spread of modern human biology long preceded the cultural and technological innovations of the Upper Paleolithic and that early modern humans co-existed for many tens of millennia with late archaic humans further north and west across Eurasia." (2010.10.27, Eurekalert, news.wustl.edu/news/Pages/21392.aspx)

Scientific Update:2008.08.26

"The Chicago team… note that the [newer] ASPM allele emerged at about the same time as… the emergence of the civilizations of the Middle East some 5,000 years ago" (NYT); i.e. B.C.E. 3,000.

"Research by UK and American scientists has struck another blow to the theory that Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) became extinct because they were less intelligent than our ancestors (Homo sapiens)… Published today ([2008.08.26]) in the Journal of Human Evolution, their discovery debunks a textbook belief held by archaeologists for more than 60 years… The team from the University of Exeter, Southern Methodist University, Texas State University, and the Think Computer Corporation… The Neanderthals, believed to be a different species from Homo sapiens, evolved in Ice Age Europe, while the latter evolved in Africa before spreading out to the rest of the world around 50-40,000 years ago. Neanderthals are thought to have died out around 28,000 years ago, suggesting at least 10,000 years of overlap and possible interaction between the two species in Europe" (New evidence debunks 'stupid' Neanderthal myth EurekAlert, 2008.08.26).

In other words, it increasingly appears that the two mingled, unmaintainable traits went extinct, the distinctions blurred and they merged to become today's modern human. DNA research seems to corroborate this conclusion. The recent (B.C.E. 12,100—1500 C.E.) ASPM allele also corresponds precisely (as close as anyone can tell) to ca. B.C.E. 4131—when the Bible and other sources seem to begin recorded history. Combining various archeological and historical sources points to the •dâm of bә-Reish•it living ca. B.C.E. 4131 (Chronology). Based on a compilation of historical documentation, this is certainly a far more precise—within a couple of centuries at the outside—and reliable dating. To be within 3½ centuries of the "favor[ed] mid-way date" when the range is 13,600 years is so precise it's almost scary. Could bә-Reish•it 1.1—6.8 be the history of the distinctions, interactions and final convergence of Neandertal and Cro-Magnon man less than 6,000 years ago?

While this new mutation spread quickly through the most of the homo sapien population, yet today "Some 70 percent or more of people in most European and East Asian populations [still] carry [the older] allele of the gene, as do 100 percent of those in three South American Indian populations" (NYT). "It is already present in about a quarter of people alive today, and is more common in Europe and the Middle East than the rest of the world." (Mason Inman, "Human brains enjoy ongoing evolution" NewScientist.com news service, 2005.09.09). "The [new] allele has attained a frequency of about 50 percent in populations of the Middle East and Europe, is less common in East Asia, and found at low frequency in some sub-Saharan Africa peoples." (NYT)

This leads to the fascinating possibility that the pre-•dâm (i.e., pre-ca. B.C.E. 4131) ASMP allele, ASMPN, is that of Neandertal man (anatomically modern human, most adept at predatory cunning) while the post-•dâm ASMP allele, ASMPC, is that of Cro-Magnon (anatomically modern human, most adept at higher, abstract, intelligence)—presumed (perhaps another example of wishful assumptions overriding science to be taken as axiomatic) to be the humans of today.

Apparently shattering our lofty self-illusions, however, scientists find that each person today has one of three possible pair combinations of this gene:

  • ASPMC + ASPMC (10% of today's population)

  • ASPMC + ASPMN (40% of today's population)

  • ASPMN + ASPMN (50% of today's population)

This leads to the possibility of new insight into vël versus Qayin and Ei•sâu versus Ya•a•qov; that every person in today's "modern human" population is either Neandertal (more adept at predatory cunning?), Cro-Magnon (more adept at abstract intelligence) or a hybrid of the two. Did Qayin receive two ASPMC alleles while his brother received one of the other combinations? Was there a genetically-based, instinctual pre-inclination for one to be a rancher and the other a farmer? Was the incident the final straw in a range war? To what extent is the individual's brain capable and, therefore, responsible for controlling, changing or even mutating the expression of his or her genes? While the twins, Ei•sâu and Ya•a•qov, had identical genes, might their intrinsic enmity be based on each having expressed or mutated the gene differently?

These possibilities, in turn, could lend a whole new twist to bә-Reish•it 6.1-4… even Dәvâr•im 7.3, et al and, particularly, Yәsha•yâhu 6.9-10 and Yi•rәmәyâhu 5.21, paralleled in The Nәtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•tit•yâhu (NHM) 11.(approx v.14), 13.9, 19, 43.

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