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Updated: 2018.09.04


The is the Judaic court, which traces back in an unbroken chain to Mōsh•ëh at Har Sin•ai (Shᵊm•ōt 18:19-26; and Dᵊvâr•im 16:18; 17:9-13; see also NHM note 27.1.2.) This is in contrast to the Mi•shᵊpât, which refers to the modern Israeli state court, regarded by "the religious" as "secular".

Hellenist Roman Occupiers: Συνέδριον / Σύνοδος

A συνέδριον / σύνοδος, was originally a Roman Senate Assembly accountable to Rome–as in the senates of Sparta, Carthage, and even Rome–composed of local representatives. According to Josephus, ca. B.C.E. 57 the Roman governor, Gabinus, divided the Holy Land into 5 provinces, each under its own συνέδριον (Ant., XIV, v, 4) / σύνοδος (Wars, I, viii, 5).

Hellenist Tzᵊdoq•im Temple Priests Collaborators

Thus, under the influence of the ruling Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im (collaborators with the Hellenist Roman occupiers), the system became Hellenized and, to a great extent, blurred with the Hellenist Roman συνέδριον—completely divorcing it conceptually from the court system established by Mosh•ëh in Pâ•râsh•at Yi•tᵊr•o (bᵊ-Reish•it 18).

Beit ha-Miqdash Sanhedrin (red dot)  1985 Yirmeyahu Ben-David

The highest, or "Great," συνέδριον / σύνοδος, located in Yᵊru•shâ•layim, comprised 71 members. Mid-level συνέδριον / σύνοδος, two of which were also located in Yᵊru•shâ•layim, comprised 23 members. At the lowest level, the local comprised three members. (It's unknown how many of these lower level were located in Yᵊru•shâ•layim.)

Modern court systems are still based on a meta-level plus three worldly levels of the Bât•ei Din framework instituted by Mōsh•ëh:

  1. - the Beit Din Above, heavenly Court (Aramaic: ). As the universe is the Creator-Singularity's great laboratory preparing Tōr•âh-centric humans for post-mortal life in His eternal, non-physical domain, so mortal recognition of the necessity of earthly Bât•ei-Din mirrors a Higher, Ultimate Authority — surmised to function as a Heavenly Beit Din.

  2. the 70 Elders of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil; (i.e. - ) — the highest earthly court and original Supreme Court. This is the proper Hebrew name for the Hellenized "Great Sanhedrin," which convened in on the wall promenade at the southeastern corner of the inner court of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh, overlooking the Mi•zᵊbeiakh. The , was chaired by : namely, the and the , and supervised the lesser bât•ei-din throughout Yi•sᵊ•râ•eil. Cf. also NHM note 5.22.3.

    The (ancient rabbinic) , which was the sole court system in ancient Yᵊhud•âh, must be distinguished from today's highest civil court in Israel – which is independent of, and exercises judicial authority over, the Ra•bân•ut: the (modern civil) (The High House of Adjudication), which serves both as Israel's Supreme Appellate Court and as " (Israel's Highest Court of First Instance).

  3. - (Lesser or Lower Houses of Adjudication) comparable to modern district courts, convened in the gate of every walled city,

  4. - — The - was the local court, which convened in the gate of every village. Today's progeny - adjudicates questions of interpretations for the practice of Tor•âh, i.e. Ha•lâkh•âh and, within Israel, is, by current secular Israeli state law, under the supervision of the Ottoman- (Turkish-) ordained, Ultra-Orthodox Ra•bân•ut.


Sho•phᵊt•im had to be Yᵊhud•im in good standing in the Jewish community—not apostates or goy•im, obviously—and conform to Shᵊm•ot 18.21

-, ; -

and Dᵊvâr•im 1.13 ("Bet Din and Judges," EJ 4:720).


Until added in recent years (contradicting Dᵊvâr•im 13.1), Sho•phᵊt•im of a - had never been required to be rabbis. Indeed, rabbis never even existed until ca. B.C.E. 166!!!

Josephus documented the corrupt practice of the Ko•han•ei hâ-Rësha (Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im) to convene illegal (Antiquities, xx, ix, 1).

While readers may be more familiar with the term "sanhedrin," this Hellenist term conceals the continuity of the system of adjudicating Oral Law (as proven by 4Q MMT). Since the Pᵊrush•im achieved predominance in the Beit Din ha-Jâ•dol ca. 20 C.E., Oral Law has comprised Ha•lâkh•âh. This Tor•âh shë-bᵊ•al pëh is documented in Ta•na"kh as khuq•im + mi•shᵊpât, an uninterrupted process dating from the time of Mōsh•ëh at Har Sin•ai (see ABNC Live-Link Technology).

In modern Yi•sᵊr•â•eil, we distinguish between religious courts—Bât•ei Din—and modern secular courts, called Bât•ei mi•shᵊpât. See also discussion in the "64 C.E.Proto-Christians" section of Who Are The Nᵊtzarim? Live-Link (WAN) and note 5.22.3 in NHM.

Inextricably related, (din; law) is also used with (yom; day) in the sense of (Yom ha-Din; Law Day or "the" Day of Law, often confused with its synonym, "Day of Judgment"— (Yom ha-Mi•shᵊpât).

The original court system included, as its highest court, the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol (the Great House of Law; Hellenized / de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Great Sanhedrin').

Only the could decide mi•shᵊpât—and obedience of the mi•shᵊpât•im is explicitly and unambiguously commanded in Tor•âh hundreds of times!!!

To wrest these passages from their contextual dependence on a legitimate of Tor•âh-observant Jews, the Church translates mi•shᵊpât simply as "judgment"—giving the false, and deceiving, impression that anyone can make such "judgments"!!!

Beside the well known Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol, the system comprised, under the aegis of the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol, Bât•ei-Din ha-Qâtân and, under the aegis of the Bât•ei-Din ha-Qâtân, Bât•ei-Din representing the various communities recognized as legitimate by the higher Bât•ei-Din. Both books of our Kha•vᵊr•utâ plus "Bet Din and Judges," EJ are MUST reads.

It is only with this Judaic phrase ' ' that the uninterrupted chain is obvious between the bât•ei-din established by Mosh•ëh, the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol which operated in the Beit-ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh with the many bât•ei-din under its supervision, and the bât•ei-din which continue to operate today in the legitimate Orthodox Jewish community.


Beware of Christian deceivers operating outside of the legitimate Jewish community who self-proclaim themselves to be a " but have no connection to the legitimate Jewish community of any era, or to Israel. Setting up a so-called "beit din" to rival the historically authentic bât•ei-din is Displacement Theology!!!

Nᵊtzâr•im Restored Via Orthodox

Pâ•qid Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu Bën-Dâ•wid, the 16th Pâ•qid of the Nᵊtzâr•im ( Pâ•qid Ya•a•qov Bën-Dâ•wid, the brother of Ribi Yᵊho•shua Bën-Dâ•wid, being the first)—is a member in good standing, on the board, of the Yemenite Orthodox synagogue in Ra•an•anâ(h), Israel—Mo•rëshët Âv•ot. The Nᵊtzâr•im are the only followers of Ribi Yᵊho•shua on the planet, and the only on the planet, determining and disseminating the teachings of Ribi Yᵊho•shua as the Mâ•shiakh within the system of the legitimate (Orthodox) Jewish community and Israel.

Thus, the Nᵊtzâr•im (as distinguished from the wannabe pretenders of Displacement Theology who often pose as "Netzarim") are the only followers legitimately like historical Ribi Yᵊho•shua and the historical Nᵊtzâr•im; and, it follows, the only legitimate followers of Ribi Yᵊho•shua, and the only true bearers of the authentic teachings of Ribi Yᵊho•shua.

All other so-called followers of 'Christ' (by whatever name, including those who call themselves 'Netzarim' or 'Paqid' but are not—none of these terms were even known in the modern era until I restored and published them; other users are blatant plagiarists and frauds) are deceptions of Displacement Theology syncretism ultimately deriving from the post-135 C.E. Roman pagan 'Jesus'.

We verify all legitimate Nᵊtzâr•im upon request. If you wish to verify whether someone is a legitimate Nᵊtzâr•im or a fraud, simply ask us in our Web Café.

Related to the dramatic difference between a and the fake Christian notion of an informal "judgment," former Christians often expect that a operates informally like several social club members approving a new member.

A , by contrast, is a formal court of law… with all of the formal legalities that entails: millennia of case law which have established rules of identification, standards of evidence, testimony of witnesses, etc.

You don't need to hire a lawyer to petition for recognition if and when the time comes, but you do want to approach the understanding that you must respect both the legalities and the sho•phᵊt•im to at least the same degree that is expected by a civil court. Changing from a gentile to a geir to•shâv is a legal change under Tor•âh law—and that requires meeting legal criteria established by the historically legitimate Judaic community over the millennia.

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