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Hebrew Glossary: U-Z

The reason this simple page of glossary definitions is ranked so popular with the search engine is because so many people click on our links to these definitions from the content in… the 'Netzarim Quarter' Village web site in Ra•an•anꞋã(h), Israel at www.netzarim.co.il

The real content is in the 'Netzarim Quarter'! Click on our logo above for an exciting visit to the 'Netzarim Quarter' where you'll learn about Historical Ribi Yehoshua and his original, Jewish, followers before the great Roman-Hellenist apostasy of 135 C.E.—and even more importantly, how you (whether Jew or non-Jew) can follow the historically true, Judaic, Ribi Yehoshua. In Hebrew, his original followers were called the Netzarim (Hellenized to "Nazarenes").

Until Paqid Yirmeyahu researched the Netzarim name and sect and began publishing about it in 1972 in The Netzarim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matityahu (NHM) no one in modern times was even aware of the name Netzarim. It stretches credulity that no one in modern times had heard of the Netzarim until Paqid Yirmeyahu published it in 1972… and then, suddenly, everybody figured it out??? Check (and verify) the dates of the earliest works about the Netzarim by the others and you'll see that they are deceiver-plagiarists. Then insist on the person whom ha-Sheim selected to entrust the knowledge, not imposters who falsely call their continuing practice of Displacement Theology "Nazarene Judaism" or directly plagiarize the name "Netzarim."

Because we teach and practice the authentic Judaic teachings of Ribi Yehoshua—not Displacement Theology—we are the only group who have restored the Netzarim to be accepted in the legitimate Jewish community in Israel—genuinely like Ribi Yehoshua and the original Netzarim. Consequently, the 'Netzarim Quarter' is the only web site of legitimate Netzarim / Nazarene Judaism.

Give all the friends you've ever known the chance to know about this exciting site; send them our web site address (www.netzarim.co.il) that opens modern eyes for the first time to the Judaic world that Ribi Yehoshua and his original Netzarim knew, practiced and taught.

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אוּלָםPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2019.01.17]

Ū•lãmꞋ;אולם,Ulam a porch hall.


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אוּלפָּןPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. ūl•pãnꞋ; אולפן, ulpanstudio, instructional class.


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וּן-Pronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2017.07.05]

-ūn ון(suffix). A variant of -ōn, when appended to a final syllable that is vowelled as "ū" ("oo"). E.g.,

  • abstracting יְשֻׁרוּן‎ from יָשָׁר‎

  • abstracting זְבוּלוּן‎‎ from זֶבֶל‎


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אוּרPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

campfirelight

masc . n. ūr; אוריםfirelight, illumination; plural אוּרִים (ūr•imꞋ; lights, fiery-lights). See also or.


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אוּרִים וְתֻמִים Pronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2019.12.17]

אוּרִים
Urim or Tumim:Obverse (אוּרִים in ancient Hebrew). Hover cursor over gem to view reverse (תֻמִים in ancient Hebrew). Carnelian has been used in the jewelery of many ancient cultures. Egyptians were using carnelian as early as BCE 4000. Carnelian was always popular for engraving intaglios, often used for signet rings and seals. The blood-, or fire-, red stone carried implications of mortality (blood) and judgment (fire).

Ancient Hebrew font on gems courtesy of Ancient Hebrew Research Center Ancient Hebrew Research Center logo

אוּרִים ותֻמִים (Urim or Tumim) – אורים ותמים,תומים,Urim and Tummim, Urim and Thummim, Urim ve-Tumim, Urim we-Tumimone (possibly two, selecting one by lot) shōꞋham (carnelian sardonyx) gemstone(s) used, like flipping a coin, to produce a Boolean (binary) outcome in decision making. There is no extant description of how this was done.

Thus, the gem(s) would have represented a Boolean solution: firelights (presumably "illuminations"; implying an enlightening contradiction of the initial postulate) or wholeness (implying wholeness of confirmation of the initial postulate). In the case of two gems, for instance, two disputants could be blindfolded and take a gem from a bag. According to their selection, one of the disputants would be declared wholly right (tom) and the other enlightened/contradicted (ur) with the need to make tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ.

Also in the case of two gems, if a matter not involving disputants required a Boolean decision, the Ko•heinꞋ ha-Jã•dōlꞋ might have reached into his Ei•phōdꞋ, mixed up the gems that he couldn't see inside the Ei•phōdꞋ, and then pulled one gemstone from the Ei•phōdꞋ, again directing the decision.

Engraving of gemstones dates back to ancient Mesopotamia. Engraving sardonyx gemstones was particularly attractive since engraving into some gems could expose a different color. Careful engraving, then, produced an intaglio – an image of one color, usually lighter carnelian, on a deeper sard (carnelian) background.

Avᵊrã•hãmꞋ’s Hometown: Ūr (Sumerian pl. Ūrim), Mesopotamia

Sumerian אוּרִים
Surmised city emblem of cuneiform Akkadian Uru (Sumerian Urim), Mesopotamian city of Ur (Ur/​Urim of Mesopotamia), Avᵊrã•hãmꞋ’s hometown in his native Sumerian language) Obverse. copacetic/​Favorable/​True. Reverse: Conflict/​Unfavorable/​False. (Hover cursor over Ur city emblem to view reverse.)

Interestingly, cuneiform Akkadian Uru (Sumerian Urim), Mesopotamian city of Ur (transliterated into Hebrew as אוּר) was also the Sumerian name of Avᵊrã•hãmꞋ’s hometown in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq). Far more interestingly, however, the emblem (logo or standard) of Ur was a display case housing a Boolean pair of mosaics representing, on the obverse side of the display case, a mosaic of copacetic/​favorable (i.e. true), and on the reverse side of the display case, a mosaic of conflict/​unfavorable (i.e. false).

The case, surmised to be the emblem of the city of Ur, was discovered in the royal tombs of Ur. It is a wooden box-case, trapezoidal as viewed from either end, suggesting it stood independently upright as a case. The case houses two mosaics on opposite sides (each about ½ m wide and displaying three registers, upper, middle and bottom) made of red limestone, bitumen, lapis lazuli, and shell. The "copacetic" side is depicted by tranquility, comfort, music, and prosperity. The "conflict" side is depicted by the priest-king, his armies and his chariots trampling on their enemies.

There are a variety of ways in which this case could have been used to decide Boolean questions too incomprehensible to determine otherwise—apparently making it a primitive paradigm of the Ur•imꞋ wᵊ-Tum•imꞋ !


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β [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

Codex Vaticanus
Codex Vaticanus

Codex Vaticanus (ca. 300-399 C.E.) One of the earliest extant complete ms. of the Christian NT, similar to א (Codex Sinaiticus) except from Alexandria, Egypt.

β* Using the conventions of the apparatus of the Novum Testamentum Graeca, the asterisk refers to the original Hellenist Greek scribe of a document (in this example, of the Codex Vaticanus). β1 refers to the first redactor's handwriting, β2 to the second redactor's handwriting, etc. as they redacted the Greek ms.


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וַיִּקרָאPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

wa-Yi•qᵊrãꞋ; ויקרא,wa-Yiqrathen he called, recited, read; the first word of the third book of five books of the Tōr•ãhꞋ, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Leviticus.'


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וPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2020.09.29]

waw (most ancient and pristine, Tei•mãn•iꞋ, pronunciation; Ash•kᵊnazꞋi "vav"); 6th letter of the ãlꞋëphbeit, used as a m.s. pronominal suffix or as a conjunctive prefix (and, or, but, then, when, so…).

A distinction of types of the conjunctive □ו prefix arose between the 7th-10th centuries C.E. when the Masoretes inserted the first ta•am•imꞋ (cantillation pointing). This created a new kind of vav that sometimes changed the tense and realization of the prefixed verb in ways that scholars still theorize and dispute.  more


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יַעֲקֹבPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2012.07.19]

Ya•a•qōvꞋ; יעקב,יעקוב,Yaaqovhe will follow after, de-Judaized (Hellenized) variously to 'Jacob' and 'James'. יַעֲקֹב is the pa•alꞋ fu. 3rd pers. m.s. of עָקַב, denominated from עָקֵב

A related cognate is pã•rãsh•atꞋ עֵקֶב (Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 7.12–11.25), also derived from עָקֵב.

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Click to enlargeסֻלָּם יַעֲקֹב (stepped – "ladder" – mountain opposite the valley where he was encamped)

סֻלָּם יַעֲקֹב (Su•lamꞋ Ya•a•qovꞋ) is the "Ladder (or scale) of Ya•a•qovꞋ," Hellenized to "Jacob's Ladder".

1st century C.E. — pã•qidꞋ Ya•a•qovꞋ ha-Tza•diqꞋ Bën-Dã•widꞋ (Hellenized to "James the Just"): brother of RibꞋiYᵊhō•shūꞋa and first Nᵊtzãr•imꞋpã•qidꞋ.

The amicability between the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ and pᵊrush•imꞋ subsequent to the Hellenist execution of RibꞋi Yᵊhō•shūꞋa (by the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ and Romans) was demonstrated ca. 62 C.E. by the condemnation, prosecuted by the pᵊrush•imꞋ, before the Roman procurator, Albinus (and the subsequent removal by King Agrippa) of the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ Ko•heinꞋ ha-Jã•dolꞋ (Ko•heinꞋ hã-RëshꞋa), Ananus, from the office of Ko•heinꞋ ha-Jã•dolꞋ for his murder of pã•qidꞋ Ya•a•qovꞋ ha-Tza•diqꞋ.


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יָדPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2014.05.18]

irreg. n.. n. (fem. ending both sing. & pl.) yãd; יד, yadarm or hand


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יָדPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2007.10.15]

Yãd; יד, Yad Maim"The Mi•shᵊn•ëhꞋ Tōr•ãhꞋ of RamꞋba"m is most commonly referred to as the Yãd (hand), the first word of the phrase יָד חֲזָקָה (yãd kha•zãq•ãhꞋ; the strong hand—cf. Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 34.12). RamꞋba"m did not give this name to the work. It refers to the fact that it contains י"ד (y"d = 14) books, the Gi•ma•tri•yãhꞋ equivalent of y"d being 14" ("Yad," EJ, 16.692-3).


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יָעֵלPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

Yael (ibex), Makhtesh Ramon (Ron Almog)Yael (ibex), Eilat Mountains (matikrimerman.com)

masc . n. Yã•eilꞋ;יעל,Yael,Yaeil ibex.

Israeli heroine, Hellenized and Anglicized to "Jael"; see Sho•phᵊt•imꞋ 4.17—5.24.


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Yah-mosesNeb-petitt-ra
Yah-mosesNeb-petit-
[Glos U-Z, updated: 2018.03.14]

s (S29: folded cloth) mos, incarnate (F31; 3 wolf pelts) Yah, moon-god (N12; upturned moon crescent) t (X1: bread loaf) t (X1: bread loaf) peti, leopard-strength (F9: leopard head) neb, all/lord of… (V30: basket) Ra (N5: sun disk)

Par•ohꞋ Neb-petit- Yah-moses Yah-moses, Ahmose I, Neb-Pehty-Re, Neb-petit-Ra (Hellenized, then incorrectly corrupted to "Ahmose I") – the Par•ohꞋ during whose reign, according to current historians, the brunt of the KhëqᵊqãwꞋ KhãsꞋᵊt (Hyksos) Levantine immigrants departed the Delta and Lower Egypt; thereby reunifying Upper and Lower Egypt under Egyptian rule, establishing the 18th Dynasty and the New Kingdom.

The beginning of the reign, in Waset, of Par•ohꞋ Neb-petit- Yah-moses was recently 14C-dated (see table). French team of Biston-Moulin discovered in 2012 that it was, in fact, his grandfather, Sen-akht-en- Yah-moses, who was the first Yah-moses.

The "Ten Mak•ōtꞋ" Stela
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Click to enlargeThe Plagues Stela("Tempest Stela"); Reconstruc­tion of obverse (R) and reverse (L), (Mal­colm H. Wiener and James P. Allen, 1998)

Thus, his "Plagues Stela" (popularly "Tempest Stela"), constricted by the upturned moon-god crescent in his cartouche (above, which he inverted downward, eliminating the sun, within the first 22 years of his rein,) sets the terminus ante quem of the stela.

Researchers have assumed, not unreasonably, that Neb-petit- Yah-moses, who commissioned the stela, even naming himself on both sides of the stela, must have eye-witnessed the events described in the stela. This would set the terminus ante quem for the Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ to the 22nd regnal year of his reign – a conundrum that currently stands at some 54-76 years after the Santorini eruption (c BCE ).

While researchers wrestle valiantly to push these two 14C-dated mountains together across a 54-year valley, perhaps there's another possibility compatible with the facts, conflicting only with interpretations? While it's likely customary for the Egyptian pharaohs to refer to themselves in the majestic 3rd person in their stelae (?), this may not necessarily be the case, including with this stela. While I'm limited to the translations provided by Rittmyer, I haven't seen any instance where Neb-petit- Yah-moses asserts "I…" (did this, saw that). On the other hand, the pharaohs believed they were one, same, continuing line of incarnations ("moses-es") of deities. If, by his 3rd-person references like "His Majesty" (saw this or did that), he was relating the experience of his grandfather, Sen-akht-en- Yah-moses, as a pre-incarnate experience from a half-century earlier, then the 54 year gap evaporates!

The bottom line, then, is that whether the Par•ohꞋ was Sen-akht-en- Yah-moses, Neb-petit- Yah-moses or Men-kheper Ra Tut-moses 3rd is merely a side-issue; a detail to be pinpointed by scientific research. The far more salient point is that Tōr•ãhꞋ described a real-world "10 Mak•ōtꞋ" and resulting Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ – in contrast to the "traditional" supernatural, fairy-tale, silly-fication legend (like, since my mother was a little girl, Ultra-Orthodox Kha•reid•iꞋ reforming of Sha•bãtꞋ based on electricity). The real-world Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ – like the rest of Tōr•ãhꞋ versus Christian, Islamic and rabbinic "tradition" – was a real historical event of real people, in a real world, solidly attested by science and the historical record. Unsurprisingly, both blind Tōr•ãhꞋ Orthodox and blind critics of Tōr•ãhꞋ are willfully and equally uninformed and ignorant. more


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cartouche Sen-akht-en-Ra Biston-Moulin
Hover over symbol for xlit & xlatnSūt-bittSen-akht-en-
[Glos U-Z, updated: 2018.03.15]


bjt (L2: bee) sw/su (M23: sedge reed) t (X1: bread loaf) t (X1: bread loaf) Ra (N5: sun [-god]) s (O34: door bolt) n (N35: water ripple) khet/khat/akht, foremost, exalted? (M3: tree branch, twig, wood) t (X1: bread loaf) not pronounced (Aa1 unknown or D12: pupil of eye or N33: grain of sand) not pronounced, determinate:  beat/strong (D40: arm with baton) n (N35: water ripple)

Par•ohꞋ Sen-akht-en- Yah-mosesSen-akht-en-Ra Yah-moses — "foremost brother in ". Contrary to the long-held assumption that "Ahmose I" was the first of that name, findings in 2012, by the French team of Biston-Moulin, of the limestone lintel (photo) in the Temple of Amun at Karnak demonstrated that Sen-akht-en- was the patronym of "Ahmose"/​"moses."

The beginning of the reign, in Waset, of Sen-akht-en- Yah-moses' grandson, Neb-petit- Yah-moses, has been 14C-dated (see table below).

Accordingly, pending 14C-datings of the last several kings of the 17th Dynasty, the best current estimate of Sen-akht-en- Yah-moses' reign, is to work backwards from the earliest 14C-dated regnal year – that of Neb-petit- Yah-moses' 18th Dynasty/​New Kingdom reign.

While some ague that the last 3 reigns of the 17th Dynasty were short, this is based solely on the "last attested regnal year" – which is flimsy and irresponsible to be charitable (logically, absence of evidence is not evidence of absence); particularly in the tumultuous last few years of expelling the KhëqᵊqãwꞋ KhãsꞋᵊt (Hyksos).

The logical (i.e. scientific) way is to straightforwardly acknowledge the lack of evidence and, until better evidence surfaces, equally apportion reigns as estimates for the 9 kings of the 17th Dynasty (ending c BCE after ≈189 years) equally among the 9 kings, yielding 21 years/Par•ohꞋ:

c BCEFinal 3 Pharaohs
17th Dynasty
Sen-akht-en- Yah-moses
Se-qen-en- Tao
Ka-moses

Sen-akht-en- Yah-moses also had 3 daughters, one of which could have been the princess of Shᵊm•ōtꞋ 2.5-10.

Yah-hotep Sr. (corrupted to "Ahhotep I")
Yah-hotep In-Hãp
Sit-Djehuty

Evidence to date suggests that Moses of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ, the Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ and Har Sin•aiꞋ was likely adopted by one of younger two of these princesses several decades before Sen-akht-en- Yah-moses reigned as Par•ohꞋ. If so, then Moses grew up in the royal Pharaonic palace and household of Sen-akht-en- Yah-moses, as an adopted brother of Se-qen-en- Tao – who, current 14C-dating suggests, was most likely the predecessor of the Par•ohꞋ of the Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋmore


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יַהֲדוּתPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27 ]

fem. n. Ya•had•ūtꞋ יהדות, Yahadut(Jewishness or Judaism) is a comparatively recent term.

"The term Judaism is first found among the Greek-speaking Jews [i.e. Hellenists, particularly the pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ] of the first century… Its Hebrew equivalent, Yahadut, found only occasionally in medieval literature…, but used frequently in modern times, has parallels neither in the Bible… nor in the rabbinic literature… The term generally used in the classical sources for the whole body of Jewish teaching is Torah…" ("Judaism," Ency. Jud., 10.383).

Tōr•ãhꞋ(Shᵊm•otꞋ 18.20) uses the term הַדֶּרֶךְ (ha-DërꞋëkh; the Way)—הַדֶּרֶךְ יֵלְכוּ בָהּ (ha-DërꞋëkh yei•lᵊkh•uꞋ bah; the Way you [plural] are to go in). See also Ency. Jud. "Halakhah," 7.1156.)

Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ, by contrast, didn't come to represent the whole corpus of "Judaism" until after the destruction of 70 C.E. ("Halakhah," loc. cit.). Prior to that, Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ represented only one (the pᵊrush•imꞋ) of the three interpretations of Tōr•ãhꞋ she-bᵊalꞋ peh. The pᵊrush•imꞋ interpretation of Tōr•ãhꞋ she-bᵊalꞋ peh was rivaled by both Ma•as•ëhꞋ, the Qum•rãnꞋ Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ interpretation of Tōr•ãhꞋ shë-bᵊalꞋ pëh, and the 'Book of Decrees,' which codified the pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ interpretation of Tōr•ãhꞋ shë-bᵊalꞋ pëh.


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יָם הַמֶּלַחPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

Yam ha-Melakh Kalia Beach (NW shore)
Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh

masc . n. Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh; ים המלח, Yam ha-MelakhSalt Sea (Hellenized to the "Dead Sea").


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יָם כִּנֶּרֶתPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

Yam Kinneret
Yãm Ki•nërꞋët

masc . n. Yãm Ki•nërꞋët; ים כנרת, Yam KineretViolin Sea/Lake, named after its shape (Hellenized to "Sea of Galilee")


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יָם סוּףPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2010.10.20]

Nile Bank Sea of Papyrus Reeds
Yãm Suph

masc . n. Yãm Sūph; ים סוף, Yam SuphSea of Reeds; reed marshlands from the area of modern Port Said on the Mediterranean Coast south to the Gulf. The modern Suez Canal follows the topography of this marshy lowland.


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נְהַר הַיַרְדֵּןPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2013.07.23]

Nehar YardeinNᵊhar ha-Yar•deinꞋ

masc . n. Nᵊhar ha-Yar•deinꞋ; נהר הירדן, בקעת הירדן, N'har ha-Yardein, Biq'at ha-YardeinJordan River.

fem. n. בִּקְעַת הַיַרְדֵּן Bi•qᵊatꞋ ha-Yar•deinꞋ; Jordan Valley or Cleft, cleavage of Jordan


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יְדִיעוֹת אַחֲרוֹנוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Yᵊdi•otꞋ A•khar•on•otꞋ; ידיעות אחרונות, Yediot Akharonot, Y'diot AkharonotLate or recent knowledge.

Written at a blue-collar level of Hebrew from an increasingly extreme liberal-socialist and globalist perspective, Yᵊdi•ōtꞋ A•khar•on•ōtꞋ (circulation 250,000) is Israel's 2nd largest Hebrew newspaper (the largest being Israel ha-Yom  – best reflecting the Israeli Jewish citizenry and recently eclipsed Yᵊdi•ōtꞋ); almost twice the circulation of any of Israel's niche newspapers.

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יְהוֹשֻעַPronunciation Table    Hear it! [Glos U-Z, updated: 2019.11.02]

Yᵊhō•shūꞋa יהושוע, יהושע, Yehoshua, Y'hoshua—”י‑‑ה [is] national-salvation” or military-salvation; sometimes contracted to the cognomen יְשוּעַ,

יְהוֹשֻעַ is from the unused root verb יַשַׁע. When used in the Bible or in Judaism, this term never refers to the Hellenist (idolatrous) concepts of "unconditional forgiveness" or "personal salvation". At the personal level Tōr•ãhꞋ provides, instead, ki•pūrꞋ—restricted to those who make tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ and do their utmost to keep Tōr•ãhꞋ.

The verb is used in the hiph•ilꞋ: הוֹשִׁיעַ. In the present tense, מוֹשִׁיעַ (unrelated to מָשִׁיחַ) is the verbal noun. The verb is used in the same sense as its English counterpart was used in the old west: "The cavalry will save us"—except for Jews it is “י‑‑ה will save us” (nationally and militarily from our enemies).

fem. n.תְּשׁוּעָה

The book in Ta•na״khꞋ is named after Yᵊhō•shūꞋa Bën-Nun (Hellenized to 'Joshua').

'Historical Yᵊhō•shūꞋa' generally refers, by contrast, to the 1st-century human Jew, a pᵊrush•iꞋ RibꞋi, named Yᵊhō•shūꞋa Bën-Yo•seiphꞋ Bën-Dã•widꞋ of Nã•tzᵊr•atꞋ. Notice that even the name explicitly identifies Y--H, not Yᵊhō•shūꞋa, as salvation! See Shᵊm•otꞋ 15.2; Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 12.1-4; 25.9; Yon•ãhꞋ 2.10; Tᵊhil•imꞋ 3.9; 13.6; 14.7; 18.51; 21.6; 28.8; 53.7; 62.1-2, 7; 67.1-3; 68.20-21; 70.5-6; 74.12). His Mã•shiꞋakh is His agent, not the reverse; not the Provider of expiation. By means of the Mã•shiꞋakh—His Mã•shiꞋakh Bën-Yo•seiphꞋ Bën- Dã•widꞋ (Tᵊhil•imꞋ 89:20-53)—י‑‑ה provides expiation. Mã•shiꞋakh is merely His instrument, symbol or illustration; as were the animal sacrifices.

יְשׁוּעָה (yᵊshu•ãh; national or military salvation) is a fem. noun.

See also Tᵊhil•imꞋ 116.13; 18.51; 20.6; 28.8; 89.27-28; 118.19-22.

The Judaic meaning of יְשׁוּעָה relates to two associated synonyms:

See also the Biblical concepts of כִּפּוּר (ki•purꞋ) and הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא (hã-o•lãmꞋ ha-bãꞋ).

Syncretizing selected elements of the Judaic concept of a Mã•shiꞋakh with their native pagan mythology, Roman gentiles de-Judaized (Hellenized) 'historical Yᵊhō•shūꞋa' to a mythical and counterfeit, antinomian, antithetical man-G-o-d idol: Ιησους transliterated to Hebrew יֵשׁוּעַ Anglicized to Jesus (cf. Who Are the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ? (WAN) and The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•tit•yãhꞋu (NHM)). These two are mutually exclusive, diametric opposites. You cannot serve two masters. To believe in one necessarily constitutes rejection of the other.


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יְהוּדָהPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2021.09.07]

Yehudah among the Shivetei Yisraeil
Click to enlargeYᵊhūd•ãhꞋ among the Shi•vᵊt•eiꞋ Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ

fem. n. Yᵊhūd•ãhꞋ, יהודים,יהודה,Yehudah,Y'hudah,Yehudim,Y'hudim,Jews,Jewishhe will "confess-thanks exaltingly" (deteriorated to "praise" and "exalt"), de-Judaized (Hellenized) to both 'Judea' (the land) and 'Judah' – the tribe and proper name of the 4th son of Ya•a•qōvꞋ (mother: LeiꞋãh), later shortened to 'Jew.'

יהודה derives from the root יָדָה, usually expressed in the hiph•ilꞋ: הוֹדָה (cf. bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 29.35— אוֹדֶה). The pres. m.s. is מוֹדֶה. The interjection, תּוֹדָה, derives from this same root – as does also הוֹד.

Yᵊhud•ãhꞋ is the single Hebrew term that originally referred both to one of the 12 Tribes of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ and, following the eradication by Syria of the 10 Northern ("Lost") Tribes in B.C.E. 722, evolved (absorbing the adjacent Tribe of Bin•yã•minꞋ) to refer to all three Hellenized corruptions: Judah, Judea and Jew. The "Jew" cannot be extricated from "Judea" any more than Yᵊhud•ãhꞋ can be extricated from Yᵊhud•ãhꞋ. They are equivalent and inextricably defined together; either without the other is incomplete, less than whole.

The connotation of confess(ion) is emphasized in the cognate hit•pa•eilꞋ: verb הִתְוַדָּה and noun וִדּוּי.

Adjectives (also used as nouns): masc . n. יְהוּדִי; fem. n. יְהוּדִית and יְהוּדִים – one who, by definition, confesses thanks—through reciting bᵊrãkh•otꞋ!


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כָּנְיָהוּPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2007.09.05]

Kãn•yãhꞋu; כניהו, יכניה, Kanyahu, Yekhanyah, Y'hanyahalso יְכָנְיָה (Yᵊkhãn•yãhꞋ; Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu 27.20).

Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu prophesies that Kãn•yãhꞋu, an ancestor of RibꞋi Yᵊhō•shūꞋa, would die childless and "none of his descendants will ever succeed in being a man who sits on the throne of Dã•widꞋ, and ever to rule over Yᵊhud•ãhꞋ" (22.28-30). This passage, not including the full story, gets a lot of play from Jewish "anti-missionaries." Thus, knowing the full story is vital.

Based on bᵊ-Mid•barꞋ 1.18, patrilineal descent determines tribal identity, including royal lineage. Thus, only RibꞋi Yᵊhō•shūꞋa's patrilineal genealogy, which shows his descent (The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•tit•yãhꞋu (NHM) 1) from Dã•widꞋ ha-MëlꞋëkh through Shᵊlom•ohꞋ ha-MëlꞋëkh (Shᵊmu•eilꞋ Beit 7.12-16), is relevant to this prophecy (Di•vᵊr•eiꞋ ha-Yãm•imꞋ ÂlꞋëph 3.11-12, 15-17; 17.11-14; 22.9-10; 28.6-7; Tᵊhil•imꞋ 89.20-38). However, the prophecy that Kãn•yãhꞋu would be childless (Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu 22.30) implies that he would have no (Jewish) son—which, according to Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ applies matrilineally. However, RibꞋi Yᵊhō•shūꞋa's matrilineal lineage (The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•tit•yãhꞋu (NHM) 1) isn't through Kãn•yãhꞋu!

Further, Jewish hate-mongers (many of whom call themselves "anti-missionaries") pervert Scripture and Tal•mudꞋ by telling only the half of the story they want you to hear.

"Fearing, however, that since the MëlꞋëkh was childless, Beit-Dã•widꞋ would thus cease, the Beit-Din ha-Jã•dolꞋ succeeded in obtaining permission for his wife to live with him. Kãn•yãhꞋu kept the laws of marital purity during this time, and as a reward was forgiven his sins (Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu 3.22; wa-Yi•qᵊr•ãꞋ Rab•ãhꞋ 19:6—compare to Yon•ãhꞋ's prophecy to Ninevah that was forgiven). Even the decree the none of his seed would ascend the throne (Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu 22.30) was repealed when Zᵊru-Bã•vëlꞋ Bën-Shᵊal•tiy•eilꞋ was appointed leader of the returned exiles (cf. Ma•sëkꞋët Sanhedrin 37b-38a). The exile of Tzi•dᵊq•i•yãhꞋu while Kãn•yãhꞋu was still alive as a merciful act, since Kãn•yãhꞋu could thus teach Tōr•ãhꞋ to Tzi•dᵊq•i•yãhꞋu (Ma•sëkꞋët Git•inꞋ 88a; "Jehoiachin," EJ 9.1318-19).

"R. Yo•khã•nãnꞋ said: Exile allows ki•purꞋ for everything, for it is written, Thus saith ha-Sheim, write this man childless, a man that shall not prosper in his days, for no man of his seed shall prosper sitting upon the throne of Dã•widꞋ and ruling any more in Yᵊhud•ãhꞋ. (Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu 22.30). Whereas after he [the MëlꞋëkh] was exiled, it is written, And the sons of יְכָנְיָה: ‭ ‬ אַסִּר, שְׁאַלְתִּיאֵל his son, etc. (Di•vᵊr•eiꞋ ha-Yãm•imꞋ ÂlꞋëph 3.17). [He was called] אַסִּר because his mother conceived him in prison. שְׁאַלְתִּיאֵל, because Eil did not plant him in the way that others are planted. We know by tradition that a woman cannot conceive in a standing position. [yet she did conceive standing. Another interpretation: שְׁאַלְתִּיאֵל, because Eil obtained [of the Heavenly Beit-Din] absolution from His oath. זְרֻבָּבֶל [was so called] because he was sown in BãvëlꞋ. But [his real name was] Nᵊkhëm•yãhꞋ Bën-Kha•khal•yãhꞋ." (Ma•sëkꞋët Sunedrion 37b-38a, Soncino Tal•mudꞋ).

"… they made the calf-mask and deserved to be exterminated, and I would have thought that He would curse and destroy them, yet, no sooner had they made tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ, than the danger was averted, And ha-Sheim relented of the bad [sworn sentence, lacking tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ being understood] (Shᵊm•otꞋ 32.14). And so in many places. For example, He said about יְכָנְיָה: For no man of his seed shall prosper (Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu 32.30) and it says, I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms, and I will destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the nations… In that day, says ha-Sheim Tzᵊvã•ot, will I take thee, O זְרֻבָּבֶל, My servant, the son of שְׁאַלְתִּיאֵל, saith ha-Sheim, and will make thee as a חוֹתָם (Khaj•aiꞋ 2.22 f.). Thus was annulled that which He had said to his forefather, viz. As I live, says ha-Sheim, though כָּנְיָהוּ Bën-Yᵊho•yãq•imꞋ, MëlꞋëkh Yᵊhud•ãhꞋ, were the חוֹתָם upon My right hand, yet I would pluck thee thence (Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu 22.24)." bᵊ-Mid•barꞋ Rab•ãhꞋ 20:20, Soncino Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ Rab•ãhꞋ)..

"R. Yᵊhō•shūꞋa Bën-Lei•wiꞋ, however, argued as follows: tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ sets aside the entire decree, and prayer half the decree. You find that it was so with יְכָנְיָה, MëlꞋëkh Yᵊhud•ãhꞋ. For ha-Qã•doshꞋ, Bã•rukhꞋ Hu, swore in His anger, As I live, saith ha-Sheim, though כָּנְיָהוּ Bën-Yᵊho•yãq•imꞋ, MëlꞋëkh Yᵊhud•ãhꞋ, were the חוֹתָם on a hand, yet by My right—note, as R. Mei•irꞋ said, that is was by His right hand that Ël•oh•imꞋ swore—I would pluck thee hence (Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu 22:24). And what was decreed against יְכָנְיָה? That he die childless. As is said Write ye this man childless (Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu 22:40). But as soon as he avowed tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ, ha-Qã•doshꞋ, Bã•rukhꞋ Hu, set aside the decree, as is shown by Scripture's reference to the sons of יְכָנְיָה—the same is אַסִּרשְׁאַלְתִּיאֵל his son, etc. (Di•vᵊr•eiꞋ ha-Yãm•imꞋ ÂlꞋëph 3:17). And Scripture says further: In that day … will I take thee, O זְרֻבָּבֶל… the son of שְׁאַלְתִּיאֵל… and will make thee as a חוֹתָם (Khaj•aiꞋ 2:23). Behold, then, how tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ can set aside the entire decree!" (pᵊsiq•tãꞋ Rab•ãt•iꞋ, Pi•sᵊqãꞋ 47, translated by William G. Braude, Yale University Press, pg. 797-798).

"… though כָּנְיָהוּ Bën-Yᵊho•yãq•imꞋ, MëlꞋëkh Yᵊhud•ãhꞋ, were the חוֹתָם on My right hand, yet I would pluck you off" (Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu 22:24).

"… O זְרֻבָּבֶל, my servant, and will make thee as a חוֹתָם: for I have chosen thee, says ha-Sheim Tzᵊvã•ot." (Haggai 2:23).

"Moreover, since this is the only surviving scientifically and archaeologically credible documentation of the Yo•khas•inꞋ of Beit-Dã•widꞋ, if this sole documentation were rejected there could be no Mã•shiꞋakh at all—ever" (Yᵊkhanyãh, The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Newsletter, 1996.05. pp. 16-17).

Additionally, if the curse remained in force, there could be no Mã•shiꞋakh at all—ever.


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יְחֶזְקֵאלPronunciation Table Hear it! [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

Yᵊkhëz•qeilꞋ; יחזקאל, Yekhezqeil, Y'khezqeilmay/shall Eil strengthen; third of three "major" Nᵊviy•imꞋ in Ta•na״khꞋ (de-Judaized—"ethnically cleansed"—to Ezekiel).


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'יְרֵא הPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2010.11.07]

YᵊreiꞋ ha-Sheim; ירא ה',יראת ה',Yerei ha-Sheim,Y'rei ha-Sheim,Yirat ha-Sheimreverer (pop. but inaccurately, "fearer") of יְהוָׂה; pl. יִרְאֵי יְהוָׂה (Yi•rᵊeiꞋ ha-Sheim; Reverers (pop. but inaccurately, "fearers") of יְהוָׂה).

יִרְאַת יְהוָׂה (yi•rᵊat יְהוָׂה; the awe of יְהוָׂה, reverence for יְהוָׂה).

For greater clarification, see the related, and oft-confused, term: geir.


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יְרִיחוׂPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2016.09.28]

masc . n. Yᵊrikh•ōꞋ, יריחו, Yerikho, Y'rikhoHellenized to 'Jericho.'

ccc
Click to enlargeTël Yᵊrikh•ōꞋ
Modern Yᵊrikho center
Click to enlargeModern Yᵊrikh•ōꞋ city center

The name יְרִיחוׂ derives from the Kᵊna•an•imꞋ inhabitants' moon-god, יֶרַח. Those who argue for the derivation from רֵיחַ apparently rely on a concordance and are unaware that both רֵיחַ and רוּחַ are cognates from the same root.

"Calibration of the weighted average of the grain samples results in ranges in both the 17th and 16th century BC[E], using the 1986 versions of the two calibration curves. With the 1993 versions, the 17th century option becomes negligible, whereas a date in the 16th century is most likely. The decadal calibration curve is recommended by Stuiver and Becker (1993) for short-lived samples formed during a decade or less. Using this calibration curve to calculate the historical date of the weighted average of the grain samples, with the aid of the OxCal computer calibration program, there is equal probability for the 1 Q result to be in the range 1601 to 1566 cal BC[E] as in the range 1561 to 1524 cal BC[E] for the destruction of MBA Jericho." (Bruins, H. J., VanDerPlicht, J., Bruins, H. J., Cook, G. T. (Ed.), Harkness, D. D. (Ed.), Miller, B. F. (Ed.), & Scott, E. M. (Ed.) (1995). Tell es-Sultan (Jericho): Radiocarbon results of short-lived cereal and multiyear charcoal samples from the end of the Middle Bronze Age. Radiocarbon, 37(2), 213-220.)—for which, see citations for Santorini in my Chronology of the Tanakh, from the "Big נָטָה" Live-​Link. Averaging the 4 estimated datings from the 14C tests yields a μ of ca. B.C.E. 1563 for the destruction of Yᵊrikh•oꞋ.


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יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Glos U-Z, updated: 2021.09.08]

Yᵊrū•shã•layꞋim
Click to enlargeYᵊrū•shã•layꞋim

fem. n. Yᵊrū•shã•layꞋim,ירושלים,ירושלמי,Yerushalayim,Y'rushalayim,Yerushalmi,Y'rushalmi Hellenized to "Jerusalem."

"The first mention of the city of Yᵊru•shã•layꞋim is in the Egyptian Execration Texts of the 19th–18th centuries BCE… probably pronounced 'rushali­mum.' In the Tell el-Amarna letters of the 14th century BCE, it is written Urusalim, and in Assyrian Ursalimmu (Sennacherib inscription). In the Bible it is occasionally spelled יְרוּשְׁלֶם (Yᵊrū•shᵊlëmꞋ)…"

Arabs & other Muslims avoid the historical and archaeological name, and the Biblical and Judaic heritage, by displacing the name Yᵊrū•shã•layꞋim with "al-Quds" and "al-Haram al-Quds al-Shariph" more


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יְשַעְיָהוּPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2019.01.30]

Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu; ישעיהו, Yeshayahu, Y'shayahu"May יְהוָׂה save"; first of the three "major" Nᵊviy•imꞋ in Ta•na״khꞋ ( Hellenized, i.e. de-Judaized to "Isaiah").

Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu ha-Nã•viꞋ interacted in BCE 8th century Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim, YᵊhūdꞋãh, during a period when Middle East superpower domination was tipping away from Egypt toward Assyria – which threatened both (the 10 Northern Tribes of) Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ and YᵊhūdꞋãh, caught in the crossfire. This struggle among superpowers resulted, in BCE 722, with the Syrians conquering and deracinating (the 10 Northern Tribes of) Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ; assimilating—irreversibly eviscerating and eradicating—the 10 Northern Tribes and the disappearance of the nation of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ. This left only YᵊhūdꞋãh – "Judeans"/​"Jews", who absorbed the fleeing refugee remnants of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ.

Perhaps Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu's grief, upon realizing that (the 10 Northern Tribes of) Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ had been irreversibly deracinated, inspired Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu to focus on how to formulate a DërꞋëkh back to Tōr•ãhꞋ for his lost brethren. He envisioned a self-sacrificing Mã•shiꞋakh, who would formulate and champion a DërꞋëkh for all kindreds to access ki•purꞋ in Tōr•ãhꞋ (cf. ch. 53), thereby "enlarging the tent" to recover his lost brethren. This would further create the need for a future Beit Tᵊphil•ãhꞋ that would include the irreversibly deracinated Israelis wherever they were relocated and deracinated – a "Beit Tᵊphil•ãhꞋ for all of the kindreds" (56.7).

1QIsa designates the ancient, Dead Sea, "Isaiah Scroll," found in Cave 1 of Qum•rãnꞋ, which has been 14C-dated several times, all indicating a range between ca. B.C.E. 335-324 to B.C.E. 202-107.

Some scholars have asserted that the book of Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu was written by two different Jews: Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu-1, ca. B.C.E. 720 (chapters 1-39) and Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu-2 (popularly Hellenized to "Deutero-Isaiah"), ca. BCE 540 (chapters 40-66).


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יְשִׁיבָהPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

yeshivah pilpul
Yᵊshiv•ãhꞋ – partnered debate of Ta•lᵊmudꞋ

fem. n. Yᵊshiv•ãhꞋ; ישיבה, ישיבות, Yeshivah, Yeshivot, Y'shivah, Y'shivota sitting or session, is a high school for Talmudic studies and presumes an Orthodox Tōr•ãhꞋ education through junior high school or equivalent. These refer principally to different levels of religious study in Judaism:

  1. Judaic religious high school (technically, but rarely stated, 'minor' yeshivah);

  2. Judaic religious post-high school roughly equivalent to a Judaic vocational school; sometimes, but not necessarily, supplemented with some junior college-level vocational courses; refuse service in the IDF.

  3. יְשִׁיבַת הֶסְדֵּר an alternate of the Judaic religious post-high school that combines service in the IDF with an IDF Judaic studies program.


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יש"וPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2016.08.30]

YëshꞋ"u; יש"ו, יש''ו, ישו, Yeshu, Yesh"u, Yesh''uacronym for יִמַּח שְׁמוֹ וְזִכְרוֹ (yi•makhꞋ shᵊm•oꞋ wᵊ-zi•khᵊr•oꞋ; may his name be erased, obliterated and his memory—the ו is pronounced as "u" at the end) in compliance with Shᵊm•otꞋ 23.13; Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 12.3 and Yᵊhō•shūꞋa 23.7.

The English name "Jesus " does not derive from the Hebrew (or it would be "Joshua").


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יְשׁוּעָהPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2007.06.26]

fem. n. yᵊshu•ãhꞋ; ישועה, yeshuah, y'shuahnational deliverance or salvation from an impending, usually military, disaster, is never used in the sense of a spiritual or personal "salvation" in Ta•na״khꞋ.

The hiph•ilꞋ verb form הוֹשִׁיעַ (ho•shiꞋa; he saved or delivered [collectively, e.g. the nation of Israel]!) conveys the same connotation: "Save Israel, the nation, from a disaster!" This form is appended by the plea נאָ (; prithee) to form the Suk•otꞋ theme הוֹשַׁענָא (ho•shan•nãꞋ; Save [Israel], prithee!).

The Hebrew term from which the Christian concept of "salvation" derives, by contrast, is yᵊshu•ãhꞋ (the masc. form of which is yᵊshuꞋa). Though the doctrine of 'personal salvation' (as contrasted with personal ki•purꞋ) didn't exist in Judaism, it is documented in paganism from Babylonian times (see Atonement In the Biblical 'New Covenant' (ABNC), tracing through Marduk to Bel to Baal to Zeus to Iæsous = Jesus.

While yᵊshu•ãhꞋ is used of victorious Israel, militarily—including as represented by her king and by her Mã•shiꞋakh, this term is never used of the Christian concept of 'personal salvation' nor for gentiles external to Israel (Jews & geir•imꞋ), which constitutes Displacement Theology EXACTLY opposite the concept of yᵊshu•ãhꞋ!

Like Jesus and Christianity, the doctrine of a deity of "personal salvation"—particularly a man-god offspring of a god mating with a human woman—all traces back to worship of Zeus and earlier paganism. There was no precedent for it in Judaism. This parallels the anomalous derivation of the name of Jesus, probably morphing Iosou with Zeus and Isis to form Iæsous, and the "Face of Christ" being documented as that of the Great Idol of Zeus (see Who Are the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ?), the pagan doctrine of a god of personal salvation is mutually corroborating with the chart graphic in our Museum section "2nd-4th Centuries C.E.: Two Simultaneous [i.e., mutually exclusive] Communities").

Ki•purꞋ, enabling life in hã-o•lãmꞋ ha-bãꞋ (the world to come) is a different concept altogether.


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יֵצֶר הָרַעPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2010.07.15]

masc . n. יֵצֶר הָרַע; יצר הרע, yeitzer ha-rai.e., the natural tendency toward wrong(doing) intrinsic in man's nature – a contraction of the Biblical phrases יֵצֶר is the לֵב הָאָדָם and מַחְשְׁבוֹת לֵב (only to) רַע (bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 6.5; 8.21; see also Tᵊhil•imꞋ 103.14). Synonymous with Sã•tãnꞋ.


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יְצִיאָהPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2020.12.09]

Egypt & the Near East at the time of the Yᵊtziah
Click to enlargeEgypt & the Near East at the time of the Yᵊtzi•yãhꞋ

fem. n. Yᵊtzi•yãhꞋ;יציאה, Yetziah, Y'tziah, Yetziyah, Y'tziyah verbal f.n. of יָצָא (exiting, departing, leaving, bugging out, setting out, going forth, issuing forth), most famously, from Mi•tzᵊraꞋyim. Hellenized in LXX to Ἔξοδος, then Angliciz­ed, to 'Exodus'.

הוֹצִיא (hō•tziꞋ). hiph•ilꞋ past 3rd pers. m.s. — it/​he extracted… (trans.).

Pre≈2000: State Of The Art:
Rival Traditions

Throughout the 20th century CE, the state of "authoritative" publi­cations related to the origins of Israel – predominating sourc­es like Wikipedia still today – have been medieval European (in contrast to Middle-Eastern) art: arts-degreed humani­ties speculations rather than science. This is tantamount to an argument between arrogant imbeciles versus belief-driven UFOlogists bickering over the assumption that "the United States was founded by George Washington, in Greenland, between 500-1000 CE." Then correctly reasoning: "There is no historical evidence of any nation called the United States in Greenland during the entire first millennium CE. Therefore [ex falso quodlibet], the story of the Mayflower, the Thirteen Colonies, the War of Independence, Washington crossing the Delaware, the Liberty Bell and the Declaration of Independence are all myths. The US simply – Poof! – appeared from native Americans."

For centuries, "research" has consisted of arts-degreed humanities adventurers; i.e. agenda-driven zealots – some determined to prove, others to disprove – the Christian "Bible". Dowsing the date and location of the Yᵊtzi•yãhꞋ, Christian rulers and theologian-​"scholars" authoritative­ly proclaimed dates and locations no less fanciful than fairy tales; inadvertently myth­icizing a Cecil B. DeMille "Exodus". Theories scattered haphazardly across a timespan of more than a millennium, with declared locations ranging from the southern Sinai to the Gulf of Eilat, the Red Sea and Saudi-Arabia. Never in human history have more academics known less about such prolific quantities of their "authoritative" publishing. Aside from the Hebrew Ta•na״khꞋ alone, almost the entirety of the pre-2000 CE, non-Middle-Eastern genre belongs in the Fiction, or Science-Fiction, section – or the trashcan!

Science Contradicts TraditionNot Tōr•ãhꞋ

The introduction, in the final decade of the 20th century, of 14C dendrochronologi­cal dating applied to the destruction of Yᵊri•khoꞋ, marked the pivotal turning point to a scientific approach to Biblical history and archeology research, which is leading to a now rapidly accelerating scientific search for the real-world date, Par•ohꞋ and route of the Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ more


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יִחוּדPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Yi•khūdꞋ; יחוד, yihudBH union, unity, singularity, solitude; i.e. privacy, a metonym for marital relations. PBH "short for יִחוּד יְהוָׂה, a profession or proclamation of the unity of [יְהוָׂה]." MH uniqueness.


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יִרְמִיָּהוּPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu; ירמיהו, Yirmeyahumay/shall Yãh elevate, exalt; second of three "major" Nᵊviy•imꞋ in Ta•na״khꞋ (de-Judaized to Jeremiah).


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יִשְׁמָעֵאלPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2021.03.13]

Yi•shᵊm•ã•eilꞋ; ישמעאל,YishmaeilEil will hearken, Hellenized to 'Ishmael'; older brother of Yi•tzᵊkhãqꞋ, born c. BCE 1993. more


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יִשְׂרָאֵלPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2021.12.12]

Mer-en-Ptah Stela (c BCE 1235), Israel documented in line 27
Click to enlargeVictory Stela of Par•ohꞋ Mer-en-Ptah (c BCE 1235), Israel docu­mented in line 27. (Egyptian Museum, Cairo)

masc . n. Yi•sᵊrã•EilꞋ; ישראל, Yisraeil, Israelis"he will שָׂרָה ‭ ‬ (הַמִּשְׂרָה of…) Eil." Thus, יִשְׂרָאֵל means "he will battle (the battles of) Eil." Hellenized, Lat­inized then Anglicized to 'Israel.'

Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ has two mutually exclusive meanings: the original unified 12 Tribes v the post-ShᵊlōmꞋōh ha-MëlꞋëkh (c BCE 1040) 10 Tribes of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ (deracinated BCE 722), led by the Tribe of Ë•phᵊr•aꞋyim (whose flag and livery colors were gold on black—like my coat-of-arms and livery colors), which split from the two Tribes of YᵊhūdꞋãh and Bin•yã•minꞋ.

The history of the name Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ was chiseled in stone at least as early as Par•ohꞋ Mer-en-Ptah, of the 19th Dynasty, on his Victo­ry Stela. His reign has recently been 14C-dated to BCE 1251-1214 – concurrent with the Israeli Sho•pheitꞋ #11, Ei•lōn.

While most archeologists and other schol­ars accept the reference to "Israel," the meaning of two of the symbols has eluded them (what may be Gardiner's D21 ccc "mouth" sign, pronounced "r" [correctly found earlier in the glyph], above the glyph numeral "1", designated "r.1", in the accompanying figure). Hence, scholars since have read, and tried to interpret, the glyph "Yizssriar" – and ignored and buried the subsequent symbol: the Egyptian glyph for "one".

Hieroglyph Yyzssrya (Israel) Mer-en-Ptah Stela
Yyzssrya (Israel)("un-mirrored," as on the stele)

The glyphs appear very difficult to make out. One cannot be sure from even the best photo­graphs. If, however, this symbol is, in fact not D21 but V30, a basket ccc (hi-lited in yellow), then the symbol is not pronounced at all and means "everything, Lord, master"; i.e. BaꞋal! Egyptians, like other non-Israeilis, would likely convert Hebrew Eil to their more familiar term, BaꞋal.

The real eye-opener is the immediate-next symbol (1 vertical line) beneath: the symbol for 1.

This may even be an Egyptian, i.e. foreign, garbelization of Israel's anti-anthropomorphic "Invisible Instructor" (Voice/​Tōr•ãhꞋ, i.e. ccc/​Mouth). A century earlier, Amun-hotep 4th (i.e. Akhen-Aten), c BCE 1377-52, had implemented an Egyptian version of this, but Egypt soon after rejected it, reverting to their traditional gods . Thus, ccc surmounting "1," rather than the indecipherable, inscrutable and currently swept-under-the-rug "r/1", may be an Egyptian ideogram attempting to capture the essence of what has always uniquely distinguished Israel from every other people: "Eil is One" – "Yyzssrya/​Yizsria-Eil(is One)"!


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יִשָּׂשכָרPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2015.10.26]

Yi•sã•khãrꞋ; יששכר,Yissakhar,Yisakharhe will earn (or be employed for) a שָׂכָר (sã•khãrꞋ; wage or salary; "reward" is a post Biblical connotation). Name of 9th son of Ya•a•qovꞋ (mother: LeiꞋãh) and partriarch of the sheivꞋët.


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יִצְחָקPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

Yi•tzᵊkhãqꞋ; יצחק,Yitzkhaqhe shall laugh, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Isaac.'


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יִזְרְעֶאלPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2022.03.28]

Har Megido topographical map

Yi•zᵊrᵊëlꞋ; יזרעאל, Yizr'el, Yiz'r'el"Eil shall seed/​sow."

עֵמֶק יִזְרְעֶאל is popularly corrupted to "Jezreel Valley" (see map); also Hellenized to the Plain of (Greek corrupted) "Esdraelon."

Controlled by Har MᵊgidꞋo (corrupted to "Armageddon"), עֵמֶק יִזְרְעֶאל is the sole land invasion corridor from the northern coastal KheiphꞋãh (corrupted to "Haifa") port and basin, southeast past Har MᵊgidꞋō, where it widens into a plain between two mountain ranges and stretches into the interior of northern Yi•sᵊrã•eilꞋ.


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יPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. yōd; יוד, yod10th, and smallest, Hebrew letter; often used as an abbreviation for יְהוָׂה.


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יוֹאֵלPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

Yō•eilꞋ;יואל,Yoeil יְהוָׂה [is] Eil; second of twelve minor Nᵊviy•imꞋ (Prophets) in Ta•na״khꞋ (de-Judaized to Joel).


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יוֹחָנָןPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2021.11.18]

Yō•khãn•anꞋ; יוחנן, Yohananhe will be gracious, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Johanan' and Anglicized to "John."


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רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי Pronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2021.11.18]

Rab•ãnꞋ Yō•khãn•ãnꞋ Bën-Za•kaiꞋ,בן זכאי,בן-זכאי,Ben-Zakai Nã•siꞋ c. 70 CE – 80 CE & 1st century C.E. Tan•ãꞋ — youngest and most cited disciple of Beit Hi•leilꞋ (but see also Ga•mᵊl•i•eilꞋ).

He has been called the 'father of wisdom and the father of generations (of scholars)' because he ensured the transfer and continuation of Jewish scholarship from Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim to YaꞋvᵊn•ëh after Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim fell to Rome in 70 C.E… considered in talmudic tradition the leading sage at the end of the Second Temple period and the years immediately following the destruction of the Temple."


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יוֹםPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2020.12.12]

masc . n. Yōm; יום, yomday [of…], pl. Yãm•imꞋ.

  1. הַיּוֹם ha-yōm, today (lit. "the day").

  2. יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן yōm Rish•onꞋ: Firstday (Day1) of the week—instead of Sun-godday.

    Being a Displacement Theology, Christianity retained their native reverence for the day of their native Sun God, MithraSun-day, their Sun-day of the week displacing the Biblical Sha•bãtꞋ .

  3. יוֹם שֵׁנִי yōm Shein•iꞋ: Secondday (Day2) of the week—instead of Moon-godday.

  4. יוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי yōm Shᵊlish•iꞋ: Thirdday (Day3) of the week—instead of Tiw'sday (the Old English equivalent of god & planet Mars).

  5. יוֹם רְבִיעִי yōm Rᵊviy•iꞋ: Fourthday (Day4) of the week—instead of Woden'sday (the Old English equivalent of the god & planet Mercury).

  6. יוֹם חֲמִישִׁי yōm Kha•mish•iꞋ: Fifthday (Day5) of the week—instead of Thor'sday (the Old English equivalent of the goddess & planet Jupiter).

  7. יוֹם שִׁשִׁי yōm Shish•iꞋ: Sixthday (Day6) of the week—instead of Friggday (Frīġedæġ; the Old English equivalent of the Roman goddess & planet Venus), Hellenist Greek Aphrodite and pre-Islamic Arab Al-ilat, which later evolved into Al-lah – corrupted to "Friday".

    The 6th day of the week is named after the Old English Frīġedæġ meaning the "day of Frigg" or "Frie day" (corrupted to "Friday") – the Old English name of the goddess that the Hellenist Romans called Venus and the Hellenist Greeks before them called Aphrodite — and the pre-Islamic Arabs before them called by the name Al-ilat (Herodotus, Histories III.38).

    According to Kitab al-Asnam (the Book of Idols) by Hisham b. al-Kalbi, the pre-Islamic Arabs believed Al-ilat, which later evolved into Al-lah, resided in the Kaaba and also had a stone idol form in the sanctuary. Thus, the Kaaba in Mecca is, in historical fact, an idolatrous temple of Al-ilat = Allah, which the Arabs used to circumambulate; NOT a "mosque" built by Abraham, who was never even in that region.

    Thus, the Displacement Theology of Islam, Muhammad and Arabs sanctifies the 6th day of their native goddess Al-ilat, the Al-ilat day of the week displacing Sha•bãtꞋ, in the same way that the Christian Displacement Theology sanctifies the day of their native Sun-god Mithra (Sun-day) , their Sun-god day of the week displacing Sha•bãtꞋ.

    For photos and further details, see also Numerology, in our Web Café Archives, and Pã•rãsh•atꞋ Ki Tei•tzeiꞋ.

  8. שַׁבָּת (Shab•ãtꞋ; settled-down, desistance, cessation)—instead of Saturnday like idolaters.

  9. יוֹם טוׂב yōm Tōv: festival-day, feast-day, holiday.

  10. יוֹם הַדִּין yōm ha-Din; Day of Adjudication of Mish•pãtꞋ (popularly, "Judgment").


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יוֹם הַכִּפּוׂרִיםPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2011.08.31]

fast

Yōm ha-Ki•purꞋim; יום הכפורים, Yom ha-KipurimThe Day of Expiations for those who have made tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ.


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יָמִים נוֹרָאִיםPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2011.08.31]

Yãm•imꞋ Nō•rã•imꞋ; ימים נוראים, Yamim NoraimAwe-inspiring Days (popularly "High Holidays"): Yōm Tᵊru•ãhꞋ and Yōm ha-Ki•purꞋim.


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יוֹם תְּרוּעָהPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

Shophar (ayal-ram)

Yōm Tᵊru•ãhꞋ; יום תרועה, Yom Teruah, Yom T'ruahblast day (day of blasting on the shō•pharꞋ); Hellenized to Rōsh ha-Shãn•ãhꞋ.


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יַבְנֶהPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2021.08.14]

YaꞋvᵊn•ëh;יבנה,Yavneh,Yabneh,Jamnia,Jabneh,Javneh city 25 km (15 mi) south of modern-day Tël •vivꞋ. After the destruction of Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim (70 CE), a ta•lᵊmidꞋ of Hi•leilꞋ Sr. "the Babylonian", Yōkhã•nãnꞋ Bën-Za•kaiꞋ, relocated the Pᵊrush•imꞋ Beit Din -Gã•dōlꞋ     to יַבְנֶה, where it remained until the end of the Hadrianic war [135 CE]. RabꞋi A•qiꞋvã began to record the Mi•shᵊn•ãhꞋ in יַבְנֶה.


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יוֹנָהPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

Yōn•ãhꞋ; יונה, Yonahdove, pigeon; pl. יוׂנִים (yōn•imꞋ); fifth of twelve minor Nᵊviy•imꞋ in Ta•na״khꞋ (de-Judaized to Jonah).

יוׂנִים As A Sacrifice

Banks, checks and paper currency didn’t exist in antiquity. For tax purposes, a man’s wealth was valuated by his livestock and crop land. Fines—not “blood sacrifices”—were stripped of anthropomorphism (restored to Avrahamic purity?) by Mōsh•ëhꞋ, assessed according to a man’s wealth and position, type of misstep, and according to this valuation system. In today’s currency (2019), approx. ₪35 or U.S. $10


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יוֹנָתָןPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

Yō•nã•tãnꞋ; יונתן, Yonatanhe will give/allow, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Jonathan.'


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יוֹסֵףPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

Yō•seiphꞋ; יוסף, Yoseiphhe will add, supplement, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Joseph.' Name of 11th son of Ya•a•qovꞋ (mother: Rã•kheilꞋ) ca. B.C.E. 1913 (bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 37.25f).

A Mã•shiꞋakh assumed to be of the tribe of Yo•seiphꞋ, and probably influenced by—or redirected to—the experience of Bar-KokhꞋvã, Tal•mudꞋ describes a Mã•shiꞋakh Bën-Yō•seiph who, according to tradition, was to suffer death at the hands of the goy•imꞋ.

Until perverted in the 17th century C.E. by the false Mã•shiꞋakh, Sha•bᵊt•aiꞋ, the Mã•shiꞋakh Bën-Yo•seiphꞋ was understood to be the suffering servant of Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 53 (see Messianic Issues).

The record from the Yō•khas•inꞋ in The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu (NHM, in English) 16.1—corroborated by Mi•lᵊkhãm•otꞋ ha-Sheim, SeiꞋphër Ni•tzakh•ōnꞋ Yã•shãnꞋ #154, and the ËꞋvën Bō•khanꞋ—documents that RibꞋi Yᵊhō•shūꞋa was the son of Yō•seiphꞋ Bën-Dã•widꞋ, i.e. RibꞋi Yᵊhō•shūꞋa Bën-Yō•seiphꞋ Bën-Dã•widꞋ (cf. The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu (NHM, in English) note 1.16.1 & table preceding note 1.13.2).


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יוֹבֵלPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2017.12.11]

Yoveil Bellwether Clarion Ram
Yō•veilꞋ: ram wearing bellwether

masc . n. Yō•veilꞋ; יובל, yoveilbellwether, clarion; name of the 50th year. MH de-Judaized/​Hellenized/​assimilated to 'Jubilee'; from which no clear connection is apparent to the source Latin jubilare = "jubilate". Thus, all references to "Jubilee" are misleading and should, instead, reference "bellwether" or "clarion".

Yo•veilꞋ derives from the verb יבל


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יוֹחֲסִיןPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2013.05.08]

masc . n. (Aramaic pl.) Yō•khas•inꞋ יוחסין, yokhasin(Aramaic, m.p.); "relations," official ancient Israeli, Jewish, public genealogical registries that, before they were destroyed by the Romans in the 2nd-4th centuries C.E., dated back to the Beit-Din ha-Jã•dolꞋ, to MoshꞋëh and A•har•onꞋ and to the Patriarchs. PBH יִחוּס, pl. יִחוּסִים.

When one entered the Bᵊrit Tōr•ãhꞋ, he or she was entered in this genealogical Scroll—the family tree—the "Tree of Life"!!! Conversely, if one was excised from the Bᵊrit Tōr•ãhꞋ, he or she was expunged from this genealogical scroll, the "Tree of Life"!!! more


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زَعْتَر (Arabic)Pronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2020.05.04]

אזוב (eizov - Origanum-syriacum {Syrian oregano}; hyssop, Arabic: zaatar
Click to enlargeאֵזוֹבOriganum syriacum (Syrian oregano), hyssop (Arabic: zaatar).

This is a protected plant in Israel — strictly enforced with large fines. (photo © Martha Modzelevich; flowersinisrael.com)

masc . n.ZaaꞋtãr, زَعْتَر‎,זעתר,zatar,zaatar(transliterated to זַעתָּר) wild Syrian oregano (Origanum syriacum), Hebrew אֵזוֹב of the Bible. This is a protected plant in Israel enforced by stiff fines.

Commercial ZaaꞋtãr consists of herb mixtures called ZaaꞋtãr—often without containing any ZaaꞋtãr. Use like oregano. Basic recipe (refine to taste over time):

  • 1/2 cup dried Syrian oregano (ZaaꞋtãr) or other oregano
  • 1/4 cup imported edible (NOT a poisonous variety) ground sumac
  • 2 tablespoons roasted sesame seeds
  • 1/8 tspn lemon salt
  • 1/8 tspn parsley
  • 1/8 tspn salt

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זָהָבPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2020.03.09]

masc . n. zã•hãvꞋ;זהב,zahav gold.  more


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זָקֵןPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2021.02.22]

masc . n. Zã•qeinꞋ,זקן,זקנים,zaqein,zaqan,zeqanim,z'qanim from זָקָן—a bearded-mature, life- and battle-tested, experienced venerable; i.e. an elder, senior. Also the euonym (e.g., Get all the beards together for a top-level brainstorming); pl. זְקֵנִים, compound pl. …זִקְנֵי. Especially one who adjudicated in a Beit-Din. Thus, זָקֵן also sometimes refers to a Shō•pheitꞋ or an earlier tribal leaders.

At what age was one classified a זָקֵן?more

How do people's ages in the Bible correlate to science and Biblical numerology? more


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זָרPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2019.07.26]

masc . n.זרים, zar,zeirzãr (m.n.) a man from beyond the border, a strange man, a stranger; (m. adj.) strange.

fem. n.זָרָהzãr•ãhꞋ, (f.n.) a woman from beyond the border, a strange woman, a female stranger; (f. adj.) strange.

masc . n.זֵר (m.n., zeir; a bordering edge or frame; e.g. around the top of a tray or table). Contrast with כֶּתֶר (këtꞋër; crown) and נֵזֶר (nëzꞋër, cognate of nã•zirꞋ; a tiara or diadem; also a wreath or laurel worn on the head as a symbol of eminence).

Compare with גוֹי (goy), contrast with נָכרִי (nã•khᵊr•iꞋ; foreigner) and see a•vod•ãhꞋ zãr•ãhꞋ (idolatry).


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זָבָהPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2019.06.28]

fem. n.zãv•ãhꞋ;זבה,zavah a woman experiencing intermenstrual bleeding


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זַבְדִיאֵלPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.09.10]

Za•vᵊd•i•eilꞋ זבדיאל, Zavdieilor Zi•vᵊd•i•eilꞋ; my endowment of Eil, from זֶבֶד (zëꞋvëd; endowment, bestowal).


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זַיִתPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2014.12.28]

masc . n. zaꞋyit; זיתים, הר הזיתים, zayit, har ha-zeitim olive; pl. זֵּיתִים (zeit•imꞋ; olives).

Har ha-Zeit•imꞋ is the Mount of Olives.


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זְכַרְיָהPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2006.04.27]

Zᵊkhar•yãhꞋ;זכריה,Zekharyah,Z'kharyah יְהוָׂה has remembered; eleventh book of the twelve minor Nᵊviy•imꞋ in Ta•na״khꞋ (de-Judaized to "Zechariah").


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זְמִירָהPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2007.03.16]

fem. n. Zᵊmir•ãhꞋ; זמירה, זמירות, zemirah, z'mirah, zemirot, z'mirota chant or song, particularly a popular chant or song of the Tei•mãn•imꞋ on Shab•ãtꞋ. Plural זְמִירוֹת (Zᵊmir•otꞋ) do not include Yiddish songs; Yiddish being a product of German-European assimilation.


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זֶ͏‌ֽבַחPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2019.04.22]

masc . n. zëvꞋakh, זבחים,zevakhim,z'vakhima sacrifice; pl. זְבָחִים; from the verb זָבַח—the root of מִזְבֵּחַ. See also qãrᵊbãnꞋ.


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זְבֻלוּןPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2015.10.26]

Zᵊvul•unꞋ, זבלון, זבולון, Zevulun, Z'vulunoptimally-fertilized; as a verdant and lush plant, garden or field; name of 10th son of Ya•a•qovꞋ (mother: LeiꞋãh).

Translators claim, due to the uniqueness of this instance, that this usage is a hapax legomenon in the Bible. That's academic-speak for, "It can't mean what it says, therefore, we pontificate that it means what we want it to mean." The meaning isn't even very difficult; merely an ideal from an agrarian perspective offensive to modern urban, often western, "religious" pretensions.

זְבֻלוּן is the pa•alꞋ passive pres. combinative form of זָבַל, namely □זְבוּל, plus the diminutive suffix וּן□. In modern urban vernacular, therefore, זְבֻלוּן loosely means a well-tended (lit. manured, fertilized) lush mini-garden, which various translators idealized to "celestial dwelling," etc.

Cognate: אִיזֶבֶל (Iy-zëvꞋël; "not fertilized" or "no dung"), popularly "Jezebel" – Phoenician (modern Lebanon) princess whom ã•khavꞋ (pop. "Ahab"), king of the 10 northern tribes of Israel, married. King ã•khavꞋ empowered her to impose her idolatry on the 10 northern tribes of Israel.


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זֹהַרPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2013.03.27]

  1. masc . n. zō•harꞋ;זהר, זוהר, Zohar glitter, a brilliant twinkle; the ordered combination of נֹגַהּ, ‭ ‬ אוֹר and זִיו 

    While זֹהַר is popularly translated as "shine," the English term, "shine," is more accurately conveyed by the Hebrew noun נֹגַהּ – name of the "morning star" (cf. Pã•rãsh•atꞋ bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ).

  2. ZōꞋhar; proper name of the Medieval European (namely, Spain) book of "Jewish mysticism," the sole basis and authority for Qa•bãl•ãhꞋ, authored by Spanish (Sᵊphãrãd•iꞋ) mystic rabbi Moses de Leon (aka "Shem-Tov", c 1250-1305 CE) — not by 1st century C.E. Tan•ãꞋ RibꞋi Shim•ōnꞋ Bar Yōkh•aiꞋ ("Rashbi"), as baselessly claimed by Shem-Tov (vaunting himself to be the "Name of the Good One"), and subsequent Jewish mystic followers. Orthodox rabbis forbid ordinary Jews from reading scholarly treatise on Qa•bãl•ãhꞋ, and education beyond about the 4th grade, to avoid harsh reality. See, inter alia, the Qabalist "Matronit"/​Shᵊkhin•ãhꞋ, a reincarnation of the Kᵊna•an•iꞋ A•natꞋ/​Ash•tōrꞋët of Qa•bãl•ãhꞋ (Patai ) and more


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הַזּוּגוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos U-Z, updated: 2021.01.03]

ha-Zūg•ōtꞋ; the "Complementary Pairs" (anti-Hellenist קַנָּאִי Ōs•inꞋ Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ Nã•siꞋ + anti-Hellenist Pᵊrush•iꞋ Av Beit Din) who administered the Συνέδριον from the Hellenization of B.C.E. 175 until Hi•leilꞋ Sr. "the Babylonian" first wrested Pᵊrush•imꞋ control of the Beit Din -Gã•dōlꞋ from the Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ in BCE 28. more


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