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Hebrew Glossary: U-Z

The reason this simple page of glossary definitions is ranked so popular with the search engine is because so many people click on our links to these definitions from the content in… the 'Netzarim Quarter' Village web site in Ra•an•anâ(h), Israel at www.netzarim.co.il

The real content is in the 'Netzarim Quarter'! Click on our logo above for an exciting visit to the 'Netzarim Quarter' where you'll learn about Historical Ribi Yehoshua and his original, Jewish, followers before the great Roman-Hellenist apostasy of 135 C.E.—and even more importantly, how you (whether Jew or non-Jew) can follow the historically true, Judaic, Ribi Yehoshua. In Hebrew, his original followers were called the Netzarim (Hellenized to "Nazarenes").

Until Paqid Yirmeyahu researched the Netzarim name and sect and began publishing about it in 1972 in The Netzarim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matityahu (NHM) no one in modern times was even aware of the name Netzarim. It stretches credulity that no one in modern times had heard of the Netzarim until Paqid Yirmeyahu published it in 1972… and then, suddenly, everybody figured it out??? Check (and verify) the dates of the earliest works about the Netzarim by the others and you'll see that they are deceiver-plagiarists. Then insist on the person whom ha-Sheim selected to entrust the knowledge, not imposters who falsely call their continuing practice of Displacement Theology "Nazarene Judaism" or directly plagiarize the name "Netzarim."

Because we teach and practice the authentic Judaic teachings of Ribi Yehoshua—not Displacement Theology—we are the only group who have restored the Netzarim to be accepted in the legitimate Jewish community in Israel—genuinely like Ribi Yehoshua and the original Netzarim. Consequently, the 'Netzarim Quarter' is the only web site of legitimate Netzarim / Nazarene Judaism.

Give all the friends you've ever known the chance to know about this exciting site; send them our web site address (www.netzarim.co.il) that opens modern eyes for the first time to the Judaic world that Ribi Yehoshua and his original Netzarim knew, practiced and taught.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

ul•pân; studio, instructional class. Return to Previous Page
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

campfirelight

ur; firelight, illumination; plural (ur•im; lights, fiery-lights). See also or.



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     (Ur•imꞋ  or Tum•imꞋ ) Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.05.13]
Shoham (carnelian sardonyx) gem: Ancient Hebrew  (Urim; obverse) /  (Tumim; reverse)
Obverse ( in ancient Hebrew). Hover cursor over gem to view reverse ( in ancient Hebrew). Carnelian has been used in the jewelery of many ancient cultures. Egyptians were using carnelian as early as BCE 4000. Carnelian was always popular for engraving intaglios, often used for signet rings and seals. The blood-, or fire-, red stone carried implications of mortality (blood) and judgment (fire).

– one (possibly two, selecting one by lot) shoham (carnelian sardonyx) gemstone(s) used, like flipping a coin, to produce a Boolean (binary) outcome in decision making. There is no extant description of how this was done.

TumimUrim

Thus, the gem(s) would have represented a Boolean solution: firelights (presumably "illuminations"; implying an enlightening contradiction of the initial postulate) or wholeness (implying wholeness of confirmation of the initial postulate). In the case of two gems, for instance, two disputants could be blindfolded and take a gem from a bag. According to their selection, one of the disputants would be declared wholly right (tom) and the other enlightened/contradicted (ur) with the need to make tᵊshuv•âh.

Also in the case of two gems, if a matter not involving disputants required a Boolean decision, the Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol might have reached into his Ei•phod, mixed up the gems that he couldn't see inside the Ei•phod, and then pulled one gemstone from the Ei•phod, again directing the decision.

Engraving of gemstones dates back to ancient Mesopotamia. Engraving sardonyx gemstones was particularly attractive since engraving into some gems could expose a different color. Careful engraving, then, produced an intaglio – an image of one color, usually lighter carnelian, on a deeper sard (carnelian) background.

Ancient Hebrew font on gems courtesy of Ancient Hebrew Research Center Ancient Hebrew Research Center logo

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β [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Codex Vaticanus
Codex Vaticanus

Codex Vaticanus (ca. 300-399 C.E.) One of the earliest extant complete ms. of the Christian NT, similar to (Codex Sinaiticus) except from Alexandria, Egypt.

β* Using the conventions of the apparatus of the Novum Testamentum Graeca, the asterisk refers to the original Hellenist Greek scribe of a document (in this example, of the Codex Vaticanus). β1 refers to the first redactor's handwriting, β2 to the second redactor's handwriting, etc. as they redacted the Greek ms.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

wa-Yi•qᵊrâ; then [lit. and] he called, recited, read; the first word of the third book of five books of the Tor•âh, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Leviticus.'
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.07.19]

Ya•a•qov; he will follow after, de-Judaized (Hellenized) variously to 'Jacob' and 'James'. is the pa•al fu. 3rd pers. m.s. of , denominated from

A related cognate is pâ•râsh•at (Dᵊvâr•im 7.12–11.25), also derived from .

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Click to enlarge (stepped – "ladder" – mountain opposite the valley where he was encamped)

(Su•lam Ya•a•qov) is the "Ladder (or scale) of Ya•a•qov," Hellenized to "Jacob's Ladder".

1st century C.E. — pâ•qid Ya•a•qov ha-Tza•diq Bën-Dâ•wid (Hellenized to "James the Just"): brother of RibiYᵊho•shua and first Nᵊtzâr•impâ•qid.

The amicability between the Nᵊtzâr•im and pᵊrush•im subsequent to the Hellenist execution of Ribi Yᵊho•shua (by the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im and Romans) was demonstrated ca. 62 C.E. by the condemnation, prosecuted by the pᵊrush•im, before the Roman procurator, Albinus (and the subsequent removal by King Agrippa) of the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol (Ko•hein hâ-Rësha), Ananus, from the office of Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol for his murder of pâ•qid Ya•a•qov ha-Tza•diq (Josephus Ant. xx.ix.1).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.05.18]

yâd; arm or hand

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.10.15]

Yâd; "The Mi•shᵊn•ëh Tor•âh of Ramba"m is most commonly referred to as the Yâd (hand), the first word of the phrase (yâd kha•zâq•âh; the strong hand—cf. Dᵊvâr•im 34.12). Ramba"m did not give this name to the work. It refers to the fact that it contains " (y"d = 14) books, the Gi•ma•tri•yâh equivalent of y"d being 14" ("Yad," EJ, 16.692-3).
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yael (ibex), Makhtesh Ramon (Ron Almog)Yael (ibex), Eilat Mountains (matikrimerman.com)

Yâ•eil; ibex.

Israeli heroine, Hellenized and Anglicized to "Jael"; see Sho•phᵊt•im 4.17—5.24.



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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ya•had•ut (Jewishness or Judaism) is a comparatively recent term.

"The term Judaism is first found among the Greek-speaking Jews [i.e. Hellenists, particularly the pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im] of the first century… Its Hebrew equivalent, Yahadut, found only occasionally in medieval literature…, but used frequently in modern times, has parallels neither in the Bible… nor in the rabbinic literature… The term generally used in the classical sources for the whole body of Jewish teaching is Torah…" ("Judaism," Ency. Jud., 10.383).

Tor•âh(Shᵊm•ot 18.20) uses the term (ha-Dërëkh; the Way)— (ha-Dërëkh yei•lᵊkh•u bah; the Way you [plural] are to go in). See also Ency. Jud. "Halakhah," 7.1156.)

Ha•lâkh•âh, by contrast, didn't come to represent the whole corpus of "Judaism" until after the destruction of 70 C.E. ("Halakhah," loc. cit.). Prior to that, Ha•lâkh•âh represented only one (the pᵊrush•im) of the three interpretations of Tor•âh she-bᵊal peh. The pᵊrush•im interpretation of Tor•âh she-bᵊal peh was rivaled by both Ma•as•ëh, the Qum•rân Tzᵊdoq•im interpretation of Tor•âh shë-bᵊal pëh, and the 'Book of Decrees,' which codified the pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im interpretation of Tor•âh shë-bᵊal pëh.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yam ha-Melakh Kalia Beach (NW shore)
Yâm ha-Mëlakh

Yâm ha-Mëlakh; Salt Sea (Hellenized to the "Dead Sea").



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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yam Kinneret
Yâm Ki•nërët

Yâm Ki•nërët; Violin Sea/Lake, named after its shape (Hellenized to "Sea of Galilee")



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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.10.20]

Nile Bank Sea of Papyrus Reeds
Yâm Suph

Yâm Suph; Sea of Reeds.



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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.07.23]

Nehar YardeinNᵊhar ha-Yar•dein

Nᵊhar ha-Yar•dein; Jordan River.

Bi•qᵊat ha-Yar•dein; Jordan Valley or Cleft, cleavage of Jordan



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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yᵊdi•ot A•khar•on•ot; Late or recent knowledge.

Written at a blue-collar level of Hebrew from an increasingly extreme liberal-socialist and globalist perspective, Yᵊdi•ōt A•khar•on•ōt (circulation 250,000) is Israel's 2nd largest Hebrew newspaper (the largest being Israel ha-Yom  – best reflecting the Israeli Jewish citizenry and recently eclipsed Yᵊdi•ōt); almost twice the circulation of any of Israel's niche newspapers.

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Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2008.06.25]

Yᵊho•shua; -- [is] national-salvation or military-salvation; contracted to the cognomen (Yᵊshua), from the unused root verb (to deliver nationally or militarily, to save nationally or militarily). This term is never used of the Hellenist (idolatrous) concept of "personal salvation" in the Bible or in Judaism. The verb is used in the hiph•il: (ho•shia; he saved nationally or militarily, delivered nationally or militarily or came to the rescue nationally or militarily). The verb is used in the same sense as its English counterpart was used in the old west: "The calvary will save us"—except for Jews ha-Sheim will save us (nationally and militarily from our enemies). There is no support for the idolatrous "personal salvation" doctrine of Christianity. At the personal level there is, instead, ki•pur—restricted to those who do their utmost to keep Tor•âh.

The book in Ta•na"kh is named after Yᵊho•shua Bën-Nun (Hellenized to 'Joshua').

'Historical Yᵊho•shua' generally refers, by contrast, to the 1st-century human Jew, a pᵊrush•i Ribi, named Yᵊho•shua Bën-Yo•seiph Bën-Dâ•wid of Nâ•tzᵊr•at. Notice that even the name explicitly identifies Y--H, not Yᵊho•shua, as salvation! See Shᵊm•ot 15.2; Yᵊsha•yâhu 12.1-4; 25.9; Yon•âh 2.10; Tᵊhil•im 3.9; 13.6; 14.7; 18.51; 21.6; 28.8; 53.7; 62.1-2, 7; 67.1-3; 68.20-21; 70.5-6; 74.12). His Mâ•shiakh is His agent, not the reverse; not the Provider of expiation. By means of the Mâ•shiakh—His Mâ•shiakh Bën-Yo•seiph Bën- Dâ•wid (Tᵊhil•im 89:20-53)—-- provides expiation. Mâ•shiakh is merely His instrument, symbol or illustration; as were the animal sacrifices.

(Yᵊshu•âh; salvation) is a fem. noun.

See also Tᵊhil•im 116.13; 18.51; 20.6; 28.8; 89.27-28; 118.19-22.

The Judaic meaning of relates to two associated synonyms:

See also the Biblical concepts of (ki•pur) and (hâ-o•lâm ha-bâ).

Syncretizing selected elements of the Judaic concept of a Mâ•shiakh with their native pagan mythology, Roman gentiles de-Judaized (Hellenized) 'historical Yᵊho•shua' to a mythical and counterfeit, antinomian, antithetical man-G-o-d idol: Ιησους transliterated to Hebrew Anglicized to Jesus (cf. Who Are the Nᵊtzâr•im? (WAN) and The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•tit•yâhu (NHM)). These two are mutually exclusive, diametric opposites. You cannot serve two masters. To believe in one necessarily constitutes rejection of the other.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.07.23]

Yᵊhud•âh, he will confess-thanks (evolved to "praise"), de-Judaized (Hellenized) to both 'Judea' (the land) and 'Judah' – the tribe and proper name of the 4th son of Ya•a•qov (mother: Leiâh), later shortened to 'Jew.'

Yᵊhud•âh is the single Hebrew term that originally referred both to one of the 12 Tribes of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil and, following the eradication by Syria of the 10 Northern ("Lost") Tribes in B.C.E. 722, evolved (absorbing the adjacent Tribe of Bin•yâ•min) to refer to all three Hellenized corruptions: Judah, Judea and Jew. The "Jew" cannot be extricated from "Judea" any more than Yᵊhud•âh can be extricated from Yᵊhud•âh. They are equivalent and inextricably defined together; either without the other is incomplete, less than whole.

derives from the root , usually expressed in the hiph•il: (cf. bᵊ-Reish•it 29.35— ). The pres. m.s. is . The interjection, , derives from this same root.

The connotation of confess(ion) is emphasized in the cognate hit•pa•eil: verb and noun .

Adjectives (also used as nouns): , fem. and – one who, by definition, confesses thanks—through reciting bᵊrâkh•ot!

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.09.05]

Kân•yâhu; also (Yᵊkhân•yâh; Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 27.20).

Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu prophesies that Kân•yâhu, an ancestor of Ribi Yᵊho•shua, would die childless and "none of his descendants will ever succeed in being a man who sits on the throne of Dâ•wid, and ever to rule over Yᵊhud•âh" (22.28-30). This passage, not including the full story, gets a lot of play from Jewish "anti-missionaries." Thus, knowing the full story is vital.

Based on bᵊ-Mid•bar 1.18, patrilineal descent determines tribal identity, including royal lineage. Thus, only Ribi Yᵊho•shua's patrilineal genealogy, which shows his descent (The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•tit•yâhu (NHM) 1) from Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh through Shᵊlom•oh ha-Mëlëkh (Shᵊmu•eil Beit 7.12-16), is relevant to this prophecy (Di•vᵊr•ei ha-Yâm•im Âlëph 3.11-12, 15-17; 17.11-14; 22.9-10; 28.6-7; Tᵊhil•im 89.20-38). However, the prophecy that Kân•yâhu would be childless (Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 22.30) implies that he would have no (Jewish) son—which, according to Ha•lâkh•âh applies matrilineally. However, Ribi Yᵊho•shua's matrilineal lineage (The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•tit•yâhu (NHM) 1) isn't through Kân•yâhu!

Further, Jewish hate-mongers (many of whom call themselves "anti-missionaries") pervert Scripture and Tal•mud by telling only the half of the story they want you to hear.

"Fearing, however, that since the Mëlëkh was childless, Beit-Dâ•wid would thus cease, the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol succeeded in obtaining permission for his wife to live with him. Kân•yâhu kept the laws of marital purity during this time, and as a reward was forgiven his sins (Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 3.22; wa-Yi•qᵊr•â Rab•âh 19:6—compare to Yon•âh's prophecy to Ninevah that was forgiven). Even the decree the none of his seed would ascend the throne (Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 22.30) was repealed when Zᵊru-Bâ•vël Bën-Shᵊal•tiy•eil was appointed leader of the returned exiles (cf. Ma•sëkët Sanhedrin 37b-38a). The exile of Tzi•dᵊq•i•yâhu while Kân•yâhu was still alive as a merciful act, since Kân•yâhu could thus teach Tor•âh to Tzi•dᵊq•i•yâhu (Ma•sëkët Git•in 88a; "Jehoiachin," EJ 9.1318-19).

"R. Yo•khâ•nân said: Exile allows ki•pur for everything, for it is written, Thus saith ha-Sheim, write this man childless, a man that shall not prosper in his days, for no man of his seed shall prosper sitting upon the throne of Dâ•wid and ruling any more in Yᵊhud•âh. (Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 22.30). Whereas after he [the Mëlëkh] was exiled, it is written, And the sons of : ‭ ‬ , his son, etc. (Di•vᵊr•ei ha-Yâm•im Âlëph 3.17). [He was called] because his mother conceived him in prison. , because Eil did not plant him in the way that others are planted. We know by tradition that a woman cannot conceive in a standing position. [yet she did conceive standing. Another interpretation: , because Eil obtained [of the Heavenly Beit-Din] absolution from His oath. [was so called] because he was sown in Bâvël. But [his real name was] Nᵊkhëm•yâh Bën-Kha•khal•yâh." (Ma•sëkët Sunedrion 37b-38a, Soncino Tal•mud).

"… they made the calf-mask and deserved to be exterminated, and I would have thought that He would curse and destroy them, yet, no sooner had they made tᵊshuv•âh, than the danger was averted, And ha-Sheim relented of the bad [sworn sentence, lacking tᵊshuv•âh being understood] (Shᵊm•ot 32.14). And so in many places. For example, He said about : For no man of his seed shall prosper (Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 32.30) and it says, I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms, and I will destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the nations… In that day, says ha-Sheim Tzᵊvâ•ot, will I take thee, O , My servant, the son of , saith ha-Sheim, and will make thee as a (Khaj•ai 2.22 f.). Thus was annulled that which He had said to his forefather, viz. As I live, says ha-Sheim, though Bën-Yᵊho•yâq•im, Mëlëkh Yᵊhud•âh, were the upon My right hand, yet I would pluck thee thence (Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 22.24)." bᵊ-Mid•bar Rab•âh 20:20, Soncino Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh)..

"R. Yᵊho•shua Bën-Lei•wi, however, argued as follows: tᵊshuv•âh sets aside the entire decree, and prayer half the decree. You find that it was so with , Mëlëkh Yᵊhud•âh. For ha-Qâ•dosh, Bâ•rukh Hu, swore in His anger, As I live, saith ha-Sheim, though Bën-Yᵊho•yâq•im, Mëlëkh Yᵊhud•âh, were the on a hand, yet by My right—note, as R. Mei•ir said, that is was by His right hand that Ël•oh•im swore—I would pluck thee hence (Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 22:24). And what was decreed against ? That he die childless. As is said Write ye this man childless (Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 22:40). But as soon as he avowed tᵊshuv•âh, ha-Qâ•dosh, Bâ•rukh Hu, set aside the decree, as is shown by Scripture's reference to the sons of —the same is his son, etc. (Di•vᵊr•ei ha-Yâm•im Âlëph 3:17). And Scripture says further: In that day … will I take thee, O … the son of … and will make thee as a (Khaj•ai 2:23). Behold, then, how tᵊshuv•âh can set aside the entire decree!" (pᵊsiq•tâ Rab•ât•i, Pi•sᵊqâ 47, translated by William G. Braude, Yale University Press, pg. 797-798).

"… though Bën-Yᵊho•yâq•im, Mëlëkh Yᵊhud•âh, were the on My right hand, yet I would pluck you off" (Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 22:24).

"… O , my servant, and will make thee as a : for I have chosen thee, says ha-Sheim Tzᵊvâ•ot." (Haggai 2:23).

"Moreover, since this is the only surviving scientifically and archaeologically credible documentation of the Yo•khas•in of Beit-Dâ•wid, if this sole documentation were rejected there could be no Mâ•shiakh at all—ever" (Yᵊkhanyâh, The Nᵊtzâr•im Newsletter, 1996.05. pp. 16-17).

Additionally, if the curse remained in force, there could be no Mâ•shiakh at all—ever.

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Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yᵊkhëz•qeil; may/shall Eil strengthen; third of three "major" Nᵊviy•im in Ta•na"kh (de-Judaized—"ethnically cleansed"—to Ezekiel).

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' Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.11.07]

Yᵊrei ha-Sheim; reverer (pop. but inaccurately, "fearer") of --; pl. -- (Yi•rᵊei ha-Sheim; Reverers (pop. but inaccurately, "fearers") of --).

-- (yi•rᵊat --; the awe of --, reverence for --).

For greater clarification, see the related, and oft-confused, term: geir.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.09.28]

Yᵊrikh•o, Hellenized to 'Jericho.'

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Click to enlargeTël Yᵊrikh•o
Modern Yᵊrikho center
Click to enlargeModern Yᵊrikh•o city center

The name derives from the Kᵊna•an•im inhabitants' moon-god, . Those who argue for the derivation from apparently rely on a concordance and are unaware that both and are cognates from the same root.

"Calibration of the weighted average of the grain samples results in ranges in both the 17th and 16th century BC[E], using the 1986 versions of the two calibration curves. With the 1993 versions, the 17th century option becomes negligible, whereas a date in the 16th century is most likely. The decadal calibration curve is recommended by Stuiver and Becker (1993) for short-lived samples formed during a decade or less. Using this calibration curve to calculate the historical date of the weighted average of the grain samples, with the aid of the OxCal computer calibration program, there is equal probability for the 1 Q result to be in the range 1601 to 1566 cal BC[E] as in the range 1561 to 1524 cal BC[E] for the destruction of MBA Jericho." (Bruins, H. J., VanDerPlicht, J., Bruins, H. J., Cook, G. T. (Ed.), Harkness, D. D. (Ed.), Miller, B. F. (Ed.), & Scott, E. M. (Ed.) (1995). Tell es-Sultan (Jericho): Radiocarbon results of short-lived cereal and multiyear charcoal samples from the end of the Middle Bronze Age. Radiocarbon, 37(2), 213-220.)—for which, see citations at B.C.E. 1625 in my Chronology of the Tanakh, from the "Big " Live-​Link. Averaging the 4 estimated datings from the 14C tests yields a μ of ca. B.C.E. 1563 for the destruction of Yᵊrikh•o.

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Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2016.05.06]

Har ha-Bayit, Ir David fm Gan Gat-Shemen
Yᵊru•shâ•layim

Yᵊru•shâ•layim, corrupted, via Hellenist Greeks, to "Jerusalem."

Excerpted from "Jerusalem," Ency. Jud. (9.1379)—The first mention of the city of Yᵊru•shâ•layim is in the Egyptian Execration Texts of the 19th-18th centuries B.C.E… probably pronounced 'rushalimum.' In the Tell el-Amarna letters of the 14th century B.C.E., it is written Urusalim, and in Assyrian Ursalimmu (Sennacherib inscription). In the Bible it is occasionally spelled (Yᵊru•shᵊlëm)…

more

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.10.04]

Yᵊsha•yâhu; "salvation [is] of --" or "May -- save"first of the three "major" Nᵊviy•im in Ta•na"kh (de-Judaized to "Isaiah").


1QIsa designates the ancient, Dead Sea, "Isaiah Scroll," found in Cave 1 of Qum•rân, which has been 14C-dated several times, all indicating a range between ca. B.C.E. 335-324 to B.C.E. 202-107.

Scholarly consensus holds that the book of Yᵊsha•yâhu was written by two different Jews: Yᵊsha•yâhu-1, ca. B.C.E. 720 (chapters 1-39) and Yᵊsha•yâhu-2 (popularly Hellenized to "Deutero-Isaiah"), ca. BCE 540 (chapters 40-66).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

yeshivah pilpul
Yᵊshiv•âh – partnered debate of Ta•lᵊmud

Yᵊshiv•âh; a sitting or session, is a high school for Talmudic studies and presumes an Orthodox Tor•âh education through junior high school or equivalent. These refer principally to different levels of religious study in Judaism:

  1. Judaic religious high school (technically, but rarely stated, 'minor' yeshivah);

  2. Judaic religious post-high school roughly equivalent to a Judaic vocational school; sometimes, but not necessarily, supplemented with some junior college-level vocational courses; refuse service in the IDF.

  3. an alternate of the Judaic religious post-high school that combines service in the IDF with an IDF Judaic studies program.

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"Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.08.30]

Yësh"u; acronym for (yi•makh shᵊm•o wᵊ-zi•khᵊr•o; may his name be erased, obliterated and his memory—the is pronounced as "u" at the end) in compliance with Shᵊm•ot 23.13; Dᵊvâr•im 12.3 and Yᵊho•shua 23.7.

The English name "Jesus " does not derive from the Hebrew (or it would be "Joshua").

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.06.26]

yᵊshu•âh; national deliverance or salvation from an impending, usually military, disaster, is never used in the sense of a spiritual or personal "salvation" in Ta•na"kh.

The hiph•il verb form (ho•shia; he saved or delivered [collectively, e.g. the nation of Israel]!) conveys the same connotation: "Save Israel, the nation, from a disaster!" This form is appended by the plea (; prithee) to form the Suk•ot theme (ho•shan•nâ; Save [Israel], prithee!).

The Hebrew term from which the Christian concept of "salvation" derives, by contrast, is yᵊshu•âh (the masc. form of which is yᵊshua). Though the doctrine of 'personal salvation' (as contrasted with personal ki•pur) didn't exist in Judaism, it is documented in paganism from Babylonian times (see Atonement In the Biblical 'New Covenant' (ABNC), tracing through Marduk to Bel to Baal to Zeus to Iæsous = Jesus.

While yᵊshu•âh is used of victorious Israel, militarily—including as represented by her king and by her Mâ•shiakh, this term is never used of the Christian concept of 'personal salvation' nor for gentiles external to Israel (Jews & geir•im), which constitutes Displacement Theology EXACTLY opposite the concept of yᵊshu•âh!

Like Jesus and Christianity, the doctrine of a deity of "personal salvation"—particularly a man-god offspring of a god mating with a human woman—all traces back to worship of Zeus and earlier paganism. There was no precedent for it in Judaism. This parallels the anomalous derivation of the name of Jesus, probably morphing Iosou with Zeus and Isis to form Iæsous, and the "Face of Christ" being documented as that of the Great Idol of Zeus (see Who Are the Nᵊtzâr•im?), the pagan doctrine of a god of personal salvation is mutually corroborating with the chart graphic in our Museum section "2nd-4th Centuries C.E.: Two Simultaneous [i.e., mutually exclusive] Communities").

Ki•pur, enabling life in hâ-o•lâm ha-bâ (the world to come) is a different concept altogether.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.07.15]

; i.e., the natural tendency toward wrong(doing) intrinsic in man's nature – a contraction of the Biblical phrases is the and (only to) (bᵊ-Reish•it 6.5; 8.21; see also Tᵊhil•im 103.14). Synonymous with Sâ•tân. Return to Previous Page
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.12.19]

Egypt & the Near East at the time of the Yᵊtziah
Click to enlargeEgypt & the Near East at the time of the Yᵊtzi•yâh
Yᵊtzi•yâh; exiting, departing, leaving, logging out, setting out, going forth, issuing forth; de-Judaized (Hellenized) to the 'Exodus.' from Egypt (documented in Shᵊm•ot 1-15).

Calculations based on the latest available historical research, the Yᵊtzi•yâh occurred on Firstmonth 15, ca. B.C.E. 1625), during the reign of Men-kheper-Re Tuth-Moses III (Chronology of the Tanakh from the Big (nât•âh; Stretch-Apart) (see also Ta•na"kh and Big Stretch-Apart)).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yi•khud; union, unity, singularity, solitude; i.e. privacy, a metonym for marital relations.
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu; may/shall -- elevate, exalt; second of three "major" Nᵊviy•im in Ta•na"kh (de-Judaized to Jeremiah).
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yi•shᵊm•â•eil; Eil hearkened, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Ishmael.'
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.11.13]

Yi•sᵊrâ•EilꞋ ; "he will ‭ ‬ ( of…) Eil." Thus, means "he will battle (the battles of) Eil." Hellenized and Anglicized to 'Israel.'
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.10.26]

Yi•sâ•khâr; he will earn (or be employed for) a (sâ•khâr; wage or salary; "reward" is a post Biblical connotation). Name of 9th son of Ya•a•qov (mother: Leiâh).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yi•tzᵊkhâq; he shall laugh, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Isaac.'
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.06.14]

Har Megido topographical map
Yi•zᵊrᵊël; "Eil shall seed or sow."

is popularly corrupted to "Jezreel Valley" (see map); also Hellenized to the Plain of Esdraelon."

Controlled by Har Mᵊgido (corrupted to "Armageddon"), this wide plain is a bottleneck between mountain ranges – the only viable ground infantry and tank invasion access into the interior of Yi•sᵊrâ•eil from the northeast (Damascus, Syria).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

yod; 10th, and smallest, Hebrew letter; often used as an abbreviation for --.
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yo•eil; -- [is] Eil; second of twelve minor Nᵊviy•im (Prophets) in Ta•na"kh (de-Judaized to Joel).
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yo•khâ•nân; he will be gracious, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Johanan' and paganized to "John."
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.08.09]

Yom; day [of…], pl. Yâm•im.

  1. ha-yom, today (lit. "the day").

  2. Yom Rish•on: Firstday (Day1) of the week—instead of Sun-godday.

    Being a Displacement Theology, Christianity retained their native reverence for the day of their native Sun God, MithraSun-day, their Sun-day of the week displacing the Biblical Sha•bât .

  3. Yom Shein•i: Secondday (Day2) of the week—instead of Moon-godday.

  4. Yom Shᵊlish•i: Thirdday (Day3) of the week—instead of Tiw'sday (the Old English equivalent of god & planet Mars).

  5. Yom Rᵊviy•i: Fourthday (Day4) of the week—instead of Woden'sday (the Old English equivalent of the god & planet Mercury).

  6. Yom Kha•mish•i: Fifthday (Day5) of the week—instead of Thor'sday (the Old English equivalent of the goddess & planet Jupiter).

  7. Yom Shish•i: Sixthday (Day6) of the week—instead of Friggday (Frīġedæġ; the Old English equivalent of the Roman goddess & planet Venus), Hellenist Greek Aphrodite and pre-Islamic Arab Al-ilat, which later evolved into Al-lah – corrupted to "Friday".

    The 6th day of the week is named after the Old English Frīġedæġ meaning the "day of Frigg" or "Frie day" (corrupted to "Friday") – the Old English name of the goddess that the Hellenist Romans called Venus and the Hellenist Greeks before them called Aphrodite — and the pre-Islamic Arabs before them called by the name Al-ilat (Herodotus, Histories III.38).

    According to Kitab al-Asnam (the Book of Idols) by Hisham b. al-Kalbi, the pre-Islamic Arabs believed Al-ilat, which later evolved into Al-lah, resided in the Kaaba and also had a stone idol form in the sanctuary. Thus, the Kaaba in Mecca is, in historical fact, an idolatrous temple of Al-ilat = Allah, which the Arabs used to circumambulate; NOT a "mosque" built by Abraham, who was never even in that region.

    Thus, the Displacement Theology of Islam, Muhammad and Arabs sanctifies the 6th day of their native goddess Al-ilat, the Al-ilat day of the week displacing Sha•bât, in the same way that the Christian Displacement Theology sanctifies the day of their native Sun-god Mithra (Sun-day) , their Sun-god day of the week displacing Sha•bât.

    For photos and further details, see also Numerology, in our Web Café Archives, and Pâ•râsh•at Ki Tei•tzei.

  8. (Shab•+6;t′ ; settled-down, desistance, cessation)—instead of Saturnday like idolaters.

  9. Yom Tov: festival-day, feast-day, holiday.

  10. Yom ha-Din; Day of Adjudication of Mish•pât (popularly, "Judgment").

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.08.31]

fast

Yom ha-Ki•purim; The Day of Expiations for those who have made tᵊshuv•âh.



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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.08.31]

Yam•im No•râ•im; Awe-inspiring Days (popularly "High Holidays"): Yom Tᵊru•âh and Yom ha-Ki•purim.
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Shophar (ayal-ram)

Yom Tᵊru•âh; blast day (day of blasting on the sho•phar); Hellenized to Rosh ha-Shân•âh.



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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yon•âh; dove, pigeon; fifth of twelve minor Nᵊviy•im (Prophets) in Ta•na"kh (de-Judaized to Jonah).
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yo•nâ•tân; he will give/allow, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Jonathan.'
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yo•seiph; he will add, supplement, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Joseph.' Name of 11th son of Ya•a•qov (mother: Râ•kheil) ca. B.C.E. 1913 (bᵊ-Reish•it 37.25f).

A Mâ•shiakh assumed to be of the tribe of Yo•seiph, and probably influenced by—or redirected to—the experience of Bar-Kokh, Tal•mud describes a Mâ•shiakh Bën-Yo•seiph who, according to tradition, was to suffer death at the hands of the goy•im.

Until perverted in the 17th century C.E. by the false Mâ•shiakh, Sha•bᵊt•ai, the Mâ•shiakh Bën-Yo•seiph was understood to be the suffering servant of Yᵊsha•yâhu 53 (see Messianic Issues).

The record from the Yo•khas•in in The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) 16.1—corroborated by Mi•lᵊkhâm•ot ha-Sheim, Seiphër Ni•tzakh•on Yâ•shân #154, and the Ëvën Bo•khan—documents that Ribi Yᵊho•shua was the son of Yo•seiph Bën-Dâ•wid, i.e. Ribi Yᵊho•shua Bën-Yo•seiph Bën-Dâ•wid (cf. The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 1.16.1 & table preceding note 1.13.2).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yoveil Bellwether Clarion Ram
Yo•veil (bellwether)

Yo•veil; bellwether, clarion (name of the 50th year; de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Jubilee,' from which no clear connection is apparent to the Latin jubilare = "jubilate"). Thus, all references to "Jubilee" are misleading and should reference "Bellwether" (or "Clarion") instead.



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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.05.08]

Yo•khas•in (Aramaic, m.p.); "relations," official ancient Israeli, Jewish, public genealogical registries that, before they were destroyed by the Romans in the 2nd-4th centuries C.E., dated back to the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol, to Moshëh and A•har•on and to the Patriarchs. Post-Biblical Hebrew: (yi•khus), pl. (yi•khus•im).

When one entered the Bᵊrit Tor•âh, he or she was entered in this genealogical Scroll—or tree—the "Tree of Life"!!! Conversely, if one was excised from the Bᵊrit Tor•âh, he or she was expunged from this genealogical scroll or tree—the "Tree of Life"!!!

Since no later than the giving of the Tor•âh to Moshëh on Har Sin•ai, when names are recorded by the Beit-Din in the Orthodox Jewish community they are archived in the heavenly archive. Ribi Yᵊho•shua confirmed this in The Nᵊtzârim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matityâhu (NHM) 18.19f (for documentation and details see the corresponding notes): "I tell you, whatever you shall make â•sur in [the Beit-Din of the Nᵊtzâr•im] on hâ-Ârëtz shall be made â•sur in the Beit-Din Above…"

The Yo•khas•in recognized and included 10 categories of persons, in 3 groups of permitted intermarriage (within certain constraints), that were differentiated from the goy•im as part of Am Yi•sᵊrâ•eil (Mishᵊnâh, Ma•sëkët Qi•dush•in 69a-b, explanation detailed in Atonement In the Biblical 'New Covenant' (ABNC):

Though the earthly scrolls were destroyed by the Romans and other oppressors—with the notable exception of both the patriarchal and matriarchal genealogies of Ribi Yᵊho•shua—the names remain recorded in the Yo•khas•in in the heavenly archive Yo•khas•in – the Scroll, (family) Tree, of Life.

On the other hand, the destruction of the (physical) Yo•khas•in terminated all legitimacy of physical Ko•han•im and Beit-Dâ•wid (including any future Mâ•shiakh)! "A family once mixed up remains so" (Qidush•in 70b, quoted in EJ 7.383).

  • Beit-Dâ•wid

    "Herod, who also had to face a challenge to the legitimacy of his rule, forged for himself a pedigree going back to Dâ•wid, after first destroying the genealogical records maintained in the Temple (according to third-century Christian historian Africanus)" ("Genealogy," EJ 7.381).

    "It was not without reason that, as Hegesippus informs us, the Roman emperors Vespasian, Domitian and Trajan ordered the hunting out and execution of all who claimed Davidic descent" (Salo Wittmayer Baron, A Social and Religious History of the Jews, New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1937, 1952,, vol. II, p. 121).

    "According to Hegesippus, Vespasian, Domitian and Trajan hunted down all Jews of Davidic descent and executed them in order to extirpate the royal line on which Jews had set their hopes" (Eusebius EH iii.12 (Vespasian; ibid., iii.19-20 (Domitian; ibid., iii.32, 3-4 (Trajan); all derived from Hegesippus)." (Emil Schürer, The history of the Jewish people in the age of Jesus Christ (B.C.E. 175—135 C.E.), vol. I, edit. Geza Vermes, Fergus Millar, Matthew Black & Pamela Vermes, Edinburgh: 1973, T. & T. Clark, p. 528)

    See also Eusebius EH III.xii.19-20, 32; xxxii.1-6.

    With the exception of the paternal and maternal genealogies listed for Ribi Yᵊho•shua in NHM (ch. 1—dating back to the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol), the genealogies of Beit-Dâ•wid were destroyed by Herod and the Romans.

  • Ko•han•im

    A [Ko•hein] must himself be of proven pedigree to serve in the [Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh] (Mid•ot 5.4; Qi•dush•in 4.5). Those currently designated "[Ko•han•im]" are "presumed [Ko•han•im]," inasmuch as there is no legally sufficient proof testifying to their descent from ancient [Ko•han•im] families (see Maimonides Yad. A•sur•ei Bi•âh 20.1-2; Mâ•gein Av•râ•hâm to OH 457.2)" ("Priests and Priesthood," EJ 13.1088).

    This glosses over Nᵊkhëm•yâh 7.63-65, which declares Ko•han•im lacking official Yo•khas•in to be Kha•lâl•im (profaned Ko•han•im), whom Tal•mud places on the same level as geir•im (Mish•nâh Qi•dush•in 69a-b)!!!

    The genealogies of the Ko•han•im seem to have been destroyed by the Ko•han•ei hâ-Rësha, to eliminate their rivals, during the Hellenization of the priesthood, long before Herod and the Romans destroyed the genealogies of Beit-Dâ•wid.

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[Updated: 2007.10.15]

, available from www.newjerusalemgifts.com

Zatâr, wild Syrian oregano (Origanum syriacum), the (ei•zov; hyssop) of the Bible. Because this is a protected plant in Israel, commercial Zatâr consists of herb mixtures called Zatâr—often without containing any Zatâr. Use like oregano. Basic recipe (refine to taste over time):

  • 1/2 cup dried Syrian oregano (Zatâr) or other oregano
  • 1/4 cup imported edible (NOT poisonous) ground sumac
  • 2 tablespoons roasted sesame seeds
  • 1/8 tspn lemon salt
  • 1/8 tspn parsley
  • 1/8 tspn salt

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.03.16]

zâ•qein, plural (zᵊqein•im); old – seniors, elders who adjudicated in a Beit-Din, synonym of Sho•phᵊt•im (though may also sometimes refer to tribal leaders). What was "Old"?

"The expectation of life at birth is the most efficient index of the general level of mortality of a population. In ancient Greece and Rome the average life expectancy was about 28 years." (britannica.com)

The expectation of life at birth during the time of Av•râ•hâm (Late Copper and Bronze Age) was slightly less than 29 years. (London School of Economics and Political Science.

Thus, would refer, not to someone over 65 years old or a centenarian, as we think of today, but someone in their last few years – roughly 25-29 years old! Then two things mesh with science and logic: that is such a close cognate of , which apparently indicated a , and that Av•râ•hâm and Sârâh could have procreated Yi•tzᵊkhâq "in their 'old' age" (late twenties!!!) This suggests that most families had children in their early to mid-teens.

Yet, this seems an inescapably glaring contradiction of the Biblical account, which gives the age of Av•râ•hâm and Sârâh at the birth of Yi•tzᵊkhâq as 100 and 90, respectively; and they died at the respective ages of 175 and 127.

How Can the Biblical Account Be Reconciled with Real World History?

The Encyclopedia Judaica notes: "Babylonian tradition attributes exaggerated longevity—tens of thousands of years—to its heroes… If the biblical story be compared with the prevailing Babylonian tradition, the many years of Methuselah seem a modest, even a short life-span. The Bible diminished the exaggerated ages attributed to people in the Ancient Near East, but still preserved the tradition of assigning extraordinary longevity to great men." (Methuselah, 11.1447-8).

The principle of Tᵊhil•im 90.4, One Divine Day is as 1,000 earthly years, likely was shared by other surrounding cultures of the Ancient Near East. It is abundantly clear from Egyptian history that the Par•ohs sought to become ël•oh•im, and that other cultures of the Ancient Near East revered their great nobles as ël•oh•im. It shouldn't be surprising, therefore, that the "days" of these wannabe ël•oh•im were touted to be equal to the "day" of Ël•oh•im. Their thinking was "a god must have a lifespan of god-days, not ordinary mortal days."

While the Abrahamic tradition differed significantly, still, the Orthodox rabbis who edited the Artscroll "Bereshis" observed: "N'tziv notes that sometimes the Torah lists the larger number of years first and then the smaller number [as in the case of Adam: nine hundred years and thirty years] while sometimes the procedure is reversed as in 5:8. He explains that when the closing years of a person's life are relatively as productive and righteous as the bulk of his lifetime, the larger figure is given first, the implication being that all of his years were as productive as the major period of his life." (Artscroll Bereishis I.169).

Thus, as we should expect, a clear evolution from the prevailing tradition of the Ancient Near East is evident with the similar correlation in Tor•âh tradition ascribing extra years to the lifetime of kings and nobles who were revered for their .

From this perspective, the description in bᵊ-Reish•it 15.6 seems to suggest that the Abrahamic tradition didn't merely "diminish the exaggerated ages attributed to people in the Ancient Near East," but, rather, refined this honorific ascription in an elegant way:

bᵊ-Reish•it 15.6 – --; :

(And he trusted in --; and he considered it [to be] a for him.)

Either way, this passage echoes a remnant of the Ancient Near East environment in which a is considered redemptive, remitting transgressions – paralleling remission… = 7 years.

This doesn't yet solve all of the problem. When we examine the ages of the "righteous nobles" in this chapter divided by ‎=7, the ages fall remarkably within the rough parameters determined by scientists! Peering behind the honorific years, Av•râ•hâm would be nearly 14½ years old, having been regarded a fully-adult man for a year and a half, and Sârâh, considered a fully-adult, marriageable woman at 12, would have given birth to Yi•tzᵊkhâq when she was just under 13.

But Sârâh certainly isn't describing a 13 year old woman (in ancient times; today, a teen) when she is described as "the way of women having ceased" for her and having withered skin. Even in ancient times when time wore more heavily on human beings, this passage describes a woman who must have been at least nearing 35; having experienced menopause and some wrinkling – very old by ancient standards. Clearly, not all of their years were years.

In the case of Sârâh, we can only estimate that, beginning at age 31 (already a very old age in the Ancient Near East), she began accumulating years until she died at an estimated age of 43. This would mean that she accumulated 43 (natural) years + the last 12 years of her life being honorific, adding (7*12)=84 for a total of 127. We might similarly estimate that Av•râ•hâm lived 49 natural years, of which the last 18 were honorific, adding (*7 = 126); 49 + 126 = 175. Corroborating this theory, these figures suggest that both began accumulating honorific years at age 31 (43-12 and 49-18, respectively). (The same process works, yielding slightly different numbers, if one considers the years only adding an additional 6 years for a total of 7.) The other cases are likely similar – lacking supernatural magic.

The Zᵊqein•im

The zᵊqein•im were the patriarchal governing body (tribal chiefs) complementing the Sho•phᵊt•im. Only peripherally involved in litigation in the Bât•ei-Din, the primary function of the zᵊqein•im was in the area of family and patriarchal interests at a particular level or capacity (municipal, district, Ko•han•im, and tribal). The zᵊqein•im were primarily involved with five laws: (1) blood redemption, (2) expiation of murder by an unknown perpetrator, (3) a rebellious son, (4) defamation of a virgin, and (5) a levirate. ("Elder," EJ, 6:578).

Zâ•qein corresponds, via LXX, to the Hellenist concept of πρεσβυτερος (presbuteros; elders). See also The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•tit•yâhu (NHM) 15.2.3.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.05.14]

zâr, strange man, stranger (masc. n.), strange (masc. adj.); zâr•âh; strange woman, stranger (fem. n.), strange (fem. adj.).

Compare with (goy•im), contrast with (nâ•khᵊr•i; foreigner) and see a•vod•âh zâr•âh (idolatry).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.09.10]

Za•vᵊd•i•eil or Zi•vᵊd•i•eil; my endowment of Eil, from (vëd; endowment, bestowal).
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.12.28]

zayit; olive; pl. (zeit•im; olives).

Har ha-Zeit•im is the Mount of Olives.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Zᵊkhar•yâh; -- has remembered; eleventh book of the twelve minor Nᵊviy•im in Ta•na"kh (de-Judaized to "Zechariah").
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.16]

Zᵊmir•âh; a chant or song, particularly a popular chant or song of the Tei•mân•im on Shab•ât. Plural (Zᵊmir•ot) do not include Yiddish songs; Yiddish being a product of German-European assimilation.
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.16]

zëvakh, n. a sacrifice; pl. (zᵊvâkh•im; sacrifices); from (zâ•vakh; he sacrificed).
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.10.26]

Zᵊvul•un, optimally-fertilized; as a verdant and lush plant, garden or field; name of 10th son of Ya•a•qov (mother: Leiâh).

Translators claim, due to the uniqueness of this instance, that this usage is a hapax legomenon in the Bible. That's academic-speak for, "It can't mean what it says, therefore, we pontificate that it means what we want it to mean." The meaning isn't even very difficult; merely an ideal from an agrarian perspective offensive to modern urban, often western, "religious" pretensions.

is the pa•al passive pres. combinative form of , namely □, plus the diminutive suffix □. In modern urban vernacular, therefore, loosely means a well-tended (lit. manured, fertilized) lush mini-garden, which various translators idealized to "celestial dwelling," etc.

Cognate: (Iy-zëvël; "not fertilized" or "no dung"), popularly "Jezebel" – Phoenician (modern Lebanon) princess whom •khav (pop. "Ahab"), king of the 10 northern tribes of Israel, married. King •khav empowered her to impose her idolatry on the 10 northern tribes of Israel.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.03.27]

  1. zo•har; m.n. a brilliant twinkle or glitter – the ordered combination of , ‭ ‬ and

    -, , (: -, 1988, 1.336-7‫).

    While is popularly translated as "shine," the English term, "shine," is more accurately conveyed by the Hebrew noun – name of the "morning star" (cf. Pâ•râsh•at bᵊ-Reish•it).

  2. Zohar; proper m.n. name of the Medieval European (namely, Spain) book of "Jewish mysticism" authored by Spanish (Sᵊphârâd•i) mystic rabbi Moses de Leon (ca. 1250-1305 C.E., aka "Shem-Tov") – not by 1st century C.E. Tan•â Ribi Shim•on Bar Yo•khai ("Rashbi"), as claimed by Shem-Tov and subsequent Jewish mystics.

The Zo•har is the core basis and authority for Qabâl•âh. According to the foremost, widely-recognized, modern Jewish historian and scholar on Qabâl•âh, Gershom Scholem, the Zo•har is a work of the superstitious, medieval world of the Dark Ages, written in the last quarter of the 13th century in Castile, Spain (The Messianic Idea in Judaism, New York: Schocken, 1971, p. 39).

"Sefer ha-Zohar, a collection of Kabbalistic writing from the late 13th and early 14th became, especially since the 16th century, the central text of Kabbalah, and one of the most authoritative and venerated text of Judaism, alongside the Old Testament and the Talmud." (Dr. Boaz Huss, Senior Lecturer, Bën-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Interpretation and Power: The Emergence of Zohar Hermeneutics in the 16th century; ).

"Since the early 14th century, the Zohar was attributed to [Rabbi Shim•on Bar-Yo•khai]. Yet, through the ages, and especially since the age of enlightenment, doubts were cast on the antiquity (as well as the literary integrity) of the Zohar, a stance accepted by Modern Kabbalah scholarship.

"Although the exact authorship of the Zoharic literature is unknown, it is evident that most of this literature was created in Castile in the late 13th and early 14th century." (Huss).

"Date of Composition Calculations of the time of redemption, which are to be found in several sections of the Zo•har, confirm the conclusions concerning the time of its composition. These calculations give an assurance, in various forms, and be means of different interpretations and conjectures, that the redemeption will commence in the year 1300… According to the Zo•har, 1,200 years had passed since the destruction of the Temple—a century for each of the tribes of Israel… The basic date is always 1268" (Zohar, Ency. Jud., 16.1208).

"The Author. … the book was published by part, not all at once, by the Spanish kabbalist Moses b. Shem Tov de Leon, who died in 1305… it is impossible to uncover any section that was written before 1270…" (EJ, 1209).

The Zo•har and Qabâl•âh were rejected by the original Ba•lad•i Tei•mân•im as well as Ramba"m and other rationalist Sages, who regarded it as a work by and for the superstitious who preferred medieval mysticism to dealing with the real (rational) world. In other words, such superstition is for those who bury their intellectual faculties in a world of their own imagination, like an Ostrich, rather than those who live Tor•âh of the real Creator in His real world. The Zo•har differs from children's fairy tales only in complexity – and it is that very complexity that deludes and deceives the gullible, the ignorant and the superstitious.

While the Zo•har is quoted in the al-Nakawa (d. 1391, Spain) version of Mᵊnor•at ha-Mâ•or (who called the Zo•har "Mi•dᵊrâsh Të•hi Or"), the Zo•har is not cited at all in the Tei•mân•i Mᵊnor•at ha-Mâ•or by Yi•tzᵊkhâq A•bu•hâv.

By its very nature as mysticism, Qabâl•âh depends upon a messianic figure – he (and/or his "true followers") being the "only" ones who "properly and correctly" understand and can, therefore, explain the mystical world. Historically, this has led to false messiahs, the most famous being Jesus and Shabᵊt•ai Tzᵊvi (pop. "Zevi").

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