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Hebrew Glossary: U-Z

The reason this simple page of glossary definitions is ranked so popular with the search engine is because so many people click on our links to these definitions from the content in… the 'Netzarim Quarter' Village web site in Ra•an•anâ(h), Israel at www.netzarim.co.il

The real content is in the 'Netzarim Quarter'! Click on our logo above for an exciting visit to the 'Netzarim Quarter' where you'll learn about Historical Ribi Yehoshua and his original, Jewish, followers before the great Roman-Hellenist apostasy of 135 C.E.—and even more importantly, how you (whether Jew or non-Jew) can follow the historically true, Judaic, Ribi Yehoshua. In Hebrew, his original followers were called the Netzarim (Hellenized to "Nazarenes").

Until Paqid Yirmeyahu researched the Netzarim name and sect and began publishing about it in 1972 in The Netzarim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matityahu (NHM) no one in modern times was even aware of the name Netzarim. It stretches credulity that no one in modern times had heard of the Netzarim until Paqid Yirmeyahu published it in 1972… and then, suddenly, everybody figured it out??? Check (and verify) the dates of the earliest works about the Netzarim by the others and you'll see that they are deceiver-plagiarists. Then insist on the person whom ha-Sheim selected to entrust the knowledge, not imposters who falsely call their continuing practice of Displacement Theology "Nazarene Judaism" or directly plagiarize the name "Netzarim."

Because we teach and practice the authentic Judaic teachings of Ribi Yehoshua—not Displacement Theology—we are the only group who have restored the Netzarim to be accepted in the legitimate Jewish community in Israel—genuinely like Ribi Yehoshua and the original Netzarim. Consequently, the 'Netzarim Quarter' is the only web site of legitimate Netzarim / Nazarene Judaism.

Give all the friends you've ever known the chance to know about this exciting site; send them our web site address (www.netzarim.co.il) that opens modern eyes for the first time to the Judaic world that Ribi Yehoshua and his original Netzarim knew, practiced and taught.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. ūl•pân; , ulpanstudio, instructional class.


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-Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.07.05]

-ūn (suffix). A variant of -ōn, when appended to a final syllable that is vowelled as "ū" ("oo"). E.g.,

  • abstracting from

  • abstracting from


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

campfirelight

masc . n. ūr; firelight, illumination; plural (ur•im; lights, fiery-lights). See also or.


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     (Ur•imꞋ  or Tum•imꞋ ) Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.05.13]
Shoham (carnelian sardonyx) gem: Ancient Hebrew  (Urim; obverse) /  (Tumim; reverse)
Obverse ( in ancient Hebrew). Hover cursor over gem to view reverse ( in ancient Hebrew). Carnelian has been used in the jewelery of many ancient cultures. Egyptians were using carnelian as early as BCE 4000. Carnelian was always popular for engraving intaglios, often used for signet rings and seals. The blood-, or fire-, red stone carried implications of mortality (blood) and judgment (fire).

, Urim ve-Tumim, Urim we-Tumimone (possibly two, selecting one by lot) shoham (carnelian sardonyx) gemstone(s) used, like flipping a coin, to produce a Boolean (binary) outcome in decision making. There is no extant description of how this was done.

TumimUrim

Thus, the gem(s) would have represented a Boolean solution: firelights (presumably "illuminations"; implying an enlightening contradiction of the initial postulate) or wholeness (implying wholeness of confirmation of the initial postulate). In the case of two gems, for instance, two disputants could be blindfolded and take a gem from a bag. According to their selection, one of the disputants would be declared wholly right (tom) and the other enlightened/contradicted (ur) with the need to make tᵊshuv•âh.

Also in the case of two gems, if a matter not involving disputants required a Boolean decision, the Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol might have reached into his Ei•phod, mixed up the gems that he couldn't see inside the Ei•phod, and then pulled one gemstone from the Ei•phod, again directing the decision.

Engraving of gemstones dates back to ancient Mesopotamia. Engraving sardonyx gemstones was particularly attractive since engraving into some gems could expose a different color. Careful engraving, then, produced an intaglio – an image of one color, usually lighter carnelian, on a deeper sard (carnelian) background.

Ancient Hebrew font on gems courtesy of Ancient Hebrew Research Center Ancient Hebrew Research Center logo


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β [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Codex Vaticanus
Codex Vaticanus

Codex Vaticanus (ca. 300-399 C.E.) One of the earliest extant complete ms. of the Christian NT, similar to (Codex Sinaiticus) except from Alexandria, Egypt.

β* Using the conventions of the apparatus of the Novum Testamentum Graeca, the asterisk refers to the original Hellenist Greek scribe of a document (in this example, of the Codex Vaticanus). β1 refers to the first redactor's handwriting, β2 to the second redactor's handwriting, etc. as they redacted the Greek ms.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

wa-Yi•qᵊrâ; , wa-Yiqrathen he called, recited, read; the first word of the third book of five books of the Tōr•âh, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Leviticus.'


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.07.19]

Ya•a•qōv; , , Yaaqovhe will follow after, de-Judaized (Hellenized) variously to 'Jacob' and 'James'. is the pa•al fu. 3rd pers. m.s. of , denominated from

A related cognate is pâ•râsh•at (Dᵊvâr•im 7.12–11.25), also derived from .

ccc
Click to enlarge (stepped – "ladder" – mountain opposite the valley where he was encamped)

(Su•lam Ya•a•qov) is the "Ladder (or scale) of Ya•a•qov," Hellenized to "Jacob's Ladder".

1st century C.E. — pâ•qid Ya•a•qov ha-Tza•diq Bën-Dâ•wid (Hellenized to "James the Just"): brother of RibiYᵊhō•shua and first Nᵊtzâr•impâ•qid.

The amicability between the Nᵊtzâr•im and pᵊrush•im subsequent to the Hellenist execution of Ribi Yᵊhō•shua (by the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im and Romans) was demonstrated ca. 62 C.E. by the condemnation, prosecuted by the pᵊrush•im, before the Roman procurator, Albinus (and the subsequent removal by King Agrippa) of the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol (Ko•hein hâ-Rësha), Ananus, from the office of Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol for his murder of pâ•qid Ya•a•qov ha-Tza•diq (Josephus Ant. xx.ix.1).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.05.18]

irreg. n.. n. (fem. ending both sing. & pl.) yâd; , yadarm or hand


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.10.15]

Yâd; , Yad Maim"The Mi•shᵊn•ëh Tōr•âh of Ramba"m is most commonly referred to as the Yâd (hand), the first word of the phrase (yâd kha•zâq•âh; the strong hand—cf. Dᵊvâr•im 34.12). Ramba"m did not give this name to the work. It refers to the fact that it contains " (y"d = 14) books, the Gi•ma•tri•yâh equivalent of y"d being 14" ("Yad," EJ, 16.692-3).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yael (ibex), Makhtesh Ramon (Ron Almog)Yael (ibex), Eilat Mountains (matikrimerman.com)

masc . n. Yâ•eil; , Yael, Yaeilibex.

Israeli heroine, Hellenized and Anglicized to "Jael"; see Sho•phᵊt•im 4.17—5.24.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Ya•had•ūt , Yahadut(Jewishness or Judaism) is a comparatively recent term.

"The term Judaism is first found among the Greek-speaking Jews [i.e. Hellenists, particularly the pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im] of the first century… Its Hebrew equivalent, Yahadut, found only occasionally in medieval literature…, but used frequently in modern times, has parallels neither in the Bible… nor in the rabbinic literature… The term generally used in the classical sources for the whole body of Jewish teaching is Torah…" ("Judaism," Ency. Jud., 10.383).

Tōr•âh(Shᵊm•ot 18.20) uses the term (ha-Dërëkh; the Way)— (ha-Dërëkh yei•lᵊkh•u bah; the Way you [plural] are to go in). See also Ency. Jud. "Halakhah," 7.1156.)

Ha•lâkh•âh, by contrast, didn't come to represent the whole corpus of "Judaism" until after the destruction of 70 C.E. ("Halakhah," loc. cit.). Prior to that, Ha•lâkh•âh represented only one (the pᵊrush•im) of the three interpretations of Tōr•âh she-bᵊal peh. The pᵊrush•im interpretation of Tōr•âh she-bᵊal peh was rivaled by both Ma•as•ëh, the Qum•rân Tzᵊdoq•im interpretation of Tōr•âh shë-bᵊal pëh, and the 'Book of Decrees,' which codified the pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im interpretation of Tōr•âh shë-bᵊal pëh.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yam ha-Melakh Kalia Beach (NW shore)
Yâm ha-Mëlakh

masc . n. Yâm ha-Mëlakh; , Yam ha-MelakhSalt Sea (Hellenized to the "Dead Sea").


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yam Kinneret
Yâm Ki•nërët

masc . n. Yâm Ki•nërët; , Yam KineretViolin Sea/Lake, named after its shape (Hellenized to "Sea of Galilee")


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.10.20]

Nile Bank Sea of Papyrus Reeds
Yâm Suph

masc . n. Yâm Sūph; , Yam SuphSea of Reeds.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.07.23]

Nehar YardeinNᵊhar ha-Yar•dein

masc . n. Nᵊhar ha-Yar•dein; , , N'har ha-Yardein, Biq'at ha-YardeinJordan River.

fem. n. Bi•qᵊat ha-Yar•dein; Jordan Valley or Cleft, cleavage of Jordan


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Yᵊdi•ot A•khar•on•ot; , Yediot Akharonot, Y'diot AkharonotLate or recent knowledge.

Written at a blue-collar level of Hebrew from an increasingly extreme liberal-socialist and globalist perspective, Yᵊdi•ōt A•khar•on•ōt (circulation 250,000) is Israel's 2nd largest Hebrew newspaper (the largest being Israel ha-Yom  – best reflecting the Israeli Jewish citizenry and recently eclipsed Yᵊdi•ōt); almost twice the circulation of any of Israel's niche newspapers.

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Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2017.06.13]

Yᵊhō•shua , , Yehoshua, Y'hoshua(‑‑ [is] national-salvation or military-salvation); contracted to the cognomen ,

is from the unused root verb . When used in the Bible or in Judaism, this term never refers to the Hellenist (idolatrous) concepts of "unconditional forgiveness" or "personal salvation". At the personal level Tōr•âh provides, instead, ki•pur—restricted to those who do their utmost to keep Tōr•âh.

The verb is used in the hiph•il: . In the present tense, (unrelated to ) is the verbal noun. The verb is used in the same sense as its English counterpart was used in the old west: "The calvary will save us"—except for Jews ‑‑ will save us (nationally and militarily from our enemies).

The book in Ta•na"kh is named after Yᵊhō•shua Bën-Nun (Hellenized to 'Joshua').

'Historical Yᵊhō•shua' generally refers, by contrast, to the 1st-century human Jew, a pᵊrush•i Ribi, named Yᵊhō•shua Bën-Yo•seiph Bën-Dâ•wid of Nâ•tzᵊr•at. Notice that even the name explicitly identifies Y--H, not Yᵊhō•shua, as salvation! See Shᵊm•ot 15.2; Yᵊsha•yâhu 12.1-4; 25.9; Yon•âh 2.10; Tᵊhil•im 3.9; 13.6; 14.7; 18.51; 21.6; 28.8; 53.7; 62.1-2, 7; 67.1-3; 68.20-21; 70.5-6; 74.12). His Mâ•shiakh is His agent, not the reverse; not the Provider of expiation. By means of the Mâ•shiakh—His Mâ•shiakh Bën-Yo•seiph Bën- Dâ•wid (Tᵊhil•im 89:20-53)—‑‑ provides expiation. Mâ•shiakh is merely His instrument, symbol or illustration; as were the animal sacrifices.

(yᵊshu•âh; national or military salvation) is a fem. noun.

See also Tᵊhil•im 116.13; 18.51; 20.6; 28.8; 89.27-28; 118.19-22.

The Judaic meaning of relates to two associated synonyms:

See also the Biblical concepts of (ki•pur) and (hâ-o•lâm ha-bâ).

Syncretizing selected elements of the Judaic concept of a Mâ•shiakh with their native pagan mythology, Roman gentiles de-Judaized (Hellenized) 'historical Yᵊhō•shua' to a mythical and counterfeit, antinomian, antithetical man-G-o-d idol: Ιησους transliterated to Hebrew Anglicized to Jesus (cf. Who Are the Nᵊtzâr•im? (WAN) and The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•tit•yâhu (NHM)). These two are mutually exclusive, diametric opposites. You cannot serve two masters. To believe in one necessarily constitutes rejection of the other.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.10.23]

fem. n. Yᵊhud•âh, , , Yehudah, Y'hudah, Yehudim, Y'hudimhe will "confess-thanks exaltingly" (deteriorated to "praise" and "exalt"), de-Judaized (Hellenized) to both 'Judea' (the land) and 'Judah' – the tribe and proper name of the 4th son of Ya•a•qov (mother: Leiâh), later shortened to 'Jew.'

derives from the root , usually expressed in the hiph•il: (cf. bᵊ-Reish•it 29.35— ). The pres. m.s. is . The interjection, , derives from this same root – as does also .

Yᵊhud•âh is the single Hebrew term that originally referred both to one of the 12 Tribes of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil and, following the eradication by Syria of the 10 Northern ("Lost") Tribes in B.C.E. 722, evolved (absorbing the adjacent Tribe of Bin•yâ•min) to refer to all three Hellenized corruptions: Judah, Judea and Jew. The "Jew" cannot be extricated from "Judea" any more than Yᵊhud•âh can be extricated from Yᵊhud•âh. They are equivalent and inextricably defined together; either without the other is incomplete, less than whole.

The connotation of confess(ion) is emphasized in the cognate hit•pa•eil: verb and noun .

Adjectives (also used as nouns): masc . n. ; fem. n. and – one who, by definition, confesses thanks—through reciting bᵊrâkh•ot!


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.09.05]

Kân•yâhu; , , Kanyahu, Yekhanyah, Y'hanyahalso (Yᵊkhân•yâh; Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 27.20).

Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu prophesies that Kân•yâhu, an ancestor of Ribi Yᵊho•shua, would die childless and "none of his descendants will ever succeed in being a man who sits on the throne of Dâ•wid, and ever to rule over Yᵊhud•âh" (22.28-30). This passage, not including the full story, gets a lot of play from Jewish "anti-missionaries." Thus, knowing the full story is vital.

Based on bᵊ-Mid•bar 1.18, patrilineal descent determines tribal identity, including royal lineage. Thus, only Ribi Yᵊhō•shua's patrilineal genealogy, which shows his descent (The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•tit•yâhu (NHM) 1) from Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh through Shᵊlom•oh ha-Mëlëkh (Shᵊmu•eil Beit 7.12-16), is relevant to this prophecy (Di•vᵊr•ei ha-Yâm•im Âlëph 3.11-12, 15-17; 17.11-14; 22.9-10; 28.6-7; Tᵊhil•im 89.20-38). However, the prophecy that Kân•yâhu would be childless (Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 22.30) implies that he would have no (Jewish) son—which, according to Ha•lâkh•âh applies matrilineally. However, Ribi Yᵊhō•shua's matrilineal lineage (The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•tit•yâhu (NHM) 1) isn't through Kân•yâhu!

Further, Jewish hate-mongers (many of whom call themselves "anti-missionaries") pervert Scripture and Tal•mud by telling only the half of the story they want you to hear.

"Fearing, however, that since the Mëlëkh was childless, Beit-Dâ•wid would thus cease, the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol succeeded in obtaining permission for his wife to live with him. Kân•yâhu kept the laws of marital purity during this time, and as a reward was forgiven his sins (Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 3.22; wa-Yi•qᵊr•â Rab•âh 19:6—compare to Yon•âh's prophecy to Ninevah that was forgiven). Even the decree the none of his seed would ascend the throne (Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 22.30) was repealed when Zᵊru-Bâ•vël Bën-Shᵊal•tiy•eil was appointed leader of the returned exiles (cf. Ma•sëkët Sanhedrin 37b-38a). The exile of Tzi•dᵊq•i•yâhu while Kân•yâhu was still alive as a merciful act, since Kân•yâhu could thus teach Tōr•âh to Tzi•dᵊq•i•yâhu (Ma•sëkët Git•in 88a; "Jehoiachin," EJ 9.1318-19).

"R. Yo•khâ•nân said: Exile allows ki•pur for everything, for it is written, Thus saith ha-Sheim, write this man childless, a man that shall not prosper in his days, for no man of his seed shall prosper sitting upon the throne of Dâ•wid and ruling any more in Yᵊhud•âh. (Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 22.30). Whereas after he [the Mëlëkh] was exiled, it is written, And the sons of : ‭ ‬ , his son, etc. (Di•vᵊr•ei ha-Yâm•im Âlëph 3.17). [He was called] because his mother conceived him in prison. , because Eil did not plant him in the way that others are planted. We know by tradition that a woman cannot conceive in a standing position. [yet she did conceive standing. Another interpretation: , because Eil obtained [of the Heavenly Beit-Din] absolution from His oath. [was so called] because he was sown in Bâvël. But [his real name was] Nᵊkhëm•yâh Bën-Kha•khal•yâh." (Ma•sëkët Sunedrion 37b-38a, Soncino Tal•mud).

"… they made the calf-mask and deserved to be exterminated, and I would have thought that He would curse and destroy them, yet, no sooner had they made tᵊshuv•âh, than the danger was averted, And ha-Sheim relented of the bad [sworn sentence, lacking tᵊshuv•âh being understood] (Shᵊm•ot 32.14). And so in many places. For example, He said about : For no man of his seed shall prosper (Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 32.30) and it says, I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms, and I will destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the nations… In that day, says ha-Sheim Tzᵊvâ•ot, will I take thee, O , My servant, the son of , saith ha-Sheim, and will make thee as a (Khaj•ai 2.22 f.). Thus was annulled that which He had said to his forefather, viz. As I live, says ha-Sheim, though Bën-Yᵊho•yâq•im, Mëlëkh Yᵊhud•âh, were the upon My right hand, yet I would pluck thee thence (Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 22.24)." bᵊ-Mid•bar Rab•âh 20:20, Soncino Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh)..

"R. Yᵊhō•shua Bën-Lei•wi, however, argued as follows: tᵊshuv•âh sets aside the entire decree, and prayer half the decree. You find that it was so with , Mëlëkh Yᵊhud•âh. For ha-Qâ•dosh, Bâ•rukh Hu, swore in His anger, As I live, saith ha-Sheim, though Bën-Yᵊho•yâq•im, Mëlëkh Yᵊhud•âh, were the on a hand, yet by My right—note, as R. Mei•ir said, that is was by His right hand that Ël•oh•im swore—I would pluck thee hence (Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 22:24). And what was decreed against ? That he die childless. As is said Write ye this man childless (Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 22:40). But as soon as he avowed tᵊshuv•âh, ha-Qâ•dosh, Bâ•rukh Hu, set aside the decree, as is shown by Scripture's reference to the sons of —the same is his son, etc. (Di•vᵊr•ei ha-Yâm•im Âlëph 3:17). And Scripture says further: In that day … will I take thee, O … the son of … and will make thee as a (Khaj•ai 2:23). Behold, then, how tᵊshuv•âh can set aside the entire decree!" (pᵊsiq•tâ Rab•ât•i, Pi•sᵊqâ 47, translated by William G. Braude, Yale University Press, pg. 797-798).

"… though Bën-Yᵊho•yâq•im, Mëlëkh Yᵊhud•âh, were the on My right hand, yet I would pluck you off" (Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 22:24).

"… O , my servant, and will make thee as a : for I have chosen thee, says ha-Sheim Tzᵊvâ•ot." (Haggai 2:23).

"Moreover, since this is the only surviving scientifically and archaeologically credible documentation of the Yo•khas•in of Beit-Dâ•wid, if this sole documentation were rejected there could be no Mâ•shiakh at all—ever" (Yᵊkhanyâh, The Nᵊtzâr•im Newsletter, 1996.05. pp. 16-17).

Additionally, if the curse remained in force, there could be no Mâ•shiakh at all—ever.


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Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yᵊkhëz•qeil; , Yekhezqeil, Y'khezqeilmay/shall Eil strengthen; third of three "major" Nᵊviy•im in Ta•na"kh (de-Judaized—"ethnically cleansed"—to Ezekiel).


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' Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.11.07]

Yᵊrei ha-Sheim; ', ', Yerei ha-Sheim, Y'rei ha-Sheim, Yirat ha-Sheimreverer (pop. but inaccurately, "fearer") of ‑‑; pl. -- (Yi•rᵊei ha-Sheim; Reverers (pop. but inaccurately, "fearers") of ‑‑).

-- (yi•rᵊat ‑‑; the awe of ‑‑, reverence for ‑‑).

For greater clarification, see the related, and oft-confused, term: geir.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.09.28]

masc . n. Yᵊrikh•ō, , Yerikho, Y'rikhoHellenized to 'Jericho.'

ccc
Click to enlargeTël Yᵊrikh•ō
Modern Yᵊrikho center
Click to enlargeModern Yᵊrikh•ō city center

The name derives from the Kᵊna•an•im inhabitants' moon-god, . Those who argue for the derivation from apparently rely on a concordance and are unaware that both and are cognates from the same root.

"Calibration of the weighted average of the grain samples results in ranges in both the 17th and 16th century BC[E], using the 1986 versions of the two calibration curves. With the 1993 versions, the 17th century option becomes negligible, whereas a date in the 16th century is most likely. The decadal calibration curve is recommended by Stuiver and Becker (1993) for short-lived samples formed during a decade or less. Using this calibration curve to calculate the historical date of the weighted average of the grain samples, with the aid of the OxCal computer calibration program, there is equal probability for the 1 Q result to be in the range 1601 to 1566 cal BC[E] as in the range 1561 to 1524 cal BC[E] for the destruction of MBA Jericho." (Bruins, H. J., VanDerPlicht, J., Bruins, H. J., Cook, G. T. (Ed.), Harkness, D. D. (Ed.), Miller, B. F. (Ed.), & Scott, E. M. (Ed.) (1995). Tell es-Sultan (Jericho): Radiocarbon results of short-lived cereal and multiyear charcoal samples from the end of the Middle Bronze Age. Radiocarbon, 37(2), 213-220.)—for which, see citations at B.C.E. 1625 in my Chronology of the Tanakh, from the "Big " Live-​Link. Averaging the 4 estimated datings from the 14C tests yields a μ of ca. B.C.E. 1563 for the destruction of Yᵊrikh•o.


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Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2016.05.06]

Har ha-Bayit, Ir David fm Gan Gat-Shemen
Yᵊru•shâ•layim

fem. n. Yᵊru•shâ•layim, , , Yerushalayim, Y'rushalayim, Yerushalmi, Y'rushalmicorrupted, via Hellenist Greeks, to "Jerusalem."

Excerpted from "Jerusalem," Ency. Jud. (9.1379)—The first mention of the city of Yᵊru•shâ•layim is in the Egyptian Execration Texts of the 19th-18th centuries B.C.E… probably pronounced 'rushalimum.' In the Tell el-Amarna letters of the 14th century B.C.E., it is written Urusalim, and in Assyrian Ursalimmu (Sennacherib inscription). In the Bible it is occasionally spelled (Yᵊru•shᵊlëm)…

more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.10.04]

Yᵊsha•yâhu; , Yeshayahu, Y'shayahu"salvation [is] of ‑‑" or "May ‑‑ save"first of the three "major" Nᵊviy•im in Ta•na"kh (de-Judaized to "Isaiah").


1QIsa designates the ancient, Dead Sea, "Isaiah Scroll," found in Cave 1 of Qum•rân, which has been 14C-dated several times, all indicating a range between ca. B.C.E. 335-324 to B.C.E. 202-107.

Scholarly consensus holds that the book of Yᵊsha•yâhu was written by two different Jews: Yᵊsha•yâhu-1, ca. B.C.E. 720 (chapters 1-39) and Yᵊsha•yâhu-2 (popularly Hellenized to "Deutero-Isaiah"), ca. BCE 540 (chapters 40-66).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

yeshivah pilpul
Yᵊshiv•âh – partnered debate of Ta•lᵊmud

fem. n. Yᵊshiv•âh; , , Yeshivah, Yeshivot, Y'shivah, Y'shivota sitting or session, is a high school for Talmudic studies and presumes an Orthodox Tōr•âh education through junior high school or equivalent. These refer principally to different levels of religious study in Judaism:

  1. Judaic religious high school (technically, but rarely stated, 'minor' yeshivah);

  2. Judaic religious post-high school roughly equivalent to a Judaic vocational school; sometimes, but not necessarily, supplemented with some junior college-level vocational courses; refuse service in the IDF.

  3. an alternate of the Judaic religious post-high school that combines service in the IDF with an IDF Judaic studies program.


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"Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.08.30]

Yësh"u; ", '', , Yeshu, Yesh"u, Yesh''uacronym for (yi•makh shᵊm•o wᵊ-zi•khᵊr•o; may his name be erased, obliterated and his memory—the is pronounced as "u" at the end) in compliance with Shᵊm•ot 23.13; Dᵊvâr•im 12.3 and Yᵊhō•shua 23.7.

The English name "Jesus " does not derive from the Hebrew (or it would be "Joshua").


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.06.26]

fem. n. yᵊshu•âh; , yeshuah, y'shuahnational deliverance or salvation from an impending, usually military, disaster, is never used in the sense of a spiritual or personal "salvation" in Ta•na"kh.

The hiph•il verb form (ho•shia; he saved or delivered [collectively, e.g. the nation of Israel]!) conveys the same connotation: "Save Israel, the nation, from a disaster!" This form is appended by the plea (; prithee) to form the Suk•ot theme (ho•shan•nâ; Save [Israel], prithee!).

The Hebrew term from which the Christian concept of "salvation" derives, by contrast, is yᵊshu•âh (the masc. form of which is yᵊshua). Though the doctrine of 'personal salvation' (as contrasted with personal ki•pur) didn't exist in Judaism, it is documented in paganism from Babylonian times (see Atonement In the Biblical 'New Covenant' (ABNC), tracing through Marduk to Bel to Baal to Zeus to Iæsous = Jesus.

While yᵊshu•âh is used of victorious Israel, militarily—including as represented by her king and by her Mâ•shiakh, this term is never used of the Christian concept of 'personal salvation' nor for gentiles external to Israel (Jews & geir•im), which constitutes Displacement Theology EXACTLY opposite the concept of yᵊshu•âh!

Like Jesus and Christianity, the doctrine of a deity of "personal salvation"—particularly a man-god offspring of a god mating with a human woman—all traces back to worship of Zeus and earlier paganism. There was no precedent for it in Judaism. This parallels the anomalous derivation of the name of Jesus, probably morphing Iosou with Zeus and Isis to form Iæsous, and the "Face of Christ" being documented as that of the Great Idol of Zeus (see Who Are the Nᵊtzâr•im?), the pagan doctrine of a god of personal salvation is mutually corroborating with the chart graphic in our Museum section "2nd-4th Centuries C.E.: Two Simultaneous [i.e., mutually exclusive] Communities").

Ki•pur, enabling life in hâ-o•lâm ha-bâ (the world to come) is a different concept altogether.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.07.15]

masc . n. ; , yeitzer ha-rai.e., the natural tendency toward wrong(doing) intrinsic in man's nature – a contraction of the Biblical phrases is the and (only to) (bᵊ-Reish•it 6.5; 8.21; see also Tᵊhil•im 103.14). Synonymous with Sâ•tân.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.12.19]

Egypt & the Near East at the time of the Yᵊtziah
Click to enlargeEgypt & the Near East at the time of the Yᵊtzi•yâh

fem. n. Yᵊtzi•yâh; , Yetziah, Y'tziah, Yetziyah, Y'tziyahexiting, departing, leaving, logging out, setting out, going forth, issuing forth; de-Judaized (Hellenized) to the 'Exodus.' from Egypt (documented in Shᵊm•ot 1-15).

Calculations based on the latest available historical research, the Yᵊtzi•yâh occurred on Firstmonth 15, ca. B.C.E. 1625), during the reign of Men-kheper-Re Tuth-Moses III (Chronology of the Tanakh from the Big (nât•âh; Stretch-Apart) (see also Ta•na"kh and Big Stretch-Apart)).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Yi•khūd; , yihudBH union, unity, singularity, solitude; i.e. privacy, a metonym for marital relations. PBH "short for , a profession or proclamation of the unity of [‑‑]." MH uniqueness.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu; , Yirmeyahumay/shall ‑‑ elevate, exalt; second of three "major" Nᵊviy•im in Ta•na"kh (de-Judaized to Jeremiah).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yi•shᵊm•â•eil; , YishmaeilEil hearkened, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Ishmael.'


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.11.13]

masc . n. Yi•sᵊrâ•EilꞋ ; , Yisraeil"he will ‭ ‬ ( of…) Eil." Thus, means "he will battle (the battles of) Eil." Hellenized and Anglicized to 'Israel.'


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.10.26]

Yi•sâ•khâr; , Yissakhar, Yisakharhe will earn (or be employed for) a (sâ•khâr; wage or salary; "reward" is a post Biblical connotation). Name of 9th son of Ya•a•qov (mother: Leiâh).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yi•tzᵊkhâq; , Yitzkhaqhe shall laugh, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Isaac.'


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.06.14]

Har Megido topographical map

Yi•zᵊrᵊël; , Yizr'el, Yiz'r'el"Eil shall seed or sow."

is popularly corrupted to "Jezreel Valley" (see map); also Hellenized to the Plain of Esdraelon."

Controlled by Har Mᵊgido (corrupted to "Armageddon"), this wide plain is a bottleneck between mountain ranges – the only viable ground infantry and tank invasion access into the interior of Yi•sᵊrâ•eil from the northeast (Damascus, Syria).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. yōd; , yod10th, and smallest, Hebrew letter; often used as an abbreviation for ‑‑.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yō•eil; , Yoeil‑‑ [is] Eil; second of twelve minor Nᵊviy•im (Prophets) in Ta•na"kh (de-Judaized to Joel).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yō•khâ•nân; , Yohananhe will be gracious, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Johanan' and Anglicized to "John."


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.08.09]

masc . n. Yōm; , yomday [of…], pl. Yâm•im.

  1. ha-yōm, today (lit. "the day").

  2. yōm Rish•on: Firstday (Day1) of the week—instead of Sun-godday.

    Being a Displacement Theology, Christianity retained their native reverence for the day of their native Sun God, MithraSun-day, their Sun-day of the week displacing the Biblical Sha•bât .

  3. yōm Shein•i: Secondday (Day2) of the week—instead of Moon-godday.

  4. yōm Shᵊlish•i: Thirdday (Day3) of the week—instead of Tiw'sday (the Old English equivalent of god & planet Mars).

  5. yōm Rᵊviy•i: Fourthday (Day4) of the week—instead of Woden'sday (the Old English equivalent of the god & planet Mercury).

  6. yōm Kha•mish•i: Fifthday (Day5) of the week—instead of Thor'sday (the Old English equivalent of the goddess & planet Jupiter).

  7. yōm Shish•i: Sixthday (Day6) of the week—instead of Friggday (Frīġedæġ; the Old English equivalent of the Roman goddess & planet Venus), Hellenist Greek Aphrodite and pre-Islamic Arab Al-ilat, which later evolved into Al-lah – corrupted to "Friday".

    The 6th day of the week is named after the Old English Frīġedæġ meaning the "day of Frigg" or "Frie day" (corrupted to "Friday") – the Old English name of the goddess that the Hellenist Romans called Venus and the Hellenist Greeks before them called Aphrodite — and the pre-Islamic Arabs before them called by the name Al-ilat (Herodotus, Histories III.38).

    According to Kitab al-Asnam (the Book of Idols) by Hisham b. al-Kalbi, the pre-Islamic Arabs believed Al-ilat, which later evolved into Al-lah, resided in the Kaaba and also had a stone idol form in the sanctuary. Thus, the Kaaba in Mecca is, in historical fact, an idolatrous temple of Al-ilat = Allah, which the Arabs used to circumambulate; NOT a "mosque" built by Abraham, who was never even in that region.

    Thus, the Displacement Theology of Islam, Muhammad and Arabs sanctifies the 6th day of their native goddess Al-ilat, the Al-ilat day of the week displacing Sha•bât, in the same way that the Christian Displacement Theology sanctifies the day of their native Sun-god Mithra (Sun-day) , their Sun-god day of the week displacing Sha•bât.

    For photos and further details, see also Numerology, in our Web Café Archives, and Pâ•râsh•at Ki Tei•tzei.

  8. (Shab•ât; settled-down, desistance, cessation)—instead of Saturnday like idolaters.

  9. yōm Tōv: festival-day, feast-day, holiday.

  10. yōm ha-Din; Day of Adjudication of Mish•pât (popularly, "Judgment").


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.08.31]

fast

Yōm ha-Ki•purim; , Yom ha-KipurimThe Day of Expiations for those who have made tᵊshuv•âh.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.08.31]

Yam•im No•râ•im; , Yamim NoraimAwe-inspiring Days (popularly "High Holidays"): Yōm Tᵊru•âh and Yōm ha-Ki•purim.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Shophar (ayal-ram)

Yōm Tᵊru•âh; , Yom Teruah, Yom T'ruahblast day (day of blasting on the shō•phar); Hellenized to Rōsh ha-Shân•âh.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yōn•âh; , Yonahdove, pigeon; fifth of twelve minor Nᵊviy•im (Prophets) in Ta•na"kh (de-Judaized to Jonah).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yō•nâ•tân; , Yonatanhe will give/allow, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Jonathan.'


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Yō•seiph; , Yoseiphhe will add, supplement, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Joseph.' Name of 11th son of Ya•a•qov (mother: Râ•kheil) ca. B.C.E. 1913 (bᵊ-Reish•it 37.25f).

A Mâ•shiakh assumed to be of the tribe of Yo•seiph, and probably influenced by—or redirected to—the experience of Bar-Kokh, Tal•mud describes a Mâ•shiakh Bën-Yō•seiph who, according to tradition, was to suffer death at the hands of the goy•im.

Until perverted in the 17th century C.E. by the false Mâ•shiakh, Sha•bᵊt•ai, the Mâ•shiakh Bën-Yo•seiph was understood to be the suffering servant of Yᵊsha•yâhu 53 (see Messianic Issues).

The record from the Yō•khas•in in The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) 16.1—corroborated by Mi•lᵊkhâm•ot ha-Sheim, Seiphër Ni•tzakh•ōn Yâ•shân #154, and the Ëvën Bō•khan—documents that Ribi Yᵊhō•shua was the son of Yō•seiph Bën-Dâ•wid, i.e. Ribi Yᵊhō•shua Bën-Yō•seiph Bën-Dâ•wid (cf. The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 1.16.1 & table preceding note 1.13.2).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.12.11]

Yoveil Bellwether Clarion Ram
Yō•veil: ram wearing bellwether

masc . n. Yō•veil; , yoveilbellwether, clarion; name of the 50th year. MH de-Judaized/​Hellenized/​assimilated to 'Jubilee'; from which no clear connection is apparent to the source Latin jubilare = "jubilate". Thus, all references to "Jubilee" are misleading and should, instead, reference "bellwether" or "clarion".

Yo•veil derives from the verb


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.05.08]

masc . n. (Aramaic pl.) Yō•khas•in , yokhasin(Aramaic, m.p.); "relations," official ancient Israeli, Jewish, public genealogical registries that, before they were destroyed by the Romans in the 2nd-4th centuries C.E., dated back to the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol, to Moshëh and A•har•on and to the Patriarchs. PBH , pl. .

When one entered the Bᵊrit Tōr•âh, he or she was entered in this genealogical Scroll—the family tree—the "Tree of Life"!!! Conversely, if one was excised from the Bᵊrit Tōr•âh, he or she was expunged from this genealogical scroll, the "Tree of Life"!!! more


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[Updated: 2007.10.15]

, available from www.newjerusalemgifts.com

masc . n. (Arabic) Zatâr, , zatar, zaatarwild Syrian oregano (Origanum syriacum), the (ei•zov; hyssop) of the Bible. Because this is a protected plant in Israel, commercial Zatâr consists of herb mixtures called Zatâr—often without containing any Zatâr. Use like oregano. Basic recipe (refine to taste over time):

  • 1/2 cup dried Syrian oregano (Zatâr) or other oregano
  • 1/4 cup imported edible (NOT poisonous) ground sumac
  • 2 tablespoons roasted sesame seeds
  • 1/8 tspn lemon salt
  • 1/8 tspn parsley
  • 1/8 tspn salt

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.07.14]

masc . n. zâ•qein , , zaqein, zaqan, zeqanim, z'qanim(a bearded venerable), plural (zᵊqein•im); a bearded-mature, life- and battle-tested, experienced venerable; a "beard" as an aptronym (e.g., Get all the beards together for a meeting). (zâ•qân; a beard). Compound pl. … (zi•qᵊn•ei…; bearded-mature, life- and battle-tested, experienced venerables of…, beards of…). Especially bearded-mature, life- and battle-tested, experienced venerables who adjudicated in a Beit-Din, synonym of Shō•phᵊt•im (though sometimes refers to earlier tribal leaders).

What was "Old"?

"The expectation of life at birth is the most efficient index of the general level of mortality of a population. In ancient Greece and Rome the average life expectancy was about 28 years." (britannica.com)

The expectation of life at birth during the time of Av•râ•hâm (Late Copper and Bronze Age) was slightly less than 29 years. (London School of Economics and Political Science.

Thus, would refer, not to someone over 65 years old or a centenarian, as we think of today, but someone in their last few years – roughly 25-29 years old! Then two things mesh with science and logic: that is such a close cognate of , which apparently indicated a , and that Av•râ•hâm and Sârâh could have procreated Yi•tzᵊkhâq "in their 'old' age" (late twenties to mid-thirties!!!) This suggests that most families had children in their early to mid-teens.

Yet, this seems an inescapably glaring contradiction of the Biblical account, which gives the age of Av•râ•hâm and Sârâh at the birth of Yi•tzᵊkhâq as 100 and 90, respectively; and they died at the respective ages of 175 and 127.more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.05.14]

masc . n. zâr, , zarstrange man, stranger (masc. n.), strange (masc. adj.); zâr•âh; strange woman, stranger (fem. n.), strange (fem. adj.).

Compare with (goy•im), contrast with (nâ•khᵊr•i; foreigner) and see a•vod•âh zâr•âh (idolatry).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.09.10]

Za•vᵊd•i•eil , Zavdieilor Zi•vᵊd•i•eil; my endowment of Eil, from (vëd; endowment, bestowal).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.12.28]

masc . n. zayit; , , zayit, har ha-zeitim olive; pl. (zeit•im; olives).

Har ha-Zeit•im is the Mount of Olives.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Zᵊkhar•yâh; , Zekharyah, Z'kharyah‑‑ has remembered; eleventh book of the twelve minor Nᵊviy•im in Ta•na"kh (de-Judaized to "Zechariah").


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.16]

fem. n. Zᵊmir•âh; , , zemirah, z'mirah, zemirot, z'mirota chant or song, particularly a popular chant or song of the Tei•mân•im on Shab•ât. Plural (Zᵊmir•ot) do not include Yiddish songs; Yiddish being a product of German-European assimilation.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.16]

masc . n. zëvakh, , zevakhim, z'vakhimn. a sacrifice; pl. (zᵊvâkh•im; sacrifices); from (zâ•vakh; he sacrificed).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.10.26]

Zᵊvul•un, , , Zevulun, Z'vulunoptimally-fertilized; as a verdant and lush plant, garden or field; name of 10th son of Ya•a•qov (mother: Leiâh).

Translators claim, due to the uniqueness of this instance, that this usage is a hapax legomenon in the Bible. That's academic-speak for, "It can't mean what it says, therefore, we pontificate that it means what we want it to mean." The meaning isn't even very difficult; merely an ideal from an agrarian perspective offensive to modern urban, often western, "religious" pretensions.

is the pa•al passive pres. combinative form of , namely □, plus the diminutive suffix □. In modern urban vernacular, therefore, loosely means a well-tended (lit. manured, fertilized) lush mini-garden, which various translators idealized to "celestial dwelling," etc.

Cognate: (Iy-zëvël; "not fertilized" or "no dung"), popularly "Jezebel" – Phoenician (modern Lebanon) princess whom •khav (pop. "Ahab"), king of the 10 northern tribes of Israel, married. King •khav empowered her to impose her idolatry on the 10 northern tribes of Israel.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.03.27]

  1. masc . n. zō•har; , , Zohara brilliant twinkle or glitter — the ordered combination of , ‭ ‬ and

    While is popularly translated as "shine," the English term, "shine," is more accurately conveyed by the Hebrew noun – name of the "morning star" (cf. Pâ•râsh•at bᵊ-Reish•it).

  2. har; proper name of the Medieval European (namely, Spain) book of "Jewish mysticism," the sole basis and authority for Qa•bâl•âh, authored by Spanish (Sᵊphârâd•i) mystic rabbi Moses de Leon (aka "Shem-Tov", c 1250-1305 CE) — not by 1st century C.E. Tan•â Ribi Shim•on Bar Yo•khai ("Rashbi"), as baselessly claimed by Shem-Tov, vaunting himself, and subsequent Jewish mystics.more


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