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Updated: 2016.08.02

b. ca. 3 C.E. — d. Παῦλος ca. 67 C.E.

A Hellenist Turk Jew (who lived most of his life not in Israel but in Tarsus, modern Turkey), Shâ•ul was, according to his own testimony, raised in the tradition of Beit-Sham•ai (Πραξεις Αποστολων 26.5), which predominated the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol until ca. 20 C.E. It wasn't until the 4th-5th century C.E. that Jerome alleged, probably to create a fictional proximity to Ribi Yᵊho•shua, that Paul's family was originally from the Gâ•lil instead of Turkey.

Considering his rabidly Hellenist career, the 4th century C.E. Hellenist gentile Roman-occupiers' Christian claim (Πραξεις Αποστολων 22.3), that Shâ•ul, a Hellenist Roman citizen from Turkey, studied directly under Nâ•si Ribi Ja•mᵊl•iy•eil (of Beit Hi•leil, not Beit-Sham•ai) suggests yet another 2nd-4th century, impossibly contradictory redaction. The product of the rigid teachings of Beit-Sham•ai is exemplified in the rebel spirit it provoked in Shâ•ul, richly preparing him for his eventual "theophany"; his extreme swing from the rigidness of Beit-Sham•ai to the liberal "vision" of eclectic and inclusive Hellenist (in the tradition of Yᵊho•shua Bën-Shim•on (II) Bën-Tzâ•doq – the original Ko•hein -Rësha cited in the Dead Sea Scrolls). Glossed by the Church, his assimilation into eclectic Hellenist liberalism led inexorably to his kâ•reit from the Nᵊtzâr•im (Eccl. Hist. III.xxvii.4), being "delivered over to the khein of -- by the brothers" (Πραξεις Αποστολων 15.38)—after which (translations gloss) he is never again referred to as Jewish , thereafter only as Hellenist Παῦλος, the Apostate!

    Paul's rabid obsession with Hellenism is evidenced:
  1. by his submission to the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im Ko•han•ei hâ-Rësha (successor, in every respect, to Yᵊho•shua Bën-Shim•on (II) Bën-Tzâ•doq) in their cooperative ion of non- Hellenist, Pᵊrush•im-heritage (Orthodox), Jews (Πραξεις Αποστολων 26.10). This effort was aimed specifically at those whom the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im Ko•han•ei hâ-Rësha regarded the most threatening. Proof of this includes their instigation of the execution of Ribi Yᵊho•shua, their murder of Ya•a•qov Bën-Za•vᵊd•i•eil (Πραξεις Αποστολων 12:1-3) and their murder of Pâ•qid Ya•a•qov "ha-Tza•diq" (Josephus xx.ix.1).

  2. by his intimacy with the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im (as evidenced by the incumbent Ko•hein hâ-Rësha, whom he cites as a personal reference in Πραξεις Αποστολων 22.5).

  3. by his own acknowledgement that his followers were congregations in Turkey of apostate and kâ•reit " Hellenist Jews" (cf. note 15.1.2-1 to note 15.1.2 in Appendix IV of Atonement In the Biblical 'New Covenant' Live-Link (ABNC)).

Circa 36 C.E., "Shâ•ul" was in Yᵊru•shâ•layim where, as a loyal Hellenist Roman citizen, he had been persecuting the Nᵊtzâr•im (there were no "Christians" yet). As he was leaving Yᵊru•shâ•layim on his return to Damascus, Syria, he was met by a prototype of Justin, who gave him a Hellenist "vision" of "Jesus" that was compatible with his Roman citizenship and inspired anew his Hellenist "enlightenment" (Πραξεις Αποστολων 26.12ff). There is good reason to wonder, given the description in Πραξεις Αποστολων 26.15ff, which Yᵊho•shua inspired Paul's Hellenism, Ribi Yᵊho•shua Bën- Dâ•wid, as claimed by Christians, the more likely rabid Hellenist paradigm (Antiochus Epiphanes would have been proud!), Yᵊho•shua Bën-Shim•on (II) Bën-Tzâ•doq— who was certainly the champion of Hellenism among the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im Ko•han•ei hâ-Rësha or, even more likely, a hybrid image of the two that formed in Paul's mind and developed into the 4th-century Christian idol.

This prototype of Justin who met with Paul on the road to Damascus was almost certainly the Ko•hein hâ-Rësha—the same Sâ•tân (or his successor) who offered the same deal to Ribi Yᵊho•shua (The Nᵊtzârim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matitᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) 4.8-11). However, whereas Ribi Yᵊho•shua refused the deal, Paul, offered the same "vision" on the road to Damascus, Syria, accepted it and the rest is history.

Before his "first mission" (to Cyprus) in 45 C.E., Paul's intractable insistence on his Hellenist "vision" eventually resulted in a breach and his kâ•reit, being expunged from the Yu•khas•in (not merely the Nᵊtzâr•im), as documented by Eusebius (EH III.xxvii.4), the typical Judaic elegance preserved even in the gentile Roman-occupier Hellenized Διαθηκη Καινη (NT) (Πραξεις Αποστολων 15.38) as "having been 'delivered over to the of ‑‑' by the brothers" (see notes in Appendix IV, Transition 15, ABNC Live-Link Technology).

Until his kâ•reit, the point noted in Πραξεις Αποστολων 13.9 (and described in Πραξεις Αποστολων 15.38), he is referred to as Shâ•ul, while in Πραξεις Αποστολων 13.9 he is last called by his Hebrew name, Shâ•ul, and first called by his Hellenist name, Paul—the apostate never again (except by himself in his own letters) referred to as Shâ•ul.

Christian beliefs about Paul's "martyrdom" range from execution by Romans for practicing Judaism ("proving" Paul's Christianity was Judaism) to murder by Jews for being a Christian. Both are driven by a need to corroborate Christianity rather than historical fact. It's no accident that Paul, a rabidly Hellenist Jew, was executed, in Rome, between 66-68 C.E. This is precisely the time that the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im, with whom Paul was intimately and inextricably tied, declared war on Rome (see Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im). Paul was killed by the Romans at this time because he was a Hellenist Jew, no different in any significant respect from the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im in Yᵊru•shâ•layim who had declared war on them. Paul's execution by the Romans had no more to do with his proto-Christian theology than the Roman killings of other Hellenist Jews, who had no connection to his theology, during this period as tensions mounted toward the destruction of Yᵊru•shâ•layim and the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh ha-Shein•i in 70 C.E. Because it was the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im who had attacked the Roman occupiers in Yᵊru•shâ•layim, the Romans focused their retaliation particularly on Hellenist Jews, like Paul who, despite embracing much of Hellenist and Roman culture, loudly defied Caesar's claims of divinity. For a short while, this left lower profile, non- Hellenist Jews outside of Yᵊhud•âh in relative, though fearful, oppressed and short-lived, "peace."

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