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Sᵊdōm & A•mōr•ãhꞋ

Peering Through Ancient Lenses: Landscape + Mindsets

Before I can paint the ancient destruction of Sᵊdōm and A•mōr•ãhꞋ in your mind's eye, we must first paint the stage or scene and understand that these are ancient characters: their science and warfare were ancient, therefore their outlook regarding religion, afterlife and gods were primitive (well, to those of us who have progressed since then N-n-n-e-owww! (Over his/her head)) relative to our millennia of progress in science, technology and philosophy, and their language was strange between contemporary countries and to us.

Ancient Landscape

For the masses (including Medieval European artists), perceptions of the destruction of Sᵊdōm & A•mōr•ãhꞋ was left entirely to the imagination… of primitive superstitious mystics up through the 20th century. When Samuel Morse connected the New World to the Old World the road began being paved toward connecting the common person with the real world of the "Holy Land", of ancient Yi•sᵊr•ã•eil and Yᵊru•shã•layim. Today's "Abrahamic" clergies remain in the Dark Ages, but science (rather than arts & humanities) applied to archeology and historical documents enables modern sapiens to relate to the real ancient world (& philosphy of Avᵊrã•hãm, Mōsh•ëh Bën-Amᵊrãm & Hi•leil ha-Za•qein, "the Babylonian"/Ribi Yᵊhō•shūa & Yavᵊn•ëh) rather than the Dark Ages superstitious "Abrahamic" mystics and clergies of Europe. This is the process of renouncing primitive ignorance (reality-denying "belief"/​"faith" delusion) to pursue the factual Knowledge—Truth—of the real world—which is the most accurate reflection we have of our Creator-Singularity, יְהוָׂה (the Existant).

Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh Today's Sinkholes v Ancient Bitumen Pits & Salt Mines
Yam ha-Melakh, Sᵊdōm & A•mōr•ãhꞋ
Click to enlarge Yãm ha-Mëlakh (aka Lake Asphalt), Sᵊdōm & A•mōr•ãhꞋ

The true term in Scripture for the "pits" into which the fleeing kings fell is בֶּֽאֱרֹ֤ת where English translations of the account of the destruction of Sᵊdōm & A•mōr•ãhꞋ (bᵊ-Reish•it 14.10, ) read "pits".

When visualizing the בֶּֽאֱרֹ֤ת חֵמָ֔ר (like the mixture of חֵמָ֖ר and זָּ֑פֶת with which Yō•khëvëd sealed the wicker basket in which Mōsh•ëh Bën-Amᵊrãm floated down the Nile (Shᵊm•ōt 6.20 with bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbar 26.59), into which the fleeing kings leapt in the Biblical account, modern readers are coaxed to superimpose photos of modern Dead Sea sinkholes. The brunt of the sinkholes along the shores of the Southern Basin of the ancient "Asphalt Lake", i.e. Yãm ha-Mëlakh, have occurred since I made a•liy•ãh to Yi•sᵊr•ã•eil in 1985! "The diversion of freshwater from the Jordan River since the 1960s, by both Jordan and Israel, has reduced the flow of water into the Dead Sea so that the volume of water evaporated is now greater than the volume of water input. … … [S]alt dissolution [is a] major process that controls sinkhole formation. Dissolution of a salt layer as a result of water level recession is shown to be a lausible mechanism to explain the fast creation of sinkholes at the western shore of the Dead Sea over the past 30 years. The recession of the Dead Sea level causes a recession in the groundwater level and in the fresh/saline water interface. The Dead Sea rines are flushed with freshwater that dissolves salt layers and creates sinkholes."

Ancient Descriptions Through Primitive Mindset Lenses

Ancient Perceptions Produce Primitive Explanations
Effects Of Primitive Science

State of Science often indeterminate due to anti-scientific orientation of institutional clergy transcribing the historical record (i.e. the scribes, priests & prophets)

Effects Of Still-Animistic Religion

animism: souls/spirits in lightning, idols & mountains; interpretation of fireballs "raining from heaven" (translations: singular when Hebrew pl.)

Primitive Descriptions Confuse State Of Military Technology Ancient WItnesses Unable To Describe Reality Incomprehensible To Them

The Nᵊviy•imꞋ

Medieval European Superstitious Artists v Reality

Saints, heaven, hell, anthropomorphic god

Primitive Mindset Supernatural Descriptions → Superstitious Divinity PhDs & Institutional Cult-Clergies

Days of rampant animism; "Hand of God".

The Account Of Real Events: Harmonized With Modern Science

After having inflicted days of constant casualties on the 4 Mesopotamian mᵊlãkh•imꞋ while chasing them out of the Levant all the way past Damascus, in the rescue of Lōt and his family, Avᵊrâ•hâm was a potential block to the 3 returning Mesopotamian mᵊlãkh•imꞋ who were determined to destroy the cities of Sᵊdōm & A•mōr•âh in Ki•karꞋ Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh that had rebelled against their rule. Avᵊrâ•hâm's lifetime fixes this time to cBCE 1990, when Avᵊrâ•hâm (cBCE 2039–1950) was ≈49.

Exciting novel explanations, no matter how natural and awesome, if they aren't both: 1. within a couple of decades of this time, and 2. not in the Ki•karꞋ Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh (at the southern tip of Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh) are either anachronistic, in the wrong place, or both. They may have happened at another time and/or another place. But only one real-world explanation so far proposed is plausible.

bᵊReishit 14.1 4 Mesopotamian kings: אַמְרָפֶ֣ל מֶֽלֶךְ־שִׁנְעָ֔ר bᵊReishit 10.10 King AmᵊrãphëlꞋ of ShinᵊarꞋ (roaring-displaying youth?), אַרְי֖וֹךְ מֶ֣לֶךְ אֶלָּסָ֑ר King AriyōkhꞋ (some var. of "long"; i.e. tall or well-endowed) of ËlãsãrꞋ (perhaps (PBH) hazelnut, fm Syr. אִלְסָרָא p. 32), near Ur כְּדׇרְלָעֹ֙מֶר֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ עֵילָ֔ם King Kᵊdãrᵊlã•ōꞋmër ("Rolling-sheaves"?) of EilãmꞋ (youthful-vigor?) וְתִדְעָ֖ל מֶ֥לֶךְ גּוֹיִֽם King TidᵊãlꞋ of Gōy•im (may be Hebraization of GūtimꞋ (Goths)? Unrelated to Germanic Goths who originated in Scandinavia) 14.2 5 Yam ha-Mëlëkh Plains kings: בֶּ֙רַע֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ סְדֹ֔ם King Bëra (in , in the wrong) of Sᵊdōm (probably var. spelling of שִּׂדִּ֑ים, or possibly שְׁדֵמָה [likely סִיד (p, 442) & Eimek Sidim] a farm field, grain or vineyard) וְאֶת־בִּרְשַׁ֖ע מֶ֣לֶךְ עֲמֹרָ֑ה King BirᵊshaꞋ (in wickedness) of AmōrãhꞋ (the sheaf (of grain) שִׁנְאָ֣ב ׀ מֶ֣לֶךְ אַדְמָ֗ה King ShinᵊãvꞋ (???) of AdᵊmãhꞋ (the land) וְשֶׁמְאֵ֙בֶר֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ צְבֹיִ֔ים King ShëmᵊeiꞋvër ("Hebrew-name") of TzᵊvōyimꞋ (pre-vowelization gazelles; vowelized "swollen") וּמֶ֥לֶךְ בֶּ֖לַע הִיא־צֹֽעַר King BëlꞋa (swallower, glutton) of Tzō•arꞋ (strait) at (v3) עֵ֖מֶק הַשִּׂדִּ֑ים EimꞋëq ha-SidimꞋ (Quicklime Gorge; pl. of סִיד (p, 442) lime (the mineral), quicklime, whitewash; alt. שִׂיד (p. 654) lime (the mineral), quicklime, whitewash) 14.4 12 yrs served כְּדׇרְלָעֹ֑מֶר, rebelled in 13th 14.8 After כְּדׇרְלָעֹ֙מֶר֙ armies had defeated Rᵊphâ•im at AshᵊtᵊrōtꞋ-QarᵊnaꞋyim, Hãm (Mō•avꞋ), Shãveih-Qiryatayim, Eyl Paran, Qadeish [Barneiya, i.e. Ein-Mishpat (spring)], Khatzᵊtzon-Tamar (i.e. Ein-Gᵊdi (5-7), then 5 Yam ha-Mëlëkh kings were attacked in Eimeq ha-Sidim (v8). v10 בֶּֽאֱרֹ֤ת בֶּאֱרֹת֙ חֵמָ֔ר riddled with pits/wells, pits/wells of bitumen. King [Bëra] of Sᵊdom & king [Birᵊsha] of A•mōr•ãhꞋ fled and fell there—while the remnant fled toward the hill country. V12 [4 Mesopotamian kings] also took Lot.— 14.13 Escapee brought news to Avᵊrãm at Mamᵊrei [rebellious, disobedient], v18 who evacuated his 318 trainees (including regional allies of Mamᵊrei, ËshᵊkōlꞋ & ÃneirꞋ, v. 24), who were born in his household, in pursuit as far as Dãn (in רָמַת הַגּוֹלָן Rãmat ha-Gōlãn, 3km/2mi NW of BanꞋᵊyas). v15 Night attack & pursue N of Damascus. v16 rescued Lot v17 from 4 Mesopotamian kings. New king of Sᵊdōm went forth to Eimëq Shaveih/haMëlëkh to call on [Avᵊrãm, who had chased away their conquerors]. v18 Along with King מַלְכִּי־צֶ֙דֶק֙ Malᵊki-TzëꞋdëq of ShãleimꞋ, כֹהֵ֖ן לְאֵ֥ל עֶלְיֽוֹן,, who brought bread & wine v19 and blessed Avᵊrãm v20 Avᵊrãm gave King Malᵊki-TzëꞋdëq 10% of all [of the war booty]. v21 But the King of Sᵊdōm (failing to bless Avᵊrãm for rescuing him) haughtily set his conditions allowing Avᵊrãm to keep the booty on condition he return הַנֶּ֔פֶשׁ v22-24 Avᵊrãm refused to accept anything from him. … 17.5 Avᵊrãm becomes Avᵊrãhãm with the bᵊrit of promise (not milãh) 18.1 [Avᵊrãhãm] perceived ha-Sheim [the Power behind whatever is happening, by whomever] appearing to him while he was sitting at the entrance of his tent at Mamᵊrei as noon approached (like hot). v2 He raised his eyes and saw, look, 3 mortals [later events intimate that these are King Kᵊdãrᵊlã•ōꞋmër of EilãmꞋ with 2 of his ally Special-Ops agents] positioned [on a hill] above him; when he saw he ran from his tent door to greet them and prostrated himself groundward… meal… [Avᵊrãhãm] had chased these kings and their armies past Damascus. Now, alone and Obviously prearranged, Avᵊrãhãm was clearly expectin them as they returned for a preagreed pow-wow with Avᵊrãhãm. They were set on 2 objectives: 1. Keep peace with Avᵊrãhãm but 2. take down the 5 DSP citiies. That meant finding a way to keep Avᵊrãhãm happy, which translated to the 3 kings of the east protecting Lōt when they punished and reestablished control over the rebel cities. They had common interests: Avᵊrãhãm had no stake in the 5 DSP cities nor reasoon to expose his soldiers to harm; while the 3 kings of the east definitely didn't want to meet Avᵊrãhãm on the battlefield again and, apparently, might lose the entire war.] v16 From there, the mortals stood-up and looked out over the face of Sᵊdōm, and Avᵊrãhãm (!) went with them, seeing them off (sending them on). … v20 [As they walked], [Avᵊrãhãm] perceived ha-Sheim (king Kᵊdãrᵊlã•ōꞋmër of the east) telling him, "The egregiousness of Sᵊdōm and A•mōr•ãhꞋ Ꞌ is great, and their misstep, because it is very serious. v21 I'll go down and see if they did all of the egregiousness that came to me. If not, then I'll know." v22 When the mortals reached the turn toward Sᵊdōm and A•mōr•ãhꞋ, Avᵊrãhãm still stood before ha-Sheim. [i.e. just him and king Kᵊdãrᵊlã•ōꞋmër] v23 negotiates from 50 worthy men down to 10 men to spare DSP cities v33 When ha-Sheim [king Kᵊdãrᵊlã•ōꞋmër] had concluded talks with Avᵊrãhãm, then Avᵊrãhãm returned home [to Khë•vᵊr•ōn]. 19.1 The two Special-Ops agents (who had proceeded ahead of king Kᵊdãrᵊlã•ōꞋmër, when king Kᵊdãrᵊlã•ōꞋmër remained behind to wrap-up talks with Avᵊrãhãm) reached Sᵊdōm in the evening; and Lōt was seated on the bench (adjudicating disputes) in the Gate of Sᵊdōm. Upon seeing [recognizing?] them, Lōt stood up to greet them and prostrated himself face groundward. v2 And he said, "Look, please a•dōn•âi, a tiny excursion please, to the household of your servant. Lodge the night and bathe your feet. Then you can get up at donkey-loading time and be on your way." But they said, "No, we'll just lodge beside the caravan-trail." v3 encounter with townspeople of Sᵊdōm v11 no streetlights; spec ops agents ignited a powder mixture made from sulphur, quicklime & magnesium (harvested from nearby Yam ha-Mëlëkh) in their faces, which temporarily blinded them [ignition @ "800°F to 1300°F … Some will remember the magnesium powder used by photographers years ago. This was easily ignited with a mere spark and burned almost with explosive violence." seen limestone temples burn, as well as various minerals from "Asphalt Lake" {https://www.fireengineering.com/leadership/extinguishing-magnesium-fires/}; burning at 3,100 °C (5,610 °F)

Fig. 1 >3000C {online converter: 5432°F}. Fig. 2 (bar chart) ignition temp varies by alloy fm ~740C down to ~460C. Frank Czerwinski. \'\'Overcoming Barriers of Magnesium Ignition and Flammability,\'\' ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES (2014.05): pp. 28-31. Accessed 2021.10.08. https://www.asminternational.org/documents/10192/18497580/amp17205p28.pdf/939cad0e-f173-4e50-9f74-036ca8839fc9/AMP17205P28

… v12 agents urge Lōt to gather daughters' families to leave with them because ha-Sheim had sent them to devastate the city. … v15 As dawn rose, the agents tried to herd them out v16 Still Lōt resisted, so the mortals seized him, his wife and his 2 daughters by their hands, in ha-Sheim's pity on him, and forcibly extracted them out of the city. v16-17 The agents instructed them to flee, not to look back, and not to stop anywhere on הַכִּכָּ֑ר (plaza, square; i.e. plain); rather flee into the hill country lest you be swept away.v18-23 Lōt pleads to take refuge in a niche מִצְעָ֛ר town, which subsequently became known as צֽוֹעַר Lōt and his daughters came צֹֽעֲרָה (Tzō•ar-ward). v24 Then ha-Sheim rained upon Sᵊdōm and A•mōr•ãhꞋ burning sulphur from haSheim, from the heavens. v25 הָאֵ֔ל overthrew the cities and the entire הַכִּכָּ֑ר, all the residents of the cities and plants of the ground. v26 But his wife remained behind gazing back, and she became an upright-figure submerged by the falling salt [i.e. salts, minerals, burning sulphur & asphalt from Yam ha-Mëlakh / Lake Asphalt]. …

Rainbow Rule

Dead Sea Levels cBCE 1990
Click to enlargeDead Sea Levels cBCE 1990

Click to enlargeYãm ha-Mëlakh Plain: Feifa, Jordan. Aerial photo: Nabataean fortress & adjacent Early Bronze Age cemetery; Feifa, Jordan. (1998. Jane Taylor Collection. Courtesy of the American Center of Oriental Research, Amman.))

Click to enlargeYãm ha-Mëlakh Plain: Safi Jordan (Museum Lowest Place on Earth))

"During the Early Bronze, Intermediate Bronze, Middle Bronze, and Late Bronze Ages, the Dead Sea saw significant level fluctuations, reaching in the Middle Bronze an elevation of ~370 m below mean sea level (bmsl), and declining in the Late Bronze to below 414 m bmsl. At the end of the Late Bronze Age and upon the transition to the Iron Age, the lake recovered slightly and rose to ~408 m bmsl." [Abstract, p. 237/pdfr1] DS a "terminal trap" [Introduction, p. 237/1]

bᵊReishit 14.10 c וְעֵ֣מֶק הַשִּׂדִּ֗ים בֶּֽאֱרֹ֤ת בֶּאֱרֹת֙ חֵמָ֔ר וַיָּנֻ֛סוּ מֶֽלֶךְ־סְדֹ֥ם וַעֲמֹרָ֖ה וַיִּפְּלוּ־שָׁ֑מָּה וְהַנִּשְׁאָרִ֖ים הֶ֥רָה נָּֽסוּ׃

Tzᵊphan•yãh 2.9: salt mine or pit מִכְרֵה־מֶ֥לַח fm מִכְרֶה mine or pit.

Sᵊdōm-A•mōr•ãhꞋ (Bab edh-Dhra) destroyed ca BCE2350 Todd Bolen-BiblePlaces.com
Click to enlargeBab adh-Dhra`, destroyed cBCE 2350

Click to enlargeNumeira, Jordan Arab Potash plant

Arguments against Tall al-Hammam

DSP-Yam haMelakh asphalt deposit (bitumen + sand)

asphalt = bitumen + sand; high sulphur content, flammable

sinkholes map at https://biblicalarchaeologygraves.blogspot.com/2016/06/map-15.html (Λ) λίμνη γέγονεν ἡ Ἀσφαλτῖτις lake became the Asphaltitis Λίμνη Ἀσφαλτῖτις Ant. 1.9 Romans are said to have called it Palus Asphaltites; https://smyrnaean.blogspot.com/2013/09/fact-3-bab-edh-dhra-and-tall-el-hammam.html photo Dead Sea asphalt beReishit 14.3 עֵ֖מֶק הַשִּׂדִּ֑ים ה֖וּא יָ֥ם הַמֶּֽלַח׃ Yam haMelakh Sedom Tal al-khamam 992x774.pdn asphalt=bitumen (high sulphur content) + sand https://thenaturalhistorian.com/2014/09/24/earthquakes-bible-dead-sea-creationism-austin/ "asphalt that floats in large quantities on the surface. This is probably due to the great prevalence of sulfur on the shores. … Josephus ("B. J." iv. 8, § 4) mentions the salty taste of its water, the impossibility of diving in it, its change of color, and the great floating blocks of asphalt, which were used for calking ships and for medicinal purposes. Similar descriptions are given by Tacitus ("Hist." v. 6) and Pliny ("Hist. Naturalis," v. 15)." https://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/5015-dead-sea; bitumen pits line western shore of Yam haMelakh from מִצְפֵּה שָׁלֵם south to Matzadah, then loops south and east (now underwater, probably through Sᵊdōm) to Tzoar around northward as far as Bab adh-Dhra` in western Jordan

Archeologists at first identified the Early Bronze 3 (BCE 2700-2200) site of Sᵊdōm with modern Bab adh-Dhra`(Sᵊdōm), Jordan, on the eastern coast of the southern portion of Yãm ha-Mëlakh. Evidence of an earthquake and fire in one charnel building, along with evidence of violent deaths, suggest a violent end. However, this is >2–7 centuries before Avᵊrã•hãm and the destruction of Sᵊdōm

Since around 2005-7, pseudo-archeologists affiliated with 2 Biblical-Inerrancy "universities" (one unaccredited), given little credence by archeological scientists (or anyone else beyond the King of Jordan and the trendworthy profiteering media), claim to have uncovered evidence at a site further north, northeast of Yãm ha-Mëlakh, that appears to suggest the airburst of a significant (≈80m diam.) rocky asteroid ≈5 km above Tall el-Hammam, in western Jordan not far from

Could have resulted from catapult (or trebuchet) launched balls of burning sulfur and pitch prevalent throughout the area, by the 3 kings from the east (kings of Goy•im, Shi•nᵊãr and Ë•lã•sãr תִדְעָל מֶלֶךְ גּוֹיִם, וְאַמְרָפֶל מֶלֶךְ שִׁנְעָר, וְאַרְיוֹךְ מֶלֶךְ אֶלָּסָר beReishit 14.9 ; the three men who visited with Av•rãm in bᵊ-Reish•it 18) under the command of Chief king of Eiyl•ãm, Kᵊdã•rᵊlã•ō•mër כְּדָרְלָעֹמֶר מֶלֶךְ עֵילָם (bᵊ-Reish•it 14-18, reviewed in greater detail in bᵊ-Reish•it 19).

For decades, archeologists and historians argued that the catapult and trebuchet, needed to deliver stone balls, or balls of burning pitch or sulfur, was invented by the Greeks, centuries after the time of Avᵊrã•hãm. However, new research of a cuneiform numbers table on an ancient Babylonian clay tablet shows that Babylonians were far more advanced than thought, knowing trigonometry (e.g., for calculating trajectories) a millennium before the Greeks, who were previously thought to have invented it. Further, “Mechanically delivered projectile weapons”, even though referring to the bow and arrow, date back to the age of the Human-Neanderthal encounter. “A team of Japanese and Italian researchers, including from Tohoku University, have evidenced mechanically delivered projectile weapons in Europe dating to 45,000-40,000 years - more than 20,000 years than previously thought.” This improved perspective dictates reassessment of a BCE 8th century Assyrian wall relief panel that appears to depict a catapult war engine used to conquer Lakhish in BCE 701. This corroborates the general military technology underlying (cBCE 808-756) A•zarᵊyâhꞋ(u) Bën-A•matzᵊyâhꞋu (confused with עֻזִּיָּ֜הוּ ha-ko•hein) invention of wall-mounted catapults in Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yãm•im Beit 26.14–15.

More recently, scientists have concluded, based on diamonoid-making "shocked quartz" in the soil, evidence high temperatures and pressures beyond earthquakes, volcanoes or warfare. "These structures are nearly as hard as diamond and are stable at temperatures up to ~ 1000–1200 °C" A priori, this appears to suggest that, in cBCE 1650, a low-density rocky asteroid fireball ≈80 m (200 ft) in diameter, traveling at ≈38,000 mph (61,000 kph) heating up in our atmosphere and exploding in an airburst ≈3 mi (5 km) above ground, creating temperatures <1200°C—like a 12 megaton nuclear weapon. Problems: Magnesium powder was abundant in Yâm ha-Mëlakh. Scripture suggests that it's likely the Mesopotamians, probably having learned it from the locals around Yâm ha-Mëlakh, knew how to ignite it using sulphur to temporarily blind people, especially at night. Magnesium burns at 3,100 °C (5,610 °F), more than twice as hot as needed to form diamonoids! Wrong time (right time cBCE 1990; 340 yrs earlier), wrong place (no sulphur, quicklime, magnesium, etc. at north end). See also A•mōr•ãhꞋ.

Lot was extricated from Sᵊdōm by one of the allied armies ?? , fleeing on foot with his 2 ?? daughters in the space of an hour or so ?? to Tzoar bᵊReishit 19.20-22; -30. Ergo, Sᵊdom was within about an hour or less walking distance from Tzoar; i.e. ≤ 6-7 km (≈5 mi).

3 Most Arguable Natural Explanations For Destruction
  1. Asteroid Airburst (Tall al-Hamman only) — more
  2. Earthquake — more

  3. Warfare: Catapults & Flaming Fireballs of Locally-Plentiful, Highly-Sulphurous (Flammable) Bitumen — more

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