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Updated: 2021.10.01

סְדוֹם & עֲמֹרָה

3 Most Arguable Natural Explanations For Destruction

  1. Asteroid Airburst (Tall al-Hamman only) — more
  2. Earthquake — more

  3. Warfare: Catapults & Flaming Fireballs of Locally-Plentiful, Highly-Sulphurous (Flammable) Bitumen — more

Yam ha-Melakh, Sᵊdom & Amorah
Click to enlarge Yâm ha-Mëlakh (aka Lake Asphalt), Sᵊdōm & A•mōr•âh
Sedom-Amorah (Bab edh-Dhra) destroyed ca BCE2350 Todd Bolen-BiblePlaces.com
Click to enlargeBab adh-Dhra`, destroyed cBCE 2350

Click to enlargeNumeira, Jordan (Amorah?)

Arguments against Tall al-Hammam

Yam haMelakh asphalt deposit (bitumen + sand)

asphalt = bitumen + sand; high sulphur content, flammable

sinkholes map at https://biblicalarchaeologygraves.blogspot.com/2016/06/map-15.html (Λ) λίμνη γέγονεν ἡ Ἀσφαλτῖτις lake became the Asphaltitis Λίμνη Ἀσφαλτῖτις Ant. 1.9 Romans are said to have called it Palus Asphaltites; https://smyrnaean.blogspot.com/2013/09/fact-3-bab-edh-dhra-and-tall-el-hammam.html photo Dead Sea asphalt beReishit 14.3 עֵ֖מֶק הַשִּׂדִּ֑ים ה֖וּא יָ֥ם הַמֶּֽלַח׃ Yam haMelakh Sedom Tal al-khamam 992x774.pdn asphalt=bitumen (high sulphur content) + sand https://thenaturalhistorian.com/2014/09/24/earthquakes-bible-dead-sea-creationism-austin/ "asphalt that floats in large quantities on the surface. This is probably due to the great prevalence of sulfur on the shores. … Josephus ("B. J." iv. 8, § 4) mentions the salty taste of its water, the impossibility of diving in it, its change of color, and the great floating blocks of asphalt, which were used for calking ships and for medicinal purposes. Similar descriptions are given by Tacitus ("Hist." v. 6) and Pliny ("Hist. Naturalis," v. 15)." https://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/5015-dead-sea; bitumen pits line western shore of Yam haMelakh from מִצְפֵּה שָׁלֵם south to Matzadah, then loops south and east (now underwater, probably through Sedom) to Tzoar around northward as far as Bab adh-Dhra` in western Jordan

Archeologists at first identified the Early Bronze 3 (BCE 2700-2200) site of Sᵊdōm with modern Bab adh-Dhra`(Sᵊdōm), Jordan, on the eastern coast of the southern portion of Yâm ha-Mëlakh. Evidence of an earthquake and fire in one charnel building, along with evidence of violent deaths, suggest a violent end. However, this is >2–7 centuries before Avᵊrâ•hâm and the destruction of Sᵊdōm

Since around 2005-7, pseudo-archeologists affiliated with 2 Biblical-Inerrancy "universities" (one unaccredited), given little credence by archeological scientists (or anyone else beyond the King of Jordan and the trendworthy profiteering media), claim to have uncovered evidence at a site further north, northeast of Yâm ha-Mëlakh, that appears to suggest the airburst of a significant (≈80m diam.) rocky asteroid ≈5 km above Tall el-Hammam, in western Jordan not far from

Could have resulted from catapult (or trebuchet) launched balls of burning sulfur and pitch prevalent throughout the area, by the 3 kings from the east (kings of Goy•im, Shi•nᵊâr and Ë•lâ•sâr תִדְעָל מֶלֶךְ גּוֹיִם, וְאַמְרָפֶל מֶלֶךְ שִׁנְעָר, וְאַרְיוֹךְ מֶלֶךְ אֶלָּסָר beReishit 14.9 ; the three men who visited with Av•râm in bᵊ-Reish•it 18) under the command of Chief king of Eiyl•âm, Kᵊdâ•rᵊlâ•ō•mër כְּדָרְלָעֹמֶר מֶלֶךְ עֵילָם (bᵊ-Reish•it 14-18, reviewed in greater detail in bᵊ-Reish•it 19).

For decades, archeologists and historians argued that the catapult and trebuchet, needed to deliver stone balls, or balls of burning pitch or sulfur, was invented by the Greeks, centuries after the time of Avᵊrâ•hâm. However, new research of a cuneiform numbers table on an ancient Babylonian clay tablet shows that Babylonians were far more advanced than thought, knowing trigonometry (e.g., for calculating trajectories) a millennium before the Greeks, who were previously thought to have invented it. Further, “Mechanically delivered projectile weapons”, even though referring to the bow and arrow, date back to the age of the Human-Neanderthal encounter. “A team of Japanese and Italian researchers, including from Tohoku University, have evidenced mechanically delivered projectile weapons in Europe dating to 45,000-40,000 years - more than 20,000 years than previously thought.” This improved perspective reassessment of a BCE 8th century Assyrian wall relief panel that seems to depict a catapult or trebuchet war engine used to conquer Lakhish in BCE 701. This corroborates the general military technology underlying עֻזִּיָּ֜הוּ invention of wall-mounted catapults in Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 26.14–15.

More recently, scientists have concluded, based on diamonoid-making "shocked quartz" in the soil, evidence high temperatures and pressures beyond earthquakes, volcanoes or warfare. A priori, this appears to suggest that, in cBCE 1650, a low-density rocky asteroid fireball ≈80 m (200 ft) in diameter, traveling at ≈38,000 mph (61,000 kph) heating up in our atmosphere and exploding in an airburst ≈3 mi (5 km) above ground—like a 12 megaton nuclear weapon. Problems: wrong time (right time cBCE 1990; 340 yrs earlier), wrong place (no sulphur at north end). See also A•mōr•âh.

Lot was extricated from Sᵊdom by one of the allied armies ?? , fleeing on foot with his 2 ?? daughters in the space of an hour or so ?? to Tzoar. Ergo, Sᵊdom was within about an hour or less walking distance from Tzoar; i.e. ≤ 6-7 km (≈5 mi).

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