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Chronology Of The Tanakh,
From The "Big נְטִיָּה"
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TOC (table of contents) Updated: 2020.08.29 (3 sects: BCE 1080, 175, 166, 135 & 103) © 1994- current update Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu Bën-Dâ•wid

This chronology used the computer to weave together the dates and chronology of Ta•na"kh, pegged wherever scholars have reached a consensus on astronomical, volcanological, geological, historical or archaeological dates. All other dates are then calculated, and updated, from the scientific data and updated with the latest research.

"High" Scientific Dating vs "Low" Archeology / Egyptology Dating

There is a gap conundrum, in places diverging by nearly 2 centuries, between scientific "High" dating and archeological, including Egyptological, "Low" dating. It's unlikely this gap will be resolved any time soon. Consequently, this chronology is likely to remain a work in progress, where some numbers contradict others, for the foreseeable future. However, it isn't until one lays out an internally consistent chronology that the gap(s) become(s) conspicuous. Archeologists / Egyptologists rely on a single, unreliable Egyptian source who recorded lists of Egyptian Par•ohs, Manetho (ca. B.C.E. 3rd century – give or take a century or so; which these misojudaics consider more authoritative than Scriptures of "the Jews"), and try to hide their contradictions and inconsistencies by avoiding inconvenient connections with scientific datings, Consequently, the ancient world painted by archeologists and Egyptologists with arts degrees differs from real world history as demonstrated by scientists. Egyptologists' & Archeologists' "Low" Dating vs Scientists' "High" Dating 

Table of Contents (TOC) Quick Links
3 Sects: Osin, Hellenist-Tz'doqim & P'rushimEnosh Ben-SheitSh'khem
10 Tribes: Syria Deracination Of Yis'raeilEsteirSh'lomoh Ben-Dawid, Melekh Yis'raeil
70 C.E.EvangelizingTorah made capital offenseSh'mueil Ben-Eilqanah, ha-Navi
135 C.E.Ez'ra ha-SopheirΚαλλίστη Eruption
1260 Days (Daniyeil 12.7)Gad Ben-YaaqovShabat
1290 Days Covenant (Daniyeil 12.11)Galut BavelShabat made capital offense
1335 Days Covenant (Daniyeil 12.12)Gam'liyeilShalum Ben-Yaveish. Melekh Yis'raeil
Gentile Church Displaces N'tzarim PaqidShamai
Adam & KhauahHamanShaul Ben-Qish ha-Melekh
Aelia CapitolinaHammurabiSheim, Kham & Yaphet Ben-Noakh
Aharon Ben-YaaqovHavel Ben-AdamShiloh
Akhaz Ben-Yotam, Melekh Y'hudahHebrew, Earliest WritingShim'shon Ben-Manoakh
Akhav Ben-Am'ri, Melekh Yis'raeilHellenizationShimon Ben-Yaaqov
Akhaz'yahu Ben-Akhav, Melekh Yis'raeilHerod Sr., "the Great" (Ben-Edom/Esau) bornShir ha-Shirim
AkkadianHerod Sr., "the Great" (Ben-Edom/Esau) diedShopheit 01 (At'niel)
Alexander "the Great"HileilShopheit 02 (Eihud)
Amatz'yahu Ben-Yoash, Melekh Yis'raeilHosheia Ben-Eilah, Melekh Yis'raeilShopheit 03 (Sham'gar)
Am'ri, Melekh Yis'raeil in Tir'tzahShom'ronHosheia ha-NaviShopheit 04 (D'vorah)
Amon Ben-M'nasheh, Melekh Y'hudahIy-ZevelShopheit 05 (Gid'on)
Amos ha-NaviJews/N'tzarim expelled fm Y'rushalayimShopheit 06 (Avi-melekh)
Ananias, High PriestJulius CaesarShopheit 07 (Tola)
Antiochus 3rd, "the Great" (Syria)K'dar'laomerShopheit 08 (Yair)
Antiochus 4th Epiphanes (Syria)Khajai ha-NaviShopheit 09 (Yiph'takh)
AqeidahKhanokh Ben-YaredShopheit 10 (Iv'tzan)
Aron ha-B'rit (1 =Shiloh)KhanukahShopheit 11 (Eilon)
Aron ha-B'rit (2 Givah)Khash'monayimShopheit 12 (Av'don)
Aron י‑‑ה (3 Ash'dod)KhasidimShopheit 13 (Shim'shon)
Aron י‑‑ה (4 Eq'ron)Khavaquq ha-NaviSicarii
Aron י‑‑ה (5 Beit Shemesh)Khiz'qiyahu Ben-Akhaz. Melekh Y'hudah Stone Age
Aron י‑‑ה (6 Qir'yat Y'arim)Koresh Sr., 'the Media-Persian' (Iranian)Συνέδριον, P'rushim Win Majority
Asa Ben-Aviyam, Melekh Y'hudahKoresh Jr., "the Great"Tamar
Asheir Ben-YaaqovLeiah Bat-LavanTel el-Amarna Letters
Aviyam Ben-R'khav'am, Melekh Y'hudahLeiwi Ben-YaaqovTempest Stela
Avram Ben-TerakhLXXTemple (2nd) Temple of Jupiter
Azar'yah Ben-Amatz'yahu, Melekh Y'hudahM'gidoTemple (2nd), Hellenized
Ba'asa Ben-Akhiyah, Melekh Yis'raeilM'nakheim Ben-Gadi, Melekh Yis'raeilTemple (2nd), plundered, burned
Balaq Ben-Tzipor, Melekh MoavM'nasheh Ben-Khiz'qiyah, Melekh Y'hudahTerakh Ben-Nakhor
Bar-Kokhva RebellionM'tushelakh Ben-KhanokhTorah Given
Beit Miq'dash (1st) BegunM'tzadahTorah made capital offense
Beit Miq'dash (1st) CompletedMabulTz'doqim (Sadducees), original founding
Beit Miq'dash (1st) PlunderedMakabimTz'doqim-P'rushim Split
Beit Miq'dash (2nd) StartedMalakhi ha-NaviTz'doqim, Hellenization
Beit Miq'dash (2nd) CompletedMatan'yah Ben-Yoshiyahu, Melekh Y'hudahTz'doqim, Osin Flee TempleQumran
Bilam Ben-B'orMikhah ha-NaviTz'phanyah Ben-Kushi ha-Navi
Bil'hahMishkan built & erectedTzid'qiyahu (Matan'yah Ben-Yoshiyahu)
Binyamin Ben-YaaqovMoreih ha-TzedeqY'hoakhaz Ben-Yeihu, Melekh Yis'raeil
Boaz Ben-Sal'maMosheh Ben-Am'ram, bornY'hoakhaz Ben-Yoshiyahu, Melekh Y'hudah
Boethus, Hellenist High PriestN'khemyah Ben-Khakhal'yahY'hoash Ben-Akhaz'yahu, Melekh Y'hudah
Bronze AgeN'tzarim Extirpated by Roman ChristiansY'horam Ben-Akhav, Melekh Yis'raeil
Capital, Y'hudah (1st: Khev'ron)Nabu-khad-netzar, king of Bavel (Iraq)Y'horam Ben-Y'hoshaphat, Melekh Y'hudah
Capital, Yis'raeil (1st: Giv'ah)Nadav Ben-Yarav'am, Melekh Yis'raeilY'hoshaphat Ben-Asa, Melekh Y'hudah
Capital, Yis'raeil (2nd: Y'rushalayim)Nakhum ha-NaviY'hoshua Ben-Shimon Jr. ha-Kohein
Capital, Yis'raeil (3rd: Sh'khem)Naph'tali Ben-YaaqovY'hoshua Ben-Y'hotzadaq (Ben-S'rayah)
Capital, Yis'raeil (4th: Tir'tzah)New Testament, First Compiled Y'hoshua Bin-Nun
Capital, Yis'raeil (5th: Shom'ron)Noakh Ben-LemekhY'hoshua, Ribi (Ben-Yoseiph Ben-Dawid)
Capital punishment endedOvadyah ha-NaviY'hoshua, Ribi: s'mikhah fm Nasi Gam'liyeil
Christianity & Church, Birth: 1st Gentile PopeP'qakhyah Ben-M'nakheim, Melekh Yis'raeilY'hotzadaq Ben-S'rayah, Kohein ha-Gadol
CleopatraP'rushim (Pharisees), 1st RabbisY'hoyakhin Ben-Y'hoyaqim Melekh Y'hudah
Codex Damascus (CD)P'rushim-Tz'doqim SplitY'hudah Becomes State
Concubine 12 PiecesPaqid Yaaqov, ha-Tzadiq (N'tzarim)Y'hudah Ben-Yaaqov
Conjunctions of Saturn and Jupiter (BCE 7)Paroh Yah-kheper ka-Ra Tut-moses Sr.Y'khez'qeil ha-Navi
Dan Ben-YaaqovParoh Amun-hotep Sr.Y'khonyah Ben-Shimon Jr. ha-Kohein
DaniyeilParoh Khat-shepset (Queen) bornY'rikho
Dawid Ben-Yishai, bornParoh Khat-shepset (Queen) reignsY'shayahu Ben-Amotz ha-Navi
Dawid Ben-Yishai, vs Gal'yatParoh-Queen Khat-shepset diesY'shayahu Deutero? ha-Navi
Dawid Ben-Yishai, Melekh Y'hudah Paroh Men-kheper Ra Tut-moses 3rdY'tziah
Dawid Ben-Yishai, Melekh Yis'raeilParoh Meren-Ptah StelaYaaqov Ben-Yitz'khaq
Day 1Paroh Ra-moses Jr. "the Great"Yaaqov Ben-Yoseiph Ben-David
Day 2Paroh Yâh-moses Sr.Yarav'am Ben-N'vat, Melekh Yis'raeil
Day 3Peqakh Ben-R'mal'yahu, Melekh Yis'raeilYarav'am Ben-Yoash, Melekh Yis'raeil
Day 4Pi-Ra-moses (orig. Pi-Tom)Yav'neh
Day 5Pi-TomYeihu Ben-Y'hoshaphat, Melekh Yis'raeil
Day 6Pontificate (B.C.E. 48)Yirm'yahu Ben-Khil'qiyahu ha-Navi
Decree to rebuild walls of Yᵊru•shâ•layimPriest (High), Syrian-appointedYis'raeil
Detestable Appallment (by Antiochus 4th)Priest (High), Roman-appointedYis'raeil (Yaaqov) Ben-Yitz'khaq ⇒ Mitz'rayim
Dinah Bat-YaaqovPriesthood, Abandons Torah (Hellenized)Yis'raeil Y'hudah Split
Djanet (Tanis; orig. Pi-Tom)Priesthood, Bought Annually from RomansYisakhar Ben-Yaaqov
Edom (Eisau Ben-Yitz'khaq)Priesthood, Not Aharon descendantYishai Ben-Oveid
Eilah Ben-Ba'asa, Melekh Yis'raeilPyramidsYitz'khaq Ben-Avraham
Eiliyahu ha-NaviQayin Ben-AdamYoash Ben-Y'hoakhaz, Melekh Yis'raeil
Eisau Ben-Yitz'khaqQueen Atal'yahu Bat-Am'ri, Mal'kat Y'hudahYoeil Ben-P'tueil ha-Navi
Eiver Ben-ShelakhR'khav'am Ben-Shlomoh, Melekh Y'hudahYonah Ben-Amitai, ha-Navi
El'yaqim Ben-Yoshiyahu, Melekh Y'hudahRabbis, 1st original foundingYoseiph Ben-Yaaqov
Elisha Ben-Shaphat ha-NaviRakheil Bat-LavanYoshiyahu Ben-Amon, Melekh Y'hudah
R'uvein Ben-YaaqovYotam Ben-Azar'yahu, Melekh Y'hudah
Rosetta StoneZ'kharyah Ben-Berekhyah Ben-Ido ha-Navi
RutZ'khar'yahu Ben-Yarav'am, Melekh Yis'raeil
Z'ruBavel Ben-Sh'al'tieil
Z'vulun Ben-Yaaqov
Zil'pah
Zim'ri, Melekh Yis'raeil
Rainbow Rule
Year(s)Description
c BCE 13.8 billion

Yom Ri•shon (י‑‑ה created light, separated light from darkness). "Big Stretch-Apart" – not yet a sun nor earth (nor humans) to begin marking time. Light and darkness result from the "Big Stretch-Apart", emanating from an "infinitely small point"—the scientific euphemism that misdirects the masses to focus infinitely on "the infinitely small" so that they'll never notice that the scientists are peddling "Poof! Nothing caused nothingness to transform into physical energy-matter, self-creating the universe!" (Eureka~ Roll eyes Then they have the audacity, after hawking that childish laugher wrapped in mathematical camouflage, to criticize acknowledgment of a Singularity-Creator as not intellectual!)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 4.5 billion

Earth forms in orbit around the sunTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 4.45 billion

Yom Shein•i (created sky, separated clouds from seas, moisture in atmosphere separates from surface waters). Moon

Moon forms and stabilizes earth. Scientists theorize that collisions with meteors and small planets gave the earth an initial rotation. A significant nearby planet collided with earth, accelerating earth's spin and, cumulatively, resolving to today's 24-hour rotation and day. This "Giant Impact" collision produced fragments, captured in various orbits around earth, that would coalesce over eons to become our moon and stabilize the variation of the Earth's rotational axis.

In contrast to today's current distance to the moon—about 60 Earth radii (240,000 miles / 386,000 km), scientists theorize that, initially, the moon orbited at an approximate distance of about 3-5 Earth radii (15,000 miles / 24,000 km) from the center of the Earth. Thus the moon was much closer to the earth when it formed, [looming frighteningly] more than 10 times larger in the sky than it does today. "Were it not for the moon, the influence of the giant planets in our system would cause Earth's obliquity – the angle between the Earth's equator and the plane of its orbit, whose current value is 23.5 degrees – to vary wildly with values as extreme as 0 to 80 degrees. Such variation would probably cause extreme climatic changes that would render the planet uninhabitable. Thus having a large moon may be one of the key characteristics necessary for a habitable Earth-like planet" (ibid.). This proximity would certainly have produced cataclysmic tides in earth's magma-oceans, unimaginable winds in earth's toxic atmosphere and an uninhabitable earth.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 3.8 billion

Yom Shᵊlish•i: vegetation: first organisms, fungus; evidence of lifeTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 3.6 billion

Yom Rᵊviy•i: moon stabilizes in near-present orbit; life begins to diversify as appointed seasons, day and night are regulated by the sun & moon.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 3 billion

Paleoproterozoic Era Photosynthesizing organisms begin producing O2. Siderian Period – During the Siderian period, scientists believe that early anaerobic animal life first enabled oxygenation of the earth's atmosphere, part of the continuing process of creating the sky and its separation from the clouds and seas.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 800 million

First multicellular organisms emergeTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 650 million

Earth's core began as a molten liquid. In combination with earth's rotation, the core creates our magnetic field (somewhat like a magneto). At about this time, the core began to solidify (). As parts solidified, centrifugal force attracted the solid parts to one side of the molten mass, causing a lop-sided weight distribution. This, in turn, caused earth's polar rotation to fluctuate, producing temporary multi-polar magnetic fields until the core fully solidified, allowing earth's rotational axis to restabilize with the corresponding return to a new dipolar magnetic field that was little different from today. Earth's dipolar magnetic field extends a strong magnetic force out into space, deflecting harmful high-energy particles from the sun and the cosmos, shielding our atmosphere. Without it, our planet would be bombarded by cosmic radiation, and life on earth's surface might not exist.

Proterozoic Eon, Neoproterozoic Era, Ediacaran Period TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 485 million

Yom Kha•mish•i: fish & birds. Paleozoic Era/​Devonian Period, Ordovician Period, Mesozoic Era, Triassic & Jurassic Periods (dinosaurs evolve and go extinct)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 238 million

Dinosaurs appear.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 93 million

Yom Shish•i, mammals begin to emerge and diversifyTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 66 million

Non-avian DINOSAURS GO EXTINCT; avian dinosaurs (i.e. birds) survive.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2.6 million

Paleolithic AgeTOC (table of contents)

c BCE >2 million

Earliest human ancestors colonized East Asia over two million years ago.University of ExeterTOC (table of contents)

c BCE <2 million

Sha•bât – in which ël•oh•im shâ•vat (ceased, desisted, rested) from all His work of creating, and blessed and made Sha•bât holy.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 400k

First Levantine "•dâm," making knives and other tools and cooking meat, emerges from Qësëm Cave, near Tël •viv, Yi•sᵊr•â•eil.

In Biblical epochs, this Sha•bât, the human epoch, continues today. You and I are living in this continuing Sha•bât (blink of an eye in geological terms, not even a nanosecond to י‑‑ה). That has implications relative to tᵊphil•ot.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 185k

Modern humans appear in Carmel Cave (historic Israel) between 177,000-194,000 ago. "The Middle East was a major corridor for hominin migrations, occupied at different times by both modern humans and Neanderthals."TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 108k

Most Recent Glacial Period BeginsTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 39k

Transition between Neanderthals and modern humans, expansion of travel, first arrived in Europe c BCE 48k-26k. "Dating from this same time we unearthed a bead made from mammal bone. This is the oldest portable art object of its type found anywhere in central Europe and provides evidence of social signalling, quite possibly used as a necklace to mark the identity of the wearer."

Infusion of Aurignacians, hybrid of Neanderthals and modern humans, from Europe into the Levant.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 10k

Begin Neolithic Period – ca. B.C.E. 12,000 – 8,000, hunter-gatherers in Levant and Iran develop ranching and farming technolo­gies, the inspiration for the story of Qayin and vël with an unknown number of intervening generations lost in the oral recitations of genealogies and family lore. Evolution from nomadic hunter-gatherers to homesteading rancher-farmers leads to cooperative specialization and urbanization, growing the first town-cities, and resulting city-kingdoms of the Levant, Turkey & Mesopotamia.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 9900

End of Most Recent Glacial PeriodTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 7000

Neolithic מוֹצָא (Mōtz•â), located by a suburb of modern W. Yᵊru•shâ•layim. Earliest extant limestone ritual mask is used by shaman-priests (or tribal leaders) in the hills of Kᵊna•an; believing the mask, representing their god, supernaturally imbued its wearer with the Divine Authority of their god as the "Angel" Spokesman, speaking, through the mask (unchanging, eternal face of their god), the Divine Word of their god. Ordinarily (without mask), shaman speaks. Mask-on, the Angel of god speaks.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 6500

Chalcolithic (Copper Era of Stone) Age in the Levant – infusion, into the indigenous agricultural peoples of the Levant, of waves of immigrations from Turkey and Iran. TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 5500relative anchor

The Ma•bul. At the age of 600 (lunar years; i.e., months; i.e., 50 solar years) of age, akh reinterprets and incorporates the Ma•bul into family written lore (bᵊ-Reish•it 7.6,11).

Two geologists from Columbia University, William Ryan and Walter Pitman, documented the geological evidence of a great flood in the area of Turkey that occurred a couple of millennia earlier, ca. BCE 5500 following extensive glacial melts that caused the Mediterranean (Aegean) Sea to burst through what had been a tongue of dry land forming a land bridge connecting Asia and Europe (today the Dardanelles strait, the Sea of Marmara and Bosporus strait) into the Black Sea.

Since the earliest extant sources of the Gilgamesh Flood also date from akh's era, it's likely that akh became associated with the Ma•bul because it was he who first stripped the account of its idolatrous foreign interpretations popular in surrounding cultures, reinterpreting the Ma•bul with proto-Tor•âh compatible interpretations, and then incorporated the result into family written lore of the history of creation and the development of humankind. It's unclear whether, in reinterpreting-out idolatrous themes, he may have substituted his own family as example characters or whether the main characters were confused with his family by scribes at some later time.TOC (table of contents)

Exactly 0000hrs
BCE 3760.06.14

Rabbinic Poof! Creation of the earth. Rabbis deny the existence of anything before exactly 0000 hrs 00 seconds of 14th day of 6thmonth (Babylonian "Elul") of the year 0 on the rabbinic calendar. Roll eyes TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 3400

Egyptian hieroglyph writing has been 14C dated to cBCE 3400-3200, predating Sumerian cuneiform by perhaps a couple of centuries.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 3300Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)

End Neolithic Age (Stone Age)

Begin Bronze AgeTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 3278Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251) relative estimate

•dâm & Khau•âhBiblical Lifespans 

Beginnings of family oral-lore history, probably highlighted only the more accomplished personalities, omitting an unknown number of lesser-accomplished members. This implies many irrecoverable lacunae between the early Biblical personalities. It can be no more than a guess today as to how to space the Biblical characters back in time to connect with the scientific "Adam" and "Eve." Rather than abandon the scientific model to make such guesses, I have stayed with the scientific estimates of ancient mean lifespans and leave it to the reader to guess which Biblical characters should be spaced back, and how, to match up with scientific "Adam" and "Eve."

•dâm lived to age 930; probably lunar years (= months), yielding 77½ solar years.Biblical Lifespans (bᵊ-Reish•it 5.5).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 3219Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)relative anchor

Qayin born – firstborn of •dâm and Khau•âhTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 3160Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)relative anchor

vël bornTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 3101Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251) relative estimate

Sheit born. Sheit dies at 912. This is likely lunar years (=months), 76 solar years. Biblical Lifespans TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 3100 Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom, 1st Dynasty, c BCE 3100-2901

Narmer/​Hor-Aha (Menes) consolidates and founds Egypt; becoming Egypt's First King-Par•oh.

c BCE 3042Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251) relative estimate

Ë•nōsh born. Biblical Lifespans TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2983Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251) relative estimate

Qei•nân born. Biblical Lifespans TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2924Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251) relative estimate

Mᵊhu•yâ•eil born. Biblical Lifespans TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2900Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom, 2nd Dynasty, c BCE 2900-2726

Greek form of first Egyptian Par•oh of the 2nd Dynasty: Hotep-sekhem-ui: ("reconciled are the 2 mistresses" i.e. Upper & Lower Egypt; commonly Hotepsekhemwy).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2865Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251) relative estimate

Yâ•rëd born. Biblical Lifespans TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2806Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251) relative estimate

Kha•nōkh born. Walks with ël•oh•im at age 365. If this describes his death, and is stated in lunar years (i.e. months), then Kha•nōkh only lived to be about 31½ years old (bᵊ-Reish•it 5.22-24). Biblical Lifespans TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2747Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251) relative estimate

Mᵊtu•shë•lakh born.

Mᵊtu•shë•lakh dies at age 969 (bᵊ-Reish•it 5.27). This is expressed in lunar years (i.e., months). Still, Mᵊtu•shë•lakh lived until almost 81 years old. Biblical Lifespans TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2725 Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom, 3rd Dynasty, c BCE 2725-2629

Kha-sekhem-wy becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 2688Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251) relative estimate

Lëmëkh born. (Lëmëkh died at 777; bᵊ-Reish•it 5.31. This is likely stated in lunar years (i.e., months), equating to almost 65 years old.) Biblical Lifespans TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2661 Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom, 3rd Dynasty, c BCE 2725-2629

Djoser becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 2648 Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom, 3rd Dynasty, c BCE 2725-2629

Sekhem-khet becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 2629Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)relative estimate

akh born when Lëmëkh was 182. In an era in which boys took on the responsibilities of manhood at age 12-13, this probably equates to lunar years (= months), making Lëmëkh just over 15 years old when he became the father of akhBiblical Lifespans 

While no geological evidence of a great flood has so far been found to corroborate any great flood during this era, it can be no mere coincidence that this is the era in which the Akkadian and Babylonian (Gilgamesh) oral lore of the Flood are also first codified, c BCE 21st century.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2628 Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom 4th Dynasty

Sneferu becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 2605 Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom 4th Dynasty

Khufu ("Cheop"), builder of the Great Pyramid, becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 2583 Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom 4th Dynasty

Djedefra becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 2570, 2568, 2566Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom 4th Dynasty relative estimate

Sheim, Khâm and Yâ•phët born beginning when akh was 500. This is likely still stated in lunar years (i.e., months) equating to almost 42 years old when he fathered his firstborn son (bᵊ-Reish•it 5.32).

Sheim dies at 602 (lunar years = just over 50 solar years old; bᵊ-Reish•it 11.11). Biblical LifespanTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2569 Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom 4th Dynasty

Khafra becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 2554 Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom 4th Dynasty

Menkaura becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 2529 Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom 4th Dynasty

Shepseskaf becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 2511 Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom 5th Dynasty

Userkaf becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 2511Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom 5th Dynasty relative estimate

Arᵊpa•khᵊshad born. Biblical Lifespans TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2504 Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom 5th Dynasty

Sahura becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 2472 Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom 5th Dynasty

Djedkara becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 2452Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251) relative estimate

Shë•lakh born (bᵊ-Reish•it 11.12). Biblical Lifespans TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2424 Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom 5th Dynasty

Unas becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 2393Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251) relative estimate

Eivër born (bᵊ-Reish•it 11.14). Biblical Lifespans TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2392 Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom 6th Dynasty

Teti becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 2369 Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom 6th Dynasty

Userkara becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 2356 Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom 6th Dynasty

Pepy Sr becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 2350Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)

Egyptologists' & Archeologists' "Low" Dating vs Scientists' "High" Dating  Sargon Sr. founds Akkadian dynasty that would become Bâ•vël, BCE 24th century Akkadian dynasty dominated area for 200 years. [Hist./Arch. dating]TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2339 Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt Old Kingdom 6th Dynasty

Merenra becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 2334Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251) relative estimate

Pëlëg born (bᵊ-Reish•it 11.16). Biblical Lifespans TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2278 Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251)Egypt 7th Dynasty - 1st Intermediate Period

Egyptian 7th Dynasty-1st Intermediate Period.

c BCE 2275Levant: Early=Proto-Syrian Bronze Age (EBA-all), c BCE 3300-2251) relative estimate

Rᵊu born (bᵊ-Reish•it 11.18). Biblical Lifespans TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2250Israel & Southern Levant: Intermediate Bronze Age (IB / MB1, c BCE 2250–1976)

Intermediate Bronze Age / Middle Bronze 1 (Israel & Southern Levant)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2216Israel & Southern Levant: Intermediate Bronze Age (IB / MB1, c BCE 2250–1976) relative estimate

Sᵊrug born (bᵊ-Reish•it 11.20). Biblical Lifespans TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2157Israel & Southern Levant: Intermediate Bronze Age (IB / MB1, c BCE 2250–1976) relative estimate

Nâ•khōr born (bᵊ-Reish•it 11.22). Biblical Lifespans TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2104 Israel & Southern Levant: Intermediate Bronze Age (IB / MB1, c BCE 2250–1976)Egypt Middle Kingdom, 11th Dynasty

Mentu-hotep Jr. becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 2098Israel & Southern Levant: Intermediate Bronze Age (IB / MB1, c BCE 2250–1976) relative estimate

Tërakh born (bᵊ-Reish•it 11.24); died at age ≈65 (i.e., family patriarch = numerological 100 + "40 years" + 65 = 205) Transitional calendric conundrums  (bᵊ-Reish•it 11.32) Biblical Lifespans TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2039Israel & Southern Levant: Intermediate Bronze Age (IB / MB1, c BCE 2250–1976)relative anchor

Av•râm (bᵊ-Reish•it 11.26-7) born.Transitional calendric conundrums 

Applying the transitional calendric method of intercalation to Av•râm's age upon leaving Khâ•rân, he may have been only ≈35 (numerological "40 years" + 35 = 75).

Extending this method consistently, Avᵊrâ•hâm was then ≈45 (+ numerological "40 years" = 85) when he married Hâ•gâr, having dwelled in Kᵊna•an ≈10 years (bᵊ-Reish•it 16.3) and ≈46 (numerological "40 years" + 46 = 86) when Yi•shᵊm•â•eil was born to Hâ•gâr (bᵊ-Reish•it 16.16).

This suggests that Av•râm was circumcised, becoming Avᵊrâ•hâm, at age ≈49 (numerological "40 years" + 49 = 99; bᵊ-Reish•it 17.1, 24). This seems to have been in reaction to the episode in which Lōt left Sᵊdōm, immediately preceding its destruction.

There is probably insufficient data to ever completely decipher all of these proper ages with confidence. Biblical Lifespans  TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 2015 Israel & Southern Levant: Intermediate Bronze Age (IB / MB1, c BCE 2250–1976)Egypt Middle Kingdom, 11th Dynasty

Mentu-hotep 3 becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 1986 Israel & Southern Levant: Intermediate Bronze Age (IB / MB1, c BCE 2250–1976)Egypt Middle Kingdom, 11th Dynasty

Mentu-hotep 4 becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 1980Israel & Southern Levant: Intermediate Bronze Age (IB / MB1, c BCE 2250–1976)relative anchor

Yi•tzᵊkhâq born, making Avᵊrâ•hâm a family patriarch; i.e., numerological age 100  (bᵊ-Reish•it 21.5).

A•qeid•âhYi•tzᵊkhâq age 12; Avᵊrâ•hâm was age ≈37 (numerological patriarch 100 years + 37 = 137; bᵊ-Reish•it 17.17).

Sârâh is purported by the rabbis to have died upon hearing about the A•qeid•âh, at age age ≈27 (numerological matriarch 100 years + 27 = 127; bᵊ-Reish•it 23.1)

At numerological "40 years" old, Yi•tzᵊkhâq marries Rivᵊq•âh (bᵊ-Reish•it 25.20).

Yi•tzᵊkhâq died at age ≈80 (patriarch 100 + 80=180; bᵊ-Reish•it 35.28). Biblical Lifespans  TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1978 Israel & Southern Levant: Intermediate Bronze Age (IB / MB1, c BCE 2250–1976)Egypt Middle Kingdom, 12th Dynasty

Amun-em-hat Sr. becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 1976Israel & Southern Levant: Intermediate Bronze Age (IB / MB1, c BCE 2250–1976)

End Intermediate Bronze Age /​ Middle Bronze Age 1TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1961 Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761)Egypt Middle Kingdom, 12th Dynasty

Sen-Usret Sr. becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 1925 Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761)Egypt Middle Kingdom, 12th Dynasty

Amun-em-hat Jr becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 1921Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761)relative anchor

Twins Ei•sau (Ë•dōm) and Ya•a•qov (Yi•sᵊr•â•eil) born when Yi•tzᵊkhâq was ≈20 ('40 years' + 20 = 60; bᵊ-Reish•it 25.26). Calendric Transitions 

Rainbow Rule

Ya•a•qov fled from his twin brother, Ei•sau, to the home of his uncle Lâ•vân in Khâ•rân, A•râm (where they appear to still have been using the lunar calendar) to find a wife. Attracted to Râ•kheil, he worked 14 (lunar years) = months—just over 1 solar year—to marry her, being duped into marrying her sister, Leiâh, first (bᵊ-Reish•it 32:24-32). Calendric Transitions  (Otherwise, if Râ•kheil was, say 20, when Ya•a•qov was first attracted to her, she would have been middle-aged—34, unreasonably beyond marriageable age of that time—when they finally married.) While his age is not stated, he was likely still in his teens.

Rainbow Rule

Ya•a•qov becomes Yi•sᵊr•â•eil upon leaving Lâ•vân another 6 (lunar) years = 6 mos. later (c BCE 1790).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1886 Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761)Egypt Middle Kingdom, 12th Dynasty

Sen-Usret Jr. becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 1866 Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761)Egypt Middle Kingdom, 12th Dynasty

Sen-Usret 3 becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 1862Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761)relative anchor

Rᵊu•vein born to Leiâh (bᵊ-Reish•it 29.32).

Before Rᵊu•vein, there is no reliable dating of generations other than an estimated 60 years apparent average per generation – likely numerological values 40 plus 20 having no correlation to solar (or lunar) years.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1843 Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761)Egypt Middle Kingdom, 12th Dynasty

Amun-em-hat 3 becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 1803Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761)relative anchor

Shi•mᵊōn born to Leiâh when Ya•a•qovTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1803 Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761)Egypt Middle Kingdom, 12th Dynasty

Amun-em-hat 4 becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 1802Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761) relative estimate

Dân born to Bi•lᵊh•âh (Râ•kheil's attendant)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1801Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761)relative anchor

Lei•wi born to Leiâh

Lei•wi died at 67 in the darkness (+ 70 years" of Mi•tzᵊrayim = 137; Shᵊm•ot 6.16).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1800Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761) relative estimate

Na•phᵊtali born to Bi•lᵊh•âh (Râ•kheil's attendant)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1799Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761)relative anchor

Yᵊhudâh born to LeiâhTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1798Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761) relative estimate

God born to Zi•lᵊp•âh (Leiâh's attendant)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1797Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761) relative estimate

Yi•sâ•khâr born to LeiâhTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1796Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761) relative estimate

•sheir born to Zi•lᵊp•âh (Leiâh's attendant)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1795Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761) relative estimate

Zᵊvul•un born to LeiâhTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1793Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761) relative estimate

Din•âh born to LeiâhTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1792Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761) relative estimate

Yo•seiph born to Râ•kheil (30.23-25).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1792Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761)

Hammurabi, an Amorite, reigns over Bâ•vël, inscribes his "Code of Hammurabi" Stela (in Louvre Museum, Paris); BCE 1792-1749. Egyptologists' & Archeologists' "Low" Dating vs Scientists' "High" Dating TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1790Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761) relative estimate

Bin•yâ•min born to Râ•kheil (35.16-20)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1776 Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761)Egypt Middle Kingdom, 12th Dynasty

Queen Sobek-neferu becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 1775Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761)relative anchor

Yo•seiph, age 17, sold to their cousin, Yi•shᵊm•â•eil•im, slavers who sell him in Mi•tzᵊrayim (37.2)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1772 Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761)Egypt Middle Kingdom, 12th Dynasty

Wegaf becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 1770 Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761)Egypt Middle Kingdom, 12th Dynasty

Sobek-hotep Jr. becomes Par•oh.

c BCE 1764Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761)relative anchor

Qᵊhât born, middle son of Lei•wi. Ergo, about (35 at birth of older brother Gershom + 2 =) 37 years after birth of Lei•wi. Like his father, he died at 63 in the darkness (+ "70 years" of Mi•tzᵊrayim = 133 yrs).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1762Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761)relative anchor

Yo•seiph vizier/viceroy over Mi•tzᵊrayim, age 30, during 7 yrs of plenty (bᵊ-Reish•it 41.46)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1761 Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2a (MBIIA / MBI, c BCE 1975–1761)Egypt 2 Intermed 13th-16th, Abydos & 17th Dynasty

Second Intermediate Period: 13th-16th Dynasties, Abydos Rule & 17th Dynasty. (Successions uncertain due to paucity of evidence.).

c BCE 1755Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2b (MBIIB / MBII; c BCE 1760-1651) relative estimate

Yo•seiph, estimated age 37, brings Yi•sᵊr•â•eil to Mi•tzᵊrayim, beginning 430 yr absence from Kᵊna•an, 2 yrs into the 7 yrs of famine (bᵊ-Reish•it 45.11).

Yi•sᵊr•â•eil joins Yo•seiph in Mi•tzᵊrayim reportedly at age 130. Although this is an age different from intercalations in either A•râm or Kᵊna•an; yet it was obvious (and not questioned in awe) not only by Hebrews, but also by the Egyptian Par•oh Calendric Transitions  (bᵊ-Reish•it 47.9) in 2nd year of famine (bᵊ-Reish•it 45.6; Shᵊm•ot 12.40-41).

While it is tempting to assess this as the numerological age 60 (Sirius 70 + 60 =130), this would dictate that Yi•sᵊr•â•eil went to Egypt c BCE (1811-60=) 1751 whereas a different line of computations indicates he arrived in Egypt at age 130 (i.e. 122 years), 62 years later, in c BCE 1689. This suggests an early attempt by scribes to reconcile (rather than conceal and ignore) various lines of computation.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1740Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2b (MBIIB / MBII; c BCE 1760-1651)relative anchor

Pâ•rëtz is born to Tâ•mâr by Yᵊhudâh (be-Reishit 38.1-30).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1726Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2b (MBIIB / MBII; c BCE 1760-1651) relative estimate

Amᵊrâm, grandson of Lei•wi, was 1st of 4 sons born of Qᵊhât.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1708Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2b (MBIIB / MBII; c BCE 1760-1651) relative estimate

A•ha•ron born 123 years before 40th year after Yᵊtzi•âh (bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbar 38.33), three years before Mosh•ëh (Shᵊm•ot 7.7).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1696Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2b (MBIIB / MBII; c BCE 1760-1651)

Egyptologists' & Archeologists' "Low" Dating vs Scientists' "High" Dating  Yo•seiph, age 30, out of jail, 7 years of plenty begin (bᵊ-Reish•it 41.46): 1 yr in ti Phëra's house + 12 yrs. in jail [calc. fm Yo•seiph’s birth]; Par•oh En-yoteph 4th names En-yoteph-o-ker (Egyptian name equating to Yo•seiph in Hebrew) vizier/viceroy (an indication suggesting that the rule of Par•oh En-yoteph 4th extended to Lower–northern–Egypt, including the Delta) with the new name: צָפְנַת-פַּנְעֵחַ (bᵊ-Reish•it 41.45)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1682Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2b (MBIIB / MBII; c BCE 1760-1651) relative estimate

Yo•seiph died still in Mi•tzᵊrayim at age 110 (bᵊ-Reish•it 50.26) and was mummified. In the ongoing transition of his time, from the lunar calendar to our current solar year calendar, 110 is plausible as a real age as we think of it today. But 110 does stretch credulity a little while his life story seems to scream out something far more significant: Yo•seiph spent most of his life in the darkness of Mi•tzᵊrayim—which would be symbolized as "70 year" period. And the last thing we hear from him is that Yo•seiph was oriented to the time, after an unknown period subsequent to his death that his mummy would be returned to Kᵊna•an—where the numerological equivalent of an "uncertain period" = '40 years'! Stated alternatively, Yo•seiph looked toward "70 years" + '40 years' = 110 years as his final number of days!!! If this is the case, then we are given no indication at all of his physical age at death. So, we'll assume 75 actual solar years.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1681Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2b (MBIIB / MBII; c BCE 1760-1651)relative anchor

Khë•tzᵊr•ōn born to Pâ•rëtzTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1672Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2b (MBIIB / MBII; c BCE 1760-1651)relative estimate: 17 yrs after moving to Egypt

Yi•sᵊr•â•eil dies in Mi•tzᵊrayim after living there 17 years, at age 77 (Sirius 70 + 77 = 147; Calendric Transitions  bᵊ-Reish•it 47.28; 50.22,26).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1655Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2b (MBIIB / MBII; c BCE 1760-1651)

Par•oh Sa-hotep-ka-Ra En-yoteph 4th rules in Egypt (indefinite reign, est. 10 yrs)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2c (MBIIC = MBIII ca. BCE 1650–1516)Egypt 2nd  Intermediate Period, 17th Dynasty

to c BCE Par•oh Sen-akht-en- Yah-moses ("Ahmose 0", great-grandfather of "Ahmose 1") – likely candidate royal Pharaonic household into which, several decades before his reign began, one of his princess daughters (Yah-hotep Sr., Yah-hotep In-Hâp or Sit-Djehuty) adopted Moses, who, thereby, would have become the adopted brother of Se-qen-en- Tao – a prime candidate to have been the Par•oh of the Yᵊtzi•âh.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1622Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2c (MBIIC = MBIII ca. BCE 1650–1516)relative anchor

Râm born to Khë•tzᵊr•ōnTOC (table of contents)

c BCE Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2c (MBIIC = MBIII ca. BCE 1650–1516)Egypt 2nd  Intermediate Period, 17th Dynasty

to c BCE Par•oh Se-qen-en- Tao reigned in Waset (Thebes/​Luxor, Upper Egypt) – best known for his revanchism against the Khëqᵊqâw Khâsᵊt (Hyksos).

c BCE 1608Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2c (MBIIC = MBIII ca. BCE 1650–1516)

Estimated birth of Yᵊho•shua Bin-Nun: 110 earlier than his estimated date of death at 110 years (based on estimated years leading Yi•sᵊr•â•eil after the death of Mōsh•ëh).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2c (MBIIC = MBIII ca. BCE 1650–1516)Egypt 2nd  Intermediate Period, 17th Dynasty

to c BCE : Par•oh Ka-moses, of uncertain lineage (only speculated to be son of Seqen-en-Ra Tao), reigned in Waset (Thebes).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2b (MBIIB / MBII; c BCE 1760-1651)relative anchor

Mosh•ëh born to Amᵊrâm (Dᵊvâr•im 34.7; 3 years after A•ha•ron and 80 (numerology: 2 generations assigned 40 "years" each) before Yᵊtzi•âh (Shᵊm•ot 7.7). Found in basket of bulrushes floating down the Nile by 12-year-old royal princess-in-waiting [Khât-shepset?], who thereby self-identified herself with Isis, and the infant she found with Hōrus, whom she named: [first name Sen-en-Mut???] Tut-moses.

Thus, Mosh•ëh was adopted into the royal Pharaonic House of Par•oh ???-mosesTOC (table of contents)

c BCE Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2c (MBIIC = MBIII ca. BCE 1650–1516)Egypt New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty
Egyptian New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

to c BCE : Par•oh Neb-pehty-Ra Yâh-moses. By end of the first decade of his reign, he laid siege on Avaris. Years of battles ensued with insurrections springing-up in already-liberated areas and being quelled; victory between 12th & 15th year of his reign. Then he fought Cush. In Pharaonic tradition of keeping "royal blood" in the family, Par•oh Neb-pehty-Ra Yâh-moses married his sister, Yâh-moses Nefer-tiri, who became Egypt's first great God's wife of Amun.

He had two daughters, either of whom could have been the princess in Shᵊm•ōt 2.5: Princess Yâh-moses Merit-Amun & Princess Yâh-moses Sit-Amun.

Yâh-moses-ankh was Par•oh Neb-pehty-Ra Yâh-moses's heir apparent, but he died sometime between Par•oh Neb-pehty-Ra Yâh-moses's 17th and 22nd regnal year. Perhaps his firstborn son was killed in battle, or…?

Another of his sons was Amun-hotep Sr.

Plagues ("tempest") Stela
Tempest Stela of Ah-moses
Click to enlargePlagues Stela

Probably in concert with his inauguration, recording the cataclysmic chain of events that may have begun with his great-grandfather, eventually bringing about a New Kingdom and sweeping him to the throne, Par•oh Neb-pehty-Ra Yâh-moses commissioned what has come to be known as "The Tempest Stela" – which recorded catastrophic weather phenomena that affected the whole of Egypt.

Currently, researchers fight off anti-Bible agendists, on one side, while, on the other side, simultaneously struggling ineffectually to squeeze the 14C-dated Καλλίστη Eruption into the same time frame with this stela that seems to describe that very eruption but names its sponsor as Neb-pehty-Ra Yâh-moses (i.e. 14C-dated c. BCE 1570) – 55 years later!!!TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1551Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2c (MBIIC = MBIII ca. BCE 1650–1516)

Yâh-moses-ankh , firstborn son of Par•oh Neb-pehty-Ra Yâh-moses dies in the 17th-22nd regnal year of Yâh-moses Sr.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2c (MBIIC = MBIII ca. BCE 1650–1516)Egypt New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

to c BCE : Par•oh Amun-hotep Sr., son of Yâh-moses, becomes Par•oh. Because his son died in infancy, Amun-hotep Sr. was succeeded by his top general brother-in-law, Yah-kheper ka-Ra (later throne name Tut-moses Sr.), who had married his sister.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2c (MBIIC = MBIII ca. BCE 1650–1516)anchored date

14C Dating of Καλλίστη Eruption
Καλλίστη/​Thera/​Santorini/​Minoan/​Atlantis eruption.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2c (MBIIC = MBIII ca. BCE 1650–1516)

Egyptologists' & Archeologists' "Low" Dating vs Scientists' "High" Dating  Par•oh enslaves the Ha•biru (Hebrews) in corvée to build him a new capital city, named Pi-Tōm (which Ra-moses Jr. "the Great" renovated, renaming the city after himself – as well as marking Egypt's theological evolution from A•tōm to Ra-moses: Pi Ra-moses).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2c (MBIIC = MBIII ca. BCE 1650–1516)
Yᵊtzi•âh
On the Judaic Calendar:

(Adopted Hebrew) Pharaonic Prince □-Moses, at 80 (numerology = 2 x 40 years) years of age, calls on Par•oh to release Hebrews (Shᵊm•ot 7.7).

c BCE 1542 Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2c (MBIIC = MBIII ca. BCE 1650–1516)

Yᵊho•shua Bin-Nun destroys Yᵊri•kho.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1536Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2c (MBIIC = MBIII ca. BCE 1650–1516)relative anchor

Am•i•nâ•dâv born to RâmTOC (table of contents)

c BCE Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2c (MBIIC = MBIII ca. BCE 1650–1516)Egypt New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

to c BCE Yah-kheper ka-Ra, Tut-moses Sr. becomes Par•oh.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1515Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)

Birth of Pharaonic Princess Khât-shepset, daughter of Yah-kheper ka-Ra Tut-moses Sr. (The end of her reign, i.e. her death, is 14C- dated. Dental exam of her mummy indicates that she died at age ≈65 ► calculated from the 14C date.)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1512Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)

A•ha•ron died age 123. Succeeded by Ëlᵊâ•zâr as Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl, who served for 20 years.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1505Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201) relative estimate

Episode, during the tenure of Ëlᵊâ•zâr as Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl, of Bil•âm & Bâ•lâq in Mo•âv (modern Jordan, across the river east of Yᵊri•kho).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

to c BCE Par•oh Tut-moses Jr. (married to royal princess Khât-shepset, daughter of Yah-kheper ka-Ra Tut-moses Sr.) TOC (table of contents)

c BCE Israel & Southern Levant: Middle Bronze Age 2c (MBIIC = MBIII ca. BCE 1650–1516)Egypt 2nd  Intermediate Period, 17th Dynastyrelative anchor

Estimated death of Mōsh•ëh (age 80 at the time of the Yᵊtzi•âh) and succeeded by Yᵊho•shua Bin-Nun.

Yᵊho•shua Bin-Nun takes command after Mosh•ëh dies at age 120 (numerology = 3 x 40 years), interpolating from both Yᵊtzi•âh and from building of Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh begun in 4th regnal year of Shᵊlomoh ha-Mëlëkh (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 6.1; Dᵊvâr•im 34.7); the 14C dating of his destruction of Yᵊri•kho; Yᵊho•shua Bin-Nun later erected the Mi•shᵊkân at ShilōhTOC (table of contents)

c BCE Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

to c BCE . Men-kheper Ra Tut-moses 3rd may be the Par•oh who took vengeance against the foundling god of Khât-shepset, Mosh•ëh ( Sen-en-Mut), and against Mosh•ëh’s kindred the Hebrews. About 20 years after Khât-shepset died, her monuments were defaced, and a wide-ranging attempt was made to erase her memory from Egypt's history. expunging the embarrassing catastrophe of Men-kheper Ra Tut-moses 3rd’s reign, of the Hebrew □-Moses, and most of the references to Ha•biru, from their archives. From BCE 15th to the 12th centuries the ᵊpru appear in Egyptian documents as captives from Kᵊna•an-Syria, and as slaves of the state.”TOC (table of contents)

c BCE Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

to c BCE Regency of Khât-shepset for infant or minor nephew Men-kheper Ra Tut-moses 3rd, who co-reigns as a child with his aunt, Khât-shepset.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

to c BCE Co-reign of Queen-Par•oh Khât-shepset with limited (probably ceremonial) input from youth minor Men-kheper Ra Tut-moses 3rd.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

Sole reign of Queen Par•oh Khat-shepset. The aunt of Men-kheper Ra Tut-moses 3rd, the Royal Princess Khât-shepset, with the aid of her lover, Sen-en-Mut Tut-moses, became Queen Par•oh and reigned until her 14C-dated death.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1492Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)relative anchor: Yehoshua takes command -20 yrs

Enslaved to mëlëkh A•râm, 8 years (Sho•phᵊt•im 3.8); Bᵊn•ei-Yi•sᵊrâ•eil followed their own eyes for approx. 13 years prior to the first sho•pheit.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1483Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)relative anchor

Estimated date that Yᵊho•shua Bin-Nun dies at age 110 (numerology = "70 years" of darkness spent in Mi•tzᵊrayim + "40 years"; Yᵊho•shua 24.29); Bᵊn•ei-Yᵊho•shua do whatever is right in their own eyes (Sho•phᵊt•im 17.6); body of a Lei•wi’s concubine, who was abused to death in Giv•âh by the Tribe of Bin•yâ•min, cut in 12 pieces (Sho•phᵊt•im 19); A•ron ha-Bᵊrit in Giv•âh, Pi•nᵊkhas Bën-Ëlᵊâ•zâr Bën-A•ha•ron officiated (Sho•phᵊt•im 20.27-28; Yᵊho•shua 24.33).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1479Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201) relative estimate (includes uncertain '40 yrs')

Sho•pheit #1: A•tᵊni•eil Bën-Qᵊnaz (younger brother of Kâ•leiv, Sho•phᵊt•im 3.9), 40 years (Sho•phᵊt•im 3.11) [calc. fm Yᵊho•shua's death, estimating 13 yrs. in which Bᵊn•ei-Yi•sᵊr•â•eil followed after their own eyes]; enslaved to Ë•gᵊl•ōn, mëlëkh Mo•âv, 18 years concurrent with Sho•phᵊt•im [interpolated from Yᵊhoshua and Sho•pheit #1 ]TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1468 Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)

Egyptologists' & Archeologists' "Low" Dating vs Scientists' "High" Dating  Men-kheper Ra Tut-moses 3rd campaigns against Mᵊgidō)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

Death of Queen Par•oh Khat-shepset. Dental indications of her mummy suggest that she died at age ≈60.

c BCE 1452Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)relative anchor: 1st day of 1st month of 2nd year after Yᵊtziah

Mi•shᵊkân completed 02.01.01 (on the Judaic calendar) of the Yᵊtzi•âh (Shᵊm•ōt 40.17)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1450Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)relative anchor

Na•khᵊsh•ōn born to Am•i•nâ•dâv [calc. as average # yrs/generation from birth of Pâ•rëtz to birth of Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh]TOC (table of contents)

c BCE Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

to c BCE Amun-hotep Jr. reigns.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1441Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201) relative estimate (includes uncertain '40 yrs')

Sho•pheit #2: Ei•hud Bën-Geirâ (Sho•phᵊt•im 3.15) 80 years (Sho•phᵊt•im 3.30).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

to c BCE : Par•oh Tut-moses 4th reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1401 Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

Par•oh Amun-hotep 3rd reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim. He wrote clay tablets, taken by his son, Amun-hotep 4th / Akhen-Aten to Akhet-Aten (later renamed: Tël el-Amarna), Egypt, which make frequent mention of incursions by Ha•biru against the settled [regions of Kᵊna•an].TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1377 Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

Par•oh Amun-hotep 4thAkhen-Aten – reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim. He moves the capital from Thebes to Tël el-Amarna, marries Queen Nefer-titi and establishes the pattern of making changes de convenance to Tōr•âh, thereby displacing Tōr•âh with a similar-looking counterfeit – inventing the pattern-jig from which, millennia later, Paul and Muhammed would form their respective displacement mythologies. He established a solarcentric monotheism, featuring sun(day)-worship.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1366Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201) relative estimate (includes uncertain '40 yrs')

Sho•pheit #3: Sha•mᵊgar Bën-A•nât (Sho•phᵊt•im 3.31) 20 years (Sho•phᵊt•im 4.3) [calc. fm Yᵊtzi•âh + 212; not from uncertain duration of Sho•pheit #2 who officiated "80 yrs".]TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1364Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)relative anchor

Sa•lᵊm•â born to Na•khᵊsh•ōnTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1351 Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

Par•oh Nefer-neferu-Aten (popularly Nefer-titi) reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayimTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1348Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201) relative estimate (includes uncertain '40 yrs')

Sho•pheit #4: Dᵊvōr•âh ha-Nᵊvi•yâh Eishët La•pid•ōt (Sho•phᵊt•im 4.4) 40 years (Sho•phᵊt•im 5.31) [calc. fm Sho•pheit #3 who officiated 20 yrs.]; story of Yâ•eil (Sho•phᵊt•im 4.17ff)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1342 Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

Par•oh Tut-Ankh-Amun (popularly "Tutenkamen," "King Tut") reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayimTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1337 Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

Par•oh Ai reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayimTOC (table of contents)

c BCE Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

to c BCE : Par•oh Hōr-em-heb reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayimTOC (table of contents)

c BCE Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

to c BCE : Par•oh Ra-moses Sr. reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayimTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1310Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201) relative estimate (includes uncertain '40 yrs')

Enslaved to Mi•dᵊyân 7 years, partially concurrent (?) with feckless Sho•phᵊt•im (Sho•phᵊt•im 6.1) made tunnels in hills of YᵊhudâhTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1304Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201) relative estimate (includes uncertain '40 yrs')

Sho•pheit #5: Gi•dᵊōn Bën-Yō•âsh (Sho•phᵊt•im 6.11) officiated 40 years (8.28)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty

to c BCE : Par•oh Set-i Sr. reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.

Later in his reign, Seti conquered parts of Kᵊna•an. In Sho•phᵊt•im 3 (under Ei•hud Bën-Geirâ, Sho•pheit #2), this appears to be a rather lengthy period, of uncertain duration, in which a combination of foreign (e.g., Egypt, Pᵊli•shᵊt•in, Ë•dōm, Assyria, Aram) and an assortment of remaining local Kᵊna•an•im kings raid and mount forays into Yi•sᵊr•â•eil (e.g., the Mëlëkh Mo•âv). These, likely, were allies of Mi•tzᵊrayim whose victories Par•oh credited to himself.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty

to c BCE : Par•oh Ra-moses Jr. "the Great" reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim, built Luxor and El-Karnak and renovated Pi-Tōm, renaming the city after himself and the evolution of A•tōm to Ra-moses: namely, the city of Pi Ra-moses (later Avaris, modern Qantir).

Theologians misinterpret Shᵊm•ōt 1.11 – in which the scribe, copying a ms. centuries after the fact, identifies the ancient city name along with the city's then-current name (in the same way I refer to Mesopotamia as Iraq, Persia as Iran or Constantinople as Istanbul so that readers of my era can relate) – as "proof" that the city was built by Ra-moses Jr. "the Great" (and, therefore, of his later time; see also bᵊ-Reish•it 47.11). As a result of their misinterpetation, Ra-moses Jr. "the Great" is routinely wrongly assumed to be the Par•oh of the Yᵊtzi•âh – which happened 2½ centuries before Ra-moses "the Great"!!!TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1278Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)relative anchor

az, great-grandfather of Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh, born to Sa•lᵊm•â [calc. as average # yrs/generation from birth of Pâ•rëtz to birth of Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh]TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1266Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)relative estimate

Sho•pheit #6: Av•imëlëkh Bën-Yᵊrubba•al, mëlëkh in Shᵊkhëm (Sho•phᵊt•im 9.1) 3 years (9.22)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1264 Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)relative estimate

Sho•pheit #7 & #8 (concurrent): Tō•lâ Bën-Pu•âh (Sho•phᵊt•im 10.1) 23 years and Yâ•ir ha-Gi•lᵊâdi 22 years (Sho•phᵊt•im 10.3).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1260 relative estimate (includes uncertain '40 yrs')

Enslaved to Pᵊli•shᵊt•in and bᵊn•ei-A•mōn [modern Amman, western Jordan] during last 18 years of Sho•phᵊt•im #7 & #8 (Sho•phᵊt•im 10.7-8)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1251 Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty

Par•oh Mer-en-Ptah reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.

"… and in [Kᵊna•an] itself the Egyptian occupational levels were replaced by those of the Pᵊli•shᵊt•in, the Sea People group which Ra-moses Jr. "the Great" had employed as mercenaries in Egypt and [Kᵊna•an] after he had defeated them."TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1249 Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)

Estimated date of Rut and az; a false parallel is sometimes asserted between Rut 1 and Sho•phᵊt•im 10. The רָעָב of Rut 1.1 contrasted against no רָעָב mentioned in Sho•phᵊt•im; but, rather צָרָה of Sho•phᵊt•im 10.9-16, c BCE 1316 [calc. ⅔ from birth of az to birth of Ō•veid since az mentioned to Rut that he was old]TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1243 Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)relative estimate

Sho•pheit #9: Yi•phᵊtakh ha-Gi•lâd•i 6 yrs (Sho•phᵊt•im 11.1, 12.7) in Râmât ha-Mi•tzᵊp•ëh near Ma•khan•âyim, in the province of Gi•lâd, midway between Yâm Ki•nërët and Yâm ha-Mëlakh, 11 mi. east of Nᵊhar ha-Ya•rᵊd•ein in modern-day Jordan,13 mi. north of the Yâ•bōq river; Pi•nᵊkhâs Bën-Ël•â•zâr Bën-A•ha•ron “stood” in Beit Eil in the province of Ë•phᵊr•ayim (Sho•phᵊt•im 20.26-28)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1238 Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)relative estimate

Sho•pheit #10: Ivᵊtzân of Beit Lëkhëm 7 years (Sho•phᵊt•im 12.8-9)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1232 Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)relative estimate

Sho•pheit #11: Eil•ōn of the tribe of Zᵊvul•un 10 years (Sho•phᵊt•im 12.11)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1231 Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty

Meren-Ptah reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.

The ruling Par•oh inscribed a Victory Stela speaks of Meren-Ptah’s victory over Yi•sᵊr•â•eilEgyptian documentation of the existence of Israel!!!

"An inscription of [Ra-moses Jr.'s] successor, Meren-Ptah, which mentions the name Yi•sᵊr•â•eil for the first time in an Egyptian text and definitely places it somewhere in [Kᵊna•an], has been taken as evidence that the biblical [Yᵊtzi•âh] had already taken place."TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1223 Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)relative estimate

Sho•pheit #12: Avᵊd•ōn Bën- Hi•leil 8 yrs (Sho•phᵊt•im 12.13-15)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1216 Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201) relative estimate (includes uncertain '40 yrs')

Sho•pheit #13: Shi•mᵊsh•ōn Bën-Mâ•nōakh [corrupted to “Samson”] 20 years (Sho•phᵊt•im 15.20; 16.31)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1213 Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty

Par•oh Amun-moses reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1207 Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty

Par•oh Set-i Jr. reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayimTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1206 Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)relative estimate

Enslaved to Pᵊli•shᵊt•in 40 years (Sho•phᵊt•im 13.1) while Eil•i ha-kō•hein raises: Shᵊmu•eil ha-Nâ•vi.

The A•ron י‑‑ה is brought from where Yᵊho•shua Bin-Nun originally placed it, in Shil•ōh, to -Ëvën -Eizër to fight the Pᵊli•shᵊt•in; but, instead, Pᵊli•shᵊt•in captured the A•ron י‑‑ה (Shᵊmu•eil Âlëph 4.1-18) and took it to Ashᵊdōd where they developed עְֳפָלִים (Shᵊmu•eil Âlëph 5.1-6), so they sent it off to Ëqᵊr•ōn (5.10), who then developed עְֳפָלִים. After 7 months, the exasperated and terror-stricken Pᵊli•shᵊt•in put it on a cart, tied with a rope to two driverless milk cows that had never been yoked, which pulled it to the field of Yᵊho•shua in Beit Shëmësh (6.13-14). Yᵊtzi•âh + 416 (Sho•pheit 13-20) [calc. fm Sho•pheit #13 who officiated 20 yrs]TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1202 Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)Egypt New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty

Par•oh Sa-Ptah reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1200Levant: Late=Middle-Syrian Bronze Age (LBA-all), c BCE 1515-1201)

End Bronze Age (in Kᵊna•an)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1199-​586

Iron Age (in Kᵊna•an)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1196 Egypt New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty

Queen-Par•oh Ta-Wosret reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1192 Egypt New Kingdom, 20th Dynasty

Par•oh Set-nakht reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1192 relative anchor

Ō•veid, father of Yi•shai and grandfather of Dâ•wid (birth of Dâ•wid; calc. as average # yrs/generation from birth of Pâ•rëtz to birth of Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1190 Egypt New Kingdom, 20th Dynasty

Par•oh Ra-moses 3 reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1173 Egypt New Kingdom, 20th Dynasty

Par•oh Ra-moses 4 reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1167 relative anchor

Yi•shai, father of Dâ•wid, born [calc. as average # yrs/generation from birth of Pâ•rëtz to birth of Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh]TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1161 relative anchor

A•ron י‑‑ה fetched to house of Av•inâ•dâv in Qi•rᵊy•at Yᵊâr•im, where it remained for 20 years (Shᵊmu•eil Âlëph 7.2)

Ëlᵊâ•zâr Bën-Av•inâ•dâv officiates (Shᵊmu•eil Âlëph 7.1), during the days of Yi•shai and the elder brothers of Dâ•widTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1154 Egypt New Kingdom, 20th Dynasty

Par•oh Ra-moses 5 reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1149 Egypt New Kingdom, 20th Dynasty

Par•oh Ra-moses 6 reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1143 Egypt New Kingdom, 20th Dynasty

Par•oh Ra-moses 7 reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1142 anchored date

Birth of Dâ•wid, 7th son of Yi•shai (Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Âlëph 2.13-15), [calc. fm Dâ•wid’s coronation estimated at 23 yrs of age]TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1136 Egypt New Kingdom, 20th Dynasty

Par•oh Ra-moses 8 reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1131 Egypt New Kingdom, 20th Dynasty

Par•oh Ra-moses 9 reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1130 relative anchor

Shᵊmu•eil ha-Nâ•vi anoints Dâ•wid (Shᵊmu•eil Âlëph 16.3) Mëlëkh Yᵊhudâh in Khë•vᵊr•on at 22 years of age [became king of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil at 30]; reigned 7 years 6 mos.; Shᵊmu•eil Beit 2.4, 11)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1129 relative anchor

Dâ•wid & Gâ•lᵊyât when Dâ•wid still a נַעַר, Shᵊmu•eil Âlëph 17.33)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1122 relative anchor

Shᵊmu•eil ha-Nâ•vi anoints Shâ•ul Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil, establishes capital at Gi•vᵊâh (modern, Gi•vᵊat-Shâ•ul 5km north of Yᵊru•shâ•layim, Shᵊmu•eil Âlëph 10.1), reigns total of 3 yrs (Shᵊmu•eil Âlëph 13.1); dies (age not given) at Gi•lᵊbōa (Shᵊmu•eil Âlëph 31.4-5)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1120 Egypt New Kingdom, 20th Dynasty

Par•oh Ra-moses 10 reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1112 Egypt New Kingdom, 20th Dynasty relative anchor

Dâ•wid ha-MëlëkhMëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Yᵊru•shâ•layim as capital 33 yrs (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 2.11; Shᵊmu•eil Beit 5.4) = total 40 years; Dâ•wid 30 years old when made king (Shᵊmu•eil Beit 5.4)

Hebrew Language (In Contrast To Alephbeit) First Documented

"A breakthrough in the research of the Hebrew scriptures has shed new light on the period in which the Bible was written. Prof. Gershon Galil of the Department of Biblical Studies at the University of Haifa has deciphered an inscription [of the Qeiyafa Ostracon] dating from…the period of King David’s reign, and has shown that this is a Hebrew inscription. The discovery makes this the earliest known Hebrew writing." When archeologists say "BCE 10th century namely reign of Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh," they fail to realize that the two are assumed, to be the same; the reign of Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh is assumed to have been in the BCE 10th century. They are not necessarily identical. The ostracon is dated to the reign of Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh – whenever that is demonstrated to have been. Though the language is demonstrably Hebrew, it's written in an alphabet that pre-dates Phoenician, from which the Hebrew alephbet later developed.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1107 Egypt New Kingdom, 20th Dynasty

Par•oh Ra-moses 11 reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1087 Egypt 3rd Intermediate Period-23rd Dynasty

Par•oh Nes-ba-neb-Djed (Hellenized to Smendes) reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1080 relative anchor 40yrs
Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl Tzâ•dōq Bën-Akh•iy•tūv

Birth Of Tzᵊdōq•im (Bᵊn•ei Tzâ•dōq)

Shᵊlōmōh ha-Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil reigned in Yᵊru•shâ•layim 40 years (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 11.42); 40 years = approx. generation, after completing Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh?TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1076 anchored date

Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh is begun in Yᵊru•shâ•layim (4th year of Shᵊlomoh, 7 years to build; Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 6.38)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1069 relative anchor

Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh is completed in Yᵊru•shâ•layim (11th year of Shᵊlomoh, 7 years to build; Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 6.38)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1059 Egypt 3rd Intermediate Period-23rd Dynasty

Par•oh Amun-em-nisu reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1043 Egypt New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

Par•oh Yah-kheper-Ra Setep-en-Amun Pasebakhenniut Sr. – "The Silver Pharaoh" (which, in ancient Egypt of that time, was more valuable than gold); reigned to c BCE 1020.

Some time early in, or immediately preceding, his reign (i.e. c BCE 1047; Egyptologists' & Archeologists' "Low" Dating vs Scientists' "High" Dating ), the branch of the Nile servicing Pi Ra-moses dried up. This was the city originally built by enslaved Hebrews, under the Par•oh of the Yᵊtzi•âh, as his new capital – Pi-Tōm. Subsequently, Ra-moses Jr. "the Great" (c BCE 1292-1252) renovated Pi-Tōm, renaming the city after himself and the evolution of A•tōm to Ra-moses: Pi Ra-moses (later renamed Avaris, modern Qantir).

Par•oh Yah-kheper-Ra Setep-en-Amun, the "Silver Pharaoh", moved the city, stone by stone, 20 km north to another, flowing, tributary of the Nile at Djanet (modern Tanis).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1040 relative anchor

Shᵊlomoh ha-Mëlëkh death [interpolated from his beginning the building of Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh at a young but reasonable age, pointing at an earlier dating, versus cascading the reigns of successive kings of the 10 northern tribes of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil upward from ca. BCE 722, pointing at a later dating]. The twin descriptions of "40 years" for the successive reigns of both Dâ•wid and Shᵊlomoh suggest that a significant part of the "gap" between "High" and "Low" datings (Egyptologists' & Archeologists' "Low" Dating vs Scientists' "High" Dating ) hit the crunch here even among the earliest extant scribes.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1040 relative anchor

Rᵊkhavᵊâm Bën-Shᵊlomoh becomes Mëlëkh Yᵊhudâh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim, (reigned 17 yrs. Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 12- 14.21) [Shlomoh's death 5 years before Shishaq invasion [Calc. after Shᵊlomoh ha-Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil reigned in Yᵊru•shâ•layim 40 years (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 11.42)]TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1040 relative anchor

Yâ•râvᵊâm Bën-Nᵊvât, Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Shᵊkhëm and Pᵊnu•eil (east of Ya•rᵊd•ein river on south bank of Yaboq river, eastern mound of modern Arabized Tulul al-Dhahab) 22 yrs (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 14.20), (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 11.26ff; 12.16ff; 14.20; 15.2, 9; 14.20.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1035 anchored date

Invasion by Par•oh Hedj-kheper-Ra Setep-en-Ra (Hellenized to Psusennes Sr.; Shoshenq Sr.; Shishaq), discovered in the tomb whose wall inscriptions indicated it was the tomb of Psusennes Sr. Egyptologists estimate his reign ending at least 11 years earlier, c BCE 1047-1001. Prior to the recent (2010-11) 14C datings of Ramsey et al., however, the dating and length of his reign, dependant on a single guesstimate source (Manetho), is mired in numerous questions. Egyptologists' & Archeologists' "Low" Dating vs Scientists' "High" Dating 

Dating of the invasion, by contrast, is more straightforward. 14C date of Tël Rᵊkhōv Iron Age 1A-B "late eleventh-early tenth centuries for stratum D-3" (i.e., BCE 1050-950), one of the several destructions. TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1021 relative anchor

Av•i•yâm Bën-Rᵊkhavᵊâm, Mëlëkh Yᵊhudâh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim, 3 years, (18th year of Yâ•râvᵊâm; Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 15.1-2; Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 13.1),TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1019 Egypt 3rd Intermediate Period-23rd Dynasty

Par•oh Amun-em-opet reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1012 relative anchor

Nâ•dâv Bën-Yâ•râv•âm, Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Shᵊkhëm, 2nd yr of •sâ, for 2 yrs (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 15.25).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1011 relative anchor

•sâ Bën-Av•i•yâm, Mëlëkh Yᵊhudâh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim 41 yrs, (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 15.9-10; Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 16.13).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 1006 relative anchor

Baᵊâs•â Bën-Akh•i•yâh, Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Ti•rᵊtz•âh 3rd yr of •sâ (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 15.28 & 33), 3rd yr of •sâ for 24 yrs (15.33); Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 16.1, reading the 36th year of •sâ, must be in error?).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 992 Egypt 3rd Intermediate Period-23rd Dynasty

Par•oh Osorkon Sr., "the Elder"; throne name Par•oh Yah-kheper-Ra Setep-en-Ra reigns in Mi•tzᵊrayim.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 978 relative anchor

Eilâh Ben-Baᵊâs•â, Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Ti•rᵊtz•âh (26th year of •sâ, 2 yrs; Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 16.8).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 972 relative anchor

Zi•mᵊr•i, Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Ti•rᵊtz•âh 7 DAYS (27th year of •sâ; Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 16.9-10).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 972

Rival factions in Yi•sᵊr•â•eil: •mᵊr•i and Ti•vᵊn•i Bën-Gin•at, contend for the throne of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Ti•rᵊtz•âh (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 16.15, 21-22).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 962 relative anchor

Yᵊhō•shâ•phât Bën-•sâ ha-mëlëkh Yᵊhudâh reigned 25 years (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 15.24; 22.50; Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 20.31).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 961 relative anchor

•mᵊr•i prevailed as Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil beginning in the 31st regnal year of •sâ over Yᵊhudâh. After ruling 6 years in Ti•rᵊtz•âh, he moved his capital to Shom•ron (corrupted to “Samaria”; Herod renamed city Sabastiyeh; located ≈10 km NW of Shᵊkhëm), where he reigned for 12 years, for a total of 18 years (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 16.23). Shom•ron remained the capital of the 10 Tribes of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil for the rest of its existence.

Interpreting the verse as 12 years overlapping the 6 years unbalances the two chronologies of kings, so that his reign fails to begin in the 31st regnal year of •sâ.

Balancing the two royal chronologies (from the death of Shᵊlomoh to the deportation of the 10 Tribes in BCE 722) also reveals that a reign of x (apparently full) years usually correlates to partial intrusion into either the beginning or ending year (or both) of the reign so that the reign covers, at least partially, x+1 years. TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 937 relative anchor

Akh•âv Bën-•mᵊr•i, Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Shom•ron) 38th yr of •sâ, 22 yrs. (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 16.29). Reigning 22 yrs shows a clear error in the BAR dating.

Akh•âv intermarried an idolatrous Phoenician (Lebanese) princess of Tzi•dōn, Iy-Zëvël Bat-ët-Baal, built a mi•zᵊbeiakh to Baal in a house of Baal that he had built, and he made an a•shᵊr•âh.

Khi•eil, from Beit Eil, built Yᵊri•kho (16.34).

Eil•i•yâhu ha-Nâ•vi proclaimed a famine, demonstrated a barrel of meal and a cruse of oil not exhausted (17.1-16), raised a widow’s son (17.17-24), went to Akh•âv in the 3rd year of the famine; challenged the nᵊviy•ei Baal (18). Eil•i•yâhu fed by ma•lâkh; the still small voice. Passing the mantle to Ël•i•shâ (19).

Akh•âv’s 2 wars with Syria (20); Iy-Zëvël Bat-ët-Baal exercised "eminent domain" to take Nâv•ōt’s vineyard (21). 3 yrs of peace with Syria followed by a war in which Yi•sᵊr•â•eil and Yᵊhudâh allied together to fight the Arameans.

Knowing that the Arameans had sent out the order to fight no one else, only to assassinate Akh•âv alone (22.31), and to evade the prophecy of Mi•khâ•yᵊhu Bën-Yi•mᵊl•âh that he would be killed in that battle, Akh•âv ha-mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil disguised himself as an ordinary charioteer, convincing Yᵊhō•shâ•phât ha-mëlëkh Yᵊhudâh to dress as Akh•âv ha-mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil (so that he would be killed instead).

When the Arameans chased down who they thought was Akh•âv and discovered it wasn't him, they were disheartened. In frustration, a single Aramean archer launched an arrow into the midst of the battling Yi•sᵊr•â•eil•im and Yᵊhud•im. The chance fickle arrow of fate happened to strike Akh•âv in the gut and he bled out in the chariot (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 22).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 928 relative anchor

Yᵊhō•râm Bën-Yᵊhō•shâ•phât, Mëlëkh Yᵊhudâh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim (8 yrs., 5th yr of Yᵊhō•râm Bën-Akh•âv, Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 8.16-17; Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 21.5, 20).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 925–908

Eil•i•yâhu ha-Nâ•viTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 925–908

O•vad•yâh ha-Nâ•viTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 911 relative anchor

A•khazᵊyâhu Bën-Akh•âv, Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Shom•ron (17th yr of Yᵊhō•shâ•phât for 2 yrs) Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 22.52); Eil•i•yâhu ha-Nâ•vi & fire from heavens consumes 50-soldier platoons sent by A•khazᵊyâhu to kill him (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 1)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 910 relative anchor

A•khazᵊyâhu Bën-Yᵊhō•râm, Mëlëkh Yᵊhudâh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim (11th & 12th yrs of Yᵊhō•râm Bën-Akh•âv for 1 yr; Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 8.25-26; Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 22.2).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 908-​835

Ël•i•shâ ha-Nâ•viTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 905 relative anchor

Yᵊhor•âm Bën-Akh•âv, Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Shom•ron; 18th yr of Yᵊhō•shâ•phât (ergo, Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 1.17 must be in error?), reigned for 12 yrs (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 3.1).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 902 relative anchor

A•talᵊyâhu Bat-•mᵊr•i, Ma•lᵊk•at-Yᵊhudâh in Shom•ron, reigned for 6 yrs after killing all royal descendants of Yᵊhudâh (namely, Beit-Dâ•wid) except for Yō•âsh Bën-A•khazᵊyâhu, whom Yᵊhō•sha•vᵊat Bat ha-Mëlëkh Yᵊhor•âm, eishët Yᵊhō•yâd•â ha-kō•hein had hidden from her (Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 22.11-12).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 889 relative anchor

Yeihu Bën-Yᵊhō•shâ•phât Bën-Ni•mᵊsh•i, Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Shom•ron 28 yrs., Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 9.14; 10.32-33, 36), dated by archaeologists, confining the calc to be no later than c BCE 855TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 883-​859

Egyptologists' & Archeologists' "Low" Dating vs Scientists' "High" Dating  Ashurnasirpal Jr. c BCE 883-859TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 882 relative anchor

Yō•âsh Bën-A•khazᵊyâhu, Mëlëkh Yᵊhudâh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim (40 years, Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 22.11-12; 23.11; 24.1), began to reign in 7th yr of Yeihu (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 12.1). The practice of crediting infringed yrs to both kings seems less prevalent in Yᵊhudâh than in Yi•sᵊr•â•eil during this period.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 859 relative anchor

Yᵊhō•â•khâz Bën-Yeihu, Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Shom•ron (dated 42 yrs later), reigned 17 yrs. cf. Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 13.1. According to this same verse, it should correspond to the 23rd regnal year of Yō•âsh Bën-A•khazᵊyâhu. However, it corresponds instead to the 28th regnal year. While the verse may have possibly been a scribal error misreading 26 (which could then be explained by infringing years versus whole years), the chronology of these two lines of kings based on literal Scripture readings is rife with arithmetic contradictions relative to archeological dating; and even more so scientific dating. (See also Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 34.8; 36.2,4.)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 858

Egyptologists' & Archeologists' "Low" Dating vs Scientists' "High" Dating  Shalmanesser 3rd BCE 858-824.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 850

Tel Dan Stele
Click to enlarge
Tel Dan Stele – BCE 9th century; earliest known reference to daletvavdalet tawyodbeit (Middle-Semitic Hebrew; modern: בֵּית דָּוִד) – the House of "David" TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 840 relative anchor

Yᵊhō•âsh (also Yō•âsh) Bën-Yᵊhō•â•khâz, Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Shom•ron 16 yrs. (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 13.10; Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 25.17).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 840 relative anchor

A•matzᵊyâhu Bën-Yō•âsh (Bën-A•khazᵊyâhu), Mëlëkh Yᵊhudâh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim (29 yrs., supposed to begin in 2nd yr. of Yō•âsh Bën-Yᵊhō•â•khâz (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 14.1; Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 25.1).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 822 relative anchor

Yâ•râvᵊâm Bën-Yō•âsh (Bën-Yᵊhō•â•khâz), Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Shom•ron for 52 yrs. (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 13.13; 15.2).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 808 relative anchor

A•zarᵊyâh(u) Bën-A•matzᵊyâhu, Mëlëkh Yᵊhudâh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim 52 yrs.

The account in Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 26 clearly confuses the name of the king with the name of U•zi•yâhu ha-kō•hein. Not only is A•zarᵊyâh(u) given in the account in Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 14.21; 15.1-2, his son and successor specifies his name as A•zarᵊyâh(u). A priori, U•zi•yâhu is the name of the kō•hein.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 770 relative anchor

Zᵊkharᵊyâhu Bën-Yâ•râvᵊâm, Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Shom•ron 6 mos. (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 15.8).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 769

Ho•sheia ha-Nâ•vi, BCE 769-698 Hist dating; familiarity of descriptions suggest he lived in the 10 Northern TribesTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 769 relative anchor

Sha•lum Bën-Yâ•veish, Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Shom•ron 1 mo. (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 15.13-14). Verse 13 promulgates the conflation of A•zarᵊyâh(u) ha-Mëlëkh with U•zi•yâhu ha-kō•hein?TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 769 relative anchor

Mᵊna•kheim Bën-Gâd•i, Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Shom•ron 10 yrs., Pul was king of Syria for 2 years during 50th yr of A•zarᵊyâh(u) (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 15.17-19).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 763

Âmos -Nâ•vi, BCE 763 Hist datingTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 757 relative anchor

Pᵊqakh•yâh Bën- Mᵊna•kheim, Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Shom•ron. Pul is king of Syria (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 15.23).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 753 relative anchor

qakh Bën-Rᵊmalᵊyâhu, Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Shom•ron (BCE 737-732 52nd yr of A•zarᵊyâhu ha-kō•hein for 20 yrs (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 15.27). According to Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 15.29, •khâz fought Ti•gᵊlat-Pilësër (BCE 744-727); qakh fought •khâz (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 16.5-10) and was deposed in 20th yr of Yō•tâm (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 15.30). However, Yō•tâm reigned only 16 yrs. (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 15.33)!TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 753 relative anchor

Yō•tâm Bën-A•zarᵊyâhu (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 15.1ff; Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 26.1ff); confused with U•zi•yâhu ha-kō•hein (26.17ff), Mëlëkh Yᵊhudâh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 15.7, 32-33 (reigned fm 2nd yr of qakh, Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 16.1), for 16 yrs (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 15.33); Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 27.1,8)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 744

Egyptologists' & Archeologists' "Low" Dating vs Scientists' "High" Dating  Pulu/ Ti•gᵊlat-Pilësër 3rd (dated to BCE 744-727) cf. Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 15.19-20 Hist/Arch datingTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 734 relative anchor

•khâz Bën-Yō•tâm, Mëlëkh Yᵊhudâh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim fm 17th yr of qakh for 16 yrs. (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 16.1-2), Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 16.1; Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 28.1)

Ti•gᵊlat-Pilësër (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 16.7)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 733 relative anchor

Ho•sheia Bën-Eilâh, became last Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in Shom•ron, correlated to 12th yr of •khâz, reigned for 9 yrs (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 17.1-3; 18.9)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 726

Egyptologists' & Archeologists' "Low" Dating vs Scientists' "High" Dating  Syrian king Sha•lᵊma•nᵊësër 5th, BCE 726-722) cf. Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 18.10TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 722 anchored date

Egyptologists' & Archeologists' "Low" Dating vs Scientists' "High" Dating  Syrian king Sha•lᵊma•nᵊësër 5th conquered and deracinated Yisᵊraeil; assimilating—irreversibly eviscerating and eradicating—the 10 Northern Tribes. Since the 10 Tribes, who hadn't been a genetic race since Ei•sau, assimilated into other peoples, the 10 Tribes no longer exist and, except for those remnants who fled into Yᵊhudâh and are since known only as Yᵊhud•im. The 10 Northern Tribes can never be restored (Qi•dush•in 70b).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 721

Egyptologists' & Archeologists' "Low" Dating vs Scientists' "High" Dating  Sargon Jr. BCE 721-705TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 720

Yᵊsha•yahu ha-Nâ•vi (1-39 c BCE 720) Hist. dating, see also Yᵊsha•yahu ha-Nâ•vi Deutero (c BCE 540)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 719 relative anchor

Khi•zᵊq•i•yâh Bën-•khâz, Mëlëkh of combined-Yᵊhudâh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim (29 yrs., Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 18.1-2; Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 29.1); reigning in 701 (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 19.32-36)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 710

Yoeil ha-Navi, BCE 764 dating wrong; describes aftermath of Assyrian population transfers & extinction of Yi•sᵊr•â•eilTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 704

Sa•nᵊkheir•iv (Hellenized to Sennacherib) BCE 704-681TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 703

Mikhâh ha-Nâ•viTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 700

Yon•âh ha-Nâ•viTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 690 relative anchor

Mᵊna•shëh Bën-Khi•zᵊq•i•yâh, Mëlëkh of combined-Yᵊhudâh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim (55 yrs. Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 33.1).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 689

Sa•nᵊkheir•iv (Hellenized to Sennacherib) destroys Bâ•vël.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 680

Esarhaddon BCE 680-669TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 668

Ashurbanipal BCE 668-627TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 634 relative anchor

•mōn Bën-Mᵊna•shëh, Mëlëkh of combined-Yᵊhudâh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim (2 yrs., Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 33.21)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 631 relative anchor

Yō•shi•yâhu Bën-•mōn, Mëlëkh of combined-Yᵊhudâh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim (31 yrs., Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 34.1, 22; 35.25)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 630

Tzᵊphan•yâh ha-Nâ•vi (BCE 630-625)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 627

Nᵊvu-apul-ushur Sr. (Akkadian, Hellenized to Nabopolassar), father of Nᵊvu-khadᵊnëtzar, crowns self king of Akkad / Iraq / Bâ•vël, reigned from c BCE 627-07.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 623

Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu ha-Nâ•vi (BCE 623-585; Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 1.2)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 618 relative anchor

Khi•lᵊq•i•yâhu ha-kō•hein finds Seiphër Tor•âh (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 23.23-24).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 613

Na•khum ha-Nâ•vi, c BCE 613TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 612

Nineveh (modern Mosul, Iraq), Assyrian capital, destroyed by alliance of Medes and Babylonians; Cyaxares king of Medes, BCE 612-585.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 605

Egyptologists' & Archeologists' "Low" Dating vs Scientists' "High" Dating  Na•bu-khad-nëtzar Jr. (c BCE 605-562), son of Na•bu-apal-usur (meaning not found, Hellenized to Nabopolassar)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 602

Dân•iy•eilTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 600

Kha•va•quq ha-Nâ•vi c BCE 600TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 599 relative anchor

Yᵊhō•â•khâz Bën-Yō•shi•yâhu, Mëlëkh of combined-Yᵊhudâh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim (3 mos. Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 23.31; Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 36.2)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 599 relative anchor

Ëlᵊyâq•im (Yᵊhō•yâ•qim) Bën-Yō•shi•yâhu, Mëlëkh of combined-Yᵊhudâh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim (3 mos., Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 24.8; Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 36.4)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 598 relative anchor

Yᵊhō•yâ•khin Bën-Yᵊhō•yâ•qim, Mëlëkh of combined-Yᵊhudâh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim (11 years, Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 24.6 Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 36.4-5; not before ca. B.C.E. 597: Yᵊkhë•zᵊq•eil 1.1-2); cursed, including his descendants, by Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 22.30. TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 597 relative anchor

Na•bu-khad-nëtzar Jr. conquers Yᵊru•shâ•layim, First Population Transfer includes Yᵊkhë•zᵊq•eil ha-Nâ•vi, who begins having visions in the 30th regnal year of Nᵊvu-apul-ushur Sr. (Yᵊkhë•zᵊq•eil 1.1).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 595 relative anchor: 8 yrs before 586, cf. Artscroll Daniel, p. 175

Na•bu-khad-nëtzar Jr., son of Na•bu-apal-usur (meaning not found, Hellenized to Nabopolassar) the Kasdim, ascends to throne of Iraq/Bâ•vël; appoints Ma•tanᵊyâh (Tzi•dᵊq•i•yâhu) Bën-Yō•shi•yâhu, last Mëlëkh of combined-Yᵊhudâh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim (11 yrs., uncle of Yᵊhō•yâ•khin, Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 24.17-18).

c BCE 592 relative anchor: 5th year after population transfer to Bavel Early Summer, BCE 592: Yᵊkhë•zᵊq•eil's Vision Of The Kha•yâh Kha•shᵊmal, 4-Faced Kᵊruv TOC (table of contents)
c BCE 591 relative anchor: 5th year after population transfer to BavelLate Summer, BCE 591: Yᵊkhë•zᵊq•eil Envisions Kâ•vod י‑‑ה Departing Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh -Rish•ōn.TOC (table of contents)
c BCE 590

Shᵊalᵊti•eil Bën-Yᵊhō•yâ•khin; Davidic king-in-exile; prob born in Bâ•vël when father was ≈20) - prob. died in Bâ•vël c BCE 538TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 586 anchored date

Yᵊru•shâ•layim Falls to Na•bu-khad-nëtzar Jr., main (second) Population Transfer of Babylonian Exile, 9th-11th yrs of Tzi•dᵊq•i•yâhu, plunder of Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh -Rish•onTOC (table of contents)

End Iron Age.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 584 H1Ar Archaic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 586-c 461)

Begin Hellenic Era.

Astyages (Ass. Istumegu), son of Cyaxares, and last king of Media (Iraq-Iran border area), BCE 584-550TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 583 H1Ar Archaic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 586-c 461)

Yᵊkhë•zᵊq•eil ha-Nâ•vi (writing c BCE 597-570)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 572 H1Ar Archaic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 586-c 461)relative anchor: 5th year after population transfer to BavelEarly Spring BCE 572: Yᵊkhë•zᵊq•eil Envisions Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh ha-Shein•iTOC (table of contents)
c BCE 570 H1Ar Archaic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 586-c 461)

Yᵊhō•tzâ•dâq Bën-Sᵊrâ•yâh, kō•hein ha-Jâ•dol (Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Âlëph 5.40-41; Khaj•ai 1.1, 12, 14; 2.2, 4; Zᵊkhar•yâh 6.11).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 561 H1Ar Archaic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 586-c 461)

Nᵊvu-naid 3rd), last king of Bâ•vël (modern Iraq), understood by Qum•rân to be Na•bu-khad-nëtzar Jr.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 559 H1Ar Archaic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 586-c 461)

Dar'yawesh "the Iranian" Koresh Sr. (Dan. 6.1); Achaemenid king of Iran, grandson of Astyages. In BCE 550, he revolted against his grandfather, Astyages, and captured Media from him. Therefore, Koresh Jr. "the Great" cannot be the Cyaxares who was the father of Astyages, BCE 559-529TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 540 H1Ar Archaic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 586-c 461)

Questionable Yᵊsha•yahu ha-Nâ•vi Deutero (chapters 40-66), c BCE 540; see also Yᵊsha•yahu ha-Nâ•vi (c BCE 720)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 538 H1Ar Archaic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 586-c 461)

Seventhmonth 15, Koresh Jr. "the Great", Achæmenid king of Iran, captures Bâ•vël.

The son of Nᵊvu-naid acted as king during his father's absences, became prince over Iraq (Bâ•vël). Beil-ᵊsh-a•tzar is assassinated.

In Firstmonth (≈Apr.) 1, 1st yr of reign, announces permission for Yᵊhud•im (which included the ancestor of Ribi Yᵊho•shua and the Nᵊtzâr•im) to return to Yᵊru•shâ•layim and he pâ•qâd (mustered, monitored) them, on his authority, to build a second Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh, sending Yᵊho•shua Bën-Yᵊhō•tzâ•dâq (Bën-Sᵊrâ•yâh) and Zᵊru-Bâ•vël Bën-Shᵊalᵊti•eil. Work started on Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh ha-Shein•i, but was soon shut down by the mixed peoples Syria had, in deracinating the 10 Tribes of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil nearly two centuries earlier, transferred from all over the Middle East into the Shom•ron (Ëzᵊr•â 4; Zᵊkhar•yâh 3 & 6.11; with Ëzᵊr•â 1.1 & 7.9)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 528 H1Ar Archaic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 586-c 461)

Cambyses-Dar'yawesh, son of Koresh Jr. "the Great", king of Persia (modern Iran), ca B.C.E 528-​523.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 522 H1Ar Archaic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 586-c 461)

Dar'yawesh Hystaspes, king of Iran and grandson of Koresh Jr. "the Great", succeeded Cambyses the son of Koresh Jr. "the Great", BCE 522-486TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 520 H1Ar Archaic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 586-c 461)

Khaj•ai ha-Nâ•viTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 519 H1Ar Archaic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 586-c 461)

Zᵊkhar•yâh Bën-Bë•rëkh•yâh Bën-Id•o ha-Nâ•viTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 516 H1Ar Archaic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 586-c 461)

Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh ha-Shein•i completed (Adar 3)???, 6th regnal year of Dar'yawesh (Ëzᵊr•â 6.15)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 500 H1Ar Archaic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 586-c 461)

Compilation of Shir ha-Shir•im, some of which likely date back to c BCE 800TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 486 H1Ar Archaic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 586-c 461)

Akhashveirosh, Xerxes Sr., son of Dar'yawesh, king of Iran, father of Dar'yawesh Nothus, "the Mede" of Dan. 9.1. "Xerxes settled down to a life of self-indulgence, reflected in the account of Ahaseurus in the Book of "Esteir," BCE 486-465 (c BCE 470 Hâ•mân)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 465 H1Ar Archaic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 586-c 461)

Artakhshast-Artaxerxes Sr. becomes king of Iran. Beginning with his decree to build (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 586-c 461) the walls of Yᵊru•shâ•layim, c BCE 453, Samaritans lobby him to change mind; c BCE 452-425 Ëzᵊr•â 6 [or Artaxerxes Jr., below?] and Nᵊkhëm•yâh Bën-Kha•kha•lᵊyâh probably of the tribe of Yᵊhudâh) appointed governor of Yᵊhudâh, reference to "Darius the Persian" (12.22) likely refers to Dar'yawesh Nothus (see below), BCE 465-425TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 453 H2Cl Classic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 460-337)anchored date

Decree by Artakhshast-Artaxerxes Sr. to rebuild the walls of Yᵊru•shâ•layimTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 449 H2Cl Classic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 460-337)

Ma•lâkh•i ha-Nâ•vi, c BCE 500-398, c BCE 450TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 442 H2Cl Classic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 460-337)

Dar'yawesh Nothus, king of Iran 442-404 BCE, BCE 442-404TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 409-​359 H2Cl Classic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 460-337)

Ëzᵊr•âTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 404 H2Cl Classic (Pre-Alexandrian) Hellenic Era (c BCE 460-337)

Artakhshast-Artaxerxes Jr., king of Iran, growing number of scholars date Ëzᵊr•â's mission in the (thirty-) seventh year of his reign." BCE 404-359TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 336 H3Al Alexandrian Hellenic Era (BCE 336-147)

Alexander "the Great" defeats Dar'yawesh 3rd Codomanus, king of Iran at Issus (333) and Gaugamela (331), c BCE 336-330. From c BCE 336-323, Alexander "the Great" Hellenized Yi•sᵊr•â•eil from Macedonia, the area of northern Greece and Yugoslavia.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 323 H3Al Alexandrian Hellenic Era (BCE 336-147)

Ptolemy Sr. Soter (367 283), king of Mi•tzᵊrayim c BCE 323-285TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 301 H3Al Alexandrian Hellenic Era (BCE 336-147)

Seleucus Sr. Nicator (c BCE 358-280), king of Syria c BCE 301-280) founder of the Seleucid dynasty; formerly a Macedonian general serving under Alexander "the Great". He built numerous cities, including Antioch.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 285 H3Al Alexandrian Hellenic Era (BCE 336-147)

Ptolemy Jr. Philadelphus (c BCE 309-247), king of Mi•tzᵊrayim c BCE 285-247 LXX is translated in Alexandria, Egypt: first Tor•âh, then the rest of Ta•na"kh and the non-canonical books over the next 2 centuries ("Septuagint."TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 280 H3Al Alexandrian Hellenic Era (BCE 336-147)

Antiochus Sr. Soter (c BCE 324-262-1), king of Syria (c BCE 280-262-1)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 261 H3Al Alexandrian Hellenic Era (BCE 336-147)

Antiochus Jr. Theos (c BCE 287-246), king of Syria (c BCE 261-246)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 246 H3Al Alexandrian Hellenic Era (BCE 336-147)

Ptolemy 3rd Euergetes (c BCE 282? 221), king of Mi•tzᵊrayim (c BCE 246 221TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 223 H3Al Alexandrian Hellenic Era (BCE 336-147)

Antiochus 3rd 'the Great' (c BCE 242-187), king of Syria (c BCE 223-187). “He … warred successfully against the [Mi•tzᵊrayim] king Ptolemy V and in c BCE 198 obtained possession of all of [Kᵊna•an] and Lebanon. He later became involved in a conflict with the Romans, who defeated him at Thermopylae in 191 BC and at Magnesia (now Manisa, Turkey) in [BCE 190]. As the price of peace, he was forced to surrender all his dominions west of the Taurus Mountains and to pay costly tribute. Antiochus, who early in his reign had restored the Seleucid Empire, finally forfeited its influence in the eastern Mediterranean by his failure to recognize the rising power of Rome.”TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 205 H3Al Alexandrian Hellenic Era (BCE 336-147)

Ptolemy V Epiphanes (c BCE 210?-181), king of Mi•tzᵊrayim (c BCE 205-181). The official coronation of Ptolemy V was held in c BCE 197; it was the occasion on which the Mi•tzᵊrayim priesthood published the decree that forms the trilingual inscription on the Rosetta StoneTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 181 H3Al Alexandrian Hellenic Era (BCE 336-147)

Ptolemy VI Philometor (c BCE 186?-145), king of Mi•tzᵊrayim (c BCE 181-145)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 175 H3Al Alexandrian Hellenic Era (BCE 336-147)

Imposition of Hellenism

Brother Kō•han•ei ha-Jâ•dōl:

Mōreih ha-Tzëdëq Supplanted By Brother Ko•hein -Rësha
Hellenization Of Tzᵊdōq•im

Antiochus 4th Epiphanes (c BCE 215-164), king of (c BCE 175-164) Syria secured possession of Phoenicia and Yi•sᵊr•â•eil. Thus, the Hellenist Syrians became overlords of the Yᵊhud•im. From c BCE 171 to 168, Antiochus was involved in a war against Mi•tzᵊrayim, defeating two Mi•tzᵊrayim kings, Ptolemy VI and Ptolemy VII. He captured Yᵊru•shâ•layim, prohibited Judaism, and imposed the worship of the Hellenist gods.

Yᵊkhōn•yâh Bën-Shim•ōn Jr. Bën-Tzâ•dōq ha-kō•hein (Hellenized to Onias 3rd – the last true Tor•âh kō•hein ha-Jâ•dol), a descendant of A•ha•ron, was the Moreih ha-Tzëdëq (de-Judaized to “Teacher of Righteousness”). He was also a ‘zealot for the laws’ (2 Mac. 4.2).

His rabid Hellenist brother and successor, Yᵊho•shua Bën-Shim•on Jr. Bën-Tzâ•doq ha-kō•hein (Hellenized to Jason), became the first Hellenist "High Priest", and also the first kō•hein -Rësha.

Yᵊho•shua Bën-Shim•on Jr. Bën-Tzâ•doq ha-kō•hein (Hellenized to Jason) went to Syria and obtained from Antiochus the transferal of the office of "High Priest" to himself in return for both a large sum of money and in return for his efforts to assist Antiochus in Hellenizing Judaism.

Under Yᵊho•shua Bën-Shim•on Jr. Bën-Tzâ•doq ha-kō•hein (Hellenized to Jason), 'Tor•âh [Hellenized to displace the word Tor•âh with "lawful"] institutions' were abolished and 'new usages contrary to Tor•âh' introduced (2 Mac. 4.11). A gymnasium was erected below the citadel and the young men of Yᵊru•shâ•layim practiced the athletic skills of the Greeks (including the Olympic Games). Even the "priests" left their service at the mi•zᵊbeiakh and took part in the games held in the palestra. The contempt for Jewish customs went so far that many removed their circumcision artificially.

CD (Codex Damascus), the Damascus Document, was a letter from Yᵊkhon•yâh Bën-Shim•on Jr. Bën-Tzâ•doq ha-kō•hein to his brother Yᵊho•shua Bën-Shim•on Jr. Bën-Tzâ•doq ha-kō•hein (Hellenized to Jason).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 171 H3Al Alexandrian Hellenic Era (BCE 336-147)

Μενέλαος, "High Priest", of the tribe of Bin•yâ•min, and therefore not a descendant of A•ha•ron, much less from the Bᵊn•ei Tzâ•dōq, obtained the "High Priesthood" from Antiochus by offering more money, succeeding Yᵊho•shua Bën-Shim•on Jr. Bën-Tzâ•doq ha-kō•hein (Hellenized to Jason). Μενέλαος profaned the "Temple" vessels and caused the murder of the Moreih ha-Tzëdëq, the former kō•hein ha-Jâ•dol, Yᵊkhon•yâh Bën-Shim•on Jr. Bën-Tzâ•doq ha-kō•hein. Μενέλαος died c BCE 162.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 170 H3Al Alexandrian Hellenic Era (BCE 336-147)

Yᵊho•shua Bën-Shim•on Jr. Bën-Tzâ•doq ha-kō•hein (Hellenized to Jason) "High Priest" / 'kō•hein -Rësha' seized the opportunity, when Antiochus made war against Mi•tzᵊrayim, attempting to retake Yᵊru•shâ•layim in a surprise attack, to reinstall himself as "High Priest". The attempt failed.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 169 H3Al Alexandrian Hellenic Era (BCE 336-147)Antiochus Epiphanes DecreesTalmud Tractate Rosh haShanah 18b Prohibition Of Pronouncing Proto-Sinaitic hei, for haleil (English: praise-prayProto-Sinaitic wawProto-Sinaitic hei, for haleil (English: praise-prayProto-Sinaitic yod (English: arm reaching-out) (יְהֹוָה)

Antiochus 4th Epiphanes massacred the Jews in Yᵊru•shâ•layim, looted the treasures (the gold Mᵊnōr•âh, Mi•zᵊbeiakh of Incense and Display-Bread Table), from the Hellenized (Herod's 2nd) "Temple" and had them brought to Antiochus (modern Antakya), Turkey (never to be seen again); dedicating the former Sanctuary to Ζεύς Olympus. Antiochus decreed that the Name Proto-Sinaitic hei, for haleil (English: praise-prayProto-Sinaitic wawProto-Sinaitic hei, for haleil (English: praise-prayProto-Sinaitic yod (English: arm reaching-out) (יְהֹוָה)As vowelized by Middle Ages CE Masoretes in be-Reishit 3.14 could no longer be spoken and that Tōr•âh, Sha•bât and Bᵊrit Mil•âh were capital offenses. (Later, when the Kha•shᵊmōn•ây•im came to power,And who, stilll later, gave birth to the Pharisees & rabbis they instituted a new practice: substituting an alternate Biblical descriptive phrase, אֵ֥ל עֶלְיֽוֹן, for the Name. The original practice remains to be restored.)Talmud Tractate Rosh haShanah 18bTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 167 H3Al Alexandrian Hellenic Era (BCE 336-147)

Yᵊru•shâ•layim: a Hellenist mi•zᵊbeiakh built over "the Great" Mi•zᵊbeiakh of burnt-offering on the 15th of Tenthmonth (≈Dec.), and upon it on the 25th of Tenthmonth (probably Dec. 25th, supposed birthday of Ζεύς) the first Hellenist sacrifice was offered to Olympian Ζεύς to whom the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim had been dedicated (1 Mac. 1.54,59). This is 'הַשִׁקּוּץ מְשׁוֹמֵם' (popularly, the 'abomination of desolation') of Dân•iy•eil‎ (11.31) /‎ שִׁקּוּץ שֹׁמֵם‎ (12.11).TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 166 H3Al Alexandrian Hellenic Era (BCE 336-147)
Resurgence Of Revivalist (Anti-Hellenist Ōs•in) Faction Of Tzᵊdōq•im

Ma•titᵊyâhu from Mo•di•in, who was a descendant of A•ha•ron through Yᵊhō•yâ•riv, declared: 'Though all the nations in the king's realm lapse from the religion of their fathers, yet will I, with my sons and brothers, walk in the bᵊrit of our fathers. May ël•oh•im preserve us from abandoning the Tor•âh and the mi•tzᵊw•ot!' He was soon joined by the remaining Kha•sid•im. Together they raised a covert army. Though Ma•titᵊyâhu is several times referred to as a kō•hein ha-Jâ•dol, the Yᵊhud•im did not reconquer Yᵊru•shâ•layim (BCE 164) until at least two years after his death (BCE 167-166). Ma•titᵊyâhu’s family were known as the Kha•shᵊmon•ây•imTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 165 H3Al Alexandrian Hellenic Era (BCE 336-147)

Yᵊhudâh ha-Ma•kab•i assumed the leadership of the Yᵊhud•im after the death of his fatherTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 164 H3Al Alexandrian Hellenic Era (BCE 336-147)

Khanukh•âh: Yᵊhudâh ha-Ma•kab•i routed the Syrians at Emmaus, defeated Lysius (the Syrian Imperial Vice-Regent) at Beit -Tzur and retook Yᵊru•shâ•layim (except for the 'Ακρα'). Yᵊhudâh ha-Ma•kab•i demolished the desecrated mi•zᵊbeiakh and erected a new one, replaced the sacred vessels and re-dedicated the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh on the 25th of NinthmonthTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 153 H3Al Alexandrian Hellenic Era (BCE 336-147)

Yo•nâ•tân Apphus Bën-Ma•titᵊyâhu Bën-A•ha•ron ha-Ma•kab•i, kō•hein ha-Jâ•dolTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 145 H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

Ptolemy VII Euergetes (184?-116 BC), king of Mi•tzᵊrayim (145-116 BC)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 143 H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

Yᵊhudâh recognized as a state / nation by Hellenist Syrian ruler Demetrius Jr. (c BCE 149-142)TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 140 H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

Shi•mᵊōn Bën-Ma•titᵊyâhu Bën- A•ha•ron ha-Ma•kab•i, kō•hein ha-Jâ•dol, elder brother of Yo•nâ•tân, appointed by the Beit Din -Jâ•dol, which passed a decree making the office hereditaryTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 135 H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE) Pᵊrūsh•im (Revivalist commoners) Parse-Off From All Tzᵊdōq•im First-Ever RabbisRainbow Rule

Result: The Three Min•im

  1. Hellenist Tzᵊdōq•im (Kō•han•im & Aristocrats From BCE 165 Coup)
  2. Remnant Kha•shᵊmōn•ây•im (Revivalist Kō•han•im & Aristocrats) Ōs•in
  3. Pᵊrūsh•im (Revivalist commoners) & Rabbis

Yokhâ•nân Hyrcanus Bën-Shi•mᵊōn Bën- A•ha•ron, "High Priest" (c BCE 135-104), the rise of the Ōs•in Tzᵊdōq•im occurred during the rule of Yokhâ•nân Hyrcanus. In the early years of his rule, he maintained close relations with the Pᵊrush•im, who recognized his religious authority (Ma•sëkët Bᵊrâkh•ōt 29a, Josephus, Antiquities 13.288ff). The rift between the Anti-Hellenist Pᵊrush•im on the one hand, and the Hellenist Tzᵊdōq•im and kō•han•im on the other hand, intensified—and exploded—during the reign of Yokhâ•nân Hyrcanus.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 104 H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

Aristobulus Bën-Yokhâ•nân Bën-A•ha•ron, "High Priest" (BCE 104-103), succeeds his father Yokhâ•nân HyrcanusTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 103 H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)
Kha•shᵊmōn•ây•im Revivalist Ōs•in-Tzᵊdōq•im Defeated
Enghettoed Themselves In Qū•mᵊr•ân

Alexander Yᵊhō•nâ•tân ('Yan•ai') Bën-A•ha•ron, "High Priest" (BCE 103-76), succeeds his father Aristobulus. As leader of the Anti-Hellenist (Kha•shᵊmōn•ây•im-Ōs•in) Tzᵊdōq•im, Yan•ai's attempt to establish absolute authority as mëlëkh and "High Priest" brought him into open conflict with the (pseudo-) kō•han•im and aristocracy of the Roman-promoted Hellenist Tzᵊdōq•im, resulting in the splintering between the Anti-Hellenist (Kha•shᵊmōn•ây•im-Ōs•in) and Hellenist factions of the Tzᵊdōq•im TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 67 H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

Hyrcanus Jr. Bën-Yan•ai Bën-A•ha•ron, "High Priest" (eldest son), a Pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im appointed by Romans; however, they abolished the monarchy. His brother was Aristobulus Jr.

Aristobulus Jr. Bën-Yan•ai Bën-A•ha•ron, "High Priest", wrested the office from his brother Hyrcanus Jr.

Hyrcanus Jr. Bën-Yan•ai Bën-A•ha•ron, "High Priest", regained the office with the help of the Romans, and Julius Caesar eventually proclaimed him "High Priest" c BCE 67-40TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 51 H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

Cleopatra (VII; c BCE 69-30), ill-fated queen of Mi•tzᵊrayim (c BCE 51-30), celebrated for her love affairs with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. Cleopatra, or more precisely, Cleopatra VII, was the daughter of Ptolemy XI Auletes, king of Mi•tzᵊrayim. On her father's death in c BCE 51 Cleopatra, then about 17 years old, and her brother, Ptolemy XII, a child of about 12 years, succeeded jointly to the throne of Mi•tzᵊrayim with the provision that they should marry. In the third year of their reign Ptolemy, encouraged by his advisers, assumed sole control of the government and drove Cleopatra into exile. She promptly gathered an army in Syria but was unable to assert her claim until the arrival at Alexandria of Julius Caesar, who became her lover and espoused her cause. He was for a time hard pressed by the Mi•tzᵊrayim but ultimately triumphed, and in c BCE 47 Ptolemy XII was killed. Caesar proclaimed Cleopatra queen of Mi•tzᵊrayim.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 48 H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)The Pontificate: The Original Line Of Popes

Julius Caesar (c BCE 100.07.12-3 - 44.03.15) comes to power in Rome. In c BCE 72, he had been elected to the Pontificate, the Hellenist Roman Collegium Pontificum (College of Pontiffs/​Popes) – of the ancient Hellenist Roman religion. TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 47 H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)Herod Sr., 'the Great'

was a Bën-Ë•dōm ("Idumaean" Ben-Eisau/​A•mâ•leiq Arab) supposed proselyte father and a Nabataean (Arab) mother was appointed governor of the Gâ•lil by Antipater. Herod Sr. ("the Great") crushed a rebellion in the Gâ•lil and executed the rebels without a trial. When called to account before the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον, Herod Sr. ("the Great") appeared with an armed guard and intimidated the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 40 H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

Antigonas, son of Aristobulus, with the help of the Parthians captured Hyrcanus Jr. in Yᵊru•shâ•layim from Herod Sr. ("the Great"). Antigonas cut off the ears of Hyrcanus Jr. to disqualify him from the "priesthood". He attached himself to the Kha•shᵊmon•ây•im family by becoming betrothed to Mariamne. Herod Sr. ("the Great") escaped from Yᵊru•shâ•layimTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 37 H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

Herod Sr. ("the Great") was reinstalled as king over Yᵊhudâh by Rome. Whereupon Herod Sr. ("the Great") executed 45 members of the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον who had sided with the Kha•shᵊmon•ây•im . At this time he also married Mariamne, granddaughter of Hyrcanus Jr., and became an in-law of the Kha•shᵊmon•ây•im family, though he killed many of the Kha•shᵊmon•ây•im and eventually killed Mariamne and her sons, except Herod Agrippa Sr. "He also made the appointment to the "high priesthood" dependent on his favor and during his reign dismissed and appointed "high priests" arbitrarily… He established his rule on the basis of Roman patronage…" He became known as Herod "the Great".

Kha•nan•eil, an Egyptian (!) "high priest", was appointed by Herod Sr. ("the Great"), though he was forced to remove him.

Aristobulus 3rd Bën-A•ha•ron was appointed "high priest" by Herod Sr. ("the Great")TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 36 H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

Aristobulus 3rd drowned in a swimming pool in Yᵊri•kho—at the command of Herod Sr. ("the Great"). Aristobulus 3rd was the last Kha•shᵊmon•ây•im "high priest". It was Herod Sr. ("the Great") who placed the Roman eagle upon the facade of the "Temple".

"High Priest" Boethus

Shi•mᵊōn Bën-Boethus, "high priest", not recorded as a Bën-A•ha•ron, appointed by Herod Sr. ("the Great")TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 30 H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

Hyrcanus Jr. killed at command of Herod Sr. ("the Great"), terminating the Kha•shᵊmon•ây•im line of kō•han•im. TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 24 H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

"Matthew" Ben-Theophilus Sr., "high priest" succeeding Shi•mᵊōn Bën-Boethus TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 23 H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

Yoezer Ben-Boethus, "high priest", succeeded Matthew Ben Theophilus, "high priest" (23-5 BCE), appointed shortly before the death of Herod Sr. ("the Great"). Yoezer Ben-Boethus, "high priest" was a brother of Mariamne, Herod's wife, and of Elazar, who also served as "high priest".TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 7 H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)
Ribi Yᵊho•shua

Conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter, widely considered the Mâ•shiakh planet, in the eastern night sky on BCE 0007.05.29 announced the birth to astronomers in Iran. (Following a star in the East would have led the Persians to Shanghai, on the Pacific coast of China!

Conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter on BCE 0007.10.01 confirms to the Iranian astronomers that the child was recently born in Beit Lëkhëm.

Conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter on BCE 007.12.05 confirms to the Iranian astronomers that the house of that night's vigil was that of the child. Yᵊho•shua was 6 mos. old when they visited.TOC (table of contents)

c BCE 6 H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

Khanan (Anan) Ben-Sheit "high priest"(c BCE 6 – 15 CE), appointed by Quirinius of Syria to succeed Yoezer Ben-Boethus. Yo•seiph Keiphâ married Khanan’s daughter. His five sons all served as "high priests": Elazar, Yonatan, Theophilus, Matityahu and KhananTOC (table of contents)

c BCE 4 H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

Yᵊho•shua Bën-Yo•seiph Bën-Dâ•wid, ha-Mâ•shiakh, born during the reign of Herod "the Great", who died c BCE 4.

In his last years, Herod Sr. ("the Great") divided his kingdom between his sons Arkhelaus, Herod Antipas, and Philip who was the son of Cleopatra. "After the death of Herod Sr. ("the Great") and the removal of Arkhelaus (4 BCE - ca 6 C.E., the appointment of the "high priest" passed to the Roman governors of the Hellenist Roman occupation of Yᵊhudâh.

In the final generation of the "temple" this authority was restored to the dynasty of Herod (Agrippa Sr., Herod of Chalcis, and Agrippa Jr.). During that period a group of well-born wealthy priestly families became established from among whom most of the "high priests" were appointed; such were the Boethus family… According to Ta•lᵊmud (Ma•sëkët Yom•â 18a; Ma•sëkët Yᵊvâm•ot 61a), these "high priests" bought the office from the [Hellenist Roman occupational] government, and they were changed each year. Since an ex-"high priest" kept his additional rights as to dignity and status, there came into being a kind of oligarchy of "high priests" and of their families... were inordinately wealthy… The attitude of most of the people of the Pᵊrush•im leadership to this Pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im oligarchy was given pungent expression (Ma•sëkët Pᵊsâkh•im 57a, To•sëphᵊtâ to Ma•sëkët Mᵊnâkh•ōt 13.21): ‘Woe is me because of the house of Boethus!’ "TOC (table of contents)

30 CE H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)Sha•mai vs Ribi Hi•leil

Sha•mai never attained the predominance enjoyed by Ribi Hi•leil among the Pᵊrush•im. He was appointed to succeed Mᵊna•kheim the Ōs•in as Av Beit Din, serving in that capacity from circ BCE 50 – 30 C.E. However, the Av Beit Din wasn't the Nâ•si. Rather, the Av Beit Din was a vice-president of the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον. "Indeed, the main duty of the Av Beit Din was evidently to superintend the administration of the court..." (loc. cit.).

Rainbow Rule
Great (Judean) Συνέδριον
For First Time Ever
Pᵊrush•im Win Majority Over Hellenist Pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im

Under the Hellenist (Syrian and Roman) occupiers, both before and after the Kha•shᵊmon•ây•im, until Ga•mᵊl•i•eil, the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im kō•han•im -Rësha controlled both the "Second Temple" and the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον. The Συνέδριον, Hebrew Beit Din -Gâ•dol, was the supreme court exercising authority over regional subordinate, regular, Bât•ei-Din. These, in turn, exercised authority over local Bât•ei-Din -Qâ•tân. Some of the lower courts began to be predominated by the Pᵊrush•im while many remained, for an indefinite period, predominated by the Roman-collaborating Hellenist Tzᵊdōq•im (the illegal night court, convening on a holiday and summoning false witnesses could only have taken place in a Roman-collaborating, Hellenist Tzᵊdōq•im court of the Boethus family. 26.57-68).

It is noteworthy in this regard that Ga•mᵊl•i•eil was the first to be called by the title of Rab•ân (inter alia, Klein, p. 603), suggesting that he was the first of something and strongly intimating that he was the first leader of the Pᵊrush•im to enjoy a majority in the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον from the Hellenist Pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im collaborators with the Roman-occupiers to become Nâ•si. He "flourished" from 20-50 C.E. This would position him to be the Nâ•si who ordained Ribi Yᵊho•shua, further implying that the Pᵊrush•im had finally wrested control of the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον between 20-50 C.E.

From the time of the Kha•shᵊmon•ây•im until the destruction of the "2nd Temple", nothing is settled with any confidence about the control of the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον between the Hellenist Pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im versus Pᵊrush•im with the exception that, it is generally agreed (but still not without dispute), Rab•ân Ga•mᵊl•i•eil ha-Za•qein became the first Pᵊrush•i Nâ•si during some portion of the first half of the first century C.E.

Thus, control of the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον was contested between the Hellenist (sycophants of the Roman occupiers) Pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im, who comprised the "high priests", on the one hand, and the Pᵊrush•im (eventually headed by Ga•mᵊl•i•eil). The primary schism was not between Sha•mai and Ribi Hi•leil as often assumed.

Conflicting with this timeline, Ency. Jud. states: "The Sadducean hierarchy had its stronghold in the Temple, and it was only during the last two decades of the Temple's existence that the Pharisees finally gained control." Thus, unless this assertion refers to teaching in the "Temple" (the subject of the sentence) and not more specifically to the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον that convened within it, the period from 20-50 C.E. is disputed.

Even this is disputed. Schurer argues that the first rabbinical President of the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον to whom the title Nâ•si is applied in the Mishᵊnâh is Yᵊhudâh ha-Nâ•si at the end of the second century C.E. In this section, he presents several pages outlining various views of this dispute. I would note, however, that first mention of this title in the Mishᵊnâh neither implies first usage of the term nor the first Pᵊrush•i occupant of the office. Thus, his arguments are flawed.

The Pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im saw Sha•mai ha-Pᵊrush•i, as no more than one member of the minority (and, therefore, controllable) Pᵊrush•im party, who were struggling to gain political ground (support in the street). Backing the minority Pᵊrush•i leader in the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον served both to pacify the Pᵊrush•im , split the Pᵊrush•im and provide the Pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im an opportunity to dump their main rival, the legitimate Tzᵊdoq•i, i.e. (Mᵊna•kheim the Ōs•in). This resulted in the Pᵊrush•im gaining a foothold, in BCE 50, in the Pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im-controlled Great (Judean) Συνέδριον—as the second-banana, sort of "Speaker of the House," Av Beit Din.

The Pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im, in the person of the "high priest" (kō•hein -Rësha), still retained the office of Nâ•si, however, in control of the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον. As the Roman sycophant Pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im "Wicked Priests" continued to become increasingly unpopular and alienated from people, the Pᵊrush•im apparently managed to parley this foothold into the election, ca 20 C.E., of Ga•mᵊl•i•eil as the first Pᵊrush•i Nâ•si.

Rather than consolidating Pᵊrush•im control over the pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im in the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον, however, this seems to have formalized a schism essentially creating three conflicting and semi-independent rival Great (Judean) Συνέδριον factions:

  1. the Ōs•in Tzᵊdōq•im (the Moreih ha-Tzëdëq and 'Essenes'), banned from the Hellenized "Temple, many of whom took refuge in Qum•rân";

  2. Hellenist Tzᵊdōq•im sycophants of the Roman-occupiers, each successively labeled the (current) kō•hein -Rësha (Anglicized to "Wicked Priest"), of their recently Hellenized "Temple," and

  3. the Pᵊrush•im (rabbinic sect) of bât•ei kᵊnësët.

Rainbow Rule Crucifixion of Ribi Yᵊho•shua Ended Capital Punishment in Judaism

Ram•ba"m noted (Mi•shᵊn•ëh Tor•âh, Seiphër Yâd ha-Kha•zâq•âh, Ma•sëkët Συνέδριον 14.13) that the same year in which the Hellenist Pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im faction condemned Ribi Yᵊho•shua, "adjudications of capital punishment cases were abolished, "they of the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον were banished, and the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον no longer convened in its place in the "Temple"." Consequent to the horrific injustice inflicted by the Hellenist Pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im upon Ribi Yᵊho•shua in 30 C.E., the Pᵊrush•im bolted from the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον to instead establish their Pᵊrush•i Beit Din in Yavᵊn•ëh.TOC (table of contents)

62 CE H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

Hellenist Ananias, "high priest" officiated 3 mos.; appointed by Agrippa Jr. Ananias convened Great (Judean) Συνέδριον and had Pâ•qid Ya•a•qov "ha-Tza•diq", Bën-Yo•seiph, the first Nᵊtzâr•im Pâ•qid, executed. Ananias is identified by some DSS scholars as the kō•hein -Rësha ("Wicked Priest"). Succeeded by Matthew Theophilus Jr., "high priest".TOC (table of contents)

67 CE H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

The Sicarii eventually dominated Yᵊru•shâ•layim and expelled the aristocratic, Hellenist, sycophants of the Roman occupiers, Pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im "priesthood", killing many of them. By lot, they chose Pi•nᵊkhâs Bën-Shᵊmu•eil from among the ordinary kō•han•im to be kō•hein ha-Jâ•dol. Pi•nᵊkhâs had been a stone mason and a relative of Ribi Hi•leil by marriage. Pi•nᵊkhâs belonged to the watch of Yâkh•in and served until the destruction of the "Temple" in C.E. 70. Ananias, the former "high priest", and head of current head of the government, tried to suppress the Sicarii by force. Yokhâ•nân Bën-Lei•wi, of the Qa•na•im (Sicarii), from Gush Khâ•lâv, became convinced that Ananias was collaborating with the Hellenist Roman occupiers and joined the Sicarii The Sicarii were later exiled to Mᵊtzâd•âh.TOC (table of contents)

69 CE H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

Yᵊho•shua from Gamᵊl•â "high priest", appointed by Agrippa Jr. (69/70 C.E.), married to Martha daughter of Boethus. Cf. also Ma•sëkët Yᵊvâm•ot 6.4; ibid., 61a; Ma•sëkët Yom•â 18a and To•sëphᵊtâ ibid.; Ma•sëkët Git•in 56a). apparently Yᵊho•shua from Gamᵊl•â of Josephus as appointed by Agrippa Jr.. Made great strides in Judaic education of children, replaced boxwood lots box with gold lots box. Vehemently anti-Sicarii, killed by Ë•dōm•im with other opponents of the SicariiTOC (table of contents)

70 CE H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

"Second Temple" destroyed by Hellenist Roman occupiers under Titus.TOC (table of contents)

115 CE H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

Great Revolt of Jews in Cyrenaica that spread to Egypt and Cyprus (“Trajan,” EJ 15.1312)TOC (table of contents)

132 CE H4Ro Roman Hellenic Era (BCE 146-134 CE)

Romans, under Hadrian, begin building Aelia Capitolina over the ruins of Yᵊru•shâ•layim and a Temple of Jupiter over the ruins of the "Second Temple".

Bar-Kōkh leads revolt against the Hellenist Roman occupiers and recaptures Yᵊru•shâ•layimTOC (table of contents)

135 CE H5Di Displacement Hellenic Era (135 CE-1948)Gentile Roman Hellenists Expel Nᵊtzâr•im / Jews To Establish
The First, Original (Gentile) Hellenist Roman Christian Church

Hadrian crushes Bar-Kōkh rebellion and exiles all Jews from "Aelia Capitolina" — which included expelling all of the Nᵊtzâr•im and the Nᵊtzâr•im Pâ•qid; which means that there was no connection between the Hellenist Roman occupier expellers (the first & original Christians) and the Jewish expellees (Nᵊtzâr•im Jews). "Emperor Hadrian made it a capital offense to spread Tor•âh and Judaism." (Bereishis, Artscroll, Ib:1439).

In the absence of the expelled Nᵊtzâr•im, misojudaic (anti-Jew), anti-Tor•âh ("antinomian" "law of sin and death") original Hellenist-Christian founders installed the first episkopos: Markus, the first pope (Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 4.5.3); marking the Birth of the Christian Church.TOC (table of contents)

333 CE H5Di Displacement Hellenic Era (135 CE-1948)Roman Christian Church (Constantine) Extirpates the Nᵊtzâr•im

Constantine the Christian required all Nᵊtzâr•im scattered throughout the Roman Empire to celebrate the idolatrous Hellenist festival to the goddess Easter instead of Pësakh and, “while they were leaving the church on Easter day, were forced to eat pork – under pain of death! [Note: This is unknowingly recalled in Christian tradition today: ham is still a Christian tradition on Easter and Christmas.] We know how the [Nᵊtzâr•im Jews] refused this in order not to transgress the Tor•âh to which they held they were bound." At this point, the Nᵊtzâr•im ceased to exist… until י‑‑ה resurrected them again through His servant, the 16th Nᵊtzâr•im Pâ•qid Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu, in 1972 C.E.TOC (table of contents)

c 399 CEH5Di Displacement Hellenic Era (135 CE-1948)

Earliest extant two mss. of Διαθηκη Καινη (NT)TOC (table of contents)

750 CE H5Di Displacement Hellenic Era (135 CE-1948)

Earliest extant ms. of QuranTOC (table of contents)

1948 CEIsrael Period (Menorah)

Delimits and defines1260 Days, enabling deciphering of Daniyeil 12.7TOC (table of contents)

1993 CEIsrael Period (Menorah)

Daniyeil 12.11: 1290 Days Covenant.

For what's coming next, 1335 Days of Daniyeil 12.12, read The 1993 Covenant Live-Link TOC (table of contents)

Rainbow Rule
Pharaonic Names, Meanings & Customs

Each member of the Pharaonic family had several names and titles and, to keep the royal blood pure, intermarried exclusively among themselves, incestuously. Further, Moses (meaning "incarnate") was a Pharaonic surname-like title, conferred upon Pharaonic princes, appended to the name of the Egyptian deity supposedly incarnate in the prince. Moses seems to have been Sen-en-Mut-Moses, the vizier, courtier, confidant and consort of his adoptive older (by 12 years) sister, Khât-shepset.

Raised from infancy in the royal Tut-moses branch of the Moses family, Sen-en-Mut would have been Sen-en-Mut Tut-moses. Thus, Sen-en-Mut Tut-moses may have succeeded YahYah-kheper en-Ra Tut-moses Jr., who is known to have died early.

Consider the following: “The aged Ineni announces the death of Tut-moses Jr. and the accession of his successor in the following words:

“Having ascended into heaven, he became united with the gods, and his son, being arisen in his place as king of the Two Lands, ruled upon the throne of his begetter, while his sister, the god's wife [Khât-shepset] governed the land and the Two Lands were under her control…"

“Despite the terse way in which the fact is recorded, there is no reason to think that Tut-moses Jr. died other than a normal death. An almost underdecorated tomb at Biban el-Moluk containing an uninscribed sarcophagus so closely resembles that of Tut-moses Sr. that it is confidently ascribed to the son, and from its neglect one might conjecture that no one cared very much what was his fate; his funerary temple… is a paltry affair. A stela… depicts him accompanied by Queen Yâh-moses, the widow of Tut-moses Sr., and by her daughter the 'king's great wife' [Khât-shepset], so that the latter had certainly been married to Tut-moses Jr., and since her father was Tut-moses Sr. her claim to the throne was a very strong one… Tut-moses Jr. might never have ruled Egypt but for the early death of Wadj-moses and Amun-moses, the eldest sons of [Yah-kheper ka-Ra Tut-moses Sr.]"

Yah-kheper en-Ra Tut-moses Jr. was too young at the death of his father to succeed him. Consequently, his older wife - Khât-shepset – ruled, first in his name and then in her own name as Egypt’s only female Par•oh, Her vizier, courtier, confidant, consort – and perhaps second husband (and second Tut-moses Jr., the one whose tomb was empty), was Sen-en-Mut-moses. Were the deaths Wadj-moses and Amun-moses engineered by Khât-shepset to bring "Sr.sis" (herself) and Hōrus-moses to power?

Further, a major insurrection, generalizing Ha•biru to “vile Cush” and eliminating both Khât-shepset and Tut-moses Jr., is documented to have occurred during the reign of Tut-moses Jr.: “The favors accorded to Ineni were continued and even increased by Tut-moses Jr., the son of Tut-moses Sr. by a lesser queen named Mut-nofre. The reign may have been brief, since Ineni declared himself to have been already old and yet was able to describe conditions under Tut-moses Jr.'s successor; but there is no valid reason for doubting the date of year 18 found upon a broken stela copied by Daressy and now mislaid. The principal monument is a triumphal stela dated in year 1 and set up on the road between Aswan and Philae. This tells with unusual wealth of detail how news was brought of an insurrection in Nubia:

“One came to inform His Majesty that vile Cush had revolted and that those who were subjects of the Lord of the Two Lands had planned rebellion to plunder the people of Egypt and to steal cattle from those fortresses which King ‘Akerperkare' had built in his victories in order to repel the revolted lands and the Nubian tribesman of Khenthennufe; and now a chieftain in the north of vile Cush was falling into a season of disobedience together with two tribesman of Ta-Sti, children of the chieftain of vile Cush who had fled before the Lord of the Two Lands on the day of the Goodly god's slaughtering, this land being divided into five pieces, each man being possessor of his portion.

“On hearing this His Majesty raged like a panther, just as his father had done, and swore that he would not leave alive a single man among them. Thereupon his army overthrew those foreigners, sparing only one of the Nubian chieftain's children who was brought back to Thebes as a captive amid general rejoicing. About Tut-moses Jr.'s other doings little else is heard than that the younger Yâh-moses of el-Kab accompanied him to [Kᵊna•an] and took many prisoners…” Of course, there was no ‘Palestine’ at that time. For political spin, today’s Egyptians have substituted ‘Palestine’ for Kᵊna•an.

Also significant is that the sacrifice upon which Moses insisted was a cow, the very deity, Hât-Hōr, to which the temple of Khât-shepset—built by Sen-en-Mut—was dedicated. Moreover, Sen-en-Mut’s mother was said to have received a royal scarab directly from Hât-Hōr – thereby establishing Sen-en-Mut’s (Moses’?) divine selection. Was Moses’ sacrifice a symbolic slaying of Hât-Hōr, cutting his ties to his idolatrous origins?

Significantly, Tut-moses Jr. and Sen-en-Mut seem to be the only major Egyptian personalities of the period whose tombs never contained a body and were disrespected. This all occurred at the very time that the Ha•birus appeared in Egypt - and “mysteriously” left Egypt! Just as “mysteriously,” Khât-shepset was so disrespected after her death that all of her images were defaced throughout Egypt and Egyptian history rewritten insofar as possible to eliminate all memory of her and her consort Sen-en-Mut. Why were they considered a disgrace throughout Egypt. Scholars have no other reasonable answer: because of the Yᵊtzi•âh?!?

“From this Egyptian myth left on the walls of the pyramids we learn that the Nile delta was where the Egyptians believed Isis had hidden among the bulrushes with her man-god son, Hōrus. When Princess Khât-shepset saw the basket woven of bulrushes ferrying a male baby to her from the Nile, surely she thought, "Hōrus!" And it was this association that Amᵊrâm and Yō•khëvëd had counted on. return to text

Rainbow Rule Ha•biru

The term עִבְרִים is applied in the Bible to Avᵊrâ•hâm (see bᵊ-Reish•it 14.13). It is generally assumed, although denied by some scholars, that the Hebrews are the people called Ha•biru in the tablets found at Akhet-Aten (later renamed: Tël el-Amarna), Egypt; written about 1400 BC, these were found in 1887. This assumption coincides with Biblical tradition; the Amarna correspondence, however, makes no reference to the origin or ethnic character of the Ha•biru. In bᵊ-Reish•it 40.15, Yo•seiph explains to the Egyptians that he had been kidnapped from “the land of the Hebrews.” In Shᵊm•ot 2.6, the daughter of Par•oh recognizes -Moses as "one of the Hebrews' children". The implication of these sources is that in early times the Israelis were known to foreigners as Hebrews. return to text

Rainbow Rule Wolfman

The madness of Nᵊvu-khadᵊnëtzar Jr. is corroborated in a cuneiform from Kharan. He stayed in Tei•mân for seven years while his son, Beil-ᵊsh-a•tzar, was acting king in his absence.

Ca. BCE 539, when the Persian [modern Iran] king, [Koresh Jr. "the Great"], invaded Bâ•vël, Nᵊvu-naid (!) was back in the capital. "On the 15th of [Seventhmonth], [the city of] Sippar surrendered to [Koresh Jr. "the Great"] without battle. Nᵊvu-naid fled [leaving Beil-ᵊsh-a•tzar acting king; ybd]. The next day Bâ•vël—whose priests, especially the priest of Marduk, opposed him—opened its gates to Koresh… Aramaic fragments from Qum•rân relate that while in Tei•mân, Nᵊvu-naid was afflicted with [שְׁחִין] for seven years [ca. 550-543; ybd] until an unnamed Jewish [גְּזַר], a word which also appears in the Aramaic of Dân•iy•eil, advised him to pray to the god of the heavens instead of to the idols… This suggests that the story about the seven years' lycanthropy of Nᵊvu-khadᵊnëtzar Jr. in Dân•iy•eil 4…" may have confused Nᵊvu-naid with Nᵊvu-khadᵊnëtzar Jr., BCE 561-539. return to text

Rainbow Rule Antiochus 4th Epiphanes

Hellenist Syrian king Antiochus interpreted the retaking of Yᵊru•shâ•layim, by Yᵊho•shua Bën-Tzâ•doq as a revolt against his sovereignty and decided to punish the rebellious city. When he returned from Mi•tzᵊrayim towards the end of BCE 169, he marched in person with his [Syrian] army against Yᵊru•shâ•layim, executed a bloodbath there, and looted the immense treasures of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh, with the help, it is said, of [rabid Hellenist "High Priest"] Μενέλαος [ca. BCE 171-161; successor of Yᵊho•shua ("Jason") Bën-Shim•on Jr. Bën-Tza•doq] himself. All the valuables, amongst them the three great golden vessels from the inner Hei•khâl, the mi•zᵊbeiakh of Incense, the seven-branched Mᵊnor•âh and the Table of the Display Bread, were taken back by him to Antakya, Turkey. "The sanctuary in [Yᵊru•shâ•layim] was to be polluted and called after Ζεύς Olympus" (2nd Macc. 6.1-2).

To ensure that these measures would be permanently implemented, the walls of the city were torn down by Antiochus. The Old City of Dâ•wid, however, was re-fortified with an a fortified, observatory tower, citadel – the [Syrian] 'Ακρα' was tall enough to look down into the court of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh, and was occupied from then on by an idolatrous garrison of Hellenist Syrians. In the words of Dân•iy•eil (11.39), ‘He will use the people of a foreign god to defend the fortress.’

Antiochus issued instructions that the services of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh and observance of Tor•âh were to be abolished and idolatrous Hellenist cults to foreign gods were to be substituted instead. The observance of all Judaic ordinances, in particular those relating to Sha•bât and circumcision, made capital offense. In every town in Yᵊhudâh sacrifice was to be offered to the Hellenist gods . Overseers were sent everywhere to see that the royal command was carried out. Where the people did not comply willingly, they were obliged to do so by force. Once a month a check was made, and whoever was found with a scroll of the Tor•âh or had had a child circumcised, was put to death. return to text

Rainbow Rule Egyptologists' & Archeologists' "Low" Dating vs Scientists' "High" Dating

Practitioners of the art of archeology (viz. archeologists and Egyptologists) have disagreed—by as much as to two centuries—with scientists' dating of ancient events in the Middle East ever since the emergence of 14 dating in the early 1940s.

As a consequence, archeological/Egyptological datings of the greatest eruption (Thera) in the world of recorded history are taught as having happened at different times, varying by up to two centuries, depending on the location where evidence of the eruption is found. This is because in some places dating has been estimated based on estimated lengths of reigns of rulers in that place while the successions of rulers in other place, including Egypt and the Par•ohs, are rarely able to be cross-matched or fixed to an astronomical or other physical event.

The primary error is not in the sciences (14C, Dendrology, etc.).

Somewhere(s) in the different estimates by the practitioners of the art of archeology/​Egyptology, there is a cumulative error, across the distant ends of the ancient world, of about two centuries of mismatch. It's as if a giant meteorite streaked across the sky in ancient Iraq and took about 2 centuries to land in the Mediterranean! That's not an exaggeration. The Καλλίστη Eruption is scientifically 14C-dated, but is attributed in the archeological-Egyptological arts world as much as almost 2 centuries later.

That the Biblical account of the Yᵊtzi•âh describes the Thera event is more certain than nearly all of the archeological-Egyptological datings that are printed everywhere as if they were solidly proven. "Ca", abbreviation for circa, is a tiny indication that sometimes they have very little basis for their dating, and little idea when.

So, this is where the 14C Καλλίστη Eruption vs the earlier, arts-degreed archeologists' dating, c BCE 1453) meets the Yᵊtzi•âh; a ridiculous and impossible 172 year-long Yᵊtzi•âh and even that ridiculous band-aid doesn't address the enormity of the nearly 2-century gap between the scientists' "high" and practicers of the art of archeology's "low" datings still intensely argued.

As a scientist, I assert with confidence and conviction: the error, or collection of errors, will be found in the practice of the art of archeology-Egyptology, not in the mounting number of scientific specialties all agreeing on the late BCE 17th century dating of the Yᵊtzi•âh. So when you see the reign of Par•oh so-and-so, or Mesopotamian ruler so-and-so, dated, then you'd be wise to take it with a grain of salt—"yeah, or maybe as much as a couple of centuries earlier" (meaning a higher, negative, number BCE). But until the errors by the "arts" guys are sorted, the Thera eruption and Yᵊtzi•âh are where the rubber fails to meet the road for the archeologists / Egyptologists. The Yᵊtzi•âh is more firmly dated by the 14C dating of the Καλλίστη Eruption and not as I had earlier relied on archeologists' (and some geologists') dating c BCE 1453. But crunching the numbers above (i.e., before) the Καλλίστη Eruption, the Yᵊtzi•âh "moves up" 172 years to mesh with the Καλλίστη Eruption event. This will still require finding how the two events mesh, both before and after the correction; i.e., the errors between preceding cross-matched (and if the are meshing cross-matched) events. These can, in all likelihood, only be sorted by the new genre of archeological sciences, not the old school of the arts genre archeologists/​Egyptologists who made the dating mess in the first place. return to text

Rainbow Rule Implications of Sha•bât Epoch On Tᵊphil•ot

The six Biblical epochs (days) describe the mᵊlâkh•âh of י‑‑ה in setting up the laws governing His forces, which cause the universe to exist and govern its workings, in contrast to the present epoch of His Sha•bât in which we live today—in which He has declared that He has ceased to intervene, having defined further intervention as mᵊlâkh•âh for Him.

Historically, with the sole exception of Avᵊrâ•hâm and Yi•sᵊr•â•eil, every inquiry striving to commune with god(s) has been for the purpose of channeling Divine Power: prevailing on god(s) to grant one's prayers. Stated equivalently, it is the quest to harness and take control of the Power of the god(s), to direct the Divine Power as one's own power to achieve one's own purposes! Not only is it foolish to think we know how to do things better than י‑‑ה, it is presumptuous and arrogant. On top of that, to imagine that we will persuade י‑‑ה to do mᵊlâkh•âh on His Sha•bât, in stark contradiction to commands in the Tor•âh that He gave us, borders on the mentality of a chimp. That we would even imagine to influence י‑‑ה to do mᵊlâkh•âh on His Sha•bât is audacious. Tᵊphil•âh is designed, and works, to acknowledge to י‑‑ה when we need His help understanding and dealing with the realities of His Will—enabling us to understand and conform our will to His Will—reality, not changing His Will, "supernaturally" intervening to "tweak" His Perfect Laws to conform to our ideas. See my Effective Prayer Checklist.return to text

Rainbow Rule Biblical Lifespans

There is no accepted interpretation explaining the apparent super-human lifespans and ages of early Biblical characters. Consistent use of the lunar calendar, while explaining the 930 (lunar year) lifespan of •dâm (equating to 77.5 solar years), fails upon yielding an age of 130 (lunar) years for becoming a father (<11 solar years old). There are other examples completely impossible. Still, this was a period in which the lunar calendar was transitioning into the solar calendar, which may factor in with no reliable consistency, and likely help to explain some of the impossibly long lifespans, particularly since, the skewing due to infant mortality rates aside, there was no appreciable difference in lifespan of humans who survived into adulthood in antiquity than adults living today.

This also spans periods in which humans aspired to be gods, great warriors were "graduated" to recognition as (eternal) gods and, later, par•ohs and other rulers touted themselves to be (eternal) gods. Some ages may be a combination of ancient numerology and honorific years. Thus, it may also be that persons regarded as great in their country and generation, as even mere mention in the Bible implies, were awarded honorific years to their true lifespan in proportion to the perceived greatness: the stalwart of 20 years, of an approximate generation of (≈) 40 years, or of 1 or more centuries, etc.; much as we might award an honorific Ph.D. or Nobel Prize.

While historians who are trying to work out chronologies place great importance on physical lifespans, the physical age may have been irrelevant to the ancients who had no calendar and no sense of history beyond the reigns of a few rulers according to oral family lore. The earliest extant scribes of the Bible were recording important personages and events, not chronology–and even they seemed to acknowledge as much. When they correlated with the histories of surrounding cultures, who had their own chronologies, there were sometimes gaps of uncertainty where the numbers didn't quite correlate.

Nevertheless, while (despite great variations in infant mortality rates and corresponding life expectancies from birth) the lifespans of humans reaching adulthood have been highly consistent throughout the human experiencee. There is little other information upon which to base a chronology. So literal "Biblical" years are best-guesstimates that can, at various points, easily vary by decades and cannot be understood as absolute values in the way we regard them in light of our technology.

Even the reigns of successors to Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh , although the lunar calendar was no longer confused with solar years, may vary by honorific extensions for various reigns in cases where the number of years didn't add up correctly for the earliest extant scribes. For example, whenever "40 years" is found, that is suspiciously like "some uncertain, unaccounted for, yet proper period" to make the numbers seem to work out the best they knew.

On the upside, these nebulous uncertainties allow for a multitude of chronological adjustments and refinements as scientific evidence mounts to resolve the Egyptologists' & Archeologists' "Low" Dating vs Scientists' "High" Dating return to text

Rainbow Rule Reign of Shâ•ul: Shᵊmu•eil Âlëph 13.1

בֶּן-שָׁנָה שָׁאוּל בְּמָלְכוׂ; וּשְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים, מָלַךְ עַל-יִשְׂרָאֵל.

The connective וּ is ambiguous, allowing 2 interpretations:

  1. Shâ•ul was one year into his reign, and (i.e., then) he reigned two [more] years [for a total of 3 years], or
  2. Shâ•ul was one year into his reign, and he reigned [a total of] two years return to text
Rainbow Rule Dating Methodologies: The Crunch Between Art and Science

Sophomoric arts-oriented supernaturalists, having eschewed science studies, have always read Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 6.1 simplistically; in the same way they read the "6 days of creation," most not even bothering to check the original language, insisting that the building of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh began exactly in the 480th year after the Yᵊtzi•âh. The result, in each case, has been a time-crunch conundrum–only as much as a couple of centuries in the latter case but off by gigennia relative to creation between arts-oriented methodology versus contradictory and impossibly incompatible scientific methodology.

The earliest codifier of the preceding generations of oral tradition, from which this passage derived, was fully aware of the correct and simpler way of specifying several variations of:

בִּשְׁנַת אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שְׁמוֹנִים מ‫…
(in the year of four hundreds eighty from…)

But, for some–essential–reason, ignored for millennia by superficial sophomores, the scribe wrote something cryptic instead:

בִּשְׁמוֹנִים שָׁנָה וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה לְ‫…
(in an 80 yearsing. and a 4 hundreds yearsing. to…) leaving Egypt

which the scribe equated to the 4th regnal year of Shᵊlomoh (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 6.1).

Whether you begin with early apparent match-ups of history and Bible and follow the chronology forward, begin with important known (well, accepted as known or very close) dates in more recent history (e.g., BCE 586 or 722) and calculate Biblical chronology back into ancient times, or choose some apparent mesh between Bible and history in the middle (say, Par•oh Ra-moses, bᵊ-Reish•it 47.11; Shᵊm•ot 1.11; 12.37; bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbar 33.3, 5) and calculate from that point in both directions, Biblical history diverges from the history of other cultures of the Middle East, at some points by nearly two centuries or more. It's inescapable that there were, and remain, periods of uncertain duration cluttering the early scribes attempts to compile a chronology.

The phraseology of Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 6.1 seems to acknowledge, and allude, to that, suggesting at least two major blocks of time: [1] first, an 80 year block, which = 2 40-year (i.e., uncertain) periods, and [2] second, a 400 year block, which = 10 x 40 years (10 x longer and more uncertain). The initial 40 year period of uncertain duration likely stretches back all the way to the 40 years (uncertain duration) of "wandering" subsequent to the Yᵊtzi•âh. Thus, contrary to later sophomoric supernaturalist interpreters, the scribes who compiled the Biblical chronology seem to have acknowledged periods of uncertainty, guesstimates that allowed for "slosh" in the chronology.

This chronology attempts to match meshing events (e.g., named Israeli kings mentioned relative to named Par•ohs, named kings of Bâ•vël, 14C-dated events, etc.), then distribute the "slosh" relatively evenly among the intervening 40-year periods where the original scribes seem to have been unsure of the duration and details of a given time. Consequently, many of these dates, while giving the best chronology possible with current information, should be understood not as absolute but, rather, as the best current estimates, strings of which must be allowed to float one way or the other as scientific input continues to flow in and enable refinements. return to text

Rainbow Rule Scientific Definition Of An Ancient Generation

The term generation is most often used to mean the mean period between parent and child. However, generation is also sometimes used in the sense of life-span (frequently confused with life-expectancy), generally approximated as one century.

While 25 years has been universally accepted for some time, even in scientific papers, actual scientific research has shown that, while this is a good estimate for the matriarchal generation, the patriarchal generations is several years longer. In the short term, this isn't very significant. Over many generations, however, the difference becomes critical. Further, "[w]ith the growing application of DNA testing to both anthropology and genealogy, the length of a generation takes on far more importance than it had in the past. Many conclusions from DNA evidence in both disciplines are frequently expressed in terms of generations back to a common ancestor, based on the very slow rate at which random changes or mutations take place in DNA patterns over a number of generations."

"In the first of the three more recent studies of generation length, sociologist Nancy Howell calculated average generational intervals among present-day members of the !Kung. These are a contemporary hunter-gatherer people of Botswana and Namibia whose life style is probably close to that of all our pre-agricultural ancestors in the dim past. The average age of mothers at birth of their first child was 20 and at the last birth 31, giving a mean of 25.5 years per female generation — considerably above the 20 years often attributed to primitive cultures. Husbands were six to 13 years older, giving a male generational interval of 31 to 38 years." (viz., 35 years). (Donn Devine, International Society Of Genetic Genealogy, 2016.06.08) return to text

Rainbow Rule Reconciling A Self-Contradicting Chronology

Supernaturally-long lifespans aside (י‑‑ה can never contradict Himself by breaking His perfect laws to accomplish reality; it's sophomoric human interpreters who are the simpletons), whatever year one fixes for the birth of Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh, the genealogy, via Pâ•rëtz, back to the birth of Av•râm (521 years) is less than the chronology, via the Sho•phᵊt•im, back to the Yᵊtzi•âh (571 years)! That impossibly implies that Mosh•ëh and the Yᵊtzi•âh happened before Av•râm was born! This is one facet of the conundrum between the High vs Low Dating between the arts-degreed archeologists practicing archeology as an art versus the new breed of archeological scientists.

The obvious impossibility forces any reasonable person to acknowledge that these alternate chronologies did not apply modern methodology dependent on modern technology; nor even the same methodology within the period. This forces us to scrutinize what constitutes a generation as well as ancient lifespans. The most plausible way that the period of the Sho•phᵊt•im (viz., Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh back to the Yᵊtzi•âh) can mesh with the genealogy through Pâ•rëtz (viz., from Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh back to Tâ•mâr, Yᵊhudâh, Yi•tzᵊkhâq and Avᵊrâ•hâm) is that the shorter (Sho•phᵊt•im) line uses a generation of approx. 35 years while the longer (Pâ•rëtz) line apparently highlights the most important patriarch from each century. The "century generation" seems to be abandoned in favor of the 35-year generation within the first and last century (of 3, ≈35-year, generations). This methodology I developed and used in this chronology is the only methodology to date that reconciles the impossible gap between "High" and "Low" Datings.

Interestingly, there is never even the slightest hint in the Bible of any birthday being noted; as if actual physical years weren't actually counted and had nothing at all to do with the ancient perception of one's "days." In this time before calendars as we know them, the year was anchored only to the regnal year of the ruler, strings of years that were routinely reset. This seems to be complicated by some who have children around age 25 while others seem to begin having children around 125-130. Taken together, this all suggests that the 100 years is assigned as some distinction rather than years physically lived. Looking at the Sho•phᵊt•im vs Pâ•rëtz imbalance, it cannot be coincidental that the math works out when the "century count" middle of the line is understood as grandfather to great-grandson macro-view, and equated to a "patriarch of the family century" 100 years, while the immediate unit at each end (grandfather to son to grandson micro-view) equates to an immediate-family unit count, 25-year generation between grandfather, son and grandson.

This also seems to offer an answer to how Yi•sᵊr•â•eil was "130" when he spoke with Par•oh in Mi•tzᵊrayim. He was his family's current "century patriarch," adding 100 to his "days." But, in his own words, he valued his days as few, 30–despite clearly being more advanced in physical years lived according to events in his life.

In short, one's "days" or "years" in post-akh antiquity seem to have been an indication of one's position in one's own family, marking a family's patriarchal century, or one's place within the family's patriarchal century, and to reflect the perception of one's achievements, or failures; not strict physical age that we mark today. This is apparently further complicated by different perspectives of "age" that varied according to region and culture.

Pre-akh years in northwest Mesopotamia (modern northwest Turkey on the southwest coast of the Black Sea) seem to be measured in lunar years (months). Dividing by 12 yields lifespans realistic to scientific findings—which introduces a reality into what has long been regarded as an age of supernatural lifespans. We must remember that there were no long-term calendars to relate to; plus, "history" in those days amounted only to what we now think of as family lore passed down orally.

Post-akh years in Kᵊna•an, by contrast, apparently marked patriarchal centuries, pre-akh years seem to have reflected patriarchal millennia or more. In other words, while Qayin and H evël were, indeed, "sons" of â•dâm, we don't know, and shouldn't claim to know, how many intervening descendants may have lived in the interim, between what may have been "millennial patriarchs".

Egypt seems to have applied a still-different perspective to one's age that indicated whether a person had endured through a period of particular hardship, which Egyptians equated to the number 70, derived from the heliacal setting below the horizon (which they viewed as the netherworld) of their Isis-star Sirius. Hence, '70 years' added to one's "days" is associated with having endured some particular hardships (famines, loss of a family member, etc.).

Setting up all of the most well-known, thought to be "fixed," dates on a spreadsheet program, a few experiments with varying the 35-year generation and other balancing strategies brought the chronology into balance so that Amᵊrâm, as calculated from the spreadsheet calculation of Avᵊrâ•hâm's birth, was 25 years old when his eldest son, A•ha•ron, was born; ergo, 28 when Mosh•ëh was born. Not bad, given that calculations from virtually any other mathematically consistent chronology, uh, oops, there isn't any other chronology that is mathematically consistent across its entirety. return to text

Rainbow Rule Internal Contradictions & Gaps Resolved By Spreadsheet Version

There are countless internal, intractable contradictions within Biblical chronology; screaming to any reasonable person that these were the "best guess" oral history handed down from generation to generation for countless generations. They didn't even have long-term calendars back then to relate to or provide perspective! Their interest was how, in general concepts, not precisely when, nor chronological precision–an idea not even imagined in the embryonic development of a historical story; nor taken seriously until dating technology of recent years in the modern era—which, today, still has an unresolved 2-century gap!

Only supernaturally long lives permit the generations from Yo•seiph's contemporary nephew when he was sold into Mi•tzᵊrayimPâ•rëtz to his son Khë•tzᵊr•ōn to his son Amᵊrâm to his son Mosh•ëh at the Yᵊtzi•âh—to span 430 years.

To give their parallel descendants in the genealogy similarly consistent supernaturally-long lifespans pushes the dating of the Yᵊtzi•âh down past the reign of Shᵊlomoh ha-Mëlëkh, requiring the preposterous contradiction that Av•râm was born after the reign of Shᵊlomoh ha-Mëlëkh—among countless other distortions and internal contradictions.

See the spreadsheet version of this work for the bare-bones framework essential to balancing the entire tree so that all the numbers are, for the first time in history, consistent at all critical junctures. The spreadsheet doesn't pretend that each number is correct. That is an impossible goal. Rather, the spreadsheet focuses on several critical junctures, (particularly the events of BCE 586, 722, the 14C-dated Καλλίστη Eruption coinciding with the Yᵊtzi•âh, and the necessity of the lifespans of Yo•seiph-Yᵊhudâh, to Qᵊhât, to Amᵊrâm to Mosh•ëh meshing with the line of Pâ•rëtz at the Yᵊtzi•âh).

While there are surely numerous errors of a few years in one direction, there are complementary opposite and, crucially, all events are within reasonable expectations and, critically, the equation at all critical junctures implies equal errors in the opposite direction elsewhere so that the entire tree balances at all critical junctures, presenting the closest approximation—closer by centuries—than any previous attempts. It is also the only tree to finally reconcile the Egyptologists' & Archeologists' "Low" Dating vs Scientists' "High" Dating  gap. return to text

Rainbow Rule Conundrums Of Numerology In Calendric Transition

This is the period in which the mixture of lunar and solar calendars gives way to exclusively solar calendars. However, it would appear that, during this transition, in an age in which seniority and reputation meant everything, a man's age in solar years might be dismissed as junior, even childish, relative to the age of someone still intercalating their age in lunar years. Thus, it appears that different, sometimes conflicting, methods of numerology were used to "adjust" a solar age that was much smaller than the lunar ages of juniors in the area in order to produce respect consistent with one's true age.

It appears that numerology became the primary corrective factor. Avᵊrâ•hâm died at the perplexing age of 175 (bᵊ-Reish•it 25.7-8). We know from scientific examinations of every body from every period that this was too old for natural lifespan (a supernaturalist self-contradicting god aside) but too young to be lunar years. Adding 100 to the solar age as a factor seems to have designated the patriarch of the family at the time and would have indicated that Avᵊrâ•hâm died at the age of 75. But transition seems to have been ongoing during his lifetime since that's contradicted by other ages at various events in his life. For example, Av•râm left Khâ•rân at age 75 (bᵊ-Reish•it 12.4). So how is his age at that event to be explained?

The earliest extant scribes, and perhaps the oral lore historians themselves, seem to have used the number 40 much like we use "x" or "n" today (e.g., a vacation of "n" number of days); but to express a "fudge factor" chronological gap, where the information is inconsistent and doesn't add up correctly; an uncertain modal generation of 20-50 years or so: "40 years"return to text

Rainbow Rule The Ma•bul
3D Black Sea map
Click to enlarge3D Black Sea map (historum.com)

Legitimate scientists (sifting out the endless myth-agenda quacks in internet searches to find recognized geologists and related scientists from prestigious universities like Stanford) find no evidence within 3 millennia that could form any credible basis for the Ma•bul. Scientists pinpoint the most likely event to which the Ma•bul referred as the Mediterranean-Aegean Sea bursting through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits separating Asian-Continent northern Turkey from European-Continent northern Turkey, flooding the Black Sea c BCE 5500, millennia before akh was born.

There are at least a couple of ways in which this could explain akh being associated with the flood:

akh died at age 950 (bᵊ-Reish•it 9.29). This is also expressed in lunar years (months), equating to slightly over 79 solar years old. (bᵊ-Reish•it 5.28).return to text

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