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Hebrew Glossary: R-S

The reason this simple page of glossary definitions is ranked so popular with the search engine is because so many people click on our links to these definitions from the content in… the 'Netzarim Quarter' Village web site in Ra•an•anâ(h), Israel at www.netzarim.co.il

The real content is in the 'Netzarim Quarter'! Click on our logo above for an exciting visit to the 'Netzarim Quarter' where you'll learn about Historical Ribi Yehoshua and his original, Jewish, followers before the great Roman-Hellenist apostasy of 135 CE—and even more importantly, how you (whether Jew or non-Jew) can follow the historically true, Judaic, Ribi Yehoshua. In Hebrew, his original followers were called the Netzarim (Hellenized to "Nazarenes").

Until Paqid Yirmeyahu researched the Netzarim name and sect and began publishing about it in 1972 in The Netzarim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matityahu (NHM) no one in modern times was even aware of the name Netzarim. It stretches credulity that no one in modern times had heard of the Netzarim until Paqid Yirmeyahu published it in 1972… and then, suddenly, everybody figured it out??? Check (and verify) the dates of the earliest works about the Netzarim by the others and you'll see that they are deceiver-plagiarists. Then insist on the person whom ha-Sheim selected to entrust the knowledge, not imposters who falsely call their continuing practice of Displacement Theology "Nazarene Judaism" or directly plagiarize the name "Netzarim."

Because we teach and practice the authentic Judaic teachings of Ribi Yehoshua—not Displacement Theology—we are the only group who have restored the Netzarim to be accepted in the legitimate Jewish community in Israel—genuinely like Ribi Yehoshua and the original Netzarim. Consequently, the 'Netzarim Quarter' is the only web site of legitimate Netzarim / Nazarene Judaism.

Give all the friends you've ever known the chance to know about this exciting site; send them our web site address (www.netzarim.co.il) that opens modern eyes for the first time to the Judaic world that Ribi Yehoshua and his original Netzarim knew, practiced and taught.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.10.19]

ra (m.), (râ•âh, fem.); (râ•ōt, f. pl.). , rawrong, bad, apostate, straying or idolatrous as defined by Tor•âh. Borrowed from Egyptian , the sun-idol supreme deity; i.e., correspondingly straying, apostate, idolatrous.


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Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Raanana downtown, Rekhov Akhuzah (Estate St.)Downtown Ra•a•nanâ(h)

Ra•a•nanâh , Raanana "fresh" (fem. n.); spelled in English as Ra´anana and pronounced by Anglos as Ra•nana. Ra´anana is a small city roughly 20km (12mi) north of Teil •viv, between Kᵊphar Saba and Her•tzᵊl•iyah at the narrowest point of Israel's pre-1967 waist.


Ginah in Ra'anana Park Ra'anana
Gin•âh in Ra•a•nanâhPark Ra•a•nanâh
Gan Uri Gordon in Ra'ananaKanyon Renanim in Ra'anana
Gan Uri in Ra•a•nanâhKan•yon (Mall) Rᵊnan•im
in Ra•a•nanâh

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.12]

Rab•ân; , Raban Aramaic of Rav, plural (Rab•ân•im); used only of the Nâ•si of the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον.

(Rab•ân•ân) is Aramic for "our Ravs."


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.11.05]

Rabi? Or Ribi? — , , Rabbi, Ribi popularly Anglicized to "Rabbi".

No rabbinic title existed prior to the secession of the Pᵊrush•im faction of the Biblical Kha•sid•im from the Hellenized Tzᵊdoq•im faction of the Biblical Kha•sid•im in BCE 135. "The more ancient generations, … which were far superior, had no such titles… The title 'Rabbi,' too, came into vogue among those who received the laying on of hands [sᵊmikh•âh] at this period."

From the inception of the Pᵊrush•im in BCE 135 to c 20 CE, the Hellenist Tzᵊdoq•im dominated the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον (as you can tell by the Greek, rather than Hebrew, name – including the tractate name in Ta•lᵊmud), dismissing Pᵊrush•im titles as illegitimate and meaningless. It was only around 20 CE that the Pᵊrush•im finally achieved dominance in the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον and Pᵊrush•im titles obtained significance.

According to the Jewish Encyclopedia's English, Shᵊrir•â Gâ•ōn (906-1006 CE) declared that "The title 'Rab' is Babylonian, and that of 'Rabbi' is [conferred only by the Academies in Yᵊhudâh]." Meanwhile, in seeming direct contradiction, R. Dr. Ernest Klein defines the PBH m.n. as "'Rabbi' — title of the Babylonian Âmor•âyim." As if to ensure chaos prevails, is today generally translated into English as "rabbi."

Ta•lᵊmud remained unvoweled until 1964 — CE — when I was in U.S. Air Force Intelligence in Germany, playing keyboard with the Forerunners, and the Beatles were climbing to the top of the charts. The confusion among these terms stems from disputes among various modern Judaic traditions concerning the proper pronunciation of in Ta•lᵊmud. In Hebrew, pronunciation differentiates the words, with their corresponding definitions. This confusion was amped-up when began to be translated as "rabbi" in English.

The confusion traces back not to how 1st century C.E. Jews pronounced , but to how Hellenist Roman gentiles — not necessarily reliably — transliterated and pronounced the rabbinic title of Yᵊho•shua in the original — post-135 C.E. — Greek mss. of the Christian Καινής Διαθήκης — as "ῥαββί." Thus, modern European-assimilated (Ash•kᵊnazim and Sᵊphâ•râd•im) rabbis have unknowingly relied on the Christian Καινής Διαθήκης tradition for their 1964 vowelization of (rbi) as ῥαββί in Ta•lᵊmud.

Ta•lᵊmud describes A•qi, inter alia of the Yᵊhudâh Academy (as contrasted against the Babylonian-assimilated Academies), as , while those of the Babylonian Academies are, indeed, called . This is what both the Jewish Encyclopedia, Klein's Concordance, and many others are trying to explain while getting all gnarled up in conflicted English translations.

Accordingly, we must examine the many errors in a wide range of opinions regarding the proper vowelization of the Talmudic title: . The confusion blurring the sᵊmikh•âh of modern rabbis with the sᵊmikh•âh of the ancient is a boon to the same rabbis who self-servingly, "eclectically" vowelized to — glossing over countless breaks in the chain of their claimed uninterrupted and unbroken line of sᵊmikh•âh from Mōsh•ëh to today's European-origin (Ash•kᵊnazim and Sᵊphâ•râd•im) rabbis. It's then understandable why they assume an authoritative stance in "eclectically" insisting on vowelizing in Ta•lᵊmud as "rabbi", seemingly merging the two.

Yet, Judaic scholars acknowledge that the most pristine Judaic tradition is that of the Tei•mân•im (followed by other Mi•zᵊrakhim, in contrast to European {then the Hellenized Roman Empire, in 70 and 135 C.E.}) Judaic traditions). Finally, this history lesson leads us to a logically consistent answer: while the European-assimilated rabbinic tradition pronounce the of the Academies of Yᵊhudâh as " A•qi," the Tei•mân•im pronounce " A•qi"; clearly distinguished from both and the modern !

This, finally, enables clear and proper distinctions and definitions between

Contrary to popular misconceptions, these terms have no linguistic relationship to "teacher" or "instructor" (which is the family of cognates that includes and Mōri).

Other titles, like "Rebbe," are far more recent – 19th-20th century CEand European-assimilated (reflecting, as proven by recent genetic studies, Hellenist Tzᵊdoq•im Exiles of 70 CE and 135 CE taking refuge in the Hellenist European Roman Empire); not authentic to ancient Middle Eastern origins — Pᵊrush•im exiles of 70 CE and 135 CE who fled the Hellenists, including the Romans, into Arab countries; namely, Tei•mân•im and Eid•ōt ha-Mi•zᵊrakh.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.10.16]

Ra•bân•ut; , Rabanut Rabbinate: 17th century CE, non-Biblical ordainment – by Turkey (Ottoman Empire) and secular Israeli governments.

Foreign "Sᵊmikh•âh": Turkish (Ottoman) Empire

Far from being an ancient historical (much less Biblical) institution, the Ra•bân•ut dates back only to 17th century appointments by the Turkish (Ottoman) Empire! Today's Ra•bân•ut is the product, not of Tor•âh, but of Dark Ages European (Ultra-Orthodox) medievalists empowered by secular politicians of the modern state of Israel (in return for "king-maker" Ultra-Orthodox voting blocks).

In the beginning of the 17th century, the title of the first Rishon lᵊTzi•yon was given to the chief rabbi of Jerusalem by the Turkish (Ottoman) Empire. In 1842, the position of "Hakham Bashi", Chief Rabbi of Constantinople who represented the Turkish Jews before the Sultan, and the position of Rishon lᵊTzi•yon which at that time already represented the Old Yishuv before the Sultan, were combined into one position [and only one Chief Rabbi!] called Rishon lᵊTzi•yon. more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.11.21]

ra•kham•im; , rakhamim compassion—lit. "compassions" (m.p.). Being bound in the plural implies that "compassion" cannot exist in the singular, as a lone occurrence; it is necessarily, and only exists as, a continuing (pl.) action.

Shaar ha-Ra•kham•im is the "Gate of Compassion," the East Gate of Har ha-Bayit. Based on a mistranslation, non-Jews know this gate by an erroneous name: the 'Golden Gate."


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Râ•kheil; , Rachel, Rakhel, Rakheil ewe.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ramat ha-Golan
Râm•at ha-Go•lân

Râm•at ha-Go•lân; , , Ramat ha-Golan Golan Heights


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"Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.07.31]

Rambam
Ramba"m

Ramba"m ", '', Rambam, Ramb"m (1135-1204 CE), acronym for Rabbi Moshëh Bën-Mai•mon (son of Maimon, his father's name). Ramba"m is also widely known by his Greek—Hellenist—name: Maimonides. In the great medieval European controversy over rationalism, Ramba"m, who was the leading Sage of medieval Spain, was the champion of against -.

Tei•mân•im Jews consulted, and sided, with Ramba"m. To avoid persecution by the Muslims of Spain—who offered Jews and Christians the choice of conversion to Islam or death—Ramba"m fled with his family, first to Morocco, later to Israel, and finally to Egypt.


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"Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.08.17]

Ram•ba"n '', Ramban, Ramb"n (1194-1270 CE), acronym for Rabbi Moshëh Bën-Nakh•man (son of Nakhman; Hellenist Nakhmanides), one of the last leading - of medieval Spain. In the great controversy of versus - (which includes Qabâl•âh), Ram•ba"n attempted to reconcile the two. Thus, Ram•ba"n is the least irrational of the irrationalists. Perhaps, taking into account the limited science of his day, we could state this alternatively as the first Sage to attempt to understand spirituality from a scientific perspective—which is the perspective of the Nᵊtzâr•im.


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"Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.03.07]

Rash"i, '', Rashi acronym for Rabbi Shlomoh Yitzkhâqi (1040—1105 CE, spanning the First Crusade); medieval French rabbi and commentator.

Whether Rash"i himself had an illogical and flawed understanding, or whether these logical flaws reflect an illogical and flawed understanding by his students or by modern commentators, his legacy displays a fondness for combining parables and symbolism with fanciful flights into logically flawed (i.e., irrational) allegory.

Much of the internal religious controversy within Judaism can be expressed as Rash"i and Qa•bâl•âh vs Ram•ba"m. In such cases, the Nᵊtzâr•im always follow discrete logic – which typically translates into supporting Ram•ba"m.

Rashi's commentary is mainly distinguished by a rather imaginative philological treatment of Mi•dᵊrâshic interpretations riddled with logical inconsistencies. When the text didn't fit into his view he reworded (suggested "better" wording) the Mi•dᵊrâsh, the Tar•jums, cantillations, etc. to conform to his allegories. Rashi's second great shortcoming was his medieval frame of reference: his failure to deal with reconciling philosophy and Biblical concepts with logic, science and the universe.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.08.17]

ra•tzᵊyon•âlim; rationalists

The antonym is - (iy-ra•tzᵊyon•âlim; irrationalists).

Today's accounts in Hebrew of the Maimonidean Controversy are so thoroughly biased by the modern primarily-Litvak (Lithuanian) writers that it cannot be communicated in Hebrew without supplying more historically accurate Hebrew terms to describe the basic two sides of the controversy: rationalists versus irrationalists. In modern Hebrew accounts, the controversy is couched in terms of Ram•ba"m's Greek "science" of the goy•im versus "our holy Tor•âh" (which are, in fact, Lithuanian fable-ized traditions based in ignorance and superstition). Of course, no Jew would prefer Greek "science" of the goy•im over "our holy Tor•âh," which, in our modern era, has relegated the primary aspect of Ram•ba"m's arguments to obscurity so as not to challenge the claimed exclusive authority of modern Lithuanian rabbis.

Of course, no Tor•âh Sage—including Ram•ba"m—, ever championed Hellenism. The controversy was over adherence to —i.e., to properly interpret and understand Tor•âh versus ignorant, superstitious, fable-izing irrationalists; in Hebrew, -. Described in these more accurate terms, relating to the spiritual domain of Tor•âh in a rational, scientific and logical, frame of reference clarifies into sharp focus: a non-dimensional Realm of the Creator-Singularity preceding and beyond our physical (i.e., dimensional) universe.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.01.21]

râtz•ōn; , ratzon pleasure, wish, will

is often suffixed by the pronominal (khâ meaning "your") to form (rᵊtzon•khâ; your [masc.]) pleasure or will. The connective form without the suffix, , is pronounced rᵊtzon…, e.g. -- (rᵊtzon ha-Sheim, the will or pleasure of ha-Sheim). can also be prefixed by a preposition, for instance, (bᵊ-…; in…) to form (bᵊ-râ•tzon; with [lit. "in"] pleasure). These can also take a pronominal suffix to form, for example, (bᵊ-rᵊtzon•khâ; with or by your pleasure).

derives from the verb (râtz•âh; he was pleased with, favorable toward). While it is translated for "he wanted," the English wanting = lacking something, is a connotation absent in this Hebrew term. The future tense is used in the phrase (im yi•rᵊtz•ëh ha-Sheim), abbreviated " (IY"H), which means "if [it] will please ha-Sheim.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.10.21]

reiëh; , reieh, reeh, re'eh, rei'eh companion, plural rei•im

According to A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language For Readers of English, derives from the secondary meaning of the verb (râ•âh; to associate with, keep company with). The primary meaning of is to pasture, graze or tend (as a flock or herd). Thus, implies those who are of the same flock or herd; fellow sheep (Tor•âh keepers).


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, usually abbreviated 'Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.03.10]

Rᵊkhōv; ', , rechov, rekhov BH public square or expanse; in NH times, they paved them over and now the word means "street." Plural is . Moving the accent back to the penultimate syllable, Rᵊkhovot (public-squares, expanses or streets) is the name of a city in the gëv.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.10.05]

Rᵊphâ•im; , Rephaim "known from biblical, Ugaritic and Phoenician sources." (EJ, "Rephaim," 14.79).

Kᵊnaan, ca. BCE 2000-1550 (Middle Bronze)
Click to enlarge Kᵊna•an, ca. BCE 2000-1550 (Middle Bronze)
ccc
Click to enlargeNeanderthal Wilma

A ? But, perplexingly, it was the European Neanderthals who were "stockier." It was the Homo sapiens human beings, out of Africa (see •dâm), who were taller. (Wilma design & photo National Geographic, 1996)


"In the Bible two uses of the term are discernible" (ibid.)

"These [Ugaritic] rpum like their Phoenician counterparts, are divine in nature, … literally "divine ones?" (cf. Heb. ël•oh•imShᵊmu•eil Âlëph 28.13; Yᵊsha•yâhu 8.19, 21)… Moreover, they seem to have a military function. One of their number is referred to as a mhr, the Ugaritic term for soldier, and the rpum are described as riding in chariots… the biblical tradition of Rephaim as mighty warriors can be understood. Their huge stature would contribute to their military prowess." (ibid.)


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Replacement Theology [Updated: 2012.08.31]

See Displacement Theology.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.17]

râsh•a; , , resha to do wickedness, plural rᵊshâ•im

(rësha, wickedness).

(râ•shâ, a wicked person).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.10.28]

Rᵊu•vein, , Ruvein, R'uvein, Reuben, Reuvein "See [the] bein!" – 1st son of Ya•a•qov (mother: Leiâh). more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.11.28]

Rᵊviy•i; , reviyi, r'viyi fourth. (Frequently used to denote the 4th day of the week.)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ri•vᵊqâh , Rivqah


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.09.10]

Rogëz; , , rogez agitation, irascibility, exasperation.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.07.11]

rō•ëh; , , roeih, roi ha-elil n. rancher, animal husbander, herder of livestock; also the pres. tense v.: ranching, herding, pasturing, grazing, shepherding (in the specific case of sheep).sing. Plural (rō•im; n. ranchers, herders, also the pres. tense v. ranching, herding pl.) or . Also the verb (râ•âh; he ranched, husbanded, herded, pastured, grazed).

The pivotal instance of the phrase, is found in Zᵊkhar•yâh 11.(16 &) 17. Comprehending its meaning depends upon understanding both the grammar of (connective masc. sing. noun: "a shepherd of…") and the connotation associated with the noun (not adj.) , which is clarified in Yᵊsha•yâhu 19.1, where the term is used in the connective pl., , meaning the "feckless-idol gods of" Egypt. Thus, the phrase properly translates as: (i.e., those who represent themselves to be among the shepherds (i.e., Jewish rabbis) of Tor•âh, but who, instead, mislead the sheep astray after "the feckless god-idol" – which has consistently been the Hellenist god throughout the ages). See also Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 10.21; 23.1-8; 3.15 and Yᵊkhë•zᵊq•eil 34.2-23; 37.24.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.10.09]

Rōsh; , , rosh khodesh, chodesh, ha-shanah, rishonim, reish, resh head (by extension, top or beginning); the Hebrew letter (reish;head [Aramaic]).

Rōsh also denotes the top (as a ladder), the chief (among people), prime (among ministers, e.g., , or the beginning (as a month).

Contrast this verb family with the completely unrelated verb family () that more accurately expresses the idea "to begin": .

Cognates include:

  1. (rish•ōn; head, first). (Frequently used to denote the 1st day of the week.) The plural is . The refer specifically to the "First" Medieval Sages—dating from the 11th-15th century CE and include Rash"i, Ram•ba"m and Ram•ba"n. The contrast with the A•kha•ron•im.

  2. fem. noun (Reish•it; head, first). Prefix this with the preposition (bᵊ-; in) and you have the name of the first book in Tor•âh: (bᵊ-Reish•it; at first, lit. "in first").

  3.   (head of the khōdësh).

  4.  more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.11.01]

akh; ruakh wind, breeze or spirit; sentience. This corresponds, via LXX, to πνευμα (pneuma; wind, spirit). See also The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 1.18.6.

Developed from the Egyptian concept of ka, your is the life-force, dependent upon food, water and physical environment, which physically animates your avatar (physical body). Your contrasts with your nëphësh, a refinement of the earlier Egyptian concept of ba.

Though unable to distinguish from , in LXX the Hellenists distinguished these two terms from , which they rendered πνευμα (pneuma; wind, spirit).

Whether for good or evil, your strongly influences your and . The is the interface between your and in the non-dimensional realm, on the one side, and your body in the physical universe.

All of our physical senses are located in our physical body. Thus, all of our perceptions that depend upon our physical senses seem to us to be experienced in our body and in our physical world—just as when playing a virtual game we experience being in a virtual world.

It is this sentiency interface that "unplugs" from the physical brain at death, liberating the and in the non-dimensional realm. Those who haven't prepared for the non-dimensional realm, developing healthy and complementary and don't survive. Even among those who survive, those who haven't developed their non-dimensional senses are entirely disoriented—like a virtual game-player who has never seen the "real" world.

(Ruakh ha-Qodësh) is the Spirit of Qodësh, where Qodësh is defined by Tor•âh. , conveying a spirit independent of localized closeness, was adapted by goy•im for whom -- was never their aboriginal , and, therefore, to Whose spiritual , they could never relate. With rare exception, Jews use the term exclusively.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Rut; a Mo•âv name; Hellenized to "Ruth." Mi•dᵊrâsh associates the name with râ•at•âh ("she saw", i.e. understood, the words of her mother-in-law, Artscroll, The Book of Ruth, p. 67).

Rut is the second of the five Mᵊgil•ot


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!Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.01.29]

sᵊlikh•âh; , , salakh, selikhah, Selikhot excuse, forgiveness, "Excuse me!," fem. n. of (sâ•lakh; he excused, forgave). The plural noun, (sᵊlikh•ot; excusings, forgivenesses), is the title of Tᵊphil•ot incorporated in Sha•khar•it from the first day of the week preceding Yom Tᵊru•âh until Yom ha-Ki•pur.

See also (mâ•khal) and (khâ•nan).


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[Updated: 2009.03.10]

Salat Turki (matbukha)
Sâ•lât Trki (ma•tᵊbūkhâh)

and similar , , Salat Turki , matbukha (adapted from Mimi)

Yield: approximately 4 cups

Ingredients:
  • 1 large onion

  • 2 Tblsp. olive oil

  • 1 green bell pepper

  • 2 red bell peppers

  • 2 large tomatoes

  • 3 Tblsp. sliced or pitted, chopped green olives

  • 1 tsp. salt

  • 1/2 tsp. ground cumin

  • 1/2 tsp. black pepper

  • 4 Tblsp. tomato purée

  • 2 Tblsp. chopped coriander leaf

  • skhug to taste (and color)

Method:
  1. Peel and dice the onions. Fry them in the olive oil till golden: use a medium-sized pan or a large frying pan.

  2. Remove the stem, seeds and white inner membrane from all the peppers. Chop into dice. Add them to the onions. Cover the pan and cook the vegetables till the peppers are soft - about 8 minutes. Stir once or twice.

  3. Dice the tomatoes. If necessary, pit and slice the olives. Add all of these to the pan.

  4. Add the black pepper, cumin, salt, tomato paste and skhug.

  5. Cover the pan again and cook the vegetables over a medium flame for about 15 minutes.

  6. Sprinkle coriander over the salad

  7. Serve cold.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.11.13]

Sar, , , sar, sarah, sarim one who contends, struggles, strives (from the verb ); by extension, a nobleman, prince or minister; pl. (sar•im); plural connective form …- (sar•ei-…; noblemen or minsters of…). In MH, a government minister is called a Sar (of Finance, Education, Transportation, of the Interior, etc.).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.11.13]

Sâr•âh, , Sarah n. noblewoman, princess; from the v. to contend, struggle, strive ( of…). Also, the name of the wife of Av•râ•hâm, Sârâh, and the first element of Yi•sᵊrâ•Eil.

(Sâr•âi = sar + âi; my nobles or princes), apparently a contraction of + (i.e., my princess).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.12.19]

sâ•sōn; , sason delight, exuberance.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Sâ•tân; , Satan, satan, satanic a human impugner, adversary, accuser, polemicist or prosecutor; e.g., one of I•yov's debaters. (Ancient convention was to credit --, directly, rather than the human who spoke Words credited to --.) Synonymous with yeitzër hâ-ra.

Thus, "[t]he doctrine of the two inclinations (or drives) is a major feature of rabbinic psychology and anthropology." However, "the rabbinic notion of two inclinations shifts this dualism from a metaphysical to a more psychological level (i.e., two [dissonant] tendencies in man rather than two [warring Armageddon] cosmic [principalities]." However, the rabbis confuse the sexual aspect of this inclination, regarding it internally oxymoronic – , yet "not intrinsically [] and, therefore, not to be completely suppressed." (Inclination, Good and Evil, Ency. Jud., 8.1318).

Hellenist Christians later syncretized and corrupted these Judaic concepts with earlier traditions morphed into their own native (Hellenist Greco-Roman) traditions: the Ugaritic idol Anzu-Tiamat (an evil angel who stole the "Tablet of Destinies," the supreme authority to rule the universe), the Mesopotamian idol Ishtar (morphed into Greek Aphrodite, morphed into Roman Venus, morphed into Latin Lucifer, Great Whore of Babylon, crown of snakes? early serpent & dragon themes of later Hellenist Hydra idol), and these expanded with their native Greek idols Pan (sexual tempter, evil music & seducer & satyr), Thanatos (angel of death) and perhaps Icarus (fallen angel) to fabricate the Christian anti-god mélange of "Sātan" aka the devil (evil demon) aka Beelzebub.

Mesopotamian Anzu-TiamatAkkadian-Assyrian-Babylonian Ishtar Sumerian Inanna Semitic AshtarteHellenist PanThanatos (death angel)
Ugaritic idol –
Anzu-Tiamat
Mesopotamian idol –
Ishtar
Greek idol –
Pan
Greek idol –
Thanatos

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.05.20]

= kâ•sheir Bovidae
eiz - goat Nubian buck kidAyil - ramparah adumah - Red Heifer (American Brangus, 2012 Grand Champion, Houston)

sëh , seh – a kâ•sheir Bovidae (split-hoofed, hollow-horned, ruminant livestock animal; namely, a sheep or ram, a goat, or a cow or bull). Compare & contrast with ayil, tal•ëh, këvës, eiz, and tzon.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.02.18]

Pesakh Table

Seidër, , Seider especially the Pësakh Seidër; order [table setting or a service], liturgy, schedule, programme, schedule, arrangement). See also (si•dur).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Soft MatzahOmer (barley or wheat) - Shavuot Ben-David family's Sukah
Khag ha-Matz•ot (Pësakh)Khag ha-Shâvu•otKhag ha-Suk•ot
The Three Mo•ad•im / Khaj•im

Seidër Mo•eid ; Seider Moeid, seider mo'eid, seder moed, seder mo'ed Order: Appointed), 2nd order of the Mish•nâh (i.e., Tal•mud)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Nashim - women

Seidër Nâsh•im; , seider nashim, seder nashim Order: Women), 3rd order of the Mish•nâh (i.e., Tal•mud)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

tort law
Tort Law

Seidër Nᵊziq•in; , Seider Neziqin, Seder Neziqin, Seider Nezikin, Seder Nezikin, Seider N'zikin, Seder N'zikin, Seider N'ziqin, Seder N'ziqin, Order: Torts), 4th order of the Mish•nâh (i.e., Tal•mud)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

qedoshim - saints
Qᵊdosh•im

Seidër Qâ•dâsh•in; , Seider Qadashin, Seder Qadashin, Seider Kadashin, Seder Kadashin Order: Holinesses), 5th order of the Mish•nâh (i.e., Tal•mud)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

decontamination
Decontamination

Seidër Tâ•hâr•ot; , Seider Taharot, Seder Taharot Order: Decontaminations), 6th order of the Mish•nâh (i.e., Tal•mud)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

seeds
Seeds

Seidër Zᵊrâ•im; , Seider Zerayim, Seder Zerayim, Seider Zeraim, Seder Zeraim, Seider Z'raim, Seder Z'raim Order: Seeds), 1st order of the Mish•nâh (i.e., Ta•lᵊmud)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

seipher (megilah / scroll)
Seiphër

Seiphër, , seipher, seifer, sefer pl. (sᵊphâr•im); originally a writing or scroll; later, a codex or book (see also Mᵊgil•âh). One who hand writes sᵊphâr•im is called a (sopheir), pl. (so•phᵊr•im).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Seiphër Yo•seiph ha-Mᵊqan•ei; , Seipher Yoseiph ha-Meqanei, Seifer Yoseiph ha-Meqanei, Seipher Yoseiph ha-Mekanei, Seifer Yoseiph ha-Mekanei, Seipher Yosef ha-Mekanei, Seifer Yosef ha-Mekanei, Scroll of Yoseiph "the Zealous"; a polemic work against the NT by Rabbi Yo•seiph Bën-Nâ•tân Official (surnamed because his father, then himself, were financial adviser and administrator "officials" of the Archbishop) of Sens, France, ca. 1280 CE


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.10.27]

sᵊmikh•âh; semikhah, semichah, s'mikhah, s'michah "leaning on, resting on, laying on," from was from the time of the Yᵊtzi•âh, c BCE 1625:

Two Applications
  1. Of qâr•bân•ōt in both the Mi•shᵊkân and the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh -Rish•on

    the symbolic ascription of vicarious sacrifice and ki•pur by the owner of an animal sacrificed on the Mi•zᵊbeiakh. , which was obligatory whenever sacrifices were offered by individuals, was carried out by the owner laying both his hands with all his might between the horns of the animal immediately before it was slaughtered according to kâ•shᵊr•ūt.

  2. Of ordination —

    dating at least as early as Mōsh•ëhs of Yᵊho•shua Bin-Nun ( - , c BCE 1624, and his subsequent of the 70 Zᵊqein•im.

    No Succession, Compounded By Idolatrous Exaggeration of Authority
    1. Countless Breaks, No Continuous Succession

      Whereas a single missing-link disconnect invalidates an entire chain of supposed succession, today's rabbis gloss over countless missing links disconnecting the succession of since the time of Mōsh•ëh.

      In contradiction of both Scripture and legitimate historical and archeological hard evidence, Rabis in the modern era fabricated a reform: a seemingly seamless succession of speculated and assumed (undocumented before the modern era) fill-in "links". The resulting "chain" – more missing links than chain – appears to document the speculated conferral of from some individual(s) in one era to some individual(s) in the next (often disconnected) era – not unlike the Church fabricating the first 15 or so popes.

      Nevertheless, even Orthodox rabbis are now beginning to yield to the reality that (in addition to the earth being older than 6,000 years, inter alia), through the intervening millennia, there are far more gaps than documented chain.

      Additionally, the rabbis decided to abandon the "laying on of hands," ordaining instead by the reform of merely conferring the title "rabbi" either orally or in writing.

      There is no direct line, nor supernatural power, coursing from the original of Mōsh•ëh to today's Orthodox (or Ultra-Orthodox/​Kha•reid•i) rabbinic .  more

    2. Arrogated & Exaggerated Meta-Tor•âh Authority

      When today's rabbis cite Dᵊvâr•im 17.11 as the Basis of their claimed meta-Tor•âh authority to override not only Ha•lâkh•âh dᵊ-Ōr•ai•tâ – but even Tor•âh shë-bi•khᵊtâvbesides burying the lack of succession, they bury the key limiting phrase: - — "According to the Tor•âh that they shall instruct you…" more


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''Sen-en-Mut'' (Egyptian glyph; Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Hover over word for MH, xlit & xlatnSen-en-Mut; "Brother in the Mother-Goddess (Mut, consort of Amun)" (Egyptian glyph; Metropolitan Museum of Art). Ideogram (griffon vulture) faces point to begin reading, i.e., right-to-left, and glyph is read top to bottom – after any deity name is read first.
Glyph: phonogram n (water ripples) Glyph: phonogram n (water ripples) Glyph (T22): phonogram sen (arrowhead; brother) Glyph (T22): phonogram sen (arrowhead; brother) Glyph (G14): phonogram mt, mwt (griffon-vulture; mother) Glyph (G14): phonogram mt, mwt (griffon-vulture; mother) Glyph: phonogram t (a loaf of bread), probably a fem. indicator ending (to mother) Glyph: phonogram t (a loaf of bread), probably a fem. indicator ending (to mother)

Sen-en-mut, Senenmut [Updated: 2013.10.11]


Sen-en-Mut ostrica - Mosheh (found in his chapel Egypt Museum)
Click to enlargePortrait of Moses (Sen-en-Mut ostrica, found in his Chapel, Egypt Museum)

Exactly contrary to some superficial, amateur commentators, the translation, "Mother's brother," perfectly corroborates the relationship of the Pharaonic Princess, Khât-shepset, as the deific mother-Isis figure to Sen-en-Mut Hōrus-Moses, the deific Hōrus-son figure. The weight of evidence increasingly supports my assertion that this Pharaonic Princess adopted into her Pharaonic house, as her brother, the baby she found floating in the reeds of the Nile and named Sen-en-Mut Hōrus-MosesHōrus-incarnate.

In fact, Sen-en-Mut can only be identical with Moses: (adopted) brother of Princess (later Queen-Par•oh) Khât-shepset, who was, at the same time, deific mother-Isis to her deific son Hōrus -Moses!

The historical record of Sen-en-Mut's parents demonstrate that Sen-en-Mut could only have been his own "mother's brother" if his father had married his aunt – which is exactly the case of Moses!!! As the son of Amᵊram's aunt Yo•khëvëd (Shᵊm•ot 6.20), Moses was simultaneously both his father's son and matriarchal brother. As Moses was the matriarchal brother of her husband, Moses was his mother's brother (in-law) too! But there's a lot more!
more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.04.08]

 (sᵊor: starter dough, sponge dough)
Click to enlarge(photo: sourdoughbreads.com)

sᵊor , seor, s'or — Ancient Israel & Biblical definition: a subset of , sᵊor was sourdough starter batter, also called "sponge" dough, cultured from wild yeast that is u­biq­ui­tous in the environment, on the skin of grains, plants and even in the soil.

Today, a package of yeast, not available in ancient Israel, is often substituted. was the ancient "leaven" before yeast was identified (17th century CE), isolated (even later) and sold in packets on the shelves of local supermarkets.

– might be secured from a neighbor. Otherwise, to develop from scratch (as required after every Khag ha-Matz•ot – if you wanted to enjoy leavened bread), requires more than a week of "feeding" starter batter and allowing it to cure or rest, permitting the wild yeast time to be cultured and ferment into . Each family, using their own family recipe, cultured their unique "family ".

The following (exhuastive) Scriptures instantiating prohibit the universal Orthodox – and Ultra-Orthodox – practice of placing offending products in a cupboard or closet that is then taped closed for the period of Khag ha-Matz•ot. The offending contents are still located within one's borders. The subsequent, absurdly sham, "sale," at a ridiculously symbolic price, to a gentile cannot override the Scriptural prohibition. (The contents are then "bought back" after Khag ha-Matz•ot.) Needless to say, the Nᵊtzâr•im do not approve the sham.

  1. Shᵊm•ot 12.15 – on the first day you shall have halted from your houses

  2. Shᵊm•ot 12.19 – seven days shall not be found in your houses

  3. Shᵊm•ot 13.7 – shall not be seen of yours within any of

  4. wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 2.11 – (not specific to Khag ha-Matz•ot) … neither any nor any [can be offered],

  5. Dᵊvâr•im 16.4 – shall not be seen of yours within any of


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.01]

Sᵊphâr•âd•i: , Sepharadim, S'pharadim, Sefaradim, S'faradim descendant of Hellenist Tzᵊdoq•im who fled in 70 CE or 135 CE to Hellenist Spain in the Hellenist Roman Empire (as opposed to Hellenist Germany & Eastern Europe of the Hellenist Roman Empire, Ash•kᵊnazim) in the European Roman Empire; pl. Sᵊphâr•âd•im are, along with the Ash•kᵊnazim, one of the two European (Hellenist Roman Empire) traditions of Jewry. (The anti-Hellenist (ergo, anti-Roman Empire) Pᵊrush•im, by contrast, fled the incompatible Hellenism of the Roman Empire entirely, settling in other parts of the Middle East and Africa. The most pristinely preserved Pᵊrush•im, uninfluenced by the Hellenism of the Roman Empire, are the Tei•mân•im, who fled to Yemen in 70 & 135 CE)

According to a 2013.10 paper by Prof. Martin Richards, of the Archaeogenetics Research Group at the University of Huddersfield (England), after sequencing the full 16,568 bases of the whole mitochondrial genomes, "in the vast majority of cases, Ashkenazi lineages are most closely related to southern and western European lineages – and that these lineages have been present in Europe for many thousands of years."

"This means that, even though Jewish men may indeed have migrated into Europe from [Judea] around 2000 years ago, they brought few or no wives with them. They seem to have married with European women, firstly along the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, and later (but probably to a lesser extent) in western and central Europe. This suggests that, in the early years of the Diaspora, Judaism took in many converts from amongst the European population, but they were mainly recruited from amongst women. Thus, on the female line of descent, the Ashkenazim primarily trace their ancestry neither to [Judea] nor to Khazaria, but to southern and western Europe."


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.03.29]

Sâ•râph, , , Seraphim, Serafim, S'raphim, S'rafim, pl. (sᵊrâph•im; corrupted to "seraphim"); raging, consuming, towers of fire, "fire devils" advancing like living beings. The combinative form is "…" (sᵊraph…; consuming tower of fire of…).

2010 Carmel ''consuming fire'' - Seraphim (AFP photo)
(Carmel 2010.12.03 AFP -Ârëtz)

Seraph Ein Gedi
Sᵊraph Ein Gᵊdi" (the Sâ•râph of Ein Gedi) Atractaspis engaddensis

Also, by allusion to its "raging fiery venom," the Atractaspis engaddensis is called the "Sᵊraph Ein Gᵊdi" (aka "burrowing viper," "mole viper" or "stiletto snake"). "Highly venomous, a Cytotoxic poison, no anti-venom - but don't worry, you won't die…" (scienceblogs.com). more info


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.16]

Sᵊud•âh Shᵊlish•it; , , Seudah Shlishit, Sudah Shlishit, S'udah Shlishit, Seudah Shelishit, Sudah Shelishit, S'udah Shelishit, Seudah Sh'lishit, Sudah Sh'lishit, S'udah Sh'lishit "third meal" [of Shab•ât or Khag). It is a Mitz•wâh to eat three meals on Shab•ât (Ma•sëkët Shab•ât 117b).

This brunch-like afternoon meal, completed before sundown, generally begins and concludes, among Tei•mân•im and Nᵊtzâr•im with various fruits and nuts. In between, the main course consists of pita & khumus, often with smoked (kâ•sheir) fish, garnished with skhug, hilbe or fiery chile peppers, washed down with beer or other beverage and all liberally sprinkled with zᵊmir•ot chanted with great gusto.

Sᵊud•âh Shᵊlish•it overrides and replaces the Sᵊud•âh Maph•sëqët.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.07.27]

Sᵊud•âh Maph•sëqët , , Seudah Maphseqet, S'udah Maphseqet, Seudah Mafseqet, S'udah Mafseqet, Seudah Maphseket, S'udah Maphseket, Seudah Mafseket, S'udah Mafseket "interrupter, breaker, disconnector"; the meal preceding a tzōm.

When a tzom commences on Mo•tzâ•ei Shab•ât, Sᵊud•âh Shᵊlish•it overrides and replaces Sᵊud•âh Maph•sëqët (in which case Sᵊud•âh Shᵊlish•it should be eaten is its customary fashion).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Shaar ha-Rakhamim
Sha•ar hâ-Ra•kham•im

shaar, , shaar, sha'ar pl. (shᵊâr•im); gate.

Meiâh Shᵊar•im, the Ultra-Orthodox enclave in Yᵊru•shâ•layim, means "100 Gates."


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

sha•at•neiz; , ", '', Shaatneiz, Sha'atneiz, Shaatnez, Sha'atnez fabric made of wool mixed with linen, perhaps deriving from Egyptian; symbolic of prohibition against mingling Yi•tzᵊkhâq with Yish•mâ•eil (i.e., intermarriage). See also sha•at•nei"z gei"tz.


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" "Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

sha•at•nei"z gei"tz; , " ", '' '', Shaatneiz Geitz, Shaatneiz Getz, Shaatneiz G"tz, Sha'atneiz Geitz, Sha'atneiz Getz, Sha'atneiz G"tz, Shaatn"z Geitz, Shaatn"z Getz, Shaatn"z G"tz the seven letters of the Seiphër Tor•âh that are written with crowns; symbolizing sha•at•neiz plus the acronym " (geitz)—Geir Tzëdëq, warning against intermarrying even with a Geir Tzëdëq (much moreso against intermarrying a goy).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.07.06]

Shabat
Shab•ât Collage

Shab•ât; , Shabat, Shabbat, Shabbos cessation [of mᵊlâkh•âh], settling-down, pl. (Shab•ât•ot), from (shâ•vat; to cease), which probably derives ultimately from (yâ•shav; to settle); the latter being related to the cognate (to•shâv; settler).

— the noun plus the abstractive suffix, - — is found only 11 times in the Bible; equating Sha•bât, the Mo•ad•im and the Khaj•im. Thus, contrary to earliest Christian-era rabbinic reforms, the Biblical standard for the Mo•ad•im is no different from the standard for (see Shᵊm•ot 16.23 and 31.15), is an absolute cessation-day (lit. cessation cessation-day, the doublet implying utterly or absolute—see also Artscroll Vayikra [sic] 3b.403). While some argue that Shab•ât•on is more lax than a regular Shab•ât, that it is appended to Shab•ât forming a doublet suggests the opposite, that it's to be understood as more absolute / restrictive.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.11.03]

Shad•ai. , Shadai, Shaddai Despite a universal effort to sanitize the term, this is the dual (pair) form of (shâd; breast, teat); i.e., Pair of Breasts, symbolizing the nurturing and sustaining feminine facet of the Singularity-Creator—and displaced the goddess-idols like Ishtar that featured a "breast pose" (see tᵊrâph•im) or, often, a chestful of multiple breasts.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.12.14]

    , , shakhah, shachah, hishtakhavah, hishtachavah
  1. Primary root: dictionary entry: ; he bowed or bent down.

    Hit•pōl•eil: (see secondary root (1))

  2. Secondary metathesized root (1): dictionary entry: ; he bowed deeply.

    Hit•pōl•eil: ; he was bowing deeply, was bowed deeply in a kneeling position; also in despair (same as primary root)

  3. Secondary metathesized root (2) & dictionary entry: ; he bowed or bent down.

    Hit•pa•eil: ; he prostrated himself. more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Sha•khar•it; , shakharit, shacharit, shaharit pre-dawn darkness (and, by extension, pre-dawn Tᵊphil•ot) paralleling the liturgy in the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh. (Shâ•khor) means "black."


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.09.02]

shâ•liakh, pl. (shᵊlikh•im); , ", '', , shaliakh, shatz, sh"tz emissary, representative. This tracks, via LXX, to the Hellenized (Greek) αποστολος (apostolos; emissaries, anglicized—and de-Judaized—to "apostle"). See also The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 10.2.1.

" (Sha"tz, acronym for ; viz., congregational leader of the tᵊphil•ot.
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.04.10]

Shâ•lom; , , , shalom, shelem, shelamim, sh'lamim peace, used as "hello" and "good-bye" in Hebrew. A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language For Readers of English derives its etymology, surprisingly, from (pp. 659-60); rather than the more intuitive cited by most other sources.

(shᵊlâm•im), especially an offering for this purpose, is the plural of (shëlëm; Klein's, 663. In New Hebrew, this has come to mean "payment," i.e., "completion" of a transaction). Due to its Hellenist translation in Greek (LXX), some scholars and translators have related it to and rendered "peace" [offerings], (ibid). However, the Aramaic Tar•gum Onkelos, filtering out the Hellenist influence, is a more authoritative guide, translating as the pl. (qu•dᵊsha•yâ; holinesses; i.e., [sacrifices (pl.) of] holiness – see ). Ergo, must be understood, not as a quieting or making peace, but, rather, as a "completing" of the process of consecrating – i.e., achieving a state of .

The traditional greeting depends on whether you greet a male, female or group (skipping the unlikely situation that you would be greeting a group of females):

  1. To a male:

  2. To a female:

  3. To a group (including a mixed-gender group):

The traditional response is:

  1. To a male:

  2. To a female:

  3. To a group (including a mixed-gender group):


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.10.19]

Sham•ai , Shamai, Shammai ("assessor" or "estimator"; ca. BCE 50 to ca. 30 CE); founding Ribi of the strict Pᵊrush•im school of interpreting Oral Law (Ha•lâkh•âh), in opposition to the liberal Pᵊrush•im school of Hi•leil. Sham•ai was one of the leaders of the Pᵊrush•im contingent in the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol, which, until 20 CE was controlled by the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im (an upheaval that certainly motivated fierce anti-Pᵊrush•im sentiments among the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im less than a decade before Ribi Yᵊho•shua rose to prominence), during which time, the stricter views of Sham•ai prevailed (within the Pᵊrush•im faction). By the time of the destruction in 70 CE, however, the more lenient views of Hi•leil came to prevail.

The worst affliction of Jews globally today is the ever-constricting imposed cult-uniformities of Beit Sha•mai. Always requiring adherence to all opinions of the Sages implies requiring adherence to the strictest opinion. As the world progresses, additional rulings generate additional opinions, the strictest of which must be imposed – an endlessly constricting boa; often ignorantly magnifying long-held a•vōd•âh zâr•âh of Assyrian, Babylonian and Hellenist assimilations. This process inescapably grows arrogance, intolerance, increasing exclusivity, extremist "We're holier than thou!" cult-fanaticism. This endlessly results in their abuse of Jews, even Orthodox Jews, who reject their cult perceived superior-holiness. The cult then loathes, derides and abuses – both verbally and with physical violence like spitting and stoning – everyone outside their cult, even Israeli-Jews Police and Orthodox Jews, calling them "goyim" idolaters and "Nazis". Such a world view inescapably fragments the Jewish community with internal schisms – which, in modern Israel, routinely produce all of the six things hated by ‑‑ and defined by Him as to•eiv•ot (Mi•shᵊl•ei Shᵊlōmōh 6.16-19).

This is why the Sha•mai mindset not only unavoidably failed in the 1st century CE, but, along with their self-implosion, destroyed Yᵊhudâh in its entirety!

It is why those who place tunnel-visioned faith in the precision and strictness of their own exercise of rituals can never find spiritual satisfaction by their own hands; nor can they ever comprehend any other "fix" beyond requiring even stricter precision in their exercise of the rituals in which they place their faith – idolatry/​a•vōd•âh zâr•âh!

It is also why (in addition to other economic and social factors) there is no possibility that Ultra-Orthodox/​Kha•reid•im, especially in our modern scientific age, can avoid inexorable disillusionment and implosion. The precursor temblors of this implosion are already occurring on an almost daily basis.

The answer is not in the rituals and ceremonies per se at all, no matter how strictly precise one makes the incantations or the proportions of mingled handwavium. These are superstitious, zombie-cult strayings into prohibited Dark Ages magic. It isn't that you're not doing the rituals right. There's no magic in the rituals so you can never get the rituals to work no matter how precise and strict you become! Ultimately, Dark Ages superstition and magic fail.

The answer is in recalling, reliving and celebrating with family and friends the shared events of our history that the rituals – even when the rituals themselves may be imprecise or flawed – commemorate, events in which ‑‑ has rescued us and brought us to where we are, instilling confidence and rejoicing that ‑‑ remains with us and continues accompanying us into the future. And that's Ribi Hi•leil. It has never been the endless quest for ever-stricter, ever more minutely-precise quantium of always-constricting vain rituals in the futile hope of getting the prohibited-magic of Sha•mai bare-rituals to work.

Ironically, even an ignorant "non-Jew" who is doing his best to keep Tor•âh and goes camping with his family in a geodesic pop-up tent specifically to celebrate Suk•ot can reap the joy and spiritual satisfaction that Ultra-Orthodox, whose faith is in the strictness of their own precision of executing rituals, will never experience.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.04.11]

ha-shâ•mayim; , , , shamayim, shammayim the pair of heavens – the -ayim ending (see, inter alia, mayim) is a dual (paired) form. The ancients perceived the skies (heavens) as twofold: what we understand today as the atmosphere (in which we live and birds fly) and the universe beyond containing the sun, moon and night lights. There was no concept, nor word expressing, a single sky / heaven.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.06]

Shami; , Shami from Arabic "asham," meaning Greater Syria (and meaning the inclusion of Israel), i.e. based on the Sᵊpharadi tradition with many deviations: assimilated with Ash•kᵊnazim and infused with the Zo•har and Qa•bâl•âh). The Shami were the Yemenite Reform, diverging from the pristine Ba•lad•i Tei•mân•im tradition.

The Shami Bât•ei-ha-Kᵊnësët introduced additions to the si•dur made by the Qa•bâl•âh-ists in Tzᵊphat in the 16th century. (Shami, The many Yemenite synagogues of Rᵊkhovot, hâ-Ârëtz, 2004.06.18)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.06.16]

shâ•râv; , sharav heatwave (extreme warm front, high pressure area). Note: "khamsin" is Arabic, not Hebrew.

In the northern Hemisphere high-pressure systems rotate CW, low-pressure systems CCW. Thus, when a shâ•râv approaches (from east to west), the winds, circling CW around the peak high pressure isobar, blow out of the NW; a sea-breeze from the Mediterranean inland. When the peak high pressure isobar passes, however, then the wind trailing the peak high pressure isobar blows in the reverse direction, from the SE interior of Egypt out to sea. The more severe the shâ•râv contrasts relative to the surrounding weather systems, the stronger the winds circling the peak high pressure isobar – in each, opposite, direction as the system passes.


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"Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.08.18]

Sha"s '', Shas, Sha"s, Sha's, Sh"s, Sh's; acronym for – the Ultra-Orthodox khareid•i political party under the supervision of (former Chief Rabbi of Israel) Rav Ovad•yâh Yo•seiph. " rabbis held the position of Minister of the Interior (in contrast to later governments in which " rabbis would only serve as Deputy Ministers in order to avoid the responsibility, imposed by the Supreme Court, of approving and signing-off on non-Orthodox converts). Thus, " rabbis exercised undisputed authority over the with respect to every candidate approved (in the case of converts, confirming that all conversions were Orthodox) to make a•liy•âh under the Law of Return from 1984.12.24 – 1987.01.06 (http://www.knesset.gov.il/govt/eng/GovtByMinistry_eng.asp?ministry=8).


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/ Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Shâ•vua, plural shâ•vu•ot; , shavua, Shavuot 7-day week (pl. weeks). For the connection between shâ•vua and why the 7-day week constitutes the swearing of a bᵊrit (bᵊ-Reish•it 31.16-17), see the cognate shëva.

The concluding greeting of Hav•dâl•âh initiates the start of a new week: Shâ•vua tov! (Good week!). This greeting is also common on Day1 of each week upon meeting people for the first time that week.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.07]

Shein•i; , Sheini, Sheni second (adj.). (Frequently used to denote the 2nd day of the week.)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Shekhem; Har Grizim (lft) Har Eival (rt)
, Shᵊkhëm and

Shᵊkhëm ("shoulder"); Biblical city of Kᵊna•an – where Ya•a•qov bought a parcel of land for his homestead (bᵊ-Reish•it 33.18-20) and the bones of Yo•seiph were interred (Yᵊho•shua 24.1, 25, 34), first capital of the 10 Breakaway Northern Tribes of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 12:1; 14:17; Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 10:1).

Commanded by Mosh•ëh (Dᵊvâr•im 27-28) to be the site of reading the bᵊrâkh•ot from atop and the curses from atop . Later, Shᵊkhëm became the capital of the Ten Northern Tribes of Israel rivaling Yᵊru•shâ•layim (capital of Judea).

Hellenized after 135 CE, Arabs couldn't pronounce the "p" when the Romans renamed the city "Neapolis." Hence, the Roman-Hellenized, later Arab-occupied city became known as 'Nablus.'


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.09.12]

, Shehekheyanu, Shehecheyanu (He Who has kept us alive).

This bᵊrâkh•âh is recited, appended to Qi•dush when applicable, for the first instance during the Judaic year of special events.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Shᵊkhin•âh; , Shekhinah, Shechinah, Shehinah, Sh'khinah, Sh'chinah, Sh'hinah the Neighboring, from (shâ•khan; he neighbored with or by), pop. "Presence." See also Shᵊkhun•âh).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Shekhitah
Shᵊkhit•âh

Shᵊkhit•âh , shekhitah, shechitah, shehitah, sh'khitah, sh'chitah, sh'hitah (f.n.); slaughter and butchering of livestock; usually understood to imply according to Tōr•âh standards of kâ•shᵊr•ūt; i.e. kâ•sheir slaughter and butchering by a (from ).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

shᵊkhun•âh, , shekhunah, shechunah, shehunah, sh'khunah, sh'chunah, sh'hunah connective form - (shᵊkhun•at-…; neighborhood of…); neighborhood, burrough, pop. "quarter". (shᵊkhun•at ha-Nᵊtzâr•im) is the Nᵊtzâr•im neighborhood, or quarter. See also Shᵊkhin•âh.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.04.11]

shᵊlish•i , shelishit, sh'lishit (m.s.); (shᵊlish•it; f.s.) third. (Frequently used to denote the 3rd day of the week.)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.01]

Shᵊma!; , Shema, Sh'ma Hearken! Hear! (To decode the meaning of the two enlarged letters in the , see Dërëkh, "The Way.")

The diminutive of is , the 2nd son of Ya•a•qov (mother: Leiâh).

Non-Jews who have any familiarity with Judaism—and too many Jews—have the misconception that the is (only) Dᵊvâr•im 6.4.

In fact, not even the three passages from written fully cover the recitation of the 'Shᵊma'.

The recitation of begins with the tᵊphil•âh that introduces the in the si•dur, , and continues through

Particularly salient to the self-orientation and Displacement Theology of today's western culture are two concepts inherent in the more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.10.04]

shëmën; , shemen oil. Unless otherwise specified, the Bible generally means (shëmën zayit; oil [of] olive; i.e., olive-oil).

While oil symbolized fertility and prosperity to the neighboring ancient Hittites, Canaanites and other Mesopotamian idolaters, in both cases where it is found in the Bible (I•yov 29.6 and Dᵊvâr•im 32.13), it follows the context of the previous verse, specifying the accompaniment of the Shᵊkhin•âh / Ruakh ‑‑. This reveals the earliest core symbolism of within Yi•sᵊr•â•eil: representing the Imprimatur of the Shᵊkhin•âh / Ruakh ha-Qodësh.

map Beit Eil (al-Bireh), Ai, Psagot (Jebel et-Tawil)
Click to enlargemap Beit Eil (modern Arab-occupied al-Bireh), / Psagot (Jebel et-Tawil) and potential locations of Ai

Serving as fuel for oil lamps, including the Mᵊnor•âh in the Mi•shᵊkân (Shᵊm•ot 25.6; 27.20; wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 24.2) and later the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh, symbolized the ruakh of the fire / light, especially of the Mᵊnor•âh.

Both in Ugarit (V AB, B 31ff; Pritchard, Texts, 136) and in the Bible (wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 8.1011), anointing with is associated with the dedication of pouring out of a sacred spirit(s) on sites deemed sacred, as well as of people. Thus, by anointing his campsite with shëmën zayit (bᵊ-Reish•it 28.18), Ya•a•qov dedicated it—calling it Beit Eil (modern Arab-occupied al-Bireh, a suburb of Ramallah, not the city modern archeologists assumed from 4th century CE Church Fathers, Hellenized to "Bethel" on today's maps; see also "Oils," Ency. Jud., Jewish Virtual Library)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Sh'mini Atzeret & (in Israel) Simkhat Torah (goldenlightimages.com)
Shᵊmin•i A•tzërët

Shᵊmin•i A•tzërët; , Shemini Atzeret, Sh'mini Atzeret, atseret, shmini Eighth [day] Restraint, in which one "arrests" himself or herself from doing mᵊlâkh•âh — immediately following, yet separate from, the seven days of Khag ha-Suk•ot (bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbar 29.35).

is the masc. adj. form of . ‭ ‬ is the fem. noun form of the verb .

Shᵊmin•i A•tzërët marks the beginning of the rainy season following the harvest in Israel. Tᵊphil•at is the only ritual unique to Shᵊmin•i A•tzërët.

Since the completion of the annual cycle of Tor•âh readings occurred around the time of Shᵊmin•i A•tzërët, a rabbinical tradition developed in the Middle Ages [emphasis added] to celebrate – with joyful processions, singing and dancing – the completion and restarting of the annual cycle of weekly Tor•âh readings on Shᵊmin•i A•tzërët. This celebration came to be known as Sim•khat-Tor•âh.

In Israel, this single day is referred to as "Shᵊmin•i A•tzërëtSim•khat-Tor•âh" (see in our Pâ•râsh•at Shâ•vua pages of our virtual Beit ha-kᵊnësët via our Click 'n Go directory panel at left).

In the Diaspora, Sim•khat-Tor•âh is celebrated on the second day of Shᵊmin•i A•tzërët. It is common for Jews in the Diaspora to refer to the first day as Shᵊmin•i A•tzërët and to the second day as Sim•khat-Tor•âh.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Shemita year fallow field
Shᵊmit•âh year, fallow field

Shᵊmit•âh; , , Shemitah, Sh'mitah, Shemmitah, Sh'mmitah, Shemittah, Sh'mittah, Shemmittah, Sh'mmittah remission year (each 7th year). The years of the cycle can be calculated by taking the remainder after dividing the Hebrew calendar year by 7; i.e., the Hebrew year modulo 7.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Shᵊmon•ëh Ësᵊr•eih; , Shemoneh Esreih, Sh'moneh Esreih, Shemonah Esreih, Sh'monah Esreih 18. This refers to the 18 bᵊrâkh•ot comprising (and thus a synonym for) the A•mid•âh.


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Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Shᵊm•ot; , Shemot, Sh'mot Names—de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Exodus.'


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Shᵊmu•eil; , Shemueil, Sh'mueil, Shemuel, Sh'muel, Shmueil, Shmuel An amalgamation of Shâ•ul mei-eil ("Borrowed from Eil"), cf. ' (Shᵊmu•eil Âlëph) 1.20 and ArtScroll Stone Edition Ta•na"kh, p. 646. ' (Shᵊmu•eil Âlëph & Beit) are two books of Ta•na"kh (de-Judaized (Hellenized) to I & II Sam.).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.11.01]

Shᵊōl; , Sheol, Sh'ol a question — masc. form of the usually fem. noun, (shᵊeil•âh; a question), referring to the unknown – the big question – beyond the grave. is a refinement of the earlier Egyptian theme of Duat, documented in their Book of the Dead.

While typically mistranslated anachronously by Hellenist and Christian goy•im as Gei-Hi•nom or the "hell" of Greek and Roman (Latin) mythologies, in reality – and Scripture – what follows physical life is "the great unknown" (i.e. question).

The simple-minded notion of bodily physical resurrection derives from the misty shroud of antiquity; Egyptian and other mythologies. These mythologies originally evolved from ancient anecdotes of comatose individuals, assumed dead, who awoke during burial or after having been sealed in a burial cave (later finding scratch marks trying to get out). So well-known, and feared, was this phenomenon that the custom evolved to check for "bodily resurrection" 3 days after sealing a tomb. Cf. also The Nᵊtzârim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matitᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 10.28.2.

Any intelligent person today should be able to see that bodies are recycled into basic elements, becoming elements of, inter alia, subsequent human bodies. Those dying in the sea become food for fish, eaten by people, becoming part of subsequent human bodies. Those buried on land are recycled into plants; some eaten by people or other animals, in turn eaten by other people, etc. The most basic particles of our bodies were, at some time in history, likely the most basic particles of other people; just as some particles of our body will someday constitute the body of some future person(s). So, if a body is to physically resurrect, to whose body do which particles belong?

It's silliness to think that our sentience – ruakh or nëphësh – depends on physicality of any kind. The afterlife cannot be physical. Ergo, "heaven" cannot be within the physical universe. Nor can any physical attribute apply (light, touch, smell, sound, taste). is a non-physical universe for sentience, our ruakh or nëphësh.

One way to relate to a non-physical is through today's cyber-cloud of social connections. Will your sentience – ruakh or nëphësh – be entirely disconnected; self-aware and alone forever in the most absolute sense; absolute sensory deprivation forever? Like Schr?dinger's cat that has no contact with the outside world and no one can ever see in? To the rest of humanity as if the person no longer exists? Though sentient, when absolutely disconnected from anyone else do you then exist? If connected to other sentient beings at all, limited to what other groups of ruakh or nëphësh? The Biblical principle of Ha•vᵊdâl•âh dictates exclusivity. Exclusively evil and malevolent? Or exclusively dësh – including ha-Qâ•dosh, bâ•rukh hu?


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.03.30]

Israeli New Sheqel
/ Shëqël

/ shëqël, plural shᵊqâl•im; , sheqelim, shekelim, shekalim,sh'qelim, sh'kelim, sh'kalim, a measure of weight. Archeologists estimate the weight to be about 11 grams (½ oz.) and usually refers to silver.

The modern 'New Israeli Sheqel' (abbreviated NIS) sign is , a merger of overlapped letters: (for ) and , for (khâ•dâsh; new). thus abbreviates (shëqël khâ•dâsh; new shëqël).

Up to the moment /$ exchange rate (rightmost column).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.08.02]

shëva; , sheva 7 (seven). As a verb (in the niph•al), means to "seven something" (repeat something seven times, imprinting it firmly in one's memory) constituted an oath); hence, to swear an oath. See also cognates: shâvua and shiv•âh.


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-Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.14]

Shëva Mitz•wot Bᵊn•ei-Noakh; -, Sheva Mitzvot Benei Noakh, Sheva Mitzvot B'nei Noah, Sheva Mitzvot Benei Noach, Sheva Mitzvot B'nei Noach Seven Laws of Noakh.

According to the Encyclopedia Judaica ("Noachide Laws," 12:1190ff), the earliest extant reference to (a prototype consisting of four of) the Shëva (seven) Mitz•wot Bᵊn•ei-Noakh was formulated by the Beit Din ha-Nᵊtzâr•im, in Ma•a•vâr 15.20:

"This … list is the only one that bears any systematic relationship to the set of religious laws which the Pentateuch makes obligatory upon resident aliens (the jeir ha-jâr) and ëz•râkh [indigenous, native]" .

The Shëva Mitz•wot Bᵊn•ei-Noakh are:

  1. Subordinate yourself to a legitimate Beit-Din

  2. Do not profane the Name (see Profaning the Holy Name Unawares)

  3. Have no part in idolatry (including J*esus and Christianity)

  4. Do not engage in sexual promiscuity (including intermarriage between a Jew and a gentile)

  5. Do no murder (including reputation, i.e., character assassination and slander)

  6. Do not steal (includes misrepresentation, i.e. stealing someone's reputation and life)

  7. Do not eat tâ•reiph meat


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.09.23]

Shᵊvâr•im, , Shevarim, Sh'varim pl. of (shëvër; a break, fracture, shard); pl. staccato – broken – notes (traditionally three yelping notes) blown on the sho•phâr. See also tᵊqiyâh and tᵊru•âh (Idelsohn, A.Z., Jewish Music, in Its Historical Development (New York: Schocken, 1929, 1973), p. 9-10 with note p. 495).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.03.21]

sheivët; , shevet, sheivet scepter, wand; metonym for tribe and tribal chief. (Contrast with ma•qeil and ma•tëh.)

    Tribal Coats of Arms / Dᵊgâl•im
  1. Degel Shevet1-Ruvein: water symbol on red backgroundDegel Shevet1-Ruvein: mandrake on red background
    Rᵊu•vein – Biblical: water symbolRᵊu•veinMi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: mandrake

    Rᵊu•vein – Biblical symbol: water.

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: mandrake on red back­ground.

    Mother: Leiâh.


  2. Degel Shevet2-Shimon: weapons on green backgroundDegel Shevet2-Shimon: Shᵊkhem  on green background
    Shi•mᵊōn – Biblical: weap­onsShi•mᵊōnMi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: Shᵊkhëm

    Shi•mᵊōn – Biblical symbol: weapons

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: city of Shᵊkhëm on green background

    Mother: Leiâh.


  3. Urim Tumim
    Lei•wiUr•im wᵊ-Tum•im

    Lei•wi – Biblical symbol: weapons

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: Ur•im wᵊ-Tum•im on white, black & red back­ground.

    Mother: Leiâh.


  4. Yᵊhudah: lion cub
    Yᵊhudâh – lion cub

    Yᵊhudâh – Biblical symbol: lion cub (not lion-​king)

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: lion cub on sky blue background

    Mother: Leiâh.


  5. Zëvulun ship on moon-color background
    Zᵊvul•un – ship (symbolizing coastal residents and port)

    Zᵊvul•un – Biblical symbol: seacoast, shipping, port

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: ship (symbolizing a port) on moon-color background

    Mother: Leiâh.


  6. Degel Shevet 6-Yisakhar 'load-mover'' donkey lying down between sheep-cotes, navy-blue backgroundDegel Shevet 6-Yisakhar: sun & moon (astronomy & calendar)
    Yi•sâ•khâr – Biblical: "load-mover" don­key lying down between sheep-​cotesYi•sâ•khârMi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: sun & moon

    Yi•sâ•khâr – Biblical symbol: "load-mover" don­key lying down between sheep-cotes

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: sun & moon on navy-blue background

    Mother: Leiâh.


  7. Dan - Negev horned pit viper on sapir (lapis lazuli) blue
    Click to enlargeDânNëgëv on sa•pir blue

    Dân – Biblical symbol: Nëgëv des­ert shᵊphiy•phōn.

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: Nëgëv des­ert shᵊphiy•phōn (not a cobra) on sa•pir blue.

    Mother: Rivᵊq•âh


  8. God - warriors b&w
    God – warriors b&w

    God – Biblical symbol:

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: warriors, b&w

    Mother: Zi•lᵊp•âh


  9. <cite>
    •sheirancient bread & olive tree on pearl back­ground

    •sheir – Biblical symbol: ancient bread & olive tree

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: like a gem of woman's jewelry with an olive tree.

    Mother: Zi•lᵊp•âh


  10. Naphtali ayalah (doe)
    Na•phᵊtali – doe

    Na•phᵊtali – Biblical symbol: doe (not a stag or buck)

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: doe on wine-color (burgundy)

    Mother: Bi•lᵊh•âh


  11. ccc
    Ë•phᵊr•ayim – Egypt & ox on black background

    Ë•phᵊr•ayim – Biblical symbol: Egypt & ox

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: Egypt & ox on black background

    Father: Yo•seiph (son of Râ•kheil); Mother: Egyptian idolatress •sᵊn•at Bat-Pōti-Phëra, idolatrous Egyptian ko•hein of Ōn City, Egypt).


  12. ccc
    Mᵊnash•ëh – Egypt & oryx on black background

    Mᵊnash•ëh – Biblical symbol: Egypt & oryx

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: Egypt & oryx on black background

    Father: Yo•seiph (son of Râ•kheil); Mother: Egyptian idolatress •sᵊn•at Bat-Pōti-Phëra (idolatrous Egyptian ko•hein of Ōn City, Egypt).


  13. ccc
    Bin•yâ•min – wolf on all 12 colors

    Bin•yâ•min – Biblical symbol: wolf

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: wolf on background of all 12 colors

    Mother: Râ•kheil


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.09.01]

1886: Teimani Kᵊphar Shiloakh
Click to enlarge1886 photo: Kᵊphar Shi•loakh, Yemenite-Jewish Village.
Karen with hand in Pool of Shiloakh
Karen with hand in Bᵊreikh•at Shi•loakh (Pool of Shi•loakh)

Shi•loakh; , Shiloakh, Shiloach, Shiloah, Siloakh, Siloach, Siloah issuance—Hellenized by Josephus to Σιλωά (Silōa), Σιλωᾶς (Silōas) and Σιλωάμ (Silōam), which was, only in the 1930s — after Arabs rioted and forcibly expelled the indigenous Tei•mân•im Jews from their Biblical Village — Arabized to Silwan.

Bᵊreikh•at Shi•loakh; Pool of Shi•loakh.

Kᵊphâr Shi•loakh; Issuancetown, Issuanceville — the original name (cf. Yᵊsha•yâhu 8.6 & Nᵊkhëm•yâh 3.15) of Ir Dâ•wid (The Ophel).

Tei•mân•im (Yemenite) Jews returned to restore and rebuild their ancient Biblical village in 1873, reestablishing it in 1884. Arabs expelled the Tei•mân•im Jews in the 20th century (!) from the Bibical City of David in the Arab uprising of 1936-39. (See also Teimani History, 1873-1938.)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.02.03]

Shilōh , Shiloh (sheelᵊo, not shyᵊlo); Ancient Israeli capital (now Tel Shil•ōh, adjacent to modern Shil•ōh) for Yᵊho•shua Bin-Nun; 32 km (20 mi) NE of Mō•di•in.

Shiloh
Click to enlargeShil•ōh
Click for pic4: Shiloh today Click for pic3:  Shiloh today Click for pic2: Tel Shiloh Click for pic1: Tel Shiloh

Understanding the term is critical because of the Scriptural passage in which it is found: bᵊ-Reish•it 49.10—which the rabbis acknowledge is the primary Tor•âh Scripture upon which belief in the Mâ•shiakh is founded.

derives from the shōrësh . While the primary meaning of is to be quiet, at ease, tranquil or serene; there is also a secondary meaning: to be drawn out from water – as out of a mi•qᵊwëh, the womb (i.e., a birth) or, perhaps, across a sea.

Accordingly, these produce their respective resultant nouns: "tranquility" (the traditional interpretation) or "one drawn up from a mi•qᵊwëh, the womb (i.e., a birth), or from across a sea."

All of the rabbinic requirements for a period of tranquility to precede the coming of the Mâ•shiakh dangle from this interpretation of this single term in its primary, rather than secondary, meaning! Yet, even the rabbis cannot reconcile the messianic period of tranquility preceding the coming of the Mâ•shiakh! Serious researchers, therefore, must focus on never-​before-​considered implications introduced by the secondary meaning.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.07.06]

shi•qutz; , shiqutz, shikutz a detestable, repugnant, repulsive abhorrence (n. m.s.), metonym for an idol.

(Dâniy•eil 12.11); also (Dâniy•eil 9.27) and the detestable, repugnant, repulsive abhorrence-idol appalls horrifyingly (Dâniy•eil 11.31). See full details and explanation in The 1993 Covenant (Click on "70th Week, Dâniy•eil 9.27").

– especially a gentile man who marries a Jewess.

(popularly corrupted to "shiksa") – especially a gentile woman who marries a Jew.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.05.13]

Shir ha-Shir•im (chant of the chants; popularly, but somewhat inaccurately, song of songs) is the first of the five Mᵊgil•ot (de-Judaized to Song of Solomon and Canticles)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.11.28]

Shish•i; , , Shishi sixth. (Frequently used to denote the 6th day of the week.)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.01.22]

Shit•im; , shitim, shittim acacias.

acacia in Negev (Roger Gelfand)
Click to enlarge

This is a very large tree by today's standards. Most are only slightly taller than a man, like the ones to the right of the big tree. (In ancient times, there were likely many similar to this.)

acacia close-up
Click to enlarge

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.04.15]

shi•ur, , , shiur, shiyur lesson (which may be a short lecture), class, homework.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Shiv•âh; , , shivah seven (masc. n.); frequently referring to the first seven days of mourning following burial of a Jew, during which time "the mourner emerges from the stage of intense grief to a new state of mind in which he is prepared to talk about his loss and to accept comfort from friends and neighbors. The world now enlarges for the mourner. While he remains within the house, expressing grief through the observances of avelut—the wearing of the rent garment, the sitting on the low stool [pillow on the floor according to No•sakh Tei•mân•i], the wearing of slippers, the refraining from shaving and grooming, the recital of [Qa•dish]—his acquaintances come to his home to express sympathy in his distress." (Maurice Lamm, The Jewish Way in Death and Mourning, p. 78).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Shᵊlōm•ōh, , Shlomoh, Shelomoh, Sh'lomoh Hellenized to "Solomon."


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Shō•âh; , Shoah Holocaust, Calamity – in Biblical prophecy: - – popularly "Time of Trouble" and "Jacob's Trouble"; see Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 30.7, Zᵊkhar•yâh 13.6-9; Dân•iy•eil 12.1; The 1993 Covenant and Pâ•râsh•at Ki Tâ•vo (for which, click in our Beit K'nesset in the navigation panel, then the scroll).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.01]

sho•meir; , shomeir, shomer keeping protective watch over, as in guard duty, present tense of (shâ•mar; he kept watch over). The noun is (mi•shᵊmar; a watch or shift, as of guard duty). Compare and contrast this verb with its synonym: (No•tzᵊr•im).

Ultra-Orthodox often sanctimoniously describe themselves as "sho•meir Shab•ât."


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.03.29]

Shomron Hills: strategic view of Keisariyah & Mediterranean
Shō•mᵊrōn Hills, view of Keisariyah & Mediterranean. Click to enlarge

Shō•mᵊrōn , Shomron, Shomeron, Shom'ron (Hellenized to Samaria); named after "Watchguard Mountain," refers to the region surrounding the city, originally Canaanite and located about 8km NW of Shᵊkhëm, named (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 16:24).

When Israel conquered the land and absorbed the surviving Canaanites, was made the capital of the Kingdom of Israel. While this was the only name for the area from ancient times, in BCE 30, Herod the Great renamed the city of to (Hellenist) Σεβαστη (Latin: Augustus) in honor of Gaius Octavius Caesar Augustus.

m.s. adj. and m.pl.adj.

The archeological site is on a hill northwest of Shᵊkhëm. The Sho•mᵊron is Arab-occupied Israeli land that was inhabited by the 10 Northern Tribes of Israel prior to the invasion of Syria in BCE 722.


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(or )Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Shophar (ayal-ram)

Sho•phâr; , shophar, shofar ram's ornament, decoration (i.e., horn); from (shâ•phar; to be decorous, adorned, embellished) – the authentic-halakhic Tei•mân•i sho•phâr. (Not the long spiraled sho•phâr that Ash•kᵊnazi Jews say is Tei•mân•i!)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.02.16]

shō•pheit, , shophet, shopheit, shophtim, shophetim, shoph'tim, shofet judge; pl. — de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Judges"; also the name of the book in Ta•na"kh.

In modern usage, no longer refers to judges in a ("religious") Beit Din, who have, instead, been redefined as da•yân•im. As a result, today refers to a trial or judge only in a "secular" state court or any arbiter, arbitrator or referee. Thus, today, a , even though (s)he may personally be "religious," judges based on "secular" state law, not Ultra-Orthodox interpretations – so-called "din Tor•âh."

On the other hand, the verdict, whether of a or a da•yân, is a pᵊsaq din and the sentence (announcement of punishment) is a gᵊzar din.

Derived from the verb . See also the cognate mi• shᵊpât and synonym, zᵊqan•im.

The Hebrew term, , evolved, via LXX, to the Hellenist concept of κριτής. See also The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 5.25.1.


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, also Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

shōrësh; , shoresh root


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.01]

mishtarah

Shō•teir; , shoteir, shoter Biblical, an enforcement officer of the Beit-Din. In modern terminology, a sho•teir is an officer of the court, i.e. a law enforcement officer or policeman. In Israel, the police are the (mi•shᵊtâr•âh).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.16]

Table, Seudat Shlishit

Shul•khân; , , , , shulkhan, shulchan, shulhan table. Also

  • (the Table of Bread of the Inner-Sanctum, or Bread of Display, lit. "Bread of the Face" or "Interior Bread"; Shᵊm•ot 25.23-30)

See also the prophecy of all Hellenists conspiring at one in Dâniy•eil 11.27 and [Wisdom] (Mi•shᵊl•ei Shᵊlomoh 9.2).

From antiquity, in the Middle Eastern world one's (dining) table has been a metonym for Miz•beiakh. While this has been almost completely lost in the Christian world, Tor•âh Jews, particularly since the destruction of the Beit ha-Miq•dâsh, still regard their— kâ•sheir(!)—dining table as the mnemonic symbol recalling ki•pur of the Miz•beiakh. more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.01]

Table, Seudat Shlishit

Shul•khân •rukh; , Shulkhan Arukh, Shulchan Aruch, Shulhan Arukh, Shulhan Aruch the set table, i.e., the table that is set, ordered, arranged)—the name of what is heralded as the Jew's daily operating manual, written by Joseph Caro (Portugal & Turkey; Sᵊphâr•âd•i, 1488-1575 CE) and first printed in Venice in 1565 CE, for daily Judaic practice, but was opposed into the 17th century and from which some Orthodox Jews still sometimes disagree and deliberately diverge. It was first rejected by Ash•kᵊnazim until adopted by Moses Isserles () to the assimilation of German and Poland culture. The Shul•khân •rukh is an adaptation, by Caro, of an earlier work—Arba Tur•im (Four Rows) by Ya•a•qov Bënsheir (Spain = Sᵊphâr•âd•i, 1270?-1340 CE):

  1. (Orakh khayim; path of life), dealing with bᵊrâkh•ot, Tᵊphil•ot, Shab•ât, Khaj•im and ta•an•i•yot (fasts)

  2. (Yor•ëh Dᵊâh; "knowledge shooter" or "knowledge gun"), dealing with ritual law (shᵊkhit•âh, tᵊreiph•ot, usury, A•vod•âh Zâr•âh & mourning)

  3. (Ëvën hâ-Eizër; the helping stone), dealing with feminine matters (marriage, divorce, extrication from levirate obligation and kᵊtub•âh)

  4. (Khoshën Mi•shᵊpât), dealing with civil law and personal relations.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.02.22]

si•dᵊr•âh; , , sidrah order [of recitation], liturgy, schedule, programme, schedule, arrangement; especially, the weekly portion of Tor•âh and Ha•phᵊtâr•âh read by Jews around the world.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.02.18]

Sidur: Teimani Tiklal set
Tei•mân•i , No•sakh Ba•lad•i

si•dur, , , , sidur, siddur, seider plural si•dur•im; order [of a service], liturgy, schedule, programme, schedule, arrangement; also, the book containing the liturgy; de-Judaized to "prayer book." See also (Seidër).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.01]

si•mân, , siman sign, mark, symbol, signal, paragraph).

Si•mân is used as "chapter" in citing a chapter of Ta•na"kh, e.g. ' (bᵊ-s') is an abbreviation for "in chapter…"

Thus, using the standard abbreviations, wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 17:11 would be ' " ", though ' (bᵊ-s') is generally understood and omitted.

Note that the numbers of the chapter and verse are given in Gi•ma•tri•yâh, their corresponding Hebrew letters (10 + 7 = 17 and 10 + 1 = 11).

There are two exceptions to this convention—15 and 16—due to the desire to avoid accidentally forming part of the Name. Thus, all 15's & 16's (including 115, 2516, etc.) are formed using 9 + 6 (") and 9 + 7 (") rather than the expected 10 + 5 and 10 + 6. Resuming with 17 = ", the convention continues as expected.

The lapse of two millenia from the 15th Pâ•qid ha-Nᵊtzâr•im to the 16th Pâ•qid ha-Nᵊtzâr•im thus mirrors the disconnect presaged in these two special numbers. See also Gi•ma•tri•yâh.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

si•mᵊkh•âh, connective si•mᵊkh•at-…; , simkhah, simchah, simhah rejoicing. Often used as a synonym for a festive celebration.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.01]

Map: Sinai Yetziah El Arish Har Karkom Har Sinai Midbar Paran
Click to enlargeMap: Sin•ai, Yᵊtzi•âh, Ël Arish, Har Kar•kom, Har Sin•ai, Mi•dᵊbar Pa•ran

Sin•ai; , Sinai its meaning is uncertain. The only modern translation would be "my Chinese."

It may surprise some readers to learn that scholars agree that the popular tourist spot, Mount St. Katherine's, near the southern tip of the Sin•ai peninsula, cannot be the Har Sin•ai of Ta•na"kh. It should be noted that Har Sin•ai was the sacred (thus, off-limits to everyone but Mosh•ëh) destination of pilgrimages, not an inhabited city. The people lived nearby (perhaps in Qâ•deish Bar•neia and Bᵊeir Shëva). Consequently, it should be no surprise that archeologist Prof. Emmanuel Anati conceded: "Like in other areas of the Nëgëv and Sin•ai, none of the recorded sites seem to date between 2000 and 1100 BC. No traces of human presence were found…"

Though some have ruled out Har Kar•kom based on exceeding (by 1 day!) their estimate of the number of days walking distance documented from known points in Ta•na"kh, it turns out that they underestimated a day's walking distance as proven by the hard evidence of the distance between caravansaries in the region, which exactly rules in Har Kar•kom.

The only mountain that fits all of the requirements is Har Kar•kom, adjacent to Mid•bâr Pâ•rân in the Israeli gëv. (Cf. Archaeologist Emanuel Anati's discussion in "Mountain of g*o*d," The Jerusalem Post Magazine, 87.03.27, p. 14-15); also at www.harkarkom.com.


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א [Updated: 2010.11.28]

Codex Sinaiticus
Codex Sinaiticus (click to enlarge)

Codex Sinaiticus (ca. 300-399 CE) The earliest extant complete ms. of the Christian NT, alleged to have originated in Israel. is more likely derived from Israel and Israeli Hellenists than the other source texts, perhaps leaving it less Christianized by pagan (Hellenist Roman gentile) redactors and, therefore, less misojudaic.

* Using the conventions of the apparatus of the Novum Testamentum Graeca, the asterisk refers to the original Hellenist Greek scribe of a document (in this example, of the Codex Sinaiticus). 1 refers to the first redactor's handwriting, 2 to the second redactor's handwriting, etc. as they redacted the Greek ms.


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Pronunciation Table[Updated: 2006.04.27]

sin•at khi•nâm; , , sinat khinam,sinat chinam,sinat hinam,sinat chinom,sinat hinom gratuitous eschewal, baseless shunning; Modern: hate or hate-mongering, from the shorësh (sâ•nei; he eschewed; Modern: hate).

While "hate," connoting the bearing of malice, is the pop. English counterpart, the context of passages using this verb, , reflect ancient Biblical Hebrew-speakers who, when appropriate, eschewed fellow country folk and even family, but did not hate them.

Hate is encapsulated in a different verb, from the root (â•yav; to be hostile to, to be at enmity with, an enemy of – to hate), in the vindictive and malice-bearing sense connoted in English – but prohibited by (cf. The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 5.43.4).

Consider, too, that hate is the antonym of love. Hate is contradictory to love. Could, then, the Ël•oh•im of love at the same time be an Ël•oh•im of hate toward the same individuals and people simultaneously? (Cf. Tᵊhil•im 5.6; Mi•shᵊl•ei Shᵊlom•oh′  6.16ff; 13.24; Dᵊvâr•im 21.15; bᵊ-Reish•it 29.31; et al.)? One must remember to relate to the Hebrew; never rely on any translation.

Only when all references in Ta•na"kh to , are understood to mean eschew, not hate, are they perfectly compatible – and only when is understood to be internally perfectly compatible is it correctly understood.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.07.28]

skakh, rolledSukot with skhakh – better with palm fronds on top

sᵊkhâkh; , skhakh, schach, s'khakh, s'chach a wicker-like semi-covering on a Suk•âh (Ha•lâkh•âh prohibits a true roof on a Suk•âh).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.03.30]

skhug adom (red)skhug yaroq (green)
Red SᵊkhugGreen Sᵊkhug

Sᵊkhūg. , skhug, s'khug Hot sauce to dab on meats, Ma•lawakh, etc. The color and heat are determined by the type of chili peppers used. Basic recipe (refine over time):

  • 200 grams dry hot-red chili peppers, hot-green chili peppers, or a mixture (determines whether skhug is red, green, orange, yellow, etc.)

  • 6 cloves of garlic

  • 1 bunch fresh coriander leaves

  • 3-4 pods cardamon, fresh ground

  • 1/2 teaspoon cumin

  • 10 black peppercorns, fresh ground

  • water

It's advisable to use rubber gloves when handling the peppers as they tend to burn the skin. (Do not rub your eyes!) Clean the peppers, remove the seeds and ends. Peppers should be hollow. Put in the blender. Add water, about a third to the total volume of peppers in blender (sounds complicated but it's really quite simple). Add rest of ingredients and blend to a fine paste.

Skhug is dabbed on various meats (as one might dab on horseradish) or added to tomato paste and eaten on Ma•lawakh – or just to spice up any food that you think could benefit from it. Lasts well in refrigerator.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.08.05]

Sopheir stam (stam-ink.blogspot.com)
So•pheir St"m

so•pheir; , sopheir, sofeir, sopher, sofer a counter (popularly "scribe"), because the Tor•âh scribes counted the number of letters in several different ways (by line, etc.) to ensure accuracy; pl. so•phᵊr•im; pl. connective so•phᵊr•ei-).

A cognate, Seiphër, "book" or "scroll," is widely used of a Seiphër Tor•âh and Beit-Seiphër (house of books = school).

" (pronounced stahm), acronym for -, , (Si•phᵊr•ei-Tor•âh, tᵊphil•in, mᵊzuz•ot).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

stâm•i; , stami neutral (e.g., neither khâ•lâv nor bâ•sâr).

"Parve" is a Yiddish word—which represents German assimilation. In the Bible and Tal•mud the closest term is (peirv•âh), a completely unrelated term meaning "fur." While stâm•i is likely the only correct word for "neutral, neither meat nor dairy" (assimilation to the Yiddish term, used by "everyone," being ruled out), your use of stâm•i will probably be the first time anyone has ever heard of it—affording you a teaching moment opportunity.

There is, however, another side. From the earliest times, Hebrew had the occasional loan word from other languages. Today, primarily Arabic, Russian, English and German. While speaking the Yiddish language must be rejected, avoiding the occasional loan word would be an impossibility. Still, that the doctrine of "parve" has no preceding Hebrew origin demonstrates that the doctrine of "parve" utensils was introduced as a reform (!) after the European assimilation of Yiddish (9th century CE).


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Στέφανος [Updated: 2011.04.01]

Stëphan•os; Stephanos, Stefanos, Stephen Hellenist (Jew) and founder of the Ëb•i•ō•naῖoi. Anglicized to Stephan.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.04.02]

nât•âh , , (Biblical Hebrew: stretch-apart, pull-apart, stretch-forth).

The "Big Bang" is the modern physicists' conception of the ancient Biblical (The Big Stretch-Apart). Physicists have described Einstein's Theory of Relativity as imagining one were riding a photon through the universe, and how that would affect local time and space. Einstein's simple formula, E=mc2, can be solved to reveal to you exactly what time is in our (and Einstein's) internally-constrained view of the universe. C, being the speed of light, is a factor of time (distance per second), restoring the time factor into his equation. And this equation can be solved for t=time, revealing that time = distance per energy per mass!

Like a computer depends upon a crystal's oscillation for it's clock and "metabolism," time inside the computer that fluctuates by temperature, all matter depends upon this equation for its clock-speed metabolism – "time" for every particle of matter within the universe is determined by energy operating on mass through distance (space). (Ergo, relative time for particles within the universe seems to be nothing more than our perception of some kind of reciprocal function measuring differences in momentum: current minus expended momentum – usually related to our travel relative to the earth's orbit around the sun?)

A short animation that shows the expansion of the universe in the standard 'Lambda Cold Dark Matter' cosmology, which includes dark energy (top left panel red), the new Avera model, that considers the structure of the universe and eliminates the need for dark energy (top middle panel, blue), and the Einstein-de Sitter cosmology, the original model without dark energy (top right, green). The panel at the bottom shows the increase of the 'scale factor' (an indication of the size) as a function of time. The growth of structure can also be seen in the top panels. One dot roughly represents an entire galaxy cluster. Units of scale are in Megaparsecs (Mpc), where 1 Mpc is around 3 million million million [i.e., 3 quintillion] km. (Video: István Csabai et al.)

The vision of these physicists is still impaired by being internally constrained — within the universe instead of expanding their vision to the entire structure. Like Einstein, until now physicists have failed to take into account the constraints of the internal perspective of the universe as contrasted with the overview enabled by a far larger, external perspective. Viewed externally, time is the same everywhere in the universe at any given instant – the uFrame (uFr), despite operating differently on physical metabolisms within the universe. An outside view of the universe is even more different from conventional models than the various internal views of the conventional models are from each other.

Physicists are just now being forced to deal with the universe from this external view that I've been advocating for decades; a different (non-)matter altogether. The Biblical – "The Big Stretch-Apart" (BStrA).

This major adjustment in physicists' limited grasp of internally-limited relativity, advanced by PhD student Gábor Rácz of Eötvös Loránd University in Hungary, represents, at long and exasperating last, a turning point in the continuing, decades-long, string of imagineering patches to flaws and contradictions in parts of the stale conventional simulations of the "Big Bang." This is a step in the direction of resolving the many flaws and contradictions in the stale conventional "Big Bang" Theory: inter alia,

  1. an explosion causing an accelerating expansion of the universe in contradiction of gravity. (Explosions result in decelerating expansion even without gravity; which, in the case of the universe, acts to slow and reverse expansion – which is the opposite of what is happening!)

  2. "Big Bang" need for apparently non-existent "Dark Matter" and "Dark Energy" to explain accelerating expansion

  3. the missing boomium for nothing to self-detonate in an explosion ("Big Bang")

  4. Contradiction between relativity and quantum physics

  5. Inflation-Horizon Problem — Physicists findings are that while the universe "happened" in one event, it happened simultaneously in locations too distant to be connected, even by light — a conundrum for the "Big Bang" theory. A Big Stretch-Apart, caused by external multipole attractive force, by contrast, could as easily trigger simultaneous counter-energy (counter-force) "seedlings", all from the same external multipole attractive force event, with no limitation on the physical distance between where they simultaneously resulted, all resulting from the same initial event — resolving the Inflation-Horizon conundrum.

  6. Double-Slit Photon Interference Experiment conundrum

  7. Time conundrums – the math, E = mc2, defines 1 second of time as reducing to nothing more than 1 Joule (energy) applied to 1 kilogram (mass) over a distance of 299,792 kilometers; in American units: 1 foot-pound of force (energy) applied to 1 pound of weight (mass) over a distance of 186,282.4 miles (983,571,056.43045 ft.) – a human convention for convenient sequential (historical) reference of a (quantum) state of the universe, not an independent physical dimension.

Accelerating expansion, according to Newton's inverse square Law, implies particles accelerating toward the Source of an attractive force, not being repelled by an undetectable, assumed (made up and apparently non-existent) internal repellant "Dark Matter" and "Dark Energy" in accordance with the "Big Bang" Theory. This suggests that, rather than a "Big Bang", an external attractive force "stretched apart" nothing, leaving reaction (anti-) forces in the resulting gap that were not present prior to applying the external attractive force (the Prime Force) – the resulting forces comprising the cosmos.

Interestingly, this is precisely how Ta•na"kh describes creation, using the verb : Shᵊmu•eil Beit 22.10; Yᵊsha•yâhu 40.22 ( pa•al gerund; is stretching); 42.5 ( and stretching-out their…; pa•al gerund); 44.24 ( pa•al gerund); *45.12 ( pa•al pret. - [hands] stretched-apart); 48.13 ( pi•eil pret.); 51.13 ( pa•al gerund); Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 10.12 ( pa•al pret.); 51.15 ( pa•al pret.); Zᵊkhar•yâh 12.1 ( pa•al gerund); Tᵊhil•im 18.10 ( pa•al fu.); 104.2 ( pa•al gerund); 144.5 ( hiph•il imper.).

For discussion of the physics, and the implications on reality, the nëphësh and eternity, see commentary on bᵊ-Reish•it more info


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or Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ben-David family Sukkah
Bën-Dâ•wid Family Suk•âh

Suk•âh; , , sukah, sukkah, sukot, sukkot hut, plural (Suk•ot; huts; Modern Hebrew: booths). This is widely rendered by the inaccurate and misleading term "tabernacles," leading to confusion of with the completely unrelated ; and (Khag Suk•ot; "Pilgrimage of Huts") is similarly misleadingly rendered as "Festival of Tabernacles."

ccc
Friends & Family in our Suk•âh (2009)

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