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Hebrew Glossary: R-S

The reason this simple page of glossary definitions is ranked so popular with the search engine is because so many people click on our links to these definitions from the content in… the 'Netzarim Quarter' Village web site in Ra•an•anâ(h), Israel at www.netzarim.co.il

The real content is in the 'Netzarim Quarter'! Click on our logo above for an exciting visit to the 'Netzarim Quarter' where you'll learn about Historical Ribi Yehoshua and his original, Jewish, followers before the great Roman-Hellenist apostasy of 135 CE—and even more importantly, how you (whether Jew or non-Jew) can follow the historically true, Judaic, Ribi Yehoshua. In Hebrew, his original followers were called the Netzarim (Hellenized to "Nazarenes").

Until Paqid Yirmeyahu researched the Netzarim name and sect and began publishing about it in 1972 in The Netzarim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matityahu (NHM) no one in modern times was even aware of the name Netzarim. It stretches credulity that no one in modern times had heard of the Netzarim until Paqid Yirmeyahu published it in 1972… and then, suddenly, everybody figured it out??? Check (and verify) the dates of the earliest works about the Netzarim by the others and you'll see that they are deceiver-plagiarists. Then insist on the person whom ha-Sheim selected to entrust the knowledge, not imposters who falsely call their continuing practice of Displacement Theology "Nazarene Judaism" or directly plagiarize the name "Netzarim."

Because we teach and practice the authentic Judaic teachings of Ribi Yehoshua—not Displacement Theology—we are the only group who have restored the Netzarim to be accepted in the legitimate Jewish community in Israel—genuinely like Ribi Yehoshua and the original Netzarim. Consequently, the 'Netzarim Quarter' is the only web site of legitimate Netzarim / Nazarene Judaism.

Give all the friends you've ever known the chance to know about this exciting site; send them our web site address (www.netzarim.co.il) that opens modern eyes for the first time to the Judaic world that Ribi Yehoshua and his original Netzarim knew, practiced and taught.

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רַעPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.10.19]

masc . n. ra, רָעָה (râ•âh, fem.); רעָוֹת (râ•ōt, f. pl.). רע, rawrong, bad, apostate, straying or idolatrous as defined by Tor•âh. Borrowed from Egyptian , the sun-idol supreme deity; i.e., correspondingly straying, apostate, idolatrous.

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רַעֲנַנָּהPronunciation Table Hear it![Updated: 2006.04.27]

Raanana downtown, Rekhov Akhuzah (Estate St.)Downtown Ra•a•nanâ(h)

fem. n. (adjectival n.) Ra•a•nanâh רעננה, Raanana"fresh"; spelled in English as Ra´anana and pronounced by Anglos as Ra•nana. Ra´anana is a small city roughly 20km (12mi) north of Teil •viv, between Kᵊphar Saba and Her•tzᵊl•iyah at the narrowest point of Israel's pre-1967 waist.

Ginah in Ra'anana Park Ra'anana
Gin•âh in Ra•a•nanâhPark Ra•a•nanâh
Gan Uri Gordon in Ra'ananaKanyon Renanim in Ra'anana
Gan Uri in Ra•a•nanâhKan•yon (Mall) Rᵊnan•im
in Ra•a•nanâh

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רַבָּןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.12]

masc . n. Rab•ân; רבן, RabanAramaic of Rav, plural רַבָּנִים (Rab•ân•im); used only of the Nâ•si of the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον.

רַבָּנָן (Rab•ân•ân) is Aramic for "our Ravs."

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רַב Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.11.05]

masc . n. rav – great(ness), much; m.n. & adj.

רבי; (Rabi? Or Ribi)? — ריבי, רב, Rabbi, Ribireligious title in Ta•lᵊmud popularly Anglicized to "Rabbi".

No rabbinic title existed prior to the secession of the Pᵊrush•im faction of the Biblical Kha•sid•im from the Hellenized Tzᵊdoq•im faction of the Biblical Kha•sid•im in BCE 135. "The more ancient generations, … which were far superior, had no such titles… The title 'Rabbi,' too, came into vogue among those who received the laying on of hands [sᵊmikh•âh] at this period."

From the inception of the Pᵊrush•im in BCE 135 to c 20 CE, the Hellenist Tzᵊdoq•im dominated the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον (as you can tell by the Greek, rather than Hebrew, name – including the tractate name in Ta•lᵊmud), dismissing Pᵊrush•im titles as illegitimate and meaningless. It was only around 20 CE that the Pᵊrush•im finally achieved dominance in the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον and Pᵊrush•im titles obtained significance.

According to the Jewish Encyclopedia's English, Shᵊrir•â Gâ•ōn (906-1006 CE) declared that "The title 'Rab' is Babylonian, and that of 'Rabbi' is [conferred only by the Academies in Yᵊhudâh]." Meanwhile, in seeming direct contradiction, R. Dr. Ernest Klein defines the PBH m.n. רַב as "'Rabbi' — title of the Babylonian Âmor•âyim." As if to ensure chaos prevails, רַב is today generally translated into English as "rabbi."

Ta•lᵊmud remained unvoweled until quite recently: 1964 — CE — when I was in U.S. Air Force Intelligence in Germany, playing keyboard with the Forerunners, and the Beatles were climbing to the top of the charts. The confusion among these terms stems from disputes among various modern Judaic traditions concerning the proper pronunciation of רבי in Ta•lᵊmud. In Hebrew, pronunciation differentiates the words, with their corresponding definitions. This confusion was amped-up when רַב began to be translated as "rabbi" in English.

The confusion traces back not to how 1st century C.E. Jews pronounced רבי, but to how Hellenist Roman gentiles — not necessarily reliably — transliterated and pronounced the rabbinic title of Yᵊho•shua in the original — post-135 C.E. — Greek mss. of the Christian Καινής Διαθήκης — as "ῥαββί." Thus, modern European-assimilated (Ash•kᵊnazim and Sᵊphâ•râd•im) rabbis have unknowingly relied on the Christian Καινής Διαθήκης tradition for their 1964 vowelization of רבי (rbi) as ῥαββί in Ta•lᵊmud.

Ta•lᵊmud describes רבי A•qi, inter alia of the Yᵊhudâh Academy (as contrasted against the Babylonian-assimilated Academies), as רבי, while those of the Babylonian Academies are, indeed, called רב. This is what both the Jewish Encyclopedia, Klein's Concordance, and many others are trying to explain while getting all gnarled up in conflicted English translations.

Accordingly, we must examine the many errors in a wide range of opinions regarding the proper vowelization of the Talmudic title: רבי. The confusion blurring the sᵊmikh•âh of modern rabbis with the sᵊmikh•âh of the ancient רבי is a boon to the same rabbis who self-servingly, "eclectically" vowelized רבי to רַבִּי — glossing over countless breaks in the chain of their claimed uninterrupted and unbroken line of sᵊmikh•âh from Mōsh•ëh to today's European-origin (Ash•kᵊnazim and Sᵊphâ•râd•im) rabbis. It's then understandable why they assume an authoritative stance in "eclectically" insisting on vowelizing רבי in Ta•lᵊmud as "rabbi", seemingly merging the two.

Yet, Judaic scholars acknowledge that the most pristine Judaic tradition is that of the Tei•mân•im (followed by other Mi•zᵊrakhim, in contrast to European {then the Hellenized Roman Empire, in 70 and 135 C.E.}) Judaic traditions). Finally, this history lesson leads us to a logically consistent answer: while the European-assimilated rabbinic tradition pronounce the רבי of the Academies of Yᵊhudâh as "רַבִּירַבִּי A•qi," the Tei•mân•im pronounce "רִבִּי A•qi"; clearly distinguished from both רַב and the modern רַבִּי!

This, finally, enables clear and proper distinctions and definitions between

Contrary to popular misconceptions, these terms have no linguistic relationship to "teacher" or "instructor" (which is the יָרָה family of cognates that includes תּוֹרָה and Mōri).

Other titles, like "Rebbe," are far more recent – 19th-20th century CEand European-assimilated (reflecting, as proven by recent genetic studies, Hellenist Tzᵊdoq•im Exiles of 70 CE and 135 CE taking refuge in the Hellenist European Roman Empire); not authentic to ancient Middle Eastern origins — Pᵊrush•im exiles of 70 CE and 135 CE who fled the Hellenists, including the Romans, into Arab countries; namely, Tei•mân•im and Eid•ōt ha-Mi•zᵊrakh.

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רַבָּנוּתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.10.16]

fem. n. Ra•bân•ūt; רבנות, RabanutRabbinate: 17th century CE, non-Biblical ordainment – by Turkey (Ottoman Empire) and secular Israeli governments.

Foreign "Sᵊmikh•âh": Turkish (Ottoman) Empire

Far from being an ancient historical (much less Biblical) institution, the Ra•bân•ut dates back only to 17th century appointments by the Turkish (Ottoman) Empire! Today's Ra•bân•ut is the product, not of Tōr•âh, but of Dark Ages European (Ultra-Orthodox) medievalists empowered by secular politicians of the modern state of Israel (in return for "king-maker" Ultra-Orthodox voting blocks).

In the beginning of the 17th century, the title of the first Rishon lᵊTzi•yon was given to the chief rabbi of Jerusalem by the Turkish (Ottoman) Empire. In 1842, the position of "Hakham Bashi", Chief Rabbi of Constantinople who represented the Turkish Jews before the Sultan, and the position of Rishon lᵊTzi•yon which at that time already represented the Old Yishuv before the Sultan, were combined into one position [and only one Chief Rabbi!] called Rishon lᵊTzi•yon. more

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רַחֲמִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.09.24]

masc . n. (pl.) ra•kham•im; רחמים, rakhamimcompassion—lit. "compassions" (m.p.). Being bound in the plural implies that "compassion" cannot exist in the singular, as a lone occurrence; it is necessarily, and only exists as, a continuing (pl.) action.

(Shaar ha-Ra•kham•im is the "Gate of Compassion," the East Gate of Har ha-Bayit. Based on a mistranslation, non-Jews know this gate by an erroneous name: the 'Golden Gate.")

masc . n.רַחוּם ra•khūm; compassionate (adj.)

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רָחֵלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Râ•kheil; רחל, Rachel, Rakhel, Rakheilewe.

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רָמַת הַגּוֹלָןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ramat ha-Golan
Râm•at ha-Go•lân

Râm•at ha-Gō•lân; רמת הגולן, רמת הגלן, Ramat ha-GolanGolan Heights

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רמב"םPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.07.31]


Ramba"m רמב"ם, רמב''ם, Rambam, Ramb"m(1135-1204 CE), acronym for Rabbi Moshëh Bën-Mai•mon (son of Maimon, his father's name). Ramba"m is also widely known by his Greek—Hellenist—name: Maimonides. In the great medieval European controversy over rationalism, Ramba"m, who was the leading Sage of medieval Spain, was the champion of רַצְיוֹנָלִים against אי-רַצְיוֹנָלִים.

Tei•mân•im Jews consulted, and sided, with Ramba"m. To avoid persecution by the Muslims of Spain—who offered Jews and Christians the choice of conversion to Islam or death—Ramba"m fled with his family, first to Morocco, later to Israel, and finally to Egypt.

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רמב"ןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.08.17]

Ram•ba"n רמב''ן, Ramban, Ramb"n(1194-1270 CE), acronym for Rabbi Moshëh Bën-Nakh•man (son of Nakhman; Hellenist Nakhmanides), one of the last leading אי-רַצְיוֹנָלִים of medieval Spain. In the great controversy of רַצְיוֹנָלִים versus אי-רַצְיוֹנָלִים (which includes Qabâl•âh), Ram•ba"n attempted to reconcile the two. Thus, Ram•ba"n is the least irrational of the irrationalists. Perhaps, taking into account the limited science of his day, we could state this alternatively as the first Sage to attempt to understand spirituality from a scientific perspective—which is the perspective of the Nᵊtzâr•im.

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רש"יPronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.03.07]

Rash"i, רש''י, Rashiacronym for Rabbi Shlomoh Yitzkhâqi (1040—1105 CE, spanning the First Crusade); medieval French rabbi and commentator.

Whether Rash"i himself had an illogical and flawed understanding, or whether these logical flaws reflect an illogical and flawed understanding by his students or by modern commentators, his legacy displays a fondness for combining parables and symbolism with fanciful flights into logically flawed (i.e., irrational) allegory.

Much of the internal religious controversy within Judaism can be expressed as Rash"i and Qa•bâl•âh vs Ram•ba"m. In such cases, the Nᵊtzâr•im always follow discrete logic – which typically translates into supporting Ram•ba"m.

Rashi's commentary is mainly distinguished by a rather imaginative philological treatment of Mi•dᵊrâshic interpretations riddled with logical inconsistencies. When the text didn't fit into his view he reworded (suggested "better" wording) the Mi•dᵊrâsh, the Tar•jums, cantillations, etc. to conform to his allegories. Rashi's second great shortcoming was his medieval frame of reference: his failure to deal with reconciling philosophy and Biblical concepts with logic, science and the universe.

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רַצְיוֹנָלִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.08.17]

ra•tzᵊyon•âlim; rationalists

The antonym is אי-רַצְיוֹנָלִים (iy-ra•tzᵊyon•âlim; irrationalists).

Today's accounts in Hebrew of the Maimonidean Controversy are so thoroughly biased by the modern primarily-Litvak (Lithuanian) writers that it cannot be communicated in Hebrew without supplying more historically accurate Hebrew terms to describe the basic two sides of the controversy: rationalists versus irrationalists. In modern Hebrew accounts, the controversy is couched in terms of Ram•ba"m's Greek "science" of the goy•im versus "our holy Tōr•âh" (which are, in fact, Lithuanian fable-ized traditions based in ignorance and superstition). Of course, no Jew would prefer Greek "science" of the goy•im over "our holy Tōr•âh," which, in our modern era, has relegated the primary aspect of Ram•ba"m's arguments to obscurity so as not to challenge the claimed exclusive authority of modern Lithuanian rabbis.

Of course, no Tōr•âh Sage—including Ram•ba"m—, ever championed Hellenism. The controversy was over adherence to מַדָּע—i.e., רַצְיוֹנָלִים to properly interpret and understand Tōr•âh versus ignorant, superstitious, fable-izing irrationalists; in Hebrew, אי-רַצְיוֹנָלִים. Described in these more accurate terms, relating to the spiritual domain of Tōr•âh in a rational, scientific and logical, frame of reference clarifies into sharp focus: a non-dimensional Realm of the Creator-Singularity preceding and beyond our physical (i.e., dimensional) universe.

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רָצוֹןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.01.21]

masc . n. râtz•ōn; רצון, ratzonpleasure, wish, will

רָצוֹן is often suffixed by the pronominal ך (khâ meaning "your") to form רְצוֹנְךָ (rᵊtzon•khâ; your [masc.]) pleasure or will. The connective form without the suffix, רְצוֹן, is pronounced rᵊtzon…, e.g. רְצוֹן י--ה (rᵊtzon ha-Sheim, the will or pleasure of ha-Sheim). רָצוֹן can also be prefixed by a preposition, for instance, ב (bᵊ-…; in…) to form בְּרָצוֹן (bᵊ-râ•tzon; with [lit. "in"] pleasure). These can also take a pronominal suffix to form, for example, בְּרָצוֹנְךָ (bᵊ-rᵊtzon•khâ; with or by your pleasure).

רָצוֹן derives from the verb רָצָה (râtz•âh; he was pleased with, favorable toward). While it is translated for "he wanted," the English wanting = lacking something, is a connotation absent in this Hebrew term. The future tense is used in the phrase אִם יִרצֶה הַשֵּׁם (im yi•rᵊtz•ëh ha-Sheim), abbreviated אי"ה (IY"H), which means "if [it] will please ha-Sheim.

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רָעָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.07.10]

רָעָהרעה,רועה,רעי האליל,roeih,roi ha-elil,reieh,reeh,re'eh,rei'eh,reiah,reah,re'ah,rei'ah (râ•âh); BH: 1. he ranched; i.e. tended, pastured, grazed—(shep)herded—a herd or flock of kâ•sheir domestic livestock; (sheep, goats andor cattle). BH: 2. he (or masc. it) was a fellow-member of a herd or flock of kâ•sheir domestic livestock.


masc . n. רֵעֶה BH: male fellow-member of a herd or flock; a flock-fellow, herd-fellow or yoke-fellow (in the yoke of Ta•na"kh, Ta•na"kh-centric), pl. rei•im. (MH: רֵעַ).

fem. n. רֵעָה BH: female fellow-member of a herd or flock; a flock-fellow, herd-fellow or yoke-fellow (in the yoke of Ta•na"kh, Ta•na"kh-centric).

masc . n. רוֹעֶה; n. a rancher, herder of livestock, i.e. shepherd or cowboy; also the pres. tense v., ranching, herding, pasturing, grazing, shepherdingm.s. (in the specific case of sheep). Plural רֹעִים; ranchers, herders, also the pres. tense v. ranching, herding m.pl. and the compound sing. …רֹעִי and pl. …רֹעֵי forms; e.g., הָרֹעִים.

Subversion Of "The Golden Rule"

Over millennia of exposures to Babylonian, Egyptian, Hellenist-Assyrian, Hellenist-Roman and European-Christian acculturation, syncretism, assimilation and "Orthodox" ecumenic reforms, the original implications of this family of cognates has been diluted to today's ecumenic, Christian-compatible MH: "associate with, keep company with" (which has devolved to "neighbor" and "friend" inclusive of Christians, Muslims, and all other gentiles); sanitized of its original inherent Ta•na"kh-centric membership particularization. The Biblical meaning casts a different light on the words of Rabi Hi•leil ha-Za•qein and Ribi Yᵊhō•shūa for Ta•na"kh-centric Bᵊn•ei-Yi•sᵊrâ•eil: וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ —to love your fellow flock/herd-members—not foreigners alien to the flock/herd! See also Shᵊkhin•âh (neighbor).

Prophecy of "רֹעִי Of The Feckless-Idol" – Namely, Jesus

The pivotal instance of the phrase, רֹעִי הָאֱלִיל is found in Zᵊkhar•yâh 11.(16 &) 17; clarified in Yᵊsha•yâhu 19.1, where the term is used in the connective pl., אֱלִילֵי, meaning the "feckless-idol gods of" Egypt. A priori, the phrase רֹעִי הָאֱלִיל properly describes one who is represented to be a shepherd (i.e., a peer of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil and Tōr•âh), but who, instead, misleads the sheep astray after "the feckless god-idol" – which has consistently been the Hellenist god throughout the ages. See also Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 10.21; 23.1-8; 3.15 and Yᵊkhë•zᵊq•eil chap. 34.

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רְחוֹב, usually abbreviated 'רחPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.03.10]

masc . n. Rᵊkhōv; רח', רחוב, rechov, rekhovBH public square or expanse; in NH times, they paved them over and now the word means "street." Plural is רְחוֹבוֹת. Moving the accent back to the penultimate syllable, Rᵊkhovot (public-squares, expanses or streets) is the name of a city in the gëv.

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רפאים,Rephaim,Rapi Uma,rpum,rpwm [Updated: 2021.04.15]

masc . n. רְפָאִיםPronunciation Table Hebrew transliteration of the Ugaritic-speaking Rāpiʾūma tribe of Kᵊna•an, differentiated by their Ethnosalvific Intercessory Necro­demigodic Mysticism (EINM) religion. more – Rapiuma

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Replacement Theology [Updated: 2012.08.31]

See Displacement Theology.

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רָשַׁעPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.17]

masc . n. râsh•a; רשע,רשעים,reshato do wickedness, pl, rᵊshâ•im

רֶשַׁע (rësha, wickedness); see also -Kō•hein -Rësha ("The Wicked Priest"). more

רָשָׁע (râ•shâ, a wicked person).

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רְאוּבֵןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.10.28]

Rᵊu•vein, ראובן, Ruvein, R'uvein, Reuben, Reuvein"See [the] bein!" – 1st son of Ya•a•qov (mother: Leiâh). more

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רְבִיעִיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.11.28]

Rᵊviy•i; רביעי, reviyi, r'viyifourth. (Frequently used to denote the 4th day of the week.)

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רִבְקָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ri•vᵊqâh רבקה, Rivqah

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רִאשׁוֹןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.02.16]

masc . n. Rish•ōn; m.n., adj. & ordinal # (e.g., 1st day of the week) — first; pl. רִאשׁוֹנִים

"The רִאשׁוֹנִים" is a rabbinic deception—3½ mllennia after the genuine "first ones" (the Shō•phᵊt•im)—that refers to the "First" European Dark Ages (11th-15th century CE) rabbis by contrast to the even more recent, post-15th century CE through today, A•kha•ron•im rabbis.

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רֹגֶזPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.09.10]

masc . n. gëz;רוגז,רגז,rogez agitation, irascibility, exasperation.

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רֹאשׁPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.02.10]

masc . n. Rōsh; ראש חודש,ראשונים, rosh khodesh,chodesh,ha-shanah,rishonim,reish,reshhead (by extension, top, chief or start); the Hebrew letter ר (Aramaic reish). more

fem. n. רֵאשִׁית, f.n. & adj. — Prefix this with the preposition בְּ and you have the name of the first book in Tōr•âh: בְּרֵאשִׁית !

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רֹאשׁ בֵּית דִיןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.02.16]

Rōsh Beit Din (lit. "Head of the House of Law");Rosh Beit Din — the Chief Justice of a Higher Court.

רֹאשׁ בֵּית דִין בְּכָל מָקוֹם  — the Chief Justice of the Court, both in the Beit Din -Gâ•dōl and in every Beit Din ha-Qât•ân. There is no contradiction of this tradition from the Shi•vᵊim by the sᵊmikh•âh of Mōsh•ëh at Har Sin•ai until An•ti•ŏkh•ŏs ŏ Ëp•i•phan•eis and Yәhō•shua Bën-Shim•ōn Jr. Bën-Tzâ•dōq ha-Kō•hein in BCE 167 when the structure was Hellenized to suit the Roman sātrapy Συνέδριον.

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רוּחַPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.05.01]

masc . n., also fem. n. akh; ruakhspace or void between objects, something unseen but evidenced by breeze, wind; believed by ancients to be spirits—evidenced and defined by odor (sweet smell equated to a godly spirit, foul odor equated to evil spirit/​demon); modern air, atmosphere. This corresponds, via LXX, to πνευμα (pneuma, origin of English pneumatic), meaning breeze, wind or spirit). See also The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 1.18.6.

Developed from the Egyptian concept of ka, your רוח is the life-force, dependent upon food, water and physical environment, which physically animates your avatar (physical body). Your רוח contrasts with your nëphësh, a refinement of the earlier Egyptian concept of ba.

Though unable to distinguish נֶפֶשׁ from נְשָׁמָה, in LXX the Hellenists distinguished these two terms from רוח, which they rendered πνευμα (pneuma; wind, spirit).

Whether for good or evil, your רוח strongly influences your נֶפֶשׁ and נְשָׁמָה. The רוח is the interface between your נֶפֶשׁ and נְשָׁמָה in the non-dimensional realm, on the one side, and your body in the physical universe.

All of our physical senses are located in our physical body. Thus, all of our perceptions that depend upon our physical senses seem to us to be experienced in our body and in our physical world—just as when playing a virtual game we experience being in a virtual world.

It is this sentiency interface that "unplugs" from the physical brain at death, liberating the נֶפֶשׁ and נְשָׁמָה in the non-dimensional realm. Those who haven't prepared for the non-dimensional realm, developing healthy and complementary נֶפֶשׁ and נְשָׁמָה don't survive. Even among those who survive, those who haven't developed their non-dimensional senses are entirely disoriented—like a virtual game-player who has never seen the "real" world.

רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ (Ruakh ha-Qodësh) is the Spirit of Qodësh, where Qodësh is defined by Tōr•âh. רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, conveying a spirit independent of localized closeness, was adapted by goy•im for whom י--ה was never their aboriginal שָׁכֵן, and, therefore, to Whose spiritual שְׁכִינָה, they could never relate. With rare exception, Jews use the term שְׁכִינָה exclusively.

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רוּתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Rūt; רות a Mo•âv name; Hellenized to "Ruth." Mi•dᵊrâsh associates the name with râ•at•âh ("she saw", i.e. understood, the words of her mother-in-law, Artscroll, The Book of Ruth, p. 67).

Rut is the second of the five Mᵊgil•ot

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שָׂעִירPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.06.12]

masc . n.sâ•ir;שעיר,sair billy-goat.

fem. n.שְׂעִירָה (sᵊir•âh); nanny-goat (female, doe, doeling or dam goat).

Banks, checks and paper currency didn’t exist in antiquity. For tax purposes, a man’s wealth was valuated by his livestock and crop land. Fines—not “blood sacrifices”—were stripped of anthropomorphism (restored to Avrahamic purity?) by Mōsh•ëh, assessed according to a man’s wealth and position, type of misstep, and according to this valuation system. In today’s currency (2019), approx. ₪720 or U.S. $200

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!סְלִיחָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.01.29]

fem. n. sᵊlikh•âh; סליחה, סליחות, salakh, selikhah, Selikhotexcuse, forgiveness, "Excuse me!," fem. n. of סָלַח (sâ•lakh; he excused, forgave). The plural noun, סְלִיחוֹת (sᵊlikh•ōt; excusings, forgivenesses), is the title of Tᵊphil•ot incorporated in Sha•khar•it from the first day of the week preceding Yom Tᵊru•âh until Yom ha-Ki•pur.

See also מָחַל (mâ•khal) and חָנַן (khâ•nan).

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סָלָט טוּרְקִי [Updated: 2009.03.10]

Salat Turki (matbukha)
Sâ•lât Tūrki (ma•tᵊbūkhâh)

and similar מַטְבּוּחָה סלט טורקי, מטבוחה, Salat Turki , matbukha(adapted from Mimi)

Yield: approximately 4 cups

  • 1 large onion

  • 2 Tblsp. olive oil

  • 1 green bell pepper

  • 2 red bell peppers

  • 2 large tomatoes

  • 3 Tblsp. sliced or pitted, chopped green olives

  • 1 tsp. salt

  • 1/2 tsp. ground cumin

  • 1/2 tsp. black pepper

  • 4 Tblsp. tomato purée

  • 2 Tblsp. chopped coriander leaf

  • skhug to taste (and color)

  1. Peel and dice the onions. Fry them in the olive oil till golden: use a medium-sized pan or a large frying pan.

  2. Remove the stem, seeds and white inner membrane from all the peppers. Chop into dice. Add them to the onions. Cover the pan and cook the vegetables till the peppers are soft - about 8 minutes. Stir once or twice.

  3. Dice the tomatoes. If necessary, pit and slice the olives. Add all of these to the pan.

  4. Add the black pepper, cumin, salt, tomato paste and skhug.

  5. Cover the pan again and cook the vegetables over a medium flame for about 15 minutes.

  6. Sprinkle coriander over the salad

  7. Serve cold.

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סַםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.02.11]

masc . n. sam (pl. סַמִּים);סם,סמים,samim BH: spice.

Translations as “drug” are MH. תַּבְלִין is PBH. MH distinguishes herbs from the aforementioned as עִשְׂבֵי תִּבּוּל.

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Συνέδριον / σύνοδος Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.02.19]

SunedrionSanhedrin, (Greek term, lit. "sitting together"), from συν (sūn, Anglicized to "syn"; "together") + έδρα (edra, seat); Hellenist Roman Sātrapy Senate Assembly.

One of numerous Greek terms (inter alia synagogue, ka•rᵊpas, aphi•kōmon) assimilated in the wake of BCE 167 by the Tzᵊdoq•im and post-400 CE (Ta•lᵊmūd-Yᵊrū•sha•lᵊm•i) Pᵊrush•im rabbis. This Hellenist Greek term, via transliteration to סַנְהֶדְרִין (later Anglicized to "Sanhedrin"), persists even today as the Hellenist reform defilement that displaced the pre-BCE 167 (pre-Hellenization, pre-Tzᵊdōq•im, pre-Sha•mai Sr.) Beit Din -Gâ•dōl of the Ōs•in.

Σύνοδος Anglicized to the Hellenist Greek Roman Christian "synod" — σύνοδος (a caravanning, converging or meeting together, conjunction of planets) from συν (sūn, Anglicized to "syn"; "together") + ὁδός (oddoss, a caravanning, traveling or journeying; a way of doing, speaking, etc.). This is only one of a number of assimilations through the millennia that need to be restored. more

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שַׂרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.10.24]

masc . n. Sar, שרה,שרים,שרה,Sarah,sar,sarimone who perseveres, persists, endures, pursues, contends, struggles, strives, never gives-up or quits and prosecutes a mission to the end, a survivor or revenant (from the verb שָׂרָה); by extension, a battle-distinguished warrior, nobleman, prince or minister; pl. שָׂרִים (sar•im); plural connective form …-שָׂרֵי (sar•ei-…; noblemen or minsters of…). In MH, a government minister is called a Sar (of Finance, Education, Transportation, of the Interior, etc.).

fem. n. שָׂרָה (Sâr•âh), f.n. noblewoman, princess; from the v. to contend, struggle, strive (הַמִּשְׂרָה of…). Also, the name of the wife of Av•râ•hâm, Sârâh, and the first element of Yi•sᵊrâ•Eil.

שָׁרָי (Sâr•âi = sar + âi; my nobles or princes), apparently also a fem. plural contraction of שָׁרַתַ + י (i.e., my princesses).

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שָׂשׂוֹןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.09.25]

masc . n. sâ•sōn; ששון, sasonexuberance.

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שָׂטָןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Sâ•tân; שטן, Satan, satan, satanica human impugner, adversary, accuser, polemicist or prosecutor; e.g., one of I•yov's debaters. (Ancient convention was to credit י--ה, directly, rather than the human who spoke Words credited to י--ה.) Synonymous with yeitzër hâ-ra.

Thus, "[t]he doctrine of the two inclinations (or drives) is a major feature of rabbinic psychology and anthropology." However, "the rabbinic notion of two inclinations shifts this dualism from a metaphysical to a more psychological level (i.e., two [dissonant] tendencies in man rather than two [warring Armageddon] cosmic [principalities]." However, the rabbis confuse the sexual aspect of this inclination, regarding it internally oxymoronic – רָע, yet "not intrinsically [רָע] and, therefore, not to be completely suppressed." (Inclination, Good and Evil, Ency. Jud., 8.1318).

Hellenist Christians later syncretized and corrupted these Judaic concepts with earlier traditions morphed into their own native (Hellenist Greco-Roman) traditions: the Ugaritic idol Anzu-Tiamat (an evil angel who stole the "Tablet of Destinies," the supreme authority to rule the universe), the Mesopotamian idol Ishtar (morphed into Greek Aphrodite, morphed into Roman Venus, morphed into Latin Lucifer, Great Whore of Babylon, crown of snakes? early serpent & dragon themes of later Hellenist Hydra idol), and these expanded with their native Greek idols Pan (sexual tempter, evil music & seducer & satyr), Thanatos (angel of death) and perhaps Icarus (fallen angel) to fabricate the Christian anti-god mélange of "Sātan" aka the devil (evil demon) aka Beelzebub.

Mesopotamian Anzu-TiamatAkkadian-Assyrian-Babylonian Ishtar Sumerian Inanna Semitic AshtarteHellenist PanThanatos (death angel)
Ugaritic idol –
Mesopotamian idol –
Greek idol –
Greek idol –

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סְדוֹםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.10.01]

Yam ha-Melakh, S'dom, Tzoar, Khevron
Click to enlargeYâm ha-Mëlakh, Sᵊdōm, Tzōar, Khë•vᵊr•on
Sedom-Amorah (Bab edh-Dhra) destroyed ca BCE2350 Todd Bolen-BiblePlaces.com
Click to enlargeSᵊdōm (Bab edh-Dhra) destroyed ca BCE 2350 (Todd Bolen-BiblePlaces.com)
masc . n.Sᵊdōm;סדום,Sedom,S’dom Hellenized to “Sodom”. Archeologists identify the ancient site of Sᵊdōm with modern Bab edh-Dhra, Jordan, on the eastern coast of the southern portion of Yâm ha-Mëlakh.

The destruction of Sᵊdōm, c. BCE 2200, during the time of Avᵊrâ•hâm (c. BCE 2039), resulted from ballista-launched balls of burning sulfur and pitch, by the 3 kings from the east (kings of Goy•im, Shi•nᵊâr and Ë•lâ•sâr; the three men who visited with Av•râm in bᵊ-Reish•it 18) under the command of Chief king of Eiyl•âm, Kᵊdâ•rᵊlâ•ō•mër (bᵊ-Reish•it 14-18, reviewed in greater detail in bᵊ-Reish•it 19).

For decades, archeologists and historians argued that the ballista and trebuchet, needed to deliver stone balls, balls of burning pitch or balls of burning sulfur, was invented by the Greeks, centuries after the time of Avᵊrâ•hâm. However, new research of cuneiform numbers table on ancient Babylonian clay tablet by Univ. of New South Wales shows that Babylonians were far more advanced than thought, knowing trigonometry (e.g., for calculating trajectories) a millennium before the Greeks, who were previously thought to have invented it. “Mechanically delivered projectile weapons”, even though referring to the bow and arrow, date back to the age of the Human-Neanderthal encounter. “A team of Japanese and Italian researchers, including from Tohoku University, have evidenced mechanically delivered projectile weapons in Europe dating to 45,000-40,000 years - more than 20,000 years than previously thought.” See also A•mōr•âh.

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שֶׂהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.05.20]

שֶׂה = a kâ•sheir Bovidae
eiz - goat Nubian buck kidAyil - ramparah adumah - Red Heifer (American Brangus, 2012 Grand Champion, Houston)

masc . n. sëh שה, seh– a kâ•sheir Bovidae (split-hoofed, hollow-horned, ruminant livestock animal; namely, a sheep or ram, a nanny or billy goat, or a cow or bull). Compare & contrast with ayil, tal•ëh, këvës, eiz, and tzon.

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סֵדֶרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.02.18]

Pesakh Table (2004)
Ben-David Family, 2004

masc . n. Seidër, סדר, סדורים, Seiderespecially the Pësakh Seidër; order [table setting or a service], liturgy, schedule, programme, schedule, arrangement). See also סִדּוּר (si•dur).

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סֵדֶר מוֹעֵדPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Soft MatzahOmer (barley or wheat) - Shavuot Ben-David family's Sukah
Khag ha-Matz•ot (Pësakh)Khag ha-Shâvu•otKhag ha-Suk•ot
The Three Mo•ad•im / Khaj•im

masc . n. Seidër Mō•eid ; סדר מועדת, Seider Moeid, seider mo'eid, seder moed, seder mo'edOrder: Appointed), 2nd order of the Mish•nâh (i.e., Tal•mūd)

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סֵדֶר נָשִׁיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Nashim - women

masc . n. Seidër Nâsh•im; סדר נשים, seider nashim, seder nashimOrder: Women), 3rd order of the Mish•nâh (i.e., Tal•mūd)

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סֵדֶר נְזִיקִיןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

tort law
Tort Law

masc . n. Seidër Nᵊziq•in; סדר נזיקין, Seider Neziqin, Seder Neziqin, Seider Nezikin, Seder Nezikin, Seider N'zikin, Seder N'zikin, Seider N'ziqin, Seder N'ziqin, Order: Torts), 4th order of the Mish•nâh (i.e., Tal•mūd)

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סֵדֶר קָדָשִׁיןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

qedoshim - saints

masc . n. Seidër Qâ•dâsh•in; סדר קדשין, Seider Qadashin, Seder Qadashin, Seider Kadashin, Seder KadashinOrder: Holinesses), 5th order of the Mish•nâh (i.e., Tal•mūd)

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סֵדֶר טָהֳרוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]


masc . n. Seidër Tâ•hâr•ōt; סדר טהרות, Seider Taharot, Seder TaharotOrder: Decontaminations), 6th order of the Mish•nâh (i.e., Tal•mūd)

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סֵדֶר זְרָעִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]


masc . n. Seidër Zᵊrâ•im; סדר זרעים, Seider Zerayim, Seder Zerayim, Seider Zeraim, Seder Zeraim, Seider Z'raim, Seder Z'raimOrder: Seeds), 1st order of the Mish•nâh (i.e., Ta•lᵊmud)

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סֵפֶרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

seipher (megilah / scroll)

masc . n. Seiphër, ספר, seipher, seifer, seferpl. סְפָרִים (sᵊphâr•im); originally a writing or scroll; later, a codex or book (see also Mᵊgil•âh). One who hand writes sᵊphâr•im is called a סוֹפֵר (pheir), pl. סוֹפְרִים (so•phᵊr•im).

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סֵפֶר יוֹסֵף הַמְּקַנֵּאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Seiphër Yō•seiph ha-Mᵊqan•ei; ספר יוסף המקנא, Seipher Yoseiph ha-Meqanei, Seifer Yoseiph ha-Meqanei, Seipher Yoseiph ha-Mekanei, Seifer Yoseiph ha-Mekanei, Seipher Yosef ha-Mekanei, Seifer Yosef ha-Mekanei, Scroll of Yoseiph "the Zealous"; a polemic work against the NT by Rabbi Yo•seiph Bën-Nâ•tân Official (surnamed because his father, then himself, were financial adviser and administrator "officials" of the Archbishop) of Sens, France, ca. 1280 CE

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סְמִיכָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.04.17]

fem. n. sᵊmikh•âh; סמיכה,semikhah,semichah,s'mikhah,s'michah"resting on, being supported by, leaning on, laying on"; from סָמַך dates from the time of the Yᵊtzi•âh, c BCE :

Two Applications
  1. Of qâr•bân•ōt in both the Mi•shᵊkân and the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh -Rish•ōn

    סמיכה was obligatory whenever sacrifices were offered by individuals. This was effected by the owner resting both of his hands between the horns of the animal immediately before shᵊkhit•âh according to kâ•shᵊr•ūt.

  2. Of ordination —

    dating at least as early as Mōsh•ëhs סמיכה of Yᵊho•shua Bin-Nun (וַיִּסְמֹךְ אֶת-יָדָיו עָלָיו, c BCE 1624, and his subsequent סמיכה of the 70 Zᵊqein•im.

    No Succession, Compounded By Idolatrous Exaggeration of Authority
    1. Countless Breaks, No Continuous Succession

      Whereas a single missing-link disconnect invalidates an entire chain of supposed succession, today's rabbis gloss over countless missing links disconnecting the succession of סמיכה since the time of Mōsh•ëh.

      In contradiction of both Scripture and legitimate historical and archeological hard evidence, Rabis in the modern era fabricated a reform: a seemingly seamless succession of speculated and assumed (undocumented before the modern era) fill-in "links". The resulting "chain" – more missing links than chain – appears to document the speculated conferral of סמיכה from some individual(s) in one era to some individual(s) in the next (often disconnected) era – not unlike the Church fabricating the first 15 or so popes.

      Nevertheless, even Orthodox rabbis are now beginning to yield to the reality that (in addition to the earth being older than 6,000 years, inter alia), through the intervening millennia, there are far more gaps than documented chain.

      Additionally, the rabbis decided to abandon the "laying on of hands," ordaining instead by the reform of merely conferring the title "rabbi" either orally or in writing.

      There is no direct line, nor supernatural power, coursing from the original סמיכה of Mōsh•ëh to today's Orthodox (or Ultra-Orthodox/​Kha•reid•i) rabbinic סמיכה.  more

    2. Arrogated & Exaggerated Meta-Tor•âh Authority

      When today's rabbis cite Dᵊvâr•im 17.11 as the Basis of their claimed meta-Tor•âh authority to override not only Ha•lâkh•âh dᵊ-Ōr•ai•tâ – but even Tōr•âh shë-bi•khᵊtâvbesides burying the lack of succession, they bury the key limiting phrase: עַל-פִּי הַתּוֹרָה — "According to the Tor•âh that they shall instruct you…" more

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''Sen-en-Mut'' (Egyptian glyph; Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Hover over word for MH, xlit & xlatnSen-en-Mut; "Brother in the Mother-Goddess (Mut, consort of Amun)" (Egyptian glyph; Metropolitan Museum of Art). Ideogram (griffon vulture) faces point to begin reading, i.e., right-to-left, and glyph is read top to bottom – after any deity name is read first.
Glyph: phonogram n (water ripples) Glyph: phonogram n (water ripples) Glyph (T22): phonogram sen (arrowhead; brother) Glyph (T22): phonogram sen (arrowhead; brother) Glyph (G14): phonogram mt, mwt (griffon-vulture; mother) Glyph (G14): phonogram mt, mwt (griffon-vulture; mother) Glyph: phonogram t (a loaf of bread), probably a fem. indicator ending (to mother) Glyph: phonogram t (a loaf of bread), probably a fem. indicator ending (to mother)

Sen-en-mut, Senenmut[Updated: 2013.10.11]

Sen-en-Mut ostrica - Mosheh (found in his chapel Egypt Museum)
Click to enlargePortrait of Moses (Sen-en-Mut ostrica, found in his Chapel, Egypt Museum)

Exactly contrary to some superficial, amateur commentators, the translation, "Mother's brother," perfectly corroborates the relationship of the Pharaonic Princess, Khât-shepset, as the deific mother-Isis figure to Sen-en-Mut Hōrus-Moses, the deific Hōrus-son figure. The weight of evidence increasingly supports my assertion that this Pharaonic Princess adopted into her Pharaonic house, as her brother, the baby she found floating in the reeds of the Nile and named Sen-en-Mut Hōrus-MosesHōrus-incarnate.

In fact, Sen-en-Mut can only be identical with Moses: (adopted) brother of Princess (later Queen-Par•oh) Khât-shepset, who was, at the same time, deific mother-Isis to her deific son Hōrus -Moses!

The historical record of Sen-en-Mut's parents demonstrate that Sen-en-Mut could only have been his own "mother's brother" if his father had married his aunt – which is exactly the case of Moses!!! As the son of Amᵊram's aunt Yo•khëvëd (Shᵊm•ot 6.20), Moses was simultaneously both his father's son and matriarchal brother. As Moses was the matriarchal brother of her husband, Moses was his mother's brother (in-law) too! But there's a lot more!

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שְׂאוֹרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.10.02]

שְׂאוֹר (sᵊor: starter dough, sponge dough)
שְׂאוֹרClick to enlarge(photo: sourdoughbreads.com)

masc . n. sᵊōr שאור, seor, s'or— Ancient Israel & Biblical definition: leaven, An agent, such as yeast, that causes batter or dough to rise, especially by fermentation; a subset of חָמֵץ, sᵊor was sourdough starter batter, also called "sponge" dough, cultured from wild yeast that is u­biq­ui­tous in the environment, on the skin of grains, plants and even in the soil.

Today, a package of yeast, not available in ancient Israel, is often substituted. שְׂאוֹר was the ancient "leaven" before yeast was identified (17th century CE), isolated (even later) and sold in packets on the shelves of local supermarkets.

שְׂאוֹר – might be secured from a neighbor. Otherwise, to develop שְׂאוֹר from scratch (as required after every Khag ha-Matz•ot – if you wanted to enjoy leavened bread), requires more than a week of "feeding" starter batter and allowing it to cure or rest, permitting the wild yeast time to be cultured and ferment into שְׂאוֹר. Each family, using their own family recipe, cultured their unique "family שְׂאוֹר".

The following (exhuastive) Scriptures instantiating שְׂאוֹר prohibit the universal Orthodox – and Ultra-Orthodox – practice of placing offending products in a cupboard or closet that is then taped closed for the period of Khag ha-Matz•ot. The offending contents are still located within one's borders. The subsequent, absurdly sham, "sale," at a ridiculously symbolic price, to a gentile cannot override the Scriptural prohibition. (The contents are then "bought back" after Khag ha-Matz•ot.) Needless to say, the Nᵊtzâr•im do not approve the sham.

  1. Shᵊm•ot 12.15 – on the first day you shall have halted שְׂאוֹר from your houses

  2. Shᵊm•ot 12.19 – seven days שְׂאוֹר shall not be found in your houses

  3. Shᵊm•ot 13.7 – שְׂאוֹר shall not be seen of yours within any of גְּבֻלֶךָ

  4. wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 2.11 – (not specific to Khag ha-Matz•ot) … neither any שְׂאוֹר nor any דְּבַשׁ [can be offered], לֹא תַקְטִירוּ

  5. Dᵊvâr•im 16.4 – שְׂאוֹר shall not be seen of yours within any of גְּבֻלֶךָ

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סְפָרָדִיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.01]

Sᵊphâr•âd•i: ספרדים, Sepharadim, S'pharadim, Sefaradim, S'faradimdescendant of Hellenist Tzᵊdoq•im who fled in 70 CE or 135 CE to Hellenist Spain in the Hellenist Roman Empire (as opposed to Hellenist Germany & Eastern Europe of the Hellenist Roman Empire, Ash•kᵊnazim) in the European Roman Empire; pl. Sᵊphâr•âd•im are, along with the Ash•kᵊnazim, one of the two European (Hellenist Roman Empire) traditions of Jewry. (The anti-Hellenist (ergo, anti-Roman Empire) Pᵊrush•im, by contrast, fled the incompatible Hellenism of the Roman Empire entirely, settling in other parts of the Middle East and Africa. The most pristinely preserved Pᵊrush•im, uninfluenced by the Hellenism of the Roman Empire, are the Tei•mân•im, who fled to Yemen in 70 & 135 CE)

According to a 2013.10 paper by Prof. Martin Richards, of the Archaeogenetics Research Group at the University of Huddersfield (England), after sequencing the full 16,568 bases of the whole mitochondrial genomes, "in the vast majority of cases, Ashkenazi lineages are most closely related to southern and western European lineages – and that these lineages have been present in Europe for many thousands of years."

"This means that, even though Jewish men may indeed have migrated into Europe from [Judea] around 2000 years ago, they brought few or no wives with them. They seem to have married with European women, firstly along the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, and later (but probably to a lesser extent) in western and central Europe. This suggests that, in the early years of the Diaspora, Judaism took in many converts from amongst the European population, but they were mainly recruited from amongst women. Thus, on the female line of descent, the Ashkenazim primarily trace their ancestry neither to [Judea] nor to Khazaria, but to southern and western Europe."

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Ra (N5: solar disk, sun) s (S29: folded cloth) q (N29 sandy-hill slope) n (N35: water ripple) not pronounced (D40: arm with pronged stick) n (N35: water ripple) t (X1: bread loaf) not pronounced (O47: unknown) not pronounced (Z2: plural or collective) not pronounced, meaning: ''the great'' (O29, unknown) ' [ayin] (D36: forearm and hand, palm up) midjat, meaning certified? awarded? (Y1: papyrus roll, tied)

[Updated: 2018.03.22]

Par•oh Seqen-en- Tao

Par•oh Seqen-en- Tao;Seqen-en-Ra Tao14C-dated reign in Waset c BCE , when he was violently killed; almost certainly in the Nile Delta battling Levantine immigrant colonists – the Khëqᵊqâw Khâsᵊt (Hyksos), an eirëv rav of Kᵊna•an•im and neighboring immigrants from the Levant (which included, inter alia, Yi•sᵊr•â•eil). The fertile, well-irrigated Delta of the Nile was universally renowned as the breadbasket of the ancient world — the dream refuge for the starving. After years, perhaps decades, of frequent and catastrophic droughts in the Levant (as a consequence of the Santorini Eruption?), Levantine immigrants were overrunning, and colonizing, the Nile Delta of Lower (i.e. northern) Egypt.

Par•oh Seqen-en- Tao is credited by historians as having initiated the first wars against the Levantine immigrants, wars that predominated and defined his reign — perhaps describing the Par•oh of Shᵊm•ōt 1.8-2.23.

Evidencing intense and frenzied hatred for this Par•oh, his mummy shows that he died of multiple head wounds. He was apparently first struck perhaps by an arrow in the temple or a bronze-tipped javelin elsewhere to the head that stunned him. His enemies then set upon him and finished him with a club smashing his face, a couple of coup de grâce axe strikes to the forehead and a stab wound below the ear (the latter not visible in the photograph). more

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שָׂרָףPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.10.03]

masc . n.

2010 Carmel ''consuming fire'' - Seraphim (AFP photo)
אֵשׁ שְׂרָפִים (Carmel 2010.12.03 AFP -Ârëtz)
Sâ•râph, שרף,שרפת,שרפים,Seraphim,Serafim,S'raphim,S'rafimblazing tower of flames, thought by ancients to be a “flaming being” (i.e. fiery demon); pl. שְׂרָפִים (sᵊrâph•im, corrupted to "seraphim"); raging infernos, blazing towers of flames, “fire devils” advancing like living beings. The combinative sing. form is "…שְׂרַף" (sᵊraph…; towering fire-demon of…).

שְׂרֵפַת חָמֵץ — the burning, committing to the blaze or flames, of khâ•meitz on the morning preceding Pësakh (concluding element of Bei•ūr Khâ•meitz. (Contrast Sâ•râph (blazing flame) with Bei•ūr (BH: burning-up, consuming by fire).

Seraph Ein Gedi
Sᵊraph Ein Gᵊdi" (the Sâ•râph of Ein Gedi) Atractaspis engaddensis

Also, by allusion to its "raging fiery venom," the Atractaspis engaddensis is called the "Sᵊraph Ein Gᵊdi" (aka "burrowing viper," "mole viper" or "stiletto snake"). "Highly venomous, a Cytotoxic poison, no anti-venom - but don't worry, you won't die…" (scienceblogs.com). more info

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סְעֻדָּה שְׁלִישִׁיתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.16]

fem. n. Sᵊūd•âh Shᵊlish•it; סעדה שלישית, סעודה שלישית, Seudah Shlishit, Sudah Shlishit, S'udah Shlishit, Seudah Shelishit, Sudah Shelishit, S'udah Shelishit, Seudah Sh'lishit, Sudah Sh'lishit, S'udah Sh'lishit"third meal" [of Shab•ât or Khag). It is a Mitz•wâh to eat three meals on Shab•ât (Ma•sëkët Shab•ât 117b).

This brunch-like afternoon meal, completed before sundown, generally begins and concludes, among Tei•mân•im and Nᵊtzâr•im with various fruits and nuts. In between, the main course consists of pita & khumus, often with smoked (kâ•sheir) fish, garnished with skhug, khilbâh or fiery chile peppers, washed down with beer or other beverage and all liberally sprinkled with zᵊmir•ot chanted with great gusto.

Sᵊud•âh Shᵊlish•it overrides and replaces the Sᵊud•âh Maph•sëqët.

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סְעֻדָּה מַפסֶקֶתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.07.27]

fem. n. Sᵊūd•âh Maph•sëqët סעדה מפסקת, סעודה מפסקת, Seudah Maphseqet, S'udah Maphseqet, Seudah Mafseqet, S'udah Mafseqet, Seudah Maphseket, S'udah Maphseket, Seudah Mafseket, S'udah Mafseket"interrupter, breaker, disconnector"; the meal preceding a tzōm.

When a tzom commences on Mo•tzâ•ei Shab•ât, Sᵊud•âh Shᵊlish•it overrides and replaces Sᵊud•âh Maph•sëqët (in which case Sᵊud•âh Shᵊlish•it should be eaten is its customary fashion).

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שַׁעַרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Shaar ha-Rakhamim
Sha•ar hâ-Ra•kham•im

masc . n. shaar, שערים, shaar, sha'arpl. שְׁעָרִים (shᵊâr•im); gate. (See also dëlët and pëtakh.)

Meiâh Shᵊar•im, the Ultra-Orthodox enclave in Yᵊru•shâ•layim, means "100 Gates."

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שַׁעַטנֵזPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. (acronym?) sha•at•neiz; שעטנז, שעטנ"ז, שעטנ''ז, Shaatneiz, Sha'atneiz, Shaatnez, Sha'atnezfabric made of wool mixed with linen, perhaps deriving from Egyptian; symbolic of prohibition against mingling Yi•tzᵊkhâq with Yish•mâ•eil (i.e., intermarriage). See also sha•at•nei"z gei"tz.

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שַׁעַטנֵ"ז גֵ"ץPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

sha•at•nei"z gei"tz; שעטנז גץ, שעטנ"ז ג"ץ, שעטנ''ז ג''ץ, Shaatneiz Geitz, Shaatneiz Getz, Shaatneiz G"tz, Sha'atneiz Geitz, Sha'atneiz Getz, Sha'atneiz G"tz, Shaatn"z Geitz, Shaatn"z Getz, Shaatn"z G"tzthe seven letters of the Seiphër Tōr•âh that are written with crowns; symbolizing sha•at•neiz plus the acronym גֵ"ץ (geitz)—Geir Tzëdëq, warning against intermarrying even with a Geir Tzëdëq (much moreso against intermarrying a goy).

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שַׁבָּתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.07.02]

Shab•ât Collage

fem. n. Shab•ât; שבתון,Shabat,Shabbat,Shabbos,Shabatoncessation, desistance or refraining from mᵊlâkh•âh, pl. שַׁבָּתוֹת, cognate of שְׁבִיתָה and שַׁבָּתוֹן; deriving from שָׁבַת.

The weekly Shab•ât (3rd most im­portant Principle of Ta•na"kh) begins about 18 minutes before sunset of 6th-day with the women of the household, on behalf of the assembled family, officiating Ha•dᵊlâq•at Neir•ōt.—more

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שַׁדַּיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.11.03]

masc . n. Shad•ai. שדי, Shadai, ShaddaiDespite a universal effort to sanitize the term, this is the dual (pair) form of m.n. שָׁד (shâd; breast, teat); i.e., Pair of Breasts, symbolizing the nurturing and sustaining feminine facet of the Singularity-Creator—and displaced the goddess-idols like Ishtar that featured a "breast pose" (see tᵊrâph•im) or, often, a chestful of multiple breasts.

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שׁוחPronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.12.14]

    שחה, השתוחח, shakhah, shachah, hishtakhavah, hishtachavah
  1. Primary root: שׁוחdictionary entry: שָׁח; he bowed or bent down.

    Hit•pōl•eil: הִשְׁתּוֹחַח (see secondary root (1))

  2. Secondary metathesized root (1): שׁחחdictionary entry: שַׁח; he bowed deeply.

    Hit•pōl•eil: הִשְׁתּוֹחַח; he was bowing deeply, was bowed deeply in a kneeling position; also in despair (same as primary root)

  3. Secondary metathesized root (2) & dictionary entry: שָׁחָה; he bowed or bent down.

    Hit•pa•eil: הִשְׁתַּחֲוָה; he prostrated himself. more

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שַׁחֲרִיתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Sha•khar•it; שחרית, shakharit, shacharit, shaharitpre-dawn darkness (and, by extension, pre-dawn Tᵊphil•ot) paralleling the liturgy in the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh. שָׁחוֹר (Shâ•khor) means "black."

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שָׁלִיחַPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.10.09]

masc . n. shâ•liakh, pl. שְׁלִיחִים (shᵊlikh•im); שליחים,ש"ץ,ש''ץ,shaliakh,shatz,sh"tzemissary, representative. This tracks, via LXX, to the Hellenized (Greek) αποστολος (apostolos; emissaries, anglicized—and de-Judaized—to "apostle"); from the verb שָׁלַח (shâ•lakh; to send, dispatch, extend or reach out). See also The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 10.2.1.

שׁ"ץ (Sha"tz, acronym for שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר; viz., congregational leader of the tᵊphil•ot.

(This term is unrelated to Ta•shᵊlikh.)

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שָׁלֵםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.06.01]

Most translators properly derive שָׁלוֹם (giving rise to English mistranslation "peace-offering") and שֶֶׁ͏‌ֽלֶם from the shōrësh שָׁלֵם (though there may be a further connection to שָׁלָה as noted by Klein).

masc . n. שֶֶׁ͏‌ֽלֶם‎ (pl. שְׁלָמִים) — completion; e.g., celebratory-sacrifice upon completion of: a khaj, full payment or compensation (in settlement or satisfaction of a vow, an adjudicated dispute or court-imposed [Beit Din-imposed] fine), payments of a transaction (especially demonstrating satisfaction of a vow of restitution/​tᵊshuv•âh). These were “not offerings of atonement.” more

masc . n. שָׁלוֹם — used as "hello" and "good-bye" in Hebrew. more

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שַׁמַּאי Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.01.03]

Sham•ai שמאי, Shamai, Shammai("assessor"; c. BCE 50 to c. 30 CE) — though he has widely been represented to be a Pᵊrush•i, the fact is that, from the beginning of the Zūgōt in B.C.E. 175, the Συνέδριον was officiated by a Pair: a Hellenist Tzᵊdoq•i senior Complement (Nâ•si) + a Pᵊrush•i junior Complement (Av Beit Din). The last Zūgōt were Sham•ai and Hi•leil Sr. "the Babylonian"—grandfather of Rab•ân Ga•mᵊl•i•eil Sr., who became the first Pᵊrush•i to wrest control of the Συνέδριον from the Tzᵊdōq•im!!!

A priori, the Hellenist "Temple" Kohanic—Tzᵊdoq•i—Complement of the last pair of the Zūgōt could only have been Sham•aimore

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הַשָׁמַיִםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.04.11]

masc . n. ha-shâ•mayim; שמים, השמים, שמיים, shamayim, shammayimthe pair of heavens – the -ayim ending (see, inter alia, mayim) is a dual (paired) form. The ancients perceived the skies (heavens) as twofold: what we understand today as the atmosphere (in which we live and birds fly) and the universe beyond containing the sun, moon and night lights. There was no concept, nor word expressing, a single sky / heaven.

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שַׁאמִיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.06]

Shami; שאמי, Shamifrom Arabic "asham," meaning Greater Syria (and meaning the inclusion of Israel), i.e. based on the Sᵊpharadi tradition with many deviations: assimilated with Ash•kᵊnazim and infused with the Zo•har and Qa•bâl•âh). The Shami were the Yemenite Reform, diverging from the pristine Ba•lad•i Tei•mân•im tradition.

The Shami Bât•ei-ha-Kᵊnësët introduced additions to the si•dur made by the Qa•bâl•âh-ists in Tzᵊphat in the 16th century. (Shami, The many Yemenite synagogues of Rᵊkhovot, hâ-Ârëtz, 2004.06.18)

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שָׁרָבPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.06.16]

masc . n. shâ•râv; שרב, sharavheatwave (extreme warm front, high pressure area). Note: "khamsin" is Arabic, not Hebrew.

In the northern Hemisphere high-pressure systems rotate CW, low-pressure systems CCW. Thus, when a shâ•râv approaches (from east to west), the winds, circling CW around the peak high pressure isobar, blow out of the NW; a sea-breeze from the Mediterranean inland. When the peak high pressure isobar passes, however, then the wind trailing the peak high pressure isobar blows in the reverse direction, from the SE interior of Egypt out to sea. The more severe the shâ•râv contrasts relative to the surrounding weather systems, the stronger the winds circling the peak high pressure isobar – in each, opposite, direction as the system passes.

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שׁ"סPronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.08.18]

Sha"s ש''ס, ש"ס, Shas, Sha"s, Sha's, Sh"s, Sh's; acronym for שִׁשָּׁה סְדָרִים – the Ultra-Orthodox khareid•i political party under the supervision of (former Chief Rabbi of Israel) Rav Ovad•yâh Yo•seiph. ש"ס rabbis held the position of Minister of the Interior (in contrast to later governments in which ש"ס rabbis would only serve as Deputy Ministers in order to avoid the responsibility, imposed by the Supreme Court, of approving and signing-off on non-Orthodox converts). Thus, ש"ס rabbis exercised undisputed authority over the מִשְׂרַד הַפְּנִים with respect to every candidate approved (in the case of converts, confirming that all conversions were Orthodox) to make a•liy•âh under the Law of Return from 1984.12.24 – 1987.01.06 (http://www.knesset.gov.il/govt/eng/GovtByMinistry_eng.asp?ministry=8).

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Hieroglyph Shasu M8 water-plants sha M23 sedge-weed sw  G43u-ew (pl)
Sha•suHover over glyph symbol for xlit & xlatnpedestrian mi­grant nomads of the northern Sinai coast and the A•râv•âh.
sha (Gardiner's M8, water plants) sw (Gardiner's M21, sedge weed) u/ew (Gardiner's G43, quail chick; plural determinative)

[Updated: 2018.03.07]

שַׁסוּ (Shasu) – Shasu,שסוethnonym substantiated in the Amarna Tablets as popular in Egyptian usage from the time of Amun-hotep 3rd (14C c BCE 1400-1378) through Ra-moses Jr. "the Great" (14C c BCE 1292-​52)two centuries after the Yᵊtzi•âh! The Amarna cunei­form tablets describe the Shasu as Semitic, transhumant, Bovidae (Biblical tzōn) livestockmen, settled along the northern coast of Sinai and the A•râv•âh. (Thus, the Shasu included, in addition to Yi•sᵊr•â•eil, both Sinai Bedouin and Ë•dōm•im.) the Notably, they are never located in mid- nor southern Sinai.

The Amarah inscription in the Soleb temple in Sudan (ancient Nubia, south of Egypt), dating from the same period, substantiates the association of "[Yâhu] (in) the land of the Shasu."

This is, of course, reminiscent of י‑‑ה, ël•oh•im of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil. "[T]hus early Israel may have been one of the Shasu clans."

This shouldn't be surprising as the descendants of the twin-brother of Ya•a•qōv/​Yi•sᵊr•â•eil was Ei•sau, aka Ë•dōm, who settled in the region of Har Sei•ir, neighboring Har Sin•ai and Qâ•deish Bar•neia.

The connection between י‑‑ה and Sei•ir can be learned from a number of early biblical verses, e.g., Dᵊvâr•im 33.2, the Song of Dᵊvōrâh, Shō•phᵊt•im 5.4, and Kha•va•quq 3.3.

The khâ•khᵊm•âh of Ë•dōm was esteemed by the Nᵊviy•im. Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu asked in amazement: "Is there no longer khâ•khᵊm•âh in Tei•mân? Have its citizens lost sound-advice? Has their khâ•khᵊm•âh begun to stink?" (49.7); O•vad•yâh 8 repeats the same idea: "Shall I not, in that day, cause the Kha•khâm•im of Ë•dōm to be lost, along with the understanding of Har Ei•sau?"

Ergo, it shouldn't be any surprise to learn from an Egyptian during the time of Ra-moses Jr. "the Great" (14C c BCE 1292-52) that the descendants of the twin brother of Ya•a•qōv/​Yi•sᵊr•â•eil, namely Ei•sau (aka Ë•dōm/​A•mâ•leiq/​Sei•ir) revered יָּהוּ – very similar to both Yah and, lᵊ‑ha•vᵊdil, י‑‑ה of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil.

See also Kha•biru and Khëqᵊqâw Khâsᵊt (Hyksos).

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שָׁבוּעַPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.10.10]

irreg. n. (m.s./​f.p.) Shâ•vūa — a שֶׁבַע-day week; pl. שְׁבוּעוֹת and dual שְׁבוּעַיִםשבועות,שבועה,חג הקציר,יום הבכורים,חג מתן תורה,shavua,Khag ha-Shavuot,Khag ha-Qatzir,Yom ha-Bikurim,Khag Matan Torah

The concluding greeting of Ha•vᵊdâl•âh initiates the start of a new week: Shâ•vua tōv! (Good week!). This greeting is also common on Day1 of each week upon meeting people for the first time that week.

Seipher Torah Teimani
Seiphër Tor•âh Tei•mân•i
חַג הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת 

Pilgrimage of Weeks — the Week of Weeks = 49 days; i.e. the Count­ing of the Ōmërfollowing the first special Sha•bât of Khag ha-Matz•ot (i.e. Pësakh).

Is Also (i.e. Alternate Names)

fem. n. שְׁבוּעָה, Shᵊvū•âh — an oath (solemnly recited 7 times), plural shâ•vū•ōt. For the connection between shâ•vūa and why the 7-day week constitutes the swearing of a bᵊrit (bᵊ-Reish•it 31.16-17), see cognate shëva.

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שֵׁנִיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.07]

Shein•i; שני, Sheini, Shenisecond (adj.). (Frequently used to denote the 2nd day of the week.)

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שֵׁשׁPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.02.01]

sheish;שש, white-marble, secondary form of שַׁיִשׁ (shayish; marble), a metonym for fine linen that resembles white-marble. (See also synonyms būtz and bad.)

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שְׁכֶםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Shekhem; Har Grizim (lft) Har Eival (rt)
הַר גְּרִזִּים, Shᵊkhëm and הַר עֵיבָל

masc . n. Shᵊkhëm ("shoulder"); שכםBiblical city of Kᵊna•an – where Ya•a•qov bought a parcel of land for his homestead (bᵊ-Reish•it 33.18-20) and the bones of Yo•seiph were interred (Yᵊho•shua 24.1, 25, 34), first capital of the 10 Breakaway Northern Tribes of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 12:1; 14:17; Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im Beit 10:1).

Commanded by Mosh•ëh (Dᵊvâr•im 27-28) to be the site of reading the bᵊrâkh•ot from atop הַר גְּרִזִּים and the curses from atop הַר עֵיבָל. Later, Shᵊkhëm became the capital of the Ten Northern Tribes of Israel rivaling Yᵊru•shâ•layim (capital of Judea).

Hellenized after 135 CE, Arabs couldn't pronounce the "p" when the Romans renamed the city "Neapolis." Hence, the Roman-Hellenized, later Arab-occupied city became known as 'Nablus.'

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שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.05.24]

fem. n. (& interj.) שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּשהחינו, sheHekheyanu,sheHecheyanu (He Who has kept us alive).

This bᵊrâkh•âh is recited, appended to Qi•dush when applicable, for the first instance during the Judaic year of special events.

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שָׁכַןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.07.12]

Shōrësh:שכינה,שכונה,שכן,shekhunah,shechunah,shehunah,sh'khunah,sh'chunah,sh'hunah,Shekhinah,Shechinah,Shehinah,Sh'khinah,Sh'chinah,Sh'hinah,shakhan,shekhunah shâ•khan, BH: he neighbored, was a neighbor, dwelled in the neighborhood; was neighboring or dwelling in the neighborhood

masc . n.שָׁכֵן

fem. n. שְׁכִינָה — Note that, when referring to the Creator-Singularity, neighboring (i.e. dwelling near), as a dimension of His Omnipresence, doesn't violate the proscription against anthropomorphism.

fem. n. שְׁכוּנָה; connective form -שְׁכוּנת;‎ שְׁכוּנת הַנְצָרִים is the Nᵊtzâr•im neighborhood, or quarter (in the sky/cloud; i.e. website).

masc . n. מִשְׁכָּן — For י‑‑ה to dwell in a physical building (or in any way utilize physical sacrifices) unavoidably does violate the proscription against anthropomorphism and animism! A priori, the מִשְׁכָּן and Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh could be no more than a mō•tzeitz between the abandonment of idolatrous temples and weaning from earthly (physical) manifestations, including temples, of gods; i.e. idols.

While Yᵊsha•yahu ha-Nâ•vi prophesied (56.7) a future Beit Tᵊphil•âh – for all -am•im, avoiding reversion back into anthropomorphism or animism, it further implies that those intent upon building yet another Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâshinstead of the prophesied Beit Tᵊphil•âh — are tō•im, aimed at reverting back into the anthropomorphic and animistic idolatry from which י‑‑ה delivered Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in BCE 591.06.06 — a realization that should change our fasting and mourning days into celebration days!

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שְׁחִיטָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.09.29]


fem. n. Shᵊkhit•âh שחיטה,שוחט,שחט,shekhitah,shechitah,shehitah,sh'khitah,sh'chitah,sh'hitah(f.n.); slaughter and butchering of livestock; implying, unless otherwise specified or indicated by context, according to Tōr•âh standards of kâ•shᵊr•ūt; i.e. kâ•sheir שְׁחִיטָה by a שׁׂחֵט (from שָׁחַט).

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שְׁלִישִׁיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.04.11]

masc . n. shᵊlish•i שלישית, shelishit, sh'lishit(m.s.); שְׁלִישִׁית (shᵊlish•it; f.s.) third. (Frequently used to denote the 3rd day of the week.)

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שְׁמַעPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.01]

masc . n. Shᵊma!; שמע, Shema, Sh'maHearken! Hear! (To decode the meaning of the two enlarged letters in the שְׁמַע, see Dërëkh, "The Way.")

The diminutive of שְׁמַע is שִׁמְעוֹן, the 2nd son of Ya•a•qov (mother: Leiâh).

Non-Jews who have any familiarity with Judaism—and too many Jews—have the misconception that the שְׁמַע is (only) Dᵊvâr•im 6.4.

In fact, not even the three passages from written תּוֹרָה fully cover the recitation of the 'Shᵊma'.

The recitation of שְׁמַע begins with the tᵊphil•âh that introduces the שְׁמַע in the si•dur, אַהֲבַת עוֹלָם, and continues through אֱמֶת וְיַצִּיב

Particularly salient to the self-orientation and Displacement Theology of today's western culture are two concepts inherent in the שְׁמַע more

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שֶׁמֶןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.10.04]

masc . n. shëmën; שמן, shemenoil. Unless otherwise specified, the Bible generally means שֶׁמֶן זַיִת (shëmën zayit; oil [of] olive; i.e., olive-oil).

While oil symbolized fertility and prosperity to the neighboring ancient Hittites, Canaanites and other Mesopotamian idolaters, in both cases where it is found in the Bible (I•yov 29.6 and Dᵊvâr•im 32.13), it follows the context of the previous verse, specifying the accompaniment of the Shᵊkhin•âh / Ruakh י‑‑ה. This reveals the earliest core symbolism of שֶׁמֶן זַיִת within Yi•sᵊr•â•eil: representing the Imprimatur of the Shᵊkhin•âh / Ruakh ha-Qodësh.

map Beit Eil (al-Bireh), Ai, Psagot (Jebel et-Tawil)
Click to enlargemap Beit Eil (modern Arab-occupied al-Bireh), סֻלַּם יַעֲקֹב / Psagot (Jebel et-Tawil) and potential locations of Ai

Serving as fuel for oil lamps, including the Mᵊnor•âh in the Mi•shᵊkân (Shᵊm•ot 25.6; 27.20; wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 24.2) and later the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh, שֶׁמֶן זַיִת symbolized the ruakh of the fire / light, especially of the Mᵊnor•âh.

Both in Ugarit (V AB, B 31ff; Pritchard, Texts, 136) and in the Bible (wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 8.10–11), anointing with שֶׁמֶן זַיִת is associated with the dedication of pouring out of a sacred spirit(s) on sites deemed sacred, as well as of people. Thus, by anointing his campsite with shëmën zayit (bᵊ-Reish•it 28.18), Ya•a•qov dedicated it—calling it Beit Eil (modern Arab-occupied al-Bireh, a suburb of Ramallah, not the city modern archeologists assumed from 4th century CE Church Fathers, Hellenized to "Bethel" on today's maps; see also "Oils," Ency. Jud., Jewish Virtual Library)

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שְׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Sh'mini Atzeret & (in Israel) Simkhat Torah (goldenlightimages.com)
Shᵊmin•i A•tzërët

fem. n. Shᵊmin•i A•tzërët; שמיני עצרת, Shemini Atzeret, Sh'mini Atzeret, atseret, shminiEighth [day] Restraint, in which one "arrests" himself or herself from doing mᵊlâkh•âh — immediately following, yet separate from, the seven days of Khag ha-Suk•ot (bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbar 29.35).

שְׁמִינִי is the masc. adj. form of שְׁמוֹנָה. ‭ ‬ עֲצֶרֶת is the fem. noun form of the verb עָצַר.

Shᵊmin•i A•tzërët marks the beginning of the rainy season following the harvest in Israel. Tᵊphil•at גֶּשֶׁם is the only ritual unique to Shᵊmin•i A•tzërët.

Since the completion of the annual cycle of Tōr•âh readings occurred around the time of Shᵊmin•i A•tzërët, a rabbinical tradition developed in the Middle Ages [emphasis added] to celebrate – with joyful processions, singing and dancing – the completion and restarting of the annual cycle of weekly Tōr•âh readings on Shᵊmin•i A•tzërët. This celebration came to be known as Sim•khat-Tōr•âh.

In Israel, this single day is referred to as "Shᵊmin•i A•tzërëtSim•khat-Tor•âh" (see in our Pâ•râsh•at Shâ•vua pages of our virtual Beit ha-kᵊnësët via our Click 'n Go directory panel at left).

In the Diaspora, Sim•khat-Tōr•âh is celebrated on the second day of Shᵊmin•i A•tzërët. It is common for Jews in the Diaspora to refer to the first day as Shᵊmin•i A•tzërët and to the second day as Sim•khat-Tōr•âh.

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שְׁמִטָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Shemita year fallow field
Shᵊmit•âh year, fallow field

fem. n. Shᵊmit•âh; שמטה, שמיטה, Shemitah, Sh'mitah, Shemmitah, Sh'mmitah, Shemittah, Sh'mittah, Shemmittah, Sh'mmittahremission year (each 7th year). The years of the cycle can be calculated by taking the remainder after dividing the Hebrew calendar year by 7; i.e., the Hebrew year modulo 7.

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שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Shᵊmōn•ëh Ësᵊr•eih; שמונה עשרה, Shemoneh Esreih, Sh'moneh Esreih, Shemonah Esreih, Sh'monah Esreih18. This refers to the 18 bᵊrâkh•ot comprising (and thus a synonym for) the A•mid•âh.

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שֵׁםPronunciation Table Hear it![Updated: 2020.10.25]

irreg. n.שם,שמות,sheim,Shemot,Sh'mot (m.s. / f.pl.)

  • sheim (m.s.); a name.

  • שְׁמוֹת (f.pl.) Shᵊm•ōt; names (of…), pl. & compoud pl. — de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Exodus".

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שְׁמוּאֵלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.06.27]

Shᵊmū•eil; שמואל, Shemueil, Sh'mueil, Shemuel, Sh'muel, Shmueil, ShmuelThe view of Dark Ages French rabbi David Qimkhi רד"ק (1160-1235 CE), that שְׁמוּאֵל is an amalgamation of שָׁאוּל מֵאֵל, "is not tenable. … Ch. iii. supports the theory that the name implies 'heard by [Eil]' or 'hearer of [Eil].' The fact that "alef" and "'ayin" are confounded in this interpretation does not constitute an objection; for assonance and not etymology is the decisive factor in the Biblical name-legends, and of this class are both the first and the second chapter." Thus, the shōrësh שָׁמַע is established.

Since the simple passive ("be heard by") is the niph•al, the resulting name heretofore proposed would begin with "n" – "Nishᵊmueil". Therefore, it is, rather, the simple active pa•al (hearken, hear) that seems implied. Thus, the name seems more likely to be a contraction of the portmanteau: שָׁמְ[ע]וּ אֵל— "Eil hearkened, heard"!

שְׁמוּאֵל and שְׁמוּאֵל are two books of Ta•na"kh (de-Judaized/​Hellenized to I & II Sam.).

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שְׁאוֹלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.04.19]

masc . n. Shᵊōl; שאלה,Sheol,Sh'ola topic of, or under, question — fem. שְׁאֵלָה (shᵊeil•âh; a question; cognate שָׁאוּל (Shâ•ūl, Hellenized to Saul/​Paul; [something or someone] requested or "asked for").

שאול is the ancient netherworld of the grave and demigodal passage to the eternal unknown, sheddding of the avatar (body)—the gazillion $ question more

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שֶׁקֶלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.03.30]

Israeli New Sheqel
/ Shëqël

masc . n. / shëqël, plural shᵊqâl•im; שקלים, sheqelim, shekelim, shekalim,sh'qelim, sh'kelim, sh'kalim,a measure of weight. Archeologists estimate the weight to be about 11 grams (½ oz.) and usually refers to silver.

The modern 'New Israeli Sheqel' (abbreviated NIS) sign is , a merger of overlapped letters: ש (for שֶׁקֶל) and ח, for חָדָשׁ (khâ•dâsh; new). thus abbreviates שֶׁקֶל חָדָשׁ (shëqël khâ•dâsh; new shëqël).

Up to the moment /$ exchange rate (rightmost column).

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שֶׁבַעPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.04.07]

masc . n. shëva; שבע, sheva7 (seven). As a verb (in the niph•al), נִשְׁבַּע means to "seven something" (repeat something seven times, imprinting it firmly in one's memory)—which constituted an oath; hence, to swear an oath. See also cognates: shâvua and shiv•âh.

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שֶׁבַע מִצווֹת בְּנֵי-נֹחַPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.14]

Shëva Mitz•wōt Bᵊn•ei-Nōakh; שבע מצוות בני-נח, Sheva Mitzvot Benei Noakh, Sheva Mitzvot B'nei Noah, Sheva Mitzvot Benei Noach, Sheva Mitzvot B'nei NoachSeven Laws of akh.

According to the Encyclopedia Judaica ("Noachide Laws," 12:1190ff), the earliest extant reference to (a prototype consisting of four of) the Shëva (seven) Mitz•wot Bᵊn•ei-Nōakh was formulated by the Beit Din ha-Nᵊtzâr•im, in Ma•a•vâr 15.20:

"This … list is the only one that bears any systematic relationship to the set of religious laws which the Pentateuch makes obligatory upon resident aliens (the geir ha-gâr) and ëz•râkh [indigenous, native]".

The Shëva Mitz•wot Bᵊn•ei-Noakh are:

  1. Subordinate yourself to a legitimate Beit-Din

  2. Do not profane the Name (see Profaning the Holy Name Unawares)

  3. Have no part in idolatry (including J*esus and Christianity)

  4. Do not engage in sexual promiscuity (including intermarriage between a Jew and a gentile)

  5. Do no murder (including reputation, i.e., character assassination and slander)

  6. Do not steal (includes misrepresentation, i.e. stealing someone's reputation and life)

  7. Do not eat tâ•reiph meat

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שְׁבָרִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.09.23]

masc . n. (pl.) Shᵊvâr•im, שברים, Shevarim, Sh'varimof שֶׁבֶר (shëvër; a break, fracture, shard); pl. staccato – broken – notes (traditionally three yelping notes) blown on the sho•phâr. See also tᵊqiyâh and tᵊrū•âh (Idelsohn, A.Z., Jewish Music, in Its Historical Development (New York: Schocken, 1929, 1973), p. 9-10 with note p. 495).

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שֵׁבֶטPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.03.03]

Egyptian heqa (l) & sekhem (r) scepters
Click to enlargeEgyptian heqa (l) & שְׂכֶם (r) scepters. Rulers would hold one in each hand when adjudicating a matter; the שְׂכֶם in the right hand and the heqa in the left hand.

masc . n. sheivët; שבטים,sheivet,shivtei,shivetei,shevatimscepter, wand; metonym for tribe and tribal chief. (Contrast with ma•qeil and ma•tëh.) Pl. שְׁבָטִים (shᵊvât•im), pl. connective …-שִׁבְטֵי (shivᵊtei-…).

Tribal Coats of Arms / Dᵊgâl•im
  1. Degel Shevet1-Ruvein: water symbol on red backgroundDegel Shevet1-Ruvein: mandrake on red background
    Rᵊu•vein – Biblical: water symbolRᵊu•veinMi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: mandrake

    Rᵊu•vein – Biblical symbol: water.

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: mandrake on red back­ground.

    Mother: Leiâh.

  2. Degel Shevet2-Shimon: weapons on green backgroundDegel Shevet2-Shimon: Shᵊkhem  on green background
    Shi•mᵊōn – Biblical: weap­onsShi•mᵊōnMi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: Shᵊkhëm

    Shi•mᵊōn – Biblical symbol: weapons

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: city of Shᵊkhëm on green background

    Mother: Leiâh.

  3. Urim Tumim
    Lei•wiUr•im wᵊ-Tum•im

    Lei•wi – Biblical symbol: weapons

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: Ur•im wᵊ-Tum•im on white, black & red back­ground.

    Mother: Leiâh.

  4. Yᵊhudah: lion cub
    Yᵊhudâh – lion cub

    Yᵊhudâh – Biblical symbol: lion cub (not lion-​king)

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: lion cub on sky blue background

    Mother: Leiâh.

  5. Zëvulun ship on moon-color background
    Zᵊvul•un – ship (symbolizing coastal residents and port)

    Zᵊvul•un – Biblical symbol: seacoast, shipping, port

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: ship (symbolizing a port) on moon-color background

    Mother: Leiâh.

  6. Degel Shevet 6-Yisakhar 'load-mover'' donkey lying down between sheep-cotes, navy-blue backgroundDegel Shevet 6-Yisakhar: sun & moon (astronomy & calendar)
    Yi•sâ•khâr – Biblical: "load-mover" don­key lying down between sheep-​cotesYi•sâ•khârMi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: sun & moon

    Yi•sâ•khâr – Biblical symbol: "load-mover" don­key lying down between sheep-cotes

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: sun & moon on navy-blue background

    Mother: Leiâh.

  7. Dan - Negev horned pit viper on sapir (lapis lazuli) blue
    Click to enlargeDânNëgëv שְׁפִיפֹן on sa•pir blue

    Dân – Biblical symbol: Nëgëv des­ert shᵊphiy•phōn.

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: Nëgëv des­ert shᵊphiy•phōn (not a cobra) on sa•pir blue.

    Mother: Rivᵊq•âh

  8. God - warriors b&w
    God – warriors b&w

    God – Biblical symbol:

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: warriors, b&w

    Mother: Zi•lᵊp•âh

  9. <cite>
    •sheirancient bread & olive tree on pearl back­ground

    •sheir – Biblical symbol: ancient bread & olive tree

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: like a gem of woman's jewelry with an olive tree.

    Mother: Zi•lᵊp•âh

  10. Naphtali ayalah (doe)
    Na•phᵊtali – doe

    Na•phᵊtali – Biblical symbol: doe (not a stag or buck)

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: doe on wine-color (burgundy)

    Mother: Bi•lᵊh•âh

  11. ccc
    Ë•phᵊr•ayim – Egypt & ox on black background

    Ë•phᵊr•ayim – Biblical symbol: Egypt & ox

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: Egypt & ox on black background

    Father: Yo•seiph (son of Râ•kheil); Mother: Egyptian idolatress •sᵊn•at Bat-Pōti-Phëra, idolatrous Egyptian ko•hein of Ōn City, Egypt).

  12. ccc
    Mᵊnash•ëh – Egypt & oryx on black background

    Mᵊnash•ëh – Biblical symbol: Egypt & oryx

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: Egypt & oryx on black background

    Father: Yo•seiph (son of Râ•kheil); Mother: Egyptian idolatress •sᵊn•at Bat-Pōti-Phëra (idolatrous Egyptian ko•hein of Ōn City, Egypt).

  13. ccc
    Bin•yâ•min – wolf on all 12 colors

    Bin•yâ•min – Biblical symbol: wolf

    Mi•dᵊrâsh Rab•âh dëgël: wolf on background of all 12 colors

    Mother: Râ•kheil

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שִׁדּוּכִיןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.10.15]

shi•dūkh•in;שדוכין,שידוכין,shidukhin preliminary negotiations & harmonious resolution resulting in betrothal; from Aramaic שִׁדּוּכָא (shi•dukh•â), pi•eil of שַׁדַּךְ (sha•dakh; to negotiate a harmonious resolution; soothe, pacify or appease); popularly, "match-making". See ni•sū•in (marriage).

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שִׁלֹּחַPronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.09.01]

1886: Teimani Kᵊphar Shiloakh
Click to enlarge1886 photo: Kᵊphar Shi•loakh, Yemenite-Jewish Village.
Karen with hand in Pool of Shiloakh
Karen with hand in Bᵊreikh•at Shi•lōakh (Pool of Shi•lōakh)

masc . n. Shi•lōakh;שילוח, Shiloakh, Shiloach, Shiloah, Siloakh, Siloach, Siloahissuance, dispatch, launch—Hellenized by Josephus to Σιλωά (Silōa), Σιλωᾶς (Silōas) and Σιλωάμ (Silōam), which was, only in the 1930s — after Arabs rioted and forcibly expelled the indigenous Tei•mân•im Jews from their earlier village — Arabized to Silwan.

Bᵊreikh•at Shi•loakh; Pool of Shi•loakh.

Kᵊphâr Shi•loakh; Issuancetown, Issuanceville — the original name (cf. Yᵊsha•yâhu 8.6 & Nᵊkhëm•yâh 3.15) of Ir Dâ•wid (The Ophel).

Tei•mân•im (Yemenite) Jews returned to restore and rebuild their ancient Biblical village in 1873, reestablishing it in 1884. Arabs expelled the Tei•mân•im Jews in the 20th century (!) from the Bibical City of David in the Arab uprising of 1936-39. (See also Teimani History, 1873-1938.)

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שִׁילֹהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.03.05]

Shilōh שילה, Shiloh(SHEE-lo, not shy-lo); Ancient Israeli capital for Yᵊhō•shūa Bin-Nūn (≈50 km due east of Tël •viv-Yâphō).

Click to enlargeShil•ōh
Click for pic4: Shiloh today Click for pic3:  Shiloh today Click for pic2: Tel Shiloh Click for pic1: Tel Shiloh

Understanding the term שִׁילֹה is critical because of the Scriptural passage in which it is found: bᵊ-Reish•it 49.10—which the rabbis acknowledge is the primary Tor•âh Scripture upon which belief in the Mâ•shiakh is founded.

שִׁילֹה derives from the shōrësh שׁלה. While the primary meaning of שׁלה is to be quiet, at ease, tranquil or serene; there is also a secondary meaning: to be drawn out from water – as out of a mi•qᵊwëh, the womb (i.e., a birth) or, perhaps, across a sea.

Accordingly, these produce their respective resultant nouns: "tranquility" (the traditional interpretation) or "one drawn up from a mi•qᵊwëh, the womb (i.e., a birth), or from across a sea."

All of the rabbinic requirements for a period of tranquility to precede the coming of the Mâ•shiakh dangle from this interpretation of this single term in its primary, rather than secondary, meaning! Yet, even the rabbis cannot reconcile the messianic period of tranquility preceding the coming of the Mâ•shiakh! Serious researchers, therefore, must focus on never-​before-​considered implications introduced by the secondary meaning.

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שִׁקּוּץPronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.07.06]

masc . n. shi•qūtz;שיקוץ, shiqutz, shikutza detestable, repugnant, repulsive abhorrence; metonym for an idol.

שִׁקּוּץ שֹׁמֵם (Dâniy•eil 12.11); also שִׁקּוּצִים מְשֹׁמֵם (Dâniy•eil 9.27) and הַשִׁקּוּץ מְשׁוֹמֵםthe detestable, repugnant, repulsive abhorrence-idol appalls horrifyingly (Dâniy•eil 11.31). See full details and explanation in The 1993 Covenant (Click on "70th Week, Dâniy•eil 9.27").

שֶׁקֶץ – especially a gentile man who marries a Jewess.

שִׁקצָה (popularly corrupted to "shiksa") – especially a gentile woman who marries a Jew.

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שֶׁרֶץPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.04.05]

Shërëtzשרץ,sheretz cannot mean swarmers or teemers per se, since arᵊb•ëh, which are swarmers and teemers, are kâ•sheir. Yet, subsuming some swarmers and teemers in the definition implies the inclusion of bats and, perhaps, tâm•ei flocking birds. A priori, this suggests that shërëtz refers to the combined families of swarming/​teeming reptiles, rodents, bats and, perhaps, tâm•ei flocking birds (i.e. excluding lone predatory birds—specifically listed as tâm•ei elsewhere, which cannot be classified as swarmers nor teemers).

It is not reasonable to infer that ants, caterpillars and smaller insects (including animals too small to be seen with the naked eye) were included simply because they swarm, teem, creep or crawl.

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שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.05.13]

masc . n. Shir ha-Shir•im שיר השירים(chant of the chants; popularly, but somewhat inaccurately, song of songs) is the first of the five Mᵊgil•ot (de-Judaized to Song of Solomon and Canticles)

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שִׁשִּׁיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.11.28]

Shish•i; ששי, שישי, Shishisixth. (Frequently used to denote the 6th day of the week.)

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עֲצֵי שִׁטִּיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.01.22]

irreg. n. (f.s./​m.p.) Shit•im (sheet•im);שטים, shitim, shittimacacias; s. שִׁטָּה (shit•âh).

acacia in Negev (Roger Gelfand)
Click to enlargeעֵץ שִׁטִּים

This is a very large tree by today's standards. Most are only slightly taller than a man, like the ones to the right of the big tree. (In ancient times, there were likely many similar to this.)

acacia close-up
Click to enlargeעֵץ שִׁטִּים

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שִׁעוּרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.04.15]

masc . n. shi•ūr, שעור, שיעור, shiur, shiyurlesson (which may be a short lecture), class, homework.

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שִׁבעָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Shiv•âh; שבעה, שיבעה, shivahseven; frequently referring to the first seven days of mourning following burial of a Jew, during which time "the mourner emerges from the stage of intense grief to a new state of mind in which he is prepared to talk about his loss and to accept comfort from friends and neighbors. The world now enlarges for the mourner. While he remains within the house, expressing grief through the observances of avelut—the wearing of the rent garment, the sitting on the low stool [pillow on the floor according to No•sakh Tei•mân•i], the wearing of slippers, the refraining from shaving and grooming, the recital of [Qa•dish]—his acquaintances come to his home to express sympathy in his distress." (Maurice Lamm, The Jewish Way in Death and Mourning, p. 78).

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שְׁלֹמֹהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Shᵊlōm•ōh, שלמה, Shlomoh, Shelomoh, Sh'lomohHellenized to "Solomon."

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שׁוֹאָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Shō•âh; שואה, ShoahHolocaust, Calamity – in Biblical prophecy: עֵת-צָרָה – popularly "Time of Trouble" and "Jacob's Trouble"; see Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 30.7, Zᵊkhar•yâh 13.6-9; Dân•iy•eil 12.1; The 1993 Covenant and Pâ•râsh•at Ki Tâ•vo (for which, click in our Beit K'nesset in the navigation panel, then the תּוֹרָה scroll).

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שׁוֹמֵרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.01]

masc . n. shō•meir; שומר, shomeir, shomerkeeping protective watch over, as in guard duty, present tense of שָׁמַר (shâ•mar; he kept watch over). The noun is מִשׁמָר (mi•shᵊmar; a watch or shift, as of guard duty). Compare and contrast this verb with its synonym: נוֹצְרִים (Nō•tzᵊr•im).

Ultra-Orthodox often sanctimoniously describe themselves as "sho•meir Shab•ât."

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שׁוֹמרוֹןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.03.29]

Shomron Hills: strategic view of Keisariyah & Mediterranean
Shō•mᵊrōn Hills, view of Keisariyah & Mediterranean. Click to enlarge

masc . n. Shō•mᵊrōn שומרון, Shomron, Shomeron, Shom'ron(Hellenized to Samaria); named after "Watchguard Mountain," refers to the region surrounding the city, originally Canaanite and located about 8km NW of Shᵊkhëm, named שֶׁמֶר (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 16:24).

When Israel conquered the land and absorbed the surviving Canaanites, שֶׁמֶר was made the capital of the Kingdom of Israel. While this was the only name for the area from ancient times, in BCE 30, Herod the Great renamed the city of שֶׁמֶר to (Hellenist) Σεβαστη (Latin: Augustus) in honor of Gaius Octavius Caesar Augustus.

שׁוֹמרוֹנִי m.s. adj. and m.pl.adj. שׁוֹמרוֹנִים

The archeological site is on a hill northwest of Shᵊkhëm. The Sho•mᵊron is Arab-occupied Israeli land that was inhabited by the 10 Northern Tribes of Israel prior to the invasion of Syria in BCE 722.

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שׁוֹפָר (or שֹׁפָר)Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.05.13]

Shophar (ayal-ram)

masc . n. Shō•phâr; שופר, shophar, shofarram's ornament, decoration (i.e., horn); from שָׁפַר (shâ•phar; to be decorous, adorned, embellished) – photo shows an authentic-halakhic Tei•mân•i shō•phâr. (Not the long spiraled shō•phâr that Ash•kᵊnazi Jews say is Tei•mân•i!)

Beyond signaling the beginning of Sha•bât, Khag or Mō•eid, the shō•phâr was the ancient equivalent of the American Old West Calvary bugler, communicating battle and tactical orders to the troops.

Millennium before the invention of electricity, phones or radio communications, battle communications depended upon fire or, daylight only: smoke signals, arm (scepter) signals and the shō•phâr. Thus, the "sound of the shō•phâr" was as attention-arresting as modern sirens warning of a missile attack.

Commanders monitored battles from some vantage point, then communicated their tactical orders via complex hand signals (most of which have been lost, but remnants still accompany Tei•mân•i cantillation of Tōr•âh today). These arm movements, augmented by a large scepter in order to be clearly seen from afar, identified the appropriate battle unit and communicated the direction they should focus ("on your right flank" or "about face", etc.) and what maneuver they should perform ("attack", "withdraw", "form a front line", etc.).

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שׁוֹפֵטPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.05.03]

masc . n. shō•pheit, שופטים' שופטת, shophet, shopheit, shophtim, shophetet, shophetim, shoph'tim, shofetjudge; fem. שׁוֹפֶטֶת pl. שׁוֹפְטִים — de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Judges"; also the name of the book in Ta•na"kh.

In modern usage, שׁוֹפֵט no longer refers to judges in a ("religious") Beit Din, who have, instead, been redefined as da•yân•im. As a result, שׁוֹפֵט today refers to a trial or judge only in a "secular" state court or any arbiter, arbitrator or referee. Thus, today, a שׁוֹפֵט, even though (s)he may personally be "religious," judges based on "secular" state law, not Ultra-Orthodox interpretations – so-called "din Tor•âh."

On the other hand, the verdict, whether of a שׁוֹפֵט or a da•yân, is a pᵊsaq din and the sentence (announcement of punishment) is a gᵊzar din.

Derived from the verb שָׁפַט. See also the cognate mi• shᵊpât and synonym, zᵊqan•im.

The Hebrew term, שׁוֹפֵט, evolved, via LXX, to the Hellenist concept of κριτής. See also The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 5.25.1.

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שֹׁרֶשׁ, also שׁוֹרֶשׁ Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. shōrësh; שורש, shoreshroot

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שׁוֹטֵרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.01]


masc . n. Shō•teir; שוטר, shoteir, shoterBiblical, an officer of the Beit-Din, law enforcement officer. In modern terminology, a shō•teir is an officer of the court, i.e. a law enforcement officer or policeman. In Israel, the police are the מִשׁטָרָה (mi•shᵊtâr•âh).

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שׁוּלחָןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.11.15]

Table, Seudat Shlishit

masc . n. Shūl•khân; שולחן, השולחן לחם, השולחן פנים, עריכת השולחן, shulkhan, shulchan, shulhantable. Also

See also the prophecy of all Hellenists conspiring at one שֻׁלְחָן in Dâniy•eil 11.27 and [Wisdom] עָרְכָה שֻׁלְחָנָה (Mi•shᵊl•ei Shᵊlomoh 9.2).

From antiquity, in the Middle Eastern world one's (dining) table has been a metonym for Miz•beiakh. While this has been almost completely lost in the Christian world, Tōr•âh Jews, particularly since the destruction of the Beit ha-Miq•dâsh, still regard their— kâ•sheir(!)—dining table as the mnemonic symbol recalling ki•pur of the Miz•beiakh. more

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שׁוּלחָן עָרוּךPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.01]

Table, Seudat Shlishit

masc . n. Shūl•khân •rūkh; שולחן ערוך, Shulkhan Arukh, Shulchan Aruch, Shulhan Arukh, Shulhan Aruchthe set table, i.e., the table that is set, ordered, arranged)—the name of what is heralded as the Jew's daily operating manual, written by Joseph Caro (Portugal & Turkey; Sᵊphâr•âd•i, 1488-1575 CE) and first printed in Venice in 1565 CE, for daily Judaic practice, but was opposed into the 17th century and from which some Orthodox Jews still sometimes disagree and deliberately diverge. It was first rejected by Ash•kᵊnazim until adopted by Moses Isserles () to the assimilation of German and Poland culture. The Shul•khân •rukh is an adaptation, by Caro, of an earlier work—Arba Tur•im (Four Rows) by Ya•a•qov Bënsheir (Spain = Sᵊphâr•âd•i, 1270?-1340 CE):

  1. אֹרַח חַיִּים (Orakh khayim; path of life), dealing with bᵊrâkh•ot, Tᵊphil•ot, Shab•ât, Khaj•im and ta•an•i•yot (fasts)

  2. יוֹרֶה דֵעָה (Yor•ëh Dᵊâh; "knowledge shooter" or "knowledge gun"), dealing with ritual law (shᵊkhit•âh, tᵊreiph•ot, usury, A•vod•âh Zâr•âh & mourning)

  3. אֶבֶן הָעֵזֶר (Ëvën hâ-Eizër; the helping stone), dealing with feminine matters (marriage, divorce, extrication from levirate obligation and kᵊtub•âh)

  4. חֹשֶׁן מִשׁפָּט (Khoshën Mi•shᵊpât), dealing with civil law and personal relations.

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שׁוּקPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.08.19]

shūq;שוק,ככר.כיכר,קניון.shuq,shuk,suq,suk,public square,plaza,mall,canyon (or "shuk"; rhymes with spook); public market square or plaza (cf. Mi•shᵊl•ei Shᵊlōmōh 7.8; Qō•hëlët 12.4-5; Shir ha-Shir•im 3.2); from which Arabic adopted سوق‎ (suq/​suk; also rhymes with spook). Ancient counterpart of the village business district, public park and industrial zone; combined modern קַנְיוֹן (qanᵊyōn; mall) and כִּכָּר (ki•kâr; plaza/​public square).

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סִדְרָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.02.22]

fem. n. si•dᵊr•âh; סדרה, סידרה, sidrahorder [of recitation], liturgy, schedule, programme, schedule, arrangement; especially, the weekly portion of Tōr•âh and Ha•phᵊtâr•âh read by Jews around the world.

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סִדּוּרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.02.18]

Sidur: Teimani Tiklal set
Tei•mân•i תִּכּלַאל, No•sakh Ba•lad•i

masc . n. si•dūr, סדור, סידור, סדר, sidur, siddur, seiderplural si•dūr•im; order [of a service], liturgy, schedule, programme, schedule, arrangement; also, the book containing the liturgy; de-Judaized to "prayer book." See also סֵדֶר (Seidër).

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סִימָןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.01]

masc . n. si•mân, סימן, simansign, mark, symbol, signal, paragraph).

Si•mân is used as "chapter" in citing a chapter of Ta•na"kh, e.g. 'בס (bᵊ-s') is an abbreviation for "in chapter…"

Thus, using the standard abbreviations, wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 17:11 would be וַיִּקְרָא בס' י"ז י"א, though 'בס (bᵊ-s') is generally understood and omitted.

Note that the numbers of the chapter and verse are given in Gi•ma•tri•yâh, their corresponding Hebrew letters (10 + 7 = 17 and 10 + 1 = 11).

Two Glaring Exceptions Never Before Explained – except by rabbinic disinformation

There are two exceptions to this convention: 15 and& 16. The standard rabbinic explanation for this is ludicrously self-contradicting! Rabbis who cannot spell in Hebrew allege that this departure from the standard convention stems from the desire to avoid accidentally (i.e. profanely) writing a combination of thse two numbers that inadvertently form the Holy Name, י‑‑ה.

Notice, however, that, using the standard convention for these two numbers, even a child should be able to soon figure out that no combination of the two numbers, י''ה and י''ו, can possibly form the Holy Name, י‑‑ה. Jews, gullibly accepting the rabbis' explanation unquestioningly, just don't check it for themselves.

The rabbis, yet again, lead suckers astray into subterfuge.

Thus, all 15's & 16's (including 115, 2516, etc.) are formed using 9 + 6 (ט"ו) and 9 + 7 (ט"ז) rather than the expected 10 + 5 and 10 + 6. The standard convention then resumes with 17 = י"ז, the convention continues after that as expected.

The Real Reason: A Cryptic Connection Between These Two Numbers

The lapse of two millennia from the 15th Pâ•qid ha-Nᵊtzâr•im to the 16th Pâ•qid ha-Nᵊtzâr•im is the only historically-validated connection of sufficient merit to mirror the mystical status of these unique, cryptic, two sequential numbers. See also Gi•ma•tri•yâh.

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שִׁמחָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.06.06]

fem. n. si•mᵊkh•âh, connective si•mᵊkh•at-…; שמחה, simkhah, simchah, simhahrejoicing; especially for a festive celebration commemorating completion of a mi•tzᵊwâh (e.g. Bᵊrit Mil•âh, Bar-Mi•tzᵊwâh, etc.).

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סִינַיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.11.30]

Map: Sinai Yetziah El Arish Har Karkom Har Sinai Midbar Paran
Click to enlargeMap: Sin•ai, Yᵊtzi•âh, Ël Arish, Har Kar•kom, Har Sin•ai, Mi•dᵊbar Pa•ran

masc . n. Sin•ai; סיני, Sinaimeaning uncertain. The only modern translation would be "my Chinese." This could make sense. In Hebrew, a peninsula is a "half-island"; i.e. חֲצִי הָאִי סִינַי – "the half-island of the Chinese". The Sinai is the half-island between Africa and Asia-China – i.e. perhaps named by ancient Africans (namely, Egyptians) "Chinese Key". (This may suggest a far wider trading base, and corresponding identification of the uncertain land of "Punt".)

See also Har Sin•ai

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א [Updated: 2010.11.28]

Codex Sinaiticus
Codex Sinaiticus (click to enlarge)

Codex Sinaiticus (ca. 300-399 CE) The earliest extant complete ms. of the Christian NT, alleged to have originated in Israel. א is more likely derived from Israel and Israeli Hellenists than the other source texts, perhaps leaving it less Christianized by pagan (Hellenist Roman gentile) redactors and, therefore, less misojudaic.

א* Using the conventions of the apparatus of the Novum Testamentum Graeca, the asterisk refers to the original Hellenist Greek scribe of a document (in this example, of the Codex Sinaiticus). א1 refers to the first redactor's handwriting, א2 to the second redactor's handwriting, etc. as they redacted the Greek ms.

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שִׂנאַת חִנָּםPronunciation Table[Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. sin•at khi•nâm; שנאת חנם, שנאת חינם, sinat khinam,sinat chinam,sinat hinam,sinat chinom,sinat hinomgratuitously or baselessly eschewing; MH: hating or hate-mongering, from the shōrësh שָׂנֵא (sâ•nei; he eschewed; MH: hate).

While "hate," connoting the bearing of malice, is the pop. English counterpart, the context of passages using this verb, שָׂנֵא, reflect ancient Biblical Hebrew-speakers who, when appropriate, eschewed fellow country folk and even family, but did not hate them.

Hate is encapsulated in a different verb, from the root אָיַב (â•yav; to be hostile to, to be at enmity with, an enemy of – to hate), in the vindictive and malice-bearing sense connoted in English – but prohibited by תּוֹרָה (cf. The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 5.43.4).

Consider, too, that hate is the antonym of love. Hate is contradictory to love. Could, then, the Ël•oh•im of love at the same time be an Ël•oh•im of hate toward the same individuals and people simultaneously? (Cf. Tᵊhil•im 5.6; Mi•shᵊl•ei Shᵊlom•oh′  6.16ff; 13.24; Dᵊvâr•im 21.15; bᵊ-Reish•it 29.31; et al.)? One must remember to relate to the Hebrew; never rely on any translation.

Only when all references in Ta•na"kh to שָׂנֵא, are understood to mean eschew, not hate, are they perfectly compatible – and only when תּוֹרָה is understood to be internally perfectly compatible is it correctly understood.

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סְכָךְPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.07.28]

skakh, rolledSukot with skhakh – better with palm fronds on top

masc . n. sᵊkhâkh; סכך, skhakh, schach, s'khakh, s'chacha wicker-like semi-covering on a Suk•âh (Ha•lâkh•âh prohibits a true roof on a Suk•âh).

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סְחוּגPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.05.22]

skhug adom (red)skhug yaroq (green)
Red SᵊkhugGreen Sᵊkhug

masc . n.Sᵊkhūgסחוג,skhug,s'khug

hot n spicy sauce to dab on meats, bread, Ma•lawakh, etc.

The color and heat are determined by the type of chili peppers used.

Basic recipe (refine to your taste over time):


  • It's advisable to use rubber gloves when handling hot peppers as they tend to burn the skin. Do not rub your eyes when handling hot peppers! Clean the peppers, remove the seeds and ends. Peppers should be hollow.

  • Sᵊkhug will last in refrigerator longer if fresh coriander leaves aren't added until shortly before serving.

Skhug Base (without fresh coriander leaves)
  • 200 grams fresh or dry hot-red chili peppers, hot-green chili peppers, or a mixture (determines whether you prefer skhug is red , green, orange, yellow, etc.)

  • 1 medium head, or 6 cloves, of garlic

  • 3-4 pods cardamom, fresh ground

  • 1 teaspoon cumin

  • 1 tsp black peppercorns, fresh ground

  • ¼ tsp ground cloves

  • If skhug will be stored between uses in refrigerator, blend in 30 grams of ground coriander seeds. Otherwise, for superior taste, defer adding coriander until shortly before serving (see below) and use 100 gram bunch of fresh coriander leaves.

Add water as needed to blend to a thick, coarse spread.

Shortly Before Serving (if coriander deferred, blend into base)
  • 1 bunch (100 grams) fresh coriander leaves

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סוֹפֵרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.08.05]

Sopheir stam (stam-ink.blogspot.com)
So•pheir St"m

masc . n. sō•pheir; סופר, sopheir, sofeir, sopher, sofera counter (popularly "scribe"), because the Tōr•âh scribes counted the number of letters in several different ways (by line, etc.) to ensure accuracy; pl. sō•phᵊr•im; pl. connective so•phᵊr•ei-).

A cognate, Seiphër, "book" or "scroll," is widely used of a Seiphër Tōr•âh and Beit-Seiphër (house of books = school).

סת"ם (pronounced stahm), acronym for סִפְרֵי-תּוֹרָה, תְּפִלִּין, מְזוּזוֹת (Si•phᵊr•ei-Tōr•âh, tᵊphil•in, mᵊzuz•ot).

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סְתָמִיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

stâm•i; סתמי, stamineutral (e.g., neither khâ•lâv nor bâ•sâr).

"Parve" is a Yiddish word—which represents German assimilation. In the Bible and Tal•mūd the closest term is פֵּרוָה (peirv•âh), a completely unrelated term meaning "fur." While stâm•i is likely the only correct word for "neutral, neither meat nor dairy" (assimilation to the Yiddish term, used by "everyone," being ruled out), your use of stâm•i will probably be the first time anyone has ever heard of it—affording you a teaching moment opportunity.

There is, however, another side. From the earliest times, Hebrew had the occasional loan word from other languages. Today, primarily Arabic, Russian, English and German. While speaking the Yiddish language must be rejected, avoiding the occasional loan word would be an impossibility. Still, that the doctrine of "parve" has no preceding Hebrew origin demonstrates that the doctrine of "parve" utensils was introduced as a reform (!) after the European assimilation of Yiddish (9th century CE).

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Στέφανος [Updated: 2011.04.01]

Stëphan•os; Stephanos, Stefanos, StephenHellenist (Jew) and founder of the Ëb•i•ō•naῖoi. Anglicized to Stephan.

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נְטִיָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.09.20]

fem. n. nᵊtiy•âh נטה, נטיה הגדולה, נטיה גדולה( BH: he stretched-apart, pulled-apart, stretched-forth), from the verb נָטָה.

The "Big Bang" is the modern physicists' conception of the ancient Biblical נְטִיָּה הַגְּדוֹלָה — the נְטִיָּה הַשָׁמָיִם – Scriptural "Big Stretch-Apart" of the heavens.

Physicists have described Einstein's Theory of Relativity as imagining one were riding a photon through the universe, and how that would affect local time and space. Einstein's simple formula, E=mc2, can be solved to reveal to you exactly what time is in our (and Einstein's) internally-constrained view of the universe. C, the speed of light, is a factor of time (namely, distance per second). Solving for the time factor in his equation, yields time t = distance per energy per mass!

From time = distance ÷ energy ÷ mass, it's plain that if distance covered by energymass drops to zero, then time, similarly, drops to 0, i.e. no longer exists. Thus, time is merely a man-defined metric that measures distances covered by energymass interactions – like miles (mph) or kilometers (kph), temperature, rate of acceleration or deceleration, or computer processing speed – not an intrinsic, physical component of the universe. Time – like miles, kilometers, and degrees – is merely a useful measuring unit, created by man, for clarifying our understanding of physical movement.

Therefore, This Postulate Is Testable

Mathematicians and logicians have an advantage of simplifying logic via manipulating definitions (reduced to mathematical or logical symbols) with excellent logic, but their downfall is when they so often are found to have failed to correctly understand how their result translates back into the real world. For this reason, having never followed the logical realities from start to conclusion (only manipulating their symbols according to mathematical-logical rules to skirt real-world phenomena too difficult for them to follow and elucidate), no mathematician has ever, nor will ever, "see" (nor grasp) infinity. That can only be realized, if at all, by following the real phenomena (not merely the symbols, whose definitions don't always fully and accurately reflect reality).

The equation I mathematically deduced above, may be expressed in terms of real phenomena without need of math: If all movement in the universe is stopped, that includes photons (light) and any given POV (relative to anything physical) becomes static with visibility of zero distance. In other words, the POV being zero means that infinity has shrunk to 0; i.e. everything is "frozen" in time(lessness) because time – as the measuring tool – has ceased to exist when everything in the universe ceases movement.

Conversely, if energy or mass drops to zero, then there is division by zero (time = distance ÷ 0), which is (man-defined) to be undefined (meaningless). In terms of real phenomena (rather than manipulating symbols). What does this mean? Whenever either energy and-or mass drops to 0, physicality (i.e. any particle) has ceased to exist. Distance, also being nothing more than a man-created measuring tool, divided by nothing – i.e. the (never defined) distance traveled by nothing – is meaningless.

Recent catching-up in physics – re: tokamaks – are enabling my postulate to be as testable as any physicist's theory. In some ways, pulling-apart physical particles ("lumps" of massenergy) by external force(s) within a "magnetic super-bottle" tokamak would seem, in some ways, to partially simulate the application by י‑‑ה of pre-universe (i.e. external) forces "pulling apart" the original, pre-universe, nothing – thereby perhaps mimicking, on a minute scale, the Nëtiy•âh. Thus, in essence, these experiments may be "creating" nano-scale, nano-moment universes modeling, in nano-respects (magnetism being only one aspect of the basic forces that combined to create our universe), the Nëtiy•âh – thereby confirming my long-published Nëtiy•âh Postulation. It's certainly more logical, grounded in reality and makes more sense than the endless baseless and speculative "may have" possibles Roll eyes touted by many physicists, who often peddle their speculations with no basis, contradicting known physics (every action causes, and therefore is also caused by, a reaction – including the ultimate origin of our universe). They most-unscientifically obfuscate, never answering where is the Prime Cause ex nihilo? Thus, many physicists wildly speculate our universe somehow "growing" out of previous universes, multiverses, etc.; obscenely exceeding the math they point to, taking advantage that it goes over most people's heads, to kick the can down the road based on sheer speculation for flash-in-the-pan fame and profits from papers and books.

A short animation that shows the expansion of the universe in the standard 'Lambda Cold Dark Matter' cosmology, which includes dark energy (top left panel red), the new Avera model, that considers the structure of the universe and eliminates the need for dark energy (top middle panel, blue), and the Einstein-de Sitter cosmology, the original model without dark energy (top right, green). The panel at the bottom shows the increase of the 'scale factor' (an indication of the size) as a function of time. The growth of structure can also be seen in the top panels. One dot roughly represents an entire galaxy cluster. Units of scale are in Megaparsecs (Mpc), where 1 Mpc is around 3 million million million [i.e., 3 quintillion] km. (Video: István Csabai et al.)

Further discussion, including Scriptural citations:  more info

For discussion specific to the implications on reality, the nëphësh and eternity, see commentary on bᵊ-Reish•it more info

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סֻכָּה or סוּכָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.10.09]

Ben-David family Sukkah
Bën-Dâ•wid Family Suk•âh

fem. n. Sūk•âh; סכה, סוכה, sukah, sukkah, sukot, sukkothut or booth, pl. סֻכּוֹת (Sūk•ōt; huts; Modern Hebrew: booths). This is widely rendered by the inaccurate and misleading term "tabernacles," leading to confusion of סֻכָּה with the completely unrelated מִשׁכָּן; and Khag ha-Sūk•ōt (Huts). The modern phrase "Festival of Tabernacles" is no less inaccurate and misleading.

Ta•na"kh also calls this Khag -•siph

Friends & Family in our Suk•âh (2009)

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ΣυναγωγήPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.05.06]

Greek sū•na•gōgæ;synagogue from συν (sūn, Anglicized to "syn"; "together") + ἄγω (a•gō, to lead, lead along, bring); Anglicized to "synagogue".

The need for, and therefore presence of, local civic structures dedicated to study and public prayer gatherings date back at least to the time of the first national Shō•pheit (namely עָתְנִיאֵל בֶּן קְנַז), some indefinite time after Yᵊho•shua Bin-Nun.

However, scholars have been sloppy by ignoring that which is conspicuous in their protection of their "Orthodox" rabbinic pro-synagogue agenda. Prior to the Hellenist coup d'état in B.C.E. 176, distinctively Judaic religio-civic structures were either a בֵּית מִדְרָשׁ for study, or a בֵּית תְּפִלָּה, or חֶדֶר תְּפִלָּה ("prayer room") for a mi•nᵊyân of public prayers. Perhaps some reformers once even called these by Babylonian names (paralleling assimilations of "Nisan" and other calendar names as well as switching the New Year from Biblical Firstmonth, in spring, to the Babylonian autumn birthday of Ma•rᵊdukh in Sevenmonth).

Aside from Hellenists (who were assimilated, never mainstream), however, these were not a Συναγωγή, much less a προσευψή! This is only one of a number of assimilations through the millennia that need to be restored. more

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