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Hebrew Glossary: K-M

The reason this simple page of glossary definitions is ranked so popular with the search engine is because so many people click on our links to these definitions from the content in… the 'Netzarim Quarter' Village web site in Ra•a•nanâ(h), Israel at www.netzarim.co.il

The real content is in the 'Netzarim Quarter'! Click on our logo above for an exciting visit to the 'Netzarim Quarter' where you'll learn about Historical Ribi Yehoshua and his original, Jewish, followers before the great Roman-Hellenist apostasy of 135 C.E.—and even more importantly, how you (whether Jew or non-Jew) can follow the historically true, Judaic, Ribi Yehoshua. In Hebrew, his original followers were called the Netzarim (Hellenized to "Nazarenes").

Until Paqid Yirmeyahu researched the Netzarim name and sect and began publishing about it in 1972 in The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) no one in modern times was even aware of the name Netzarim. It stretches credulity that no one in modern times had heard of the Netzarim until Paqid Yirmeyahu published it in 1972… and then, suddenly, everybody figured it out??? Check (and verify) the dates of the earliest works about the Netzarim by the others and you'll see that they are deceiver-plagiarists. Then insist on the person whom ha-Sheim selected to entrust the knowledge, not imposters who falsely call their continuing practice of Displacement Theology "Nazarene Judaism" or directly plagiarize the name "Netzarim."

Because we teach and practice the authentic Judaic teachings of Ribi Yehoshua—not Displacement Theology—we are the only group who have restored the Netzarim to be accepted in the legitimate Jewish community in Israel—genuinely like Ribi Yehoshua and the original Netzarim. Consequently, the 'Netzarim Quarter' is the only web site of legitimate Netzarim / Nazarene Judaism.

Give all the friends you've ever known the chance to know about this exciting site; send them our web site address (www.netzarim.co.il) that opens modern eyes for the first time to the Judaic world that Ribi Yehoshua and his original Netzarim knew, practiced and taught.

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Καιαφας [Updated: 2011.06.22]

(Kai•aphas, popularly Caiaphas)

Ossuary of קפא (Qâphâ; Caiaphas) Ossuary of יהוסף בר קיפא (Y'hoseiph Bar Qayâphâ; Caiaphas)

Roman-appointed Hellenist-Tzᵊdoq•i ("Sadducee"!) High Priest.

Since his name is grammatically unrelated to (Shim•ōn) "כֵּיפָא", his Hellenist name probably did not derive directly from כֵּיפָא despite the conjecture of later commentators who speculated that his Hellenist name might have derived from קיף (Qa•yaph; a mocking portmanteau, coined by the Pᵊrush•im, of כֵּיפָא and קוֹףqoph; monkey; compare Mishnâh pâr•âh iii. 5; Derenbourg, "Essai sur I'Histoire de la Palestine," p. 215, note 2; Schürer, "Gesch." 3d ed., ii. 218; Josephus, "Antiquities of the Jews," xviii. 2, § 2; Jewish Ency.) Certainly, their family name did not derive from Pᵊrush•i mockery.

Consulting Jastrow's Aramaic Dictionary, קפא–the name on the less-ornate Caiaphas ossuary–is the root verb meaning "to be on top, to float on the surface."

For more details, click on the less-ornate ossuary.


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Καισαρεια [Updated: 2011.04.03]

Keisariyah Promontory Palace
2001.04 Keisariyah Promontory Palace

Kai•sarei•a; קיסריה, Caesarea, Keisariyah, Keisariah, Kesariyah, Kesariah transliterated into Hebrew as קֵיסָרְיָה‎ (Qei•sârᵊyâh), Anglicized to Caesarea; Hellenist "Caesar City" built by the Εd•om•i king, Herod the Great, for the Roman occupiers on the coast of present-day Israel, midway between modern Tel Aviv and Kheiphâh (Anglicized to Haifa).


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Καλλίστη Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.12.22]

ccc
Click to enlargeAncient Caravan Routes Of The Near East

Kal•lisKallistae — Sea-nymph/​Mermaid-Goddess Of The Full Moon,; Fish-themed name of a principal Aegean island (along with Crete) of the ancient Minoan maritime “Sea People” Thalassocracy..

Even subsequent to the volcano eruption on Kallistæ island (c. BCE ) and consequent major colonizations around the eastern Mediterranean coasts by these Minoan Philistines/​Phoenicians, the island likely retained its original name until c BCE 4th century, when Spartan colonists renamed the island to Thera. Finally, c 1204 CE, Christians renamed the island Santa-Irini (Santorini; St. Irene). Akrotiri was an ancient Minoan city, now an archeological site, on the island. This island may have been Plato’s error-riddled description of Atlantis.


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כִּלְיָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.06.27]

ki•lᵊyâh;כליה,kileyah,kilyah kidney, believed by ancient Yi•sᵊr•â•eil to be the seat of integrity and morality, the body’s bag of good or evil (in contrast to the Egyptian—hence gentile modern—view of the heart as the seat of good or evil.

The ancient association of the kidney with good vs evil was likely expressed among the goy•im in nephromancy (divination by examination of a kidney) when seeking to resolve questions related to good vs evil.


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כִּיּוֹרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.02.14]

ki•yōr;כיור,kiyor basin, tub; MH: sink.


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Ka-moses
Ka-moses
Ka. vitality, soul, spirit (D28: upheld-arms) mos, incarnate (F31: 3 desert wolf pelts)d s (O34 door bolt)

[Updated: 2018.03.19]


Par•oh Ka-moses;Kamoses, Ka-moses last Par•oh of the 17th Dynasty/​Second Intermediate Period, reigned in Waset c BCE . Although there currently appears to be significant doubt surrounding his birth, he is thought to probably have been the son of Se-qen-en- Tao, therefore the older brother of his own successor, Neb-petit- Yah-moses – 1st Par•oh of the New Kingdom/​18th Dynasty.

The reign of Par•oh Ka-moses is most important for the decisive military initiatives he took against the Khëqᵊqâw Khâsᵊt (Hyksos) Levantine immigrants, who had colonized the northern Delta and most of Lower Ancient Egypt – putting his successor (brother?) in position to achieve victory, reunifying Upper and Lower Egypt. more


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כָּנָףPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.06.01]

fem. n. kâ•nâph כנף,כנפים,kanaph,kanaf,canaph,canaf wing.

  • connective -כְּנַף (kᵊnaph-; a wing of…),

  • pl. (& dual) כְּנָפַיִם (kᵊnâph•ayim: a pair of wings, pairs of wings, wings;

  • pl. connective -כַּנפֵי (kan•phei-; wings of…).


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כַּפָּרוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.07.18]

Kaparot (Ultra-Orthodox / Khareidim - black felt kipah)

fem. n. (pl.) Ka•pâr•ōt; כפרות, kaparot, kapparot, caparot, capparot atonements-sacrifice.

Performed preceding Yom ha-Ki•pur•im, כַּפָּרוֹת is the ritual atonement-sacrifice of a chicken (though practitioners deny it is a sacrifice), which originated in Dark Ages European assimilation.

This superstitious ritual is practiced only by some (not all) Ultra-Orthodox (and no mainstream Orthodox), by swinging it above one's head to absorb the demonic aura of tâ•mei.

Kaparot (Black hat Ultra-Orthodox / Khabad)

The כַּפָּרוֹת is then slaughtered according to shᵊkhit•âh, cooked (the process believed to destroy by fire, on the family stove, the demonic aura of tâm•ei, which supposedly dissipates in the cooking vapors Roll eyes); then eating the כַּפָּרוֹת before the start of the tzōm.

This constitutes a "private altar" sacrifice prohibited in Dᵊvâr•im 12.8-27. See, also, our glossary entry for cognate ki•pur supplemented by our explanatory discussion of ki•pur.


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כָּרֵתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.07.04]

masc . n. kâ•reitכרת, kareit, karet, careit, caret 1. a cutting-out, hewing-out, engraving, inscribing or excising (from stone, wood, metal, etc.); particularly, in the Biblical era, engraving a bᵊrit in stone. 2. Post-Biblical rabbinic-era superstitions of incantations (curses) able to bring about premature deaths aside, as science advanced this Hebrew verb matured to recognize an eternal – i.e. spiritual – excommunication, ban or banishment, as a "hewing-out" or excision from Am Yi•sᵊr•â•eilmore

See also kheirëm (shunning).


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ΚαρπόςPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.05.03]

Kar•possכרפס,אזוב,karpas,carpas (Hellenist Greek term) — any fruit or vegetable; whether of trees, fields or the earth; i.e. parsley, celery, lettuce, etc.

In the (Hellenist Roman) Christian era, the Tzᵊdōq•im and rabbis assimilated significant Hellenism: including reclining while eating and Greek terms from synagogue to Sanhedrin and ka•rᵊpas to aphi•kōmon). Thus, they syncretized ka•rᵊpas into the Pësakh Seidër plate; displacing BH: אֵזוֹב (eiz•ōv).

They did this by transliterating Καρπός into Hebrew letters: כַּרְפַּס — despite that כַּרְפַּס is found only once in the Ta•na"kh (Ës•teir 1.6)—where it means a finely-woven fabric, not a vegetable)! This is only one of a number of assimilations through the millennia that need to be restored. more


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כָּשֵׁרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

(certificate of fitness - dairy only) תעודת כשרות - חלבי בלבד
Typical Certificate of Kash•rut:
Khâ•lâv•i
(certificate of fitness - meat only) תעודת הכשר - בשרי בלבד
Typical Certificate of Kash•rut:
Bᵊsâr•i

kâ•sheir (adj.); כשרות, kasheir, kasher, casheir, casher, kosher, kashrut, koshrut fit for use (Hel­lenized to "kosher"); from כָּשַׁר (kâ•shar; he/it was fit, qualified, trained).

fem. n. כַּשׁרוּת (ka•shᵊr•ut; the topic of what is and isn't kâ•sheir).


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כַּלְדִּיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.09.02]

Ka•lᵊd•im;כשדים,כלדים,כלדאי,Kaledim,Kasedim,Chaldeans Early Aramaic כַּלְדָּאֵי and probably (see below) Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew כַּלְדִּים; more recent Syriac ܟܠܕܘ; corrupted in Greek to Χαλδαια, then further corrupted in English to Chaldeans.

It is likely that the name copied by a scribe from a worn scroll (or corrected from an ostracon) in a different (often far from precise) handwriting, in the Proto-Sinaitic alephbeit, confused Proto-Sinaitic lamed (English: shepherd's crook) with Proto-Sinaitic shin (English: two front teeth; sharp), transforming כַּלְדִּים to כַּשְׂדִּים. (The error is much less likely in the later, Middle-Semitic alephbeit or Modern Hebrew.)

The כַּלְדִּים were immigrants from the Levant to Bâ•vël, who took advantage of domestic conflict to take the throne of Bâ•vël cBCE 780 and maintain rule until finally overthrown by the Persian king Kō•rësh in BCE 538 (soon after Dân•iy•eil's fateful prophecy to the doomed Kalᵊdean regent-son, Bel-shazar (Akkadian cuneiform: ''Bel protect the king), in the absence of his father, king Nabu-na id (Akkadian cuneiform: ''Nabu is praised'', BCE 556-539); Hellenized to ''Nabonidus'', of the "writing on the wall").


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כַּוָּנָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. ka•wân•âh; כוונה, kavanah, kawanah, cavanah, cawanah directed intention, meaning, "the state of mental concentration and devotion at prayer and during the performance of mitzvot… clearly referred to by… [Yᵊsha•yâhu 29.13]… Kawânâh in Mitzwot This is defined as the intention of the person performing the action to do so with the explicit intention of fulfilling the religious injunction which commands the action." ("Kavvanah," Ency. Jud., 10.852).


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כָּבוֹדPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.06.27]

masc . n. kâ•vōd; כבוד,כבד,kavod,cavod,kevod,cevod,k'vod,c'vod,kaveid gravitas (weighty, derived from gravity), respect, honor. When used of יהוה, Kâ•vōd generally refers to the Shᵊkhin•âh.

masc . n. Cognate כָּבֵד (kâ•veid) – heavy, weighty, grave, gravitas (both meaning weighty or solemn, and deriving from gravity), burdensome, onerous, stressful. Also, the liver, which the ancients believed to be the body’s stress (stress-decisions) center.

The ancient association of the liver with stress was likely expressed among the goy•im in hepatomancy (divination by examination of a liver) when seeking to resolve questions related to stressful situations.


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כְּהֻנָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.02.08]

Kᵊhūn•âh; priesthood.


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כֵּיפָאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.12.19]

fem. n. (Aramaic; Hebrew: כִּיפָּהkip•âh) Keiphâ, כיפא, Keipha, Kepha, Cephas a vault, vaulted chamber or arcade; perhaps because he was known for wearing a kip•âh while the others didn't or, alternately, perhaps he was bald.

Shim•on "Keiphâ" Bar-Yonâh, the Nᵊtzâr•im Jew, was distorted and perverted by post-135 C.E. Hellenist Roman Christians into the polar opposite and antithetical Hellenized (i.e. Christianized) image of "Simon Peter." Only then, between 142 & 168 C.E., Hegesippus ἐποιησάμην the Hellenized, mythical-Christian "Simon Peter" retroactively, long after his death, into the first ἐπίσκοπος


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כְּנַעַןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . prop. n. Kᵊna•anHellenized to "Canaan"; region of cursed tribes (aka Nᵊphil•im) in the Levant; later (in the Levant Late-Bronze Age), beginning c BCE 1513, conquered, absorbed and subsumed in Yi•sᵊr•â•eil.כנען,Retenu,Rethnu,Kenaanim

Deciphering related Egyptian hieroglyphs unveils the Khëqᵊqâw Khâsᵊt (corrupted to "Hyksos") as the indigenous inhabitants of "Rethnu" (i.e. Kharët-unu rëtjën) – Kᵊna•an:

Rethnu (Kenaan)
Retnu (Kᵊna•an)

Kharët-unu rëtjën – Glyphs read by column, top-to-bottom, then right-to-left unless some direc­tional symbol faces left. Faces always point to the beginning of the glyph, though dieties take precedence over that to be pronounced first.


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בֵּית-הַכְּנֶסֶתPronunciation TableHear it! [Updated: 2006.04.27]


Beit K'nesset Moreshet Avot, Raanana
Beit ha-Kᵊnësët Mo•rëshët Âv•ot – Yad Nâ•âm•i, Ra•a•nanâ(h)

Beit ha-Kᵊnësët; בית הכנסת,בתי-כנסת,beit ha-keneset,beit ha-k'neset,beit ha-kneset,beit ha-kenesset,beit ha-k'nesset,beit ha-knesset,bet ha-keneset,bet ha-k'neset,bet ha-kneset,bet ha-kenesset,bet ha-k'nesset, bet ha-knesset pl. בָּתֵי-כְּנֶסֶת (bât•ei-kᵊnësët); "house of assembly," widely abbreviated ביהכ"נ – Hellenized to συναγωγή. Israel's congress or parliament is called the Kᵊnësët. ("Shul" is Yiddish, an example of assimilation to German culture, to be avoided.)

The origins of the beit ha-kᵊnësët developed in the continuing religious worship—tᵊphil•âh, reading of Scripture and dᵊrash—after the prohibition of sacrifices in the local shrines, antedating the Beit-ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh hâ-Rish•on (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 22-23). The development of the beit ha-kᵊnësët surged with the Gâl•ut to Bâ•vël (Yᵊkhëz•qeil 11.16; 8.6, 14.1; 20.1).

Bât•ei-kᵊnësët were typically very small and, by the first century C.E., numbered between 300 and 500 in Yᵊru•shâ•layim alone, including one on Har ha-Bayit (Sot. 7.7-8)!

The function of the beit ha-kᵊnësët as a center not only for tᵊphil•âh and dᵊrash, but as the all-embracing communal social center, dates from the earliest period (Ency. Jud., 15.583).

The beit ha-kᵊnësët is the proper place for Jews to "assemble" for all matters Judaic.


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כְּפָרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.12.21]

masc . n. Kᵊphâr, כפר, k'far, kephar, k'phar, kefar, kphar, kfar rural village (-ville) or town; most often seen in the combinative form: □-כְּפַר (Kᵊphar-□) and spelled K'far – e.g., Kᵊphar Na•khum (Village of Na•khum, Na•khumville; Na•khumtown; Hellenized to Capernaum) or K'far Saba (Village of Grandpa, Grandpaville, Grampatown) and the like.


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כְּפִירPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.12.20]

kᵊphir yearling lion
Kᵊphir

masc . n. kᵊphir; כפיר,kephir, k'phir, kefir, k'fir,gur,arieh,ariyeh,ariyeih a male yearling lion whose mane is first beginning to grow in – the time when a male lion is expelled from the pride to find a mate and start its own pride.

Like the גּוּר, a kᵊphir is a stage of life of an אַרְיֵה.


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כְּרוּבPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.06.12]

masc . n. kᵊruv, כרובים, keruvim, k'ruvim, cherubim plural כְּרוּבִים (kᵊruv•im) of uncertain origin and meaning; most likely refers to the early middle-eastern (Egyptian & Mesopotamian) prototype of the later Hellenist name—"sphinx." Anglicized to "cherub" and "cherubim".

Keruv Left Assyria 9th or 8th century Ivory
Kᵊruv: Assyria BCE 9th-8th century, Ivory

"Hōr-em-akht (Horus in the horizon)—Hellenized, millennia later, and misleadingly called the Great "Sphinx" (a cognate of "sphincter," meaning "strangler"). Beyond a few cosmetic similarities to Greek statues of millennia later, the Greek meaning of "strangler" has nothing to do with the much earlier ancient Egyptian statues. Hōr-em-akht originally represented Hōrus, god of the dawn, with the head of a ram (the guardian against the demons of the netherworld) on the body of a lion (the guardian of Ra). [An enterprising pharaoh, perhaps followed by successive pharaohs, resculpted the head of "The Sphinx" to depict his own face (resulting in a head disproportionately small); a pattern imitated by kings of other middle-eastern and Mesopotamian countries.]

"Two sculptures of Hōr-em-akht, back to back guarding the comings and goings of Ra, symbolized the rule of the universe. The Egyptian Hōr-em-akht statues bear a far closer resemblance to the kᵊruv•im (corrupted to “cherubim”) and sᵊrâph•im described by Yᵊkhëz•qeil (1 & 10) and Yᵊsha•yâhu (6). See also, inter alia, Ancient Mysteries, Guardian of the Ages: The Great Sphinx, A&E Television Networks and The History Channel, 1996." (The Mirrored Sphinxes, Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu Bën-Dâvid, 2007).


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כְּתִיבPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.09.14]

masc . n. kᵊtiv, כתיב, ketiv, k'tiv, cetiv, c'tiv "written" form of a word in Tōr•âh; as contrasted against the qᵊrei form.


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כְּתֻבָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.10.13]

ketubah
Kᵊtub•âh

fem. n. kᵊtub•âh כתובה, ketubah, k'tubah, ketubbah, k'tubbah a writing, specifically, a marriage contract. Plural is kᵊtub•ot.



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כְּתוּבִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. (pl.) Kᵊtuv•im כתובים, Ketuvim, K'tuvim writings (Books of Ta•na"kh other than Tor•âh shë-bikh•tâv and Nᵊviy•im)


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כֶּבֶשֹPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.07.23]

keves - sheep
Kvâs•im

masc . n. Këvës; כבשים, keves, kevasim one sheep, a sheep (sing.), כִּבְשָׂה (ki•vᵊs•âh; an ewe), כְּבָשִֹים (kvâs•im; sheep pl.). Compare & contrast with ayil, tal•ëh, eiz, tzon, and sëh.

Before there was paper money, checks, credit cards or banks, a këvës served as a donation, or payment of a court-imposed fine equal in today’s currency to approx. ₪100 or U.S. $25. (A tal•ëh was more valuable.)


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חב"דPronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.07.19]

Kha•bad; חב"ד, חב''ד, Khabad, Khab"d, Chabad, Chab"d, Habad, Hab"d popularly, Chabad—acronym for חָכְמָה (khâ•khᵊm•âh; sagacity – as in sage, wisdom), בִּינָה (bin•âh; understanding) and דַּעַת (daat; knowledge).

Thus, although חב"ד identifies with an Ultra-Orthodox view of modern Kha•sid•im (who are traditionally irrationalists), the three pillars forming the foundation of חב"ד imply their strong leaning toward a rationalist approach of Ram•ba"m to spirituality—an approach to which the Nᵊtzâr•im – Biblical (logical Orthodox), not Ultra-Orthodox – Kha•sid•im readily relate.


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חַגPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.10.04]

masc . n. Khag;חגים,khagim,khajim,hajim,chagim,chajim,khagnikim,khagniqim pl. חַגִּים (Tei•mân•i pronunciation: khaj•im; Israeli pronunciation: Khaj•im); pilgrimage(s) to Har ha-Bayit in Yᵊru•shâ•layim; eroded after 135 C.E. to mean "festival" or "feast." This is the term from which Arabic and Islam plagiarized "haj."

חַגְּנִיק (khagniq), pl. חַגִּנִיקים khag•niq•im; “Khaj-niks” (coined here, applying a modern suffix, adopted from Russian, to describe participants of the attached noun); i.e. Khag pilgrims from the Tᵊphutz•âh.

The Three Annual Khaj•im
  1. Khag ha-Matz•ōt — Firstmonth, the Khag of Pësakh and Matz•ōt/​Firstfruits of Barley harvest

  2. Khag Shâvū•ōt — the Khag of Weeks/​Firstfruits of Wheat harvest

  3. Khag ha-Sūk•ōt /​ Khag hâ-•siphSeventhmonth (not the assimilated Babylonian “New Year” of Ma•rᵊdukh), the Khag of the Huts/​Firstfruits of the Ingathering harvest


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חַגָּיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Khaj•ai; חגי, Khagai, Chagai, Haggai "My pilgrimages" tenth of the twelve minor Nᵊviy•im in Ta•na"kh, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Haggai.'


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חַסָּאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.06.15]

khasâ;khasa lettuce; historically, Lactuca sativa, var. longifolia (Romaine) lettuce.

חַסָּא has a close history with the Egyptian god, Min, as well as mâ•rōr.


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חָכָםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.07.02]

masc . n. Khâ•khâm; חכם,חכמים,חכמה,חז”ל,khakhamim,khakhemah,chachamim,hahamim,hachamim,khazal,khaz”l,chazal,chaz”l sagacious, wise, intelligent, prudent, shrewd, learned man; a Sage. Pl. חֲכָמִים (kha•khâm•im; Sages) – perhaps the origin of the early American word "cockamamie". See also leiv (heart).

fem. n. חָכְמָה (khâ•khᵊm•âh; sagacity, wisdom, intelligence, prudence, shrewdness, learning (n.); a sagacious, wise, intelligent, prudent, shrewd, learned woman).

חז’’ל (kha•zal), acronym for חֲכָמֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה


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חַיִּיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.08.25]

masc . n. (pl.) khai•yim; חיים, khaiyim, khaiim, chaim, chaiim, hayim, haim life, live, living (usually found in the collective plural, lit. "lives").

This term is often used in the phrase מַיִם חַיִּים (mayim khaiy•im; lit. "living water") to describe running or flowing—i.e. "live"—water (in a spring, brook or stream), preferred for drinking, in contrast to still or stagnant water (in a container, cistern or pool), which is unfit to drink. In the arid Middle East, where potable water is closely associated with maintaining life, mayim khaiyim also has the connotation of rejuvenating or "life-giving water."

Khaiyim is also a masculine name (for a name, the accent moves to the penultimate, in this case first, syllable).

חַיָּה (kha•yâh; ׁliving being, animal, beast; anything that would have appeared to ancients to move of its own volition – would have included an animated carving or idol, modern clock, fan, automobile, train, airplane, robot, etc.); plural חַיּוֹת (kha•yōt; living beings, animals, beasts, robots).


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חַלָּהPronunciation Table חלה,חלות,פיתה עיראקית,לאפה‎,khalah,khalot,hallah,hallot,lafah,Iraqi pitah[Updated: 2019.03.29]

khalat lekhem shemen
Click to enlargeBiblical חַלָּה—prior to 15th century CE like this unleavened, olive-oil Indian chapati. (courtesy of Aarti Sequeira; photo: foodnetwork)

fem. n. khal•âh, pl. חַלָּוֹת; routinely corrupted in English to halla or challa. By dis­tin­guish­ing khal•âh from either

  • כִכַּר or

  • רָקִיק,

חַלַּת לֶחֶם שֶׁמֶן  im­plies that khal•âh is a per­fo­ra­ted, soft, round, olive-oil & סֹלֶת-matz•âh flatbread. Approximately 1/24th of the raw סֹלֶת was commanded to be set aside as tᵊrūm•âh for the Ko•hein. (Biblical khal•ōt, therefore, is also the authentic flatbread of Khag ha-Matz•ōt.)

After the destruction of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh ha-Shein•i and the subsequent Roman destruction of yō•khas•in, "kō•han•im", having thereby been disqualified as no longer Biblically legitimate (i.e. thereafter relegated solely to ceremonial rituals), no longer qualified to eat Tᵊrūm•ōt.

As a result, the term khal•âh evolved to include the matz•âh from which Tᵊrūm•ōt had previously been apportioned to the kō•han•im, and reserved it to be eaten on Shab•ât and Khaj•im, when two khal•ōt are placed on the table (recalling the double portion of mân), over which the bᵊrâkh•âh is recited. Traditionally, they are covered until the bᵊrâkh•âh, so that learning children won't mistake which bᵊrâkh•âh belongs to the wine and which to the khal•ōt.

Until the 15th century CE, all Jews used their weekday rectangular loaves or round flatbread also for Shab•ât.

Strucla Polish poppyseed  xmas loaf (Fir0002/Flagstaffotos)
Click to enlargeAssimilated post-​15th century C.E. Strucla – Polish poppyseed Xmas loaf (Fir0002/​Flagstaffotos)

Beginning in the 15th century CE, however, Orthodox German (Ash•kᵊnazi) Jews initiated a reform, assimilating a "new form of Sabbath bread, an oval, braided loaf modeled on a popular Teutonic bread."

Over time, the Polish Strucla Xmas loaf became the most commonly used "Shabbos hallos" in the Ash•kᵊnazi Orthodox Jewish culture. This Orthodox Ash•kᵊnazi reform assimilation has subsequently spread throughout the world of Ultra-Orthodox, Orthodox and non-Orthodox Jews around the world.

The European-assimilated Ash•kᵊnazi khal•ōt should be eschewed. However, if the only kâ•sheir bread is the Ash•kᵊnazi khal•ōt then they will suffice.

חַלָּה/קוּבָנָה (khallâh/pitâ)
Click to enlargeShab•ât noon meal: Qu•bânâh (popularly corrupted "Kubaneh") with baked egg in shell.

Before coming to Israel and being assimilated into the Israeli Ultra-Orthodox reforms, the older and more pristine genera­tion of Tei•mân•im (and, there­fore, Nᵊtzâr•im), Mi•zᵊrakhim and Sᵊphâ•râd­im communities, by contrast, still served the ancient round flat bread for khal•ōt.

Among European-assimilated Jews today, khal•ōt are misunderstood to be loaves of bread baked from any kind of kâ•sheir flour (and from which the tᵊrūm•âh has been removed with the recitation of the proper bᵊrâkh•âh before forming the loaf and baking). The removed tᵊrūm•âh is properly burned.

If a khal•âh has not been baked in a kâ•sheir bakery (which could be your home if your kitchen is kâ•sheir), then it is not khal•âh; regardless what it looks like or how it is labeled or advertised.


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חָלָבPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.06.27]

masc . n. khâ•lâv; חלב, khalav,chalav,halav,kheilev dairy, milk ("Milchik" is Yiddish, a corruption of German assimilation.)

A mother’s חָלָב was also a metonym for one’s native culture (including religion; cf. Shᵊm•ōt 23.19; 34.26; Dᵊvâr•im 14.21).

masc . n.חֵלֶב — milk-like fat surrounding intestines, which was considered the tastiest or choicest—perhaps based on an ancient belief that the Creator was ethereal (as contrasted with metaphysical) and, therefore, more pleased by an ethereal (smoke) sacrifice, fueled by fat (which burns well and produces the aroma of meat on a grill).

Probably regarded by ancients as stored pre-חָלָב (pre-milk, in the mistaken belief that it would become fully-formed and dispensed as milk only by females), חֵלֶב is naturally stored around the intestines inside both sexes. Because of the obvious association with the metonymous “milk” (mother-culture) of Egyptian animal-gods, חֵלֶב was taboo for Yi•sᵊr•â•eil (rather than the ancient assumption that it be sacred and reserved exclusively for י‑‑ה and His kō•han•im).

Since י‑‑ה specifically stipulated that Yi•sᵊr•â•eil sacrifice the Egyptian animal-gods, the requirement that the metonymous “milk” be burned entirely thereby symbolized Yi•sᵊr•â•eil’s complete rejection and destruction of the entire mother-culture (“milk”) of Egyptian idolatry.


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חָמֵץPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.10.02]

חָמֵץ (khâ•meitzꞋ) – breads & pastries

masc . n. khâ•meitz חמץ,khameitz,khametz,hametz,hometz,khameits,khamets,hamets,homets (corrupted to "chomets" and "hummetz").

Ancient Israel & Biblical definition:

  1. all dough (and foods produced from it), other than מַצָּה, that is

  2. made from The Five Species.

שְׂאוֹר is a subset of חָמֵץ.

Note above that, contrary to careless popular assumptions, khâ•meitz is not leaven (which is שְׂאוֹר)! Rather, khâ•meitz is the dough that has been leavened! This makes a significant difference when noting the symbolism of Bᵊdiq•at Khâ•meitz and Bi•ūr Khâ•meitz. The search and elimination of khâ•meitz is not a search and elimination of a•veir•âh (which correlates to שְׂאוֹר) as the Dark Ages superstitious would have it; it is, rather, the search and elimination of the corresponding fermented dough, i.e. the a•veir•âh-fermented nëphësh—i.e. soul-searching and elimination of any a•veir•âh-fermentation agent in every nëphësh of the home and family.

However, modern rabbis contravening Dᵊvâr•im 13.1 (and mindless followers contravening Shᵊm•ot 23.2) have expanded the list of products to include pages of listings – from condiments to ice cream, dish-washing soap, hand soap, bath soap, kitchen cleaning products,, water softeners, lipstick, toothpaste, coffee, soft drinks… This is the inescapable, ex falso quodlibet, result of insisting on the false premise that the Sages cannot have been mis­tak­en. So the rabbis concluded that Moses erred! Roll eyes

Scripture prohibits the universal Orthodox (and Ultra-Orthodox) practice of placing offending products in a cupboard or closet that is then taped closed… The sub­se­quent, הֶתֵּר מְכִירָה – sham "sale" – at a symbolic price, to a gentile cannot override the Scriptural prohibition… more


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חֲמִישִׁיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.11.28]

Kha•mish•i; חמישי, חמש, חומש, khamishi, khameish, khumash, chamish, chumash, hamishi, hamesh, humash fifth, from חָמֵשׁ (khâ•meish; five {fem.}). (Frequently used to denote the 5th day of the week.)

masc . n. The book containing the five books of Tōr•âh is called a חֻמָּשׁ (Khu•mâsh). Intriguingly, to be armed is חֻמַּשׁ (khu•mash), to arm is חִמֵּשׁ (khi•meish), and one Biblical term for stomach is חֹמֶשׁ (kho•mësh) – food for the soul, the Bread of Life.


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חֲנֻכָּה or חנוכה Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.04.17]

Khanukiyah

fem. n. Kha•nūk•âh;חנוכה,חנוכיה,חנכיה,khanukah,khanukkah,hanukah,hanukkah,chanukah,chanukkah dedication, particularly of the Beit-ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh ha-Shein•i; popularly corrupted to Hannukah, Chanukah, etc. De-judaized (Hellenized) in the NT (Jn 10.22) to the Greek ἐγκαινια, translated in KJ/V as "feast of dedication." See the full account and details in our Calendar page link: More info/details.

fem. n. חֲנֻכִּיָּה (Kha•nūk•iyâh); originally an 8-branched (plus shâ•mash) Kha•nūk•âh oil-lamp.


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חֲנוּתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. khan•ut; חנות, khanut, hanut shop or shoppe


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חָנַןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.09.23]

khâ•nan; חן,חנן,khanan,chanan,hanan,khein,khen,chen,hen to be gracious, to issue graciousness;

masc . n. cognate חֵן (khein; graciousness); origin of Christian-perverted (idolized) "grace", tracks, via LXX, to χαρις (kharis; grace). A Ruakh khein is promised in Zᵊkhar•yâh 12.10.

masc . n. חַנּוּן (khan•ūn; gracious) adj.

See also מָחַל (mâ•khal) and סָלַח (sâ•lakh).


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חֲרֵדִיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.06.01]

Khareidim anti-Zionists (Umm Al-Fahm 2010)
Haredi(m) anti-Zionists (Umm Al-Fahm 2010)

Ultra-Orthodox (pl. חֲרֵדִים;חרדים,khareidim,charedim popularly corrupted to "Haredim"): anti-education (anti-science & anti-math), Dark Ages, Tōr•âh-violating (anti-Hi•leil Sr. "the Babylonian" & anti- Yavᵊn•ëh praisers of Sha•mai Sr.), intolerant, exclusivist, xenophobic, racist, hate-mongering cult of charlatan liar & slanderer false accusers. (In their highest religious court they falsely charged that I'm a follower of Yësh"u. NOTE: mortal Pharisee Jew Ribi Yᵊhō•shūa is NOT the Apostate Paul's Hellenist divine fairytale Yësh"u idol—and I'm not a follower of Yësh"u!!! The Israeli gov't imprimatur of these obscene Kha•reid•im ideals in "official Israeli court" Judaism is largely responsible for today's growing miso-Judaism. Israel's & Jews' security and future depends upon renouncing these cult practices of Sha•mai Sr.—denounced at Yavᵊn•ëh—and restoring Tōr•âh of Mōsh•ëh Bën-Amᵊrâm at Har Sin•ai.

Khareidi sawing off the limb he's sitting on
Click to enlargeKha•reid•i sawing off the limb he's sitting on

Here's Why Kha•reid•im Cannot Avoid Failing

Kha•reid•im pin all of their hopes and dreams on being more pious; and make no bones about claiming that they are more pious than other Jews whom they castigate as Epikoros or goy•im (and periodically even refer to Israeli police and IDF as "Nazis"!). Thus, an 8% of Israeli Jews presumes to be holier-than-thou and rule religiously over the remaining 92% of Israeli – and, therefore, world Jews.

Kha•reid•im Rabbinic Formula
  1. Get direction from a Kha•reid•i rabbi, which includes ghetto-izing from non-Kha•reid•im, belligerently refusing education in science and math (beyond basic arithmetic) and becoming more meticulous in adhering to rabbinic strictures.

  2. Result – Trouble is, no matter how pious they get, their prayers are no more powerful than Thai Buddhists praying for a children's soccer team stranded in a flooded underground cave or Christians praying for miners trapped underground in South America. Things still go wrong for Kha•reid•im just as often and severe as everyone else on the planet.

  3. So their answer is: insufficient piety, something wrong in their meticulousness to Dark Ages rabbinic fences. They lack an authentic relationship with י‑‑ה and they are not happy nor fulfilled. Go back to #1.

This ultimately impossible and unhappy cult trap inexorably leads to failure, hopelessness, depression and, eventually serious intellectual dysfunction and a break-out to leave ultra-orthodoxy (and, too often, moderate Orthodox Judaism as well) for an education and intellectual fulfillment.

Remedy

Tōr•âh requires only that you do your utmost to live according to the mi•tzᵊw•ot. Then rely on the Graciousness of י‑‑הnot relying on your piety/​meticulousness – for ki•pur as He (not some Dark Ages rabbi) has promised in Tōr•âh! His promise you can rely on; and only this will ever enable you to trust Him that you commune with Him. As for "prayer power," you're supposed to serve Him; not Him serve you!!! Ask not for Him to serve you. Ask, instead, how you can serve Him!!! Your meticulousness to cultish Dark Ages rabbinic fences can never substitute for His Graciousness promised in Tōr•âh.

The inevitable result of refusing His promise results in countering the popular rabbinic חֲזָרָה בִּתשׁוּבָה. Leaving the Kha•reid•i ghetto cult occurs either in the form of חֲזָרָה בַּשְׁאֵלָה or יְצִיאָה בַּשְׁאֵלָה or יְצִיאָה/​הַנִּקְראֵת לַשְׁאֵלָה, or becoming straight-up דַּתְלָ"שׁ.

Being the best educated in the Kha•reid•i community, even children and grandchildren of the most prominent Kha•reid•i rabbis are leaving the Kha•reid•i cult.

Historical Background

Fanatic descendants (both Ash•kᵊnazim and Sᵊphâ•râd•­im) of 1st century C.E. Hellenist Tzᵊdoq•im who were expelled by the Hellenist Romans from Judaea in 70 C.E. & 135 C.E. Being Hellenist themselves, it was only the Tzᵊdoq•im who fled to Europe – then a Hellenist-friendly part of the Roman Empire. (The Pᵊrush•im, who were the anti-​Hellenists, fled to non-Hellenist regions either in the Levant outside of Judea or outside of the Hellenist Roman Empire: Asia and Africa – and are now the Eid•ōt ha-Mi•zᵊrakh.)

ccc
Click to enlargeKha•reid•im riot against IDF, call Israeli police "Nazis", in Yᵊru•shâ•layim 2017.10.23 (AP)

Largely as a result of Dark Ages, Medieval-era – and even more recent – European persecutions having origins in the Christian Church, the mindset of these descendants of the Tzᵊdoq•im in Europe ossified into the current, archaic collection of combative, anti-science, Dark Ages mysticism and superstitions characteristic of the early Church. While their dress varies according to the individual cult of Ultra-Orthodoxy, practically all Ultra-Orthodox exhibit some elements of Medieval or pre-WW-II European clothing styles, language (Yiddish) – and science-illiterate, stunted intellect.

Khareidim throw feces at Orthodox schoolgirls, call them whores in Beit Shemesh, Israel BBC 2011.10.10
Click to enlargeBBC video 2011.10.10 – Ultra-Orthodox Kha•reid•im spit on an eight year old Orthodox elementary schoolgirl, calling her a פְּרוּצָה (whore), a זוֹנָה (slut-prostitute) and a שיקצע or שיקסע" ("a detestable – goyâh – girl" in Yiddish); according to mother, Hadassah Margolis (dossim.com/ContentPage.aspx?item=352). They also assault an Orthodox rabbi (blue shirt) for being moderate – Beit ShëmꞋ ësh, Israel video

While the outside world views the odd assortment of often peculiar black hats, black suits, and sidelocks hanging from over the ears of Haredi(m) as the archetypal "Jew," in fact, the term Haredi(m) has only relatively recently (not Biblically) been hi-jacked by this relatively small, hodge-podge collection of Ultra-Orthodox fringe extremists, who are morbidly different from legitimate – moderate and tolerant – Orthodox Jews.

Although Haredi(m) are only a tiny fraction of Israeli or world Jews, their free time, combined with their absolute zombie-like, virtually idolatrous worship of their Ultra-Orthodox rabbis, makes them highly active, vocal and visible when orchestrated by their Ultra-Orthodox Haredi(m) rabbis; generating public awareness (irritation and blowback) of their extremist ways far above the majority of Jews – who are busy at their jobs, working for a living.

Orthodox Jews, in contrast to the Ultra-Orthodox Haredi(m) fringe extremists, are moderate, and dress normally (though most wear a knitted, not-black, kip•âh) and are known as Orthodox-nationalist or "knitted kip•âh" Israeli Jews. more


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חֲרֹסֶתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2009.04.02]

fem. n. Kha•rōsët; חרוסת, kharoset, charoset, haroset see דוּכֵּה (duk•eih).


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חַשְׁמַלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.06.03]

Electrum (gold alloyed w-silver) early-BCE6th Lydian (WTurkey) coin
Kha•shᵊmal— coin made of electrum (gold alloyed with silver)

masc . n. kha•shᵊmal;חשמל,khashmal,hashmal Biblical, as opposed to modern, meaning: "shining substance, alloy of gold and silver"; i.e., electrum, probably associated with the color of a lightning bolt.

The word חַשְׁמַל, modern "electricity", wasn't used in the sense of "electricity," probably named after electrum, until the late 1800s. further info


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חַשׁמוֹנָאִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.12.24]

masc . n. (pl.) Khash•mō•nâ•im חשמונאים, Khashmonaim, Hashmonaimfrom Aramaic אוּסְמָנַיָא – The "Glistenings" – an Egyptian tribe paralleling Kush•im (Cushites: Ethiopians, who, for a time, ruled southern parts of Egypt) in Tᵊhil•im 68.32 (Hellenized & Anglicized to 'Hasmoneans').

The family surname seems to indicate Royal lineage from Shᵊlōmōh ha-Mëlëkh by the Kushite Queen of Sheba. The family is more famously known by their title: the " Ma•kab•im" (Hellenized & Anglicized to "Maccabees").


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Cartouche: i-mun-n akhenem-khat-t shepsi-t
Cartouche: birth name of Khat-shepsetHover cursor over glyphs for translation (read in 3 rows, top to bottom and as ideograms face: {i-mun-n} {akhenem-khat-t} {shepsi-t-[3 vertical strokes]} (Amun-akhenem Khat-shepset} ("Amun-born, Foremost of Noble-Overseers"); photo of her obelisk at Karnak temple.
Glyph: phonogram i/y (papyrus reed) Glyph: phonogram mn (a senat game board) Glyph: phonogram n (water ripples) Glyph: phonogram khat (lion's right forequarter; foremost) Glyph: phonogram t (a loaf of bread), probably a fem. indicator ending Glyph: phonogram akhenem (stone nekhnem [oil] pitcher; poured out, having given birth) Glyph: ideogram multiple, plural indicator (three vertical strokes), not pronounced Glyph: phonogram sheps (seated noble-blood holding flail; noble-overseer) Glyph: phonogram t (a loaf of bread), probably a fem. indicator ending

[Updated: 2012.12.17]

Khat-shepset; Hatshepsut, Khat-shepset "Foremost of Noble-Overseers" (looks like a picture, and it is, but cartouche at left is the name, in ancient Egyptian hieroglyph: "Khat-shepset" – not Arabic (post-Islam "Egyptian"), Hebrew or English letters; see caption for details).

Cartouche: Khat-shepset apotheotic name
Cartouche: apotheotic name of Khat-shepset

Maat-ka-Ra


Hover cursor over glyphs for translation(Red Chapel wall, Karnak).

more

Glyph: ideogam Ra (Egyptian supreme sun god), solar disk Glyph (S39): ideogam [not pronounced] shepherd's crook scepter (ruler indicator) Glyph: ideogam maat (order, justice, truth), seated woman with one knee up Glyph: ideogam ka (soul, psyche), bull horns or raised arms

As it is also known that Egyptian Royal families married only siblings (to keep the royal blood pure), it then becomes likely that the known paramour – i.e., eligible sibling – of Queen Khât-​shepset, the architect who built her mortuary temple on the same pattern as the future Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh would eventually be built, was named Sen-en-Mut. Interestingly, like Queen Khât-​shepset herself, Sen-en-Mut was blotted from Egyptian history by her (their?) own son and successor. Ergo, the likely name of "Moses," later Hebraized to his native culture as משֶׁה, was Egyptian Royal Pharaonic Prince Sen-en-Mut Tut-M▫s▫z, little brother of famed Egyptian Queen-Par•oh Khât-​shepset!


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חָצֵרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.02.06]

fem. n. khâ•tzeir;חצר,khatzeir courtyard.


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חֲבַקּוּקPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Kha•va•quq; חבקוק, Khavaquq, Havaquq, Habakkuk embrace; derived from חִבּוּק (khi•buq; hug or embrace), is thought to be related to Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 4:16 ("she will embrace a son"). Kha•va•quq is the eighth of the twelve minor Nᵊviy•im in Ta•na"kh (de-Judaized to Habakkuk).


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חָבֵרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Khâ•veir; חברים, khaveirim, haveirim, haverim Biblical usage: associate, fellow, comrade, member – in contradistinction from a foreigner, gentile or goy•im; plural khâ•veir•im

"Friend," by comparison, more accurately reflects יָדִיד (yâ•did), often inaccurately exaggerated to "beloved"; see Dâ•wid


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חַברוּתָאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. (Aramaic)Kha•vᵊr•utâ; חברותא, khavruta, havruta PBH company, companionship, society—yᵊshivâh slang: "learning companion." See our Kha•vᵊr•utâ "Distance Learning Companion" Syllabus by clicking the appropriate Ministry in our navigation panel at left—"Tᵊshuv•âh Center" [only for Jews recognized by Orthodox rabbis] or "Non-Jews"—where you'll find the Kha•vᵊr•utâ track geared to your perspective.

A male candidate in our Kha•vᵊr•utâ is a חַבְרָא (kha•vᵊr•â). A female candidate in our Kha•vᵊr•utâ is a חֲבֶרְתָּא (kha•vë•rᵊ•tâ). Candidates (plural) in our Kha•vᵊr•utâ are חַבְרַיָּיא (kha•vᵊr•a•yâ).


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חֲבוּרָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.02.12]

fem. n. kha•vur•âh, חבורה, khavurah, havurah pl. kha•vur•ot; PBH company, party, association; a band or small group of people. Colloquially, a small religious fellowship, generally focused on tᵊphil•âh and Tōr•âh study.


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חַוָּ֑הPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.07.29]

fem. n. Khau•âh; חווה,Khawah,Khauah,Khavah possibly originally חַיָה; copyists somewhere along the line may have confused the י with a ו. Later Hellenized, then Anglicized to "Eve."


Mitochondrial Eve, ca. BCE 125,000 (bradshawfoundation.com)
Every Human's MomMitochondrial Eve – by Prof. Stephen Oppenheimer, Inst. of Human Sciences, Oxford Univ.

Mother of all humans lived 200,000 years ago Rice [Univ.] statisticians confirm date of 'mitochondrial Eve' with new method

HOUSTON – (Aug. 17, 2010) – The most robust statistical examination to date of our species' genetic links to "mitochondrial Eve" – the maternal ancestor of all living humans – confirms that she lived about 200,000 years ago. The Rice University study was based on a side-by-side comparison of 10 human genetic models that each aim to determine when Eve lived using a very different set of assumptions about the way humans migrated, expanded and spread across Earth.

The research is available online in the journal Theoretical Population Biology. more

See also Ä•dâm


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חֵרֶםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.07.04]

masc . n. Kheirëm; חרם, kheirem, kherem, a segregation due to an individual devoting himself or herself for special service to a deity (including an idol), devoting an animal (which must be kâ•sheir to comply with Tōr•âh) for qor•bân, or a declaration of exclusionary segregation for—or from—such service or deity (i.e., shunning, banning, boycotting, embargoing). The modern term, "harem," derives from this term.

See also kâ•reit.


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חֵשֶׁב (הָאֵפוֹד)Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.03.18]

Kheishëv-□חשב,kheishev—incomprehensibly marvelous diviner of… (compound form of the pi•eil verbal noun derived from חָשַׁב).

Kheishëv-□ is found only 8x in Ta•na"kh, where it is reserv­ed exclusively for the buckling system that belted the bottom of the Khōshën Mi•shᵊpât (holder-pouch, in which the marvelous divining Ūr•im wᵊ-Tūm•im was secured) to the Ei•phōd; in other words, the Marvelous Divining Buckle [of the Ei•phōd]—world's only Divining belt-buckle!

Interestingly, MH: for "computer" is a close cognate, מַחְשֵׁב (ma•khᵊsheiv).


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חֵטאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.03.23]

masc . n. kheit,חטא,חטאים,חטאה,חטאת,חוטא,kheit,cheit,khet,chet,khotei an unintentional misstep, misdemeanor, mess-up or petty transgression against Tōr•âh (pl. חֲטָאִים.); derived from the pi•eil חִטֵּא; in turn derived from the shōrësh חָטָא.more


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חֶלֶףPronunciation TableΚλωπᾶς [Updated: 2011.04.04]

masc . n. Khëlëph; חלף, kheleph, khelef, heleph, helef Hellenized to Κλωπᾶς ("Klopas"; then Anglicized to "Clopas").

Greek names mixed with Hebrew names of the ossuary inscriptions in the Talpiot Tomb and Har ha-Zeit•im ossuary complexes demonstrate that, particularly consequent to the crucifixion of Ribi Yᵊho•shua, the Nᵊtzâr•im′ , Yᵊhud•im′ —and even the family—were forced to lower their profile, under the radar of both their Hellenist Roman occupiers and Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im informers, downplaying their royal Davidic lineage, concealing their identity as Nᵊtzâr•im′  and even becoming known publicly by Greek names.


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חֵפֶץPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.07.13]

Kheiphëtz;חפץ,kheiphetz,khephetz BH: ambition (i.e. desire, wish. drive) to succeed materialistically, for worldly (physical) fortune and fame; the essential element distinguishing mᵊlâkh•âh, prohibited on Sha•bât, from other strenuous effort or work permitted on Sha•bât.

As is generally the case involving two or more enigmatically different meanings, the Biblical meaning of this term is the intersection of the two modern meanings (which are based on traditional—susceptible to the same foibles as today—translations of ancient texts: 1. material, worldly physical things; i.e. an object or article. 2. a desire, want or wish (for, and in pursuit of, #1).


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חֶסֶדPronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.08.17]

masc . n. khësëd; חסד, חסידים, khesed, khasidim, hasidim, hesed(loving)kindness. One who practices khësëd is a חָסִיד (Khâ•sid; one who is lovingkind), pl. חֲסִידִים (Kha•sid•im, Hellenized to "hasidim" and even "chasidim").

Modern "Hasidim," which Sheim-Tov began in the 18th century C.E., was apparently an attempt to imbue the iy-ra•tzᵊyon•âlim (popular during the lifetime of Ram•ba"m and led ultimately to the 13th century mysticism of Qa•bâl•âh) with the authenticity, reputation and imprimatur of the ancient Kha•sid•im, who are documented at least as early as the time of Dâ•wid ha-lëkh (click "further info" icon for documentation). Thus, today's Kha•sid•im, primarily represented by חב"ד, are iy-ra•tzᵊyon•âlim—opposite to both Ram•ba"m and the ancient Kha•sid•imfurther info


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(חֶבְרֶה) חבר'הPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.02.12]

masc . n. (pl.) Khëvᵊr•ëh, חבר'ה, khevreh, hevreh (military) Company!, (slang) Guys!


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חֶברוֹןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Khë•vᵊr•ōn, חברון, Khevron see suffix -ōn; Hellenized to "Hebron."


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חִלָּזוֹןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.04.02]

Khilazon - Murex trunculus (encyclopedie-universelle.com)
Khilazon – Murex trunculus (encyclopedie-universelle.com)

masc . n. Khi•lâz•on,חלזון,חילזון,khilazon,hilazon snail, slug, gastropod—technically excluding the cuttlefish (which is a cephalopod) argued by one of the two contemporary rabbinic schools; the Talmudically-defined source of tᵊkheilët dye. In Talmudic times, however, perhaps it referred to all mollusks. (See the Tei•mân•i Judaica Shoppe, in the Mall.)

More specifically חֶלזוֹן-הָאַרגָמָן (khël•zon hâ-ar•gâ•mân; Murex trunculus, lit. purple [dye] snail).



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חִלְבָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.05.22]

Tei•mân•i condiment made from חִלְבָּה (khilbâh)חילבה,khilbah,khilbeh,hilbah,hilbe

khilbe
חִלְבָּה
Recipe (refine to taste):
  • 2 Tsp חִלְבָּה

  • 1 tsp green or red – usually green – skhug (to make green or red חִלְבָּה)

  • 2 cloves pressed garlic

  • Purée of 1 fresh ripe tomato

  • Salt to taste

Check seeds properly, then grind to a very fine powder. Add boiling water to ground חִלְבָּה and cover; let it sit until thickened, at least for 3 hours. Drain well. Then beat with a wire whisk

To conserve the חִלְבָּה for a few days, warm it over fire, stirring continuously, bring to a boil, remove scum and cool.

Add salt, garlic, grated tomato purée, either red or green skhug and mix well. For green חִלְבָּה, use green skhug and leave out the tomato purée.


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חִלּוּל הַשֵּׁםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.09.15]

khi•lul ha-Sheim; חילול השם, khilul haSheim, hilul hashem, chilul hashem treating the Name as ordinary or routine (i.e., failing to accord proper sanctity to the Name), profaning the Name, secularizing the Name, any "diminution" of the Name; the antonym of Qi•dush ha-Sheim.

Note that this encompasses immensely more than the narrow concept of "defamation." One can be guilty of khi•lul ha-Sheim without ever "defaming" or "blaspheming" the Name, merely by falling short of performing Qi•dush ha-Sheim—thereby "diminishing" His kâ•vod. Ha•lâkh•âh considers any consciously rebellious act against ha-Sheim as khi•lul ha-Sheim (Maim. Yad, Yᵊsodei ha-Torâh 5.10).

These counter-balancing pillars, khi•lul ha-Sheim and, lᵊ-hav•dil, Qi•dush ha-Sheim, constitute one of the most significant concepts in Tōr•âh, based on wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 22.31-32. See also Qi•dush ha-Sheim.


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חֹדֶשׁPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.08.20]

moon data

masc . n. khōdësh, חודש, khodesh, chodesh, hodesh m.n. lunar-month (modern Hebrew evolved to also refer, alternately, to the solar month on secular calendars); pl. חֳדָשִׁים (khâ•dâsh•im). Typically spelled חוֹדשׁ to distinguish it from the adj. חָדָשׁ (khâ•dâsh; new).

"Moon," specifically, in Hebrew, is יָרֵחַ (yâ•reiakh) and is often referred to by its feminine metonym לְבָנָה (lᵊvân•âh; a white object).

The first day of the new lunar month is רֹאשׁ (the head or top of) חֹדֶשׁ

The Biblical names of months are simply Firstmonth through Twelfthmonth. These became assimilated by Babylonian Jews, who assimilated the Babylonian names (Ni•sân, …) so thoroughly that even the earliest extant texts of Ta•na"kh include the Babylonian names to ensure clarity in important dates. more

However, this was not an authorization to assimilate the Babylonian names. This is only one of a number of assimilations through the millennia that need to be restored. more


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חֹלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.09.05]

masc . n. khōl; pl. (Aramaic) חֻלִּין (khul•in); חול,חולין,חלל,khol,hol,khulin,hulin hollow, void, empty, nothing; thus, ordinary, unremarkable, mundane, commonplace, regular, routine—i.e. profane

חֹל derives from the verb shōrësh חָלָל, which takes 4 senses from a common etymological theme:

  1. a hollow or empty—i.e. profane—priest (illegitimate or defrocked) void of priestly holiness;

  2. a person who was stabbed or slain (profaned)—hollowed, emptied or void of sacred blood/​soul;

  3. PBH hollow, empty cavity, void, space; and

  4. NH: flutist (player of hollowed wood).


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חֹק / חוֹקPronunciation TableHear it! [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. khōq; pl. חֻקִּים and connective pl. חֻקֵּי, חוקים, חוקה, khoq, khuqim, khuqah from verbal shōrësh חָקַק; BH: legislated law of the Beit Din as "engraved in stone" (in contrast with Biblical case law mi•shᵊpât of the Beit Din).

חֻקָּה, and pl. חֻקָּוֹת, are passive verb forms.

Anomalously, Hebrew conveys more precisely than English the sense of legal and lawful v illegal and unlawful, which, in reality, is relative to legislated-law: חֻקִּי v בִּלְתִּי חֻקִּי 

A legislative body or parliament is a beit ha-מְחוֹקְקִים, overseeing חֲקִיקָה (making the חֻקִּים) – but the parliament in Israel is the Kᵊnësët – yet a beit kᵊnësët is where Orthodox Jews assemble to pray. What can ya do?

In MH, חֻקָּה means "constitution." In BH, there was no appreciable distinction between the masc. and fem. forms of these nouns.


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חֹרֵבPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Khōreiv; חורב, Khoreiv, Khorev, Horeb desolation. הַר חֹרֵב (Har Khoreiv; Mount Desolation, Desolation Mountain).

The location and identity of this mountain, like the location and identity of Har Sin•ai itself, are uncertain – but close to each other. In early Hebrew, the names could easily have become corrupted either to הר חרוז (Har Khar•oz; ≈4km [≈2½ mi] NE of Har Kar•kom) or to הר חדר (Har Khad•ar; ≈27km [≈17 mi] NE of Har Kar•kom).

Because of its proximity to the neighboring Har Kar•kom (the probable modern identity of Har Sin•ai), it was a metonym for Har Sin•ai; Hellenized and de-Judaized to "Mt. Horeb."


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חֹשֶׁן מִשׁפָּטPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.03.18]

masc . n. Khōshën Mi•shᵊpât, חושן משפט,חשן משפט, khoshen mishpatthe chest pouch of embroidered with gold thread, tᵊkheilët, royal-purple and crimson brocaded on interwoven fine-textured linen—in which 12 jewels, engraved with the names of the Twelve Tribes, were fixed in gold settings..

The Khōshën Mi•shᵊpât was belted to the chest of the Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl by means of threading the Avᵊneit through the gold rings at the bottom of the Khōshën Mi•shᵊpât; simultaneously incorporating the Khōshën Mi•shᵊpât, its interior pouch housing the Ūr•im wᵊ-Tūm•im, as an integral part of the חֵשֶׁב הָאֵפוֹד—the Marvelous Divining-Buckle of the Ei•phōd

In the pouch sewn underneath this gold frame, the אוּרִים וְתֻמִּים were kept – closest to the heart. The חֹשֶׁן מִשׁפָּט was fastened to the אֵפוֹד, which was similarly woven from threads of gold, tᵊkheilët, purple and scarlet.

חֹשֶׁן is called "breastplate" (or "chest piece") only because the original meaning has been lost and it was the thing tied over the chest. There is no likely etymology connecting חֹשֶׁן to the chest, "breastplate" or any of its synonyms. It more likely derives, via חוׂשׁ, from חֲשָׁשׁ and cognate חַשְׁשָׁן. Thus, חֹשֶׁן more likely alludes to the overwhelming gravity/​gravitas, apprehension and cautious deliberation due in weighing matters of mi•shᵊpât or deferring to the last resort: committing the outcome to the אוּרִים וְתֻמִּים within (its pouch).

בָּרֶקֶת (baREQet=malachite, green tourmaline or emerald): לֵוִי (LeiWIY) פִּטְדָה (pit'DAH=citrine topaz): שִׁמְעוֹן (ShimON) אֹדֶם (ODem=carnelian-sard): רְאוּבֵן (R'uVEIN) Right: אֹדֶם, Targum: סָמְקָן – ‭ ‬ Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Nun, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Beit, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Waw, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Aleph, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Resh, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
Center: פִּטְדָה, Targum: יָרְקָן – ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Nun, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Waw, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Ayin, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Mem, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Shin, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
Left: בָּרֶקֶת, Targum: בָּרְקָן – ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Yod, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Waw, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Lamed, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
יַהֲלוֹם  (yahaLOM=rock crystal or white sapphire): נַפְתָּלִי (NaphtaLIY) סַפִּיר (saPIR=lapis lazuli): דָּן (Dan) נֹפֶךְ (NOphekh=garnet): יְהוּדָה (YeHUDah) Right: נֹפֶךְ, Targum: אִזְמַרַגְדִּין – ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Hei, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Dalet, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Waw, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Hei, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Yod, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
Center: סַפִּיר, Targum: שַׁבְזֵיז – ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Nun, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Dalet, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
Left: יַהֲלוֹם , Targum: סַבְהֲלוֹם – ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Yod, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Lamed, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Tau, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Pei, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Nun, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
אַחְלָמָה (akhLAMah=amethyst): יִשָּׂשכַר (YissaKHAR) שְׁבוֹ (sh'vo=agate): אָשֵׁר (AWsheir) לֶשֶׁם (LESHem=opal): גָּד (Gawd) Right: לֶשֶׁם, Targum: קַנְכֵּירִי – ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Dalet, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Gimel, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
Center: שְׁבוֹ, Targum: טְרַקְיָא – ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Resh, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Shin, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Aleph, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
Left: אַחְלָמָה, Targum: עֵין עִגְלָא – ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Resh, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Kaph, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Shin, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Shin, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Yod, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
יָשְׁפֵה (yashPEIH=aquamarine): בִּנְיָמִין (BinyaMIN) שֹׁהַם (SHOham=sardonyx): יוֹסֵף (YoSEIPH) תַּרְשִׁישׁ (tarSHISH=peridot): זְבֻלוּן (Z'vuLUN) Right: תַּרְשִׁישׁ, Targum: כְּרוּם יַמָּא – ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Nun, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Waw, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Lamed, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Beit, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Zayin, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
Center: שֹׁהַם, Targum: בֻּרְלָא – ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Pei, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Samekh, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Waw, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Yod, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
Left: יָשְׁפֵה , Targum: פַּנְתֵּירִי – ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Nun, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Yod, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Mem, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Yod, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Nun, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Beit, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David

Ancient Hebrew fonts courtesy of Ancient Hebrew Research Center

Unlike non-Jewish attempts (typically ignorant of ancient Judaism, Aramaic, Hebrew or even Greek) and rabbinic interpretations (suffering from tunnel-visioned exclusion of any information outside of Ta•lᵊmud), this table also incorporates my research comparing translations of Ta•na"kh Hebrew later Hellenized into Greek, primarily Josephus and LXXmore


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חוּמוּסPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.03.30]

Khumus
Khumus

masc . n. (Arabic) Khūmus חומוס, khumus, humus(KHOOmoos) . Basic recipe (refine over time):

  • 2 cups canned chick-peas

  • drained juice of 2 lemons

  • 1 tsp. salt

  • 1/4 tsp. cumin

  • 3 tbs. pure tekhina paste or 1 cup tekhina (raw sesame seeds)

  • 2 garlic cloves, mashed (more if desired)

  • 2-3 tbs. Israeli extra-virgin olive oil

  • parsley (for garnish, if desired)


Place all the ingredients in a food processor or blender, mix until chick-peas are smooth. Refrigerate khumus in a covered container. Serve well-chilled on a saucer or cake plate. Rather than make a depression in middle like in the photo, most homes and restaurants simply splash extra-virgin Israeli olive oil on top, leaving scattered little puddles of olive oil on top. (That also minimizes too much olive oil in some servings and not enough in other servings.) Best sprinkled with pine nuts. Optional: lightly stir in green skhug (leaving green streaks in khumus; it's hot, don't use too much) or sprinkle chopped parsley on top. Make a meat sandwich by spreading khumus liberally, insert desired kâ•sheir meat, then stuff with shredded cabbage or tossed salad; or just khumus and stuff with shredded cabbage or tossed salad—and, in any case, top with Salat Turki.


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חֻפָּה or חוּפָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.11.07]

My friend's wedding khupah and Rav Qapakh
Click to enlargeFriend's wedding Khūp•âh, officiated by Ravpakh (1998)

fem. n. Khūp•âh;חופה,חפה,khupah,huppah BH: a protective or concealing cover; MH: a wedding "concealing ceiling" (a baldachin representing the bridal chamber); canopy of a parachute.

Yael's Wedding 2012
Wedding – Khūp•âh, Tzᵊvi & Yâ•eil (2012)

The wedding khūp•âh symbolizes the new home being created by the bride & groom.

While ni•sū•in is conducted within the symbolic new home (i.e. the khūp•âh), the preceding ei•rūs•in is traditionally enacted in a public – field – venue, reminiscent of the ancient community wells (bᵊ-Reish•it 24 & 29).


el-Arish date palms nedomex, Flickr
Click to enlargeDate palms at el-Ar•ish (Arabic: "the date-palm huts"; nedomex, Flickr)

Intersecting with the meaning of canopy, רְפִיד, with its pl. place-name רְפִידִים, refers to a properly covered made-bed, spread-bed or dressed-bed – reminiscent of the upholstered baldachin of an ancient sedan-chair. (MH: upholstering, covering).

The placename, רְפִידִים, on the northeastern coast of the Sin•ai, probably likens the frond-canopy of a date-palm grove to the baldachins draped over ancient sedan-chairs.

As an "island boy" tween in the '50s who lived in a coconut grove on a sandy beach on the Atlantic in Islamorada on the Florida keys, I can easily relate to strolling through this date palm grove, surrounded by the trunks of date palms like upright frameworks of giant sedan-chairs, shaded by their frond-רְפִידִים overhead.

רְפִידִים was located on northeastern coast of Sin•ai within the corridor of the annual spring (northerly) & autumn (southerly) quail migrations across the Mediterranean Sea to and from Europe; i.e. probably modern el-Arish.


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חֹטֶר (also חוֹטֶר)Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.07.09]

khoter
חֹטֶר

masc . n. khōtër; חוטר, khoter, hoter a budding new branch sprouting from the trunk.

Contrast חֹטֶר, often translated as "a shoot," against נֵצֶר, which is also often translated as "a shoot." As is often the case, clarity is found only in the original Hebrew.


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חֻצְפָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.10.25]

fem. n. Khū•tzᵊp•âh; חוצפה, khutzpah, hutzpah effrontery; brazen arrogant presumptuousness.


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כִּפָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.10.15]

kipot
Modern kip•ōt
Mood & Color-Coordinate Your Outfits

fem. n. kip•âh, arch, dome covering, pl. כִּיפּוֹת‎ or כִּפּוֹת (kip•ōt); viz., the modern (usually knitted) beanie cap, which seems to have evolved from the Biblical-era dome-shaped, scalp-protection undercap padding (not "skullcap") worn under the folded-scarf mi•gᵊba•at or mi•tzᵊnëphët to minimize chafing from the tō•tëphët, which held the mi•gᵊba•at headdress of the ko•han•im or mi•tzᵊnëphët headdress of the Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol in place on the head, and from simply blowing off one's head in the wind.כיפה, כיפות, kipah, kipot


Ancient Hebrew Non-Priests: Headdress Or Bareheaded?

The Romans destroyed the genealogical yo•khas•in and Ta•lᵊmud declares (Ma•sëkët Qi•dush•in 70b) that genealogical records, once lost, are forever lost. Today's ko•han•im are recognized as strictly ceremonial, having no legitimate genealogical claim to the priesthood. Thus, strictures of headdress for priests are irrelevant for today's Jews.more


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כִּפֵּרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.05.07]

Ki•peirכיפר,כיפור,כפורת,כפרת,kaporet,caporet,kipeir,kipur,kippur,kaparah,kaporet (trans. v.) —

  • Literal — To "Wipe-on" or "smear-over", especially applying pitch, tar or asphalt to weatherproof an object, then smoothing, by "Wiping-off," "Sopping-up" or "Blotting-up", to produce a finished surface.

  • Metaphoric — To "Wipe-on" or "smear-over", applying a Tōr•âh-prescribed, transgression-covering agent (e.g., blood of the sacrifice evidencing payment of the Tōr•âh (court) -imposed fine/​penalty, spattered on the appointed non-anthropomorphic mi•zᵊbeiakh (and annually on Yōm ha-Ki•pūr•im to "transgress-proof" the penitent from the Tōr•âh-defined offense, then smoothing by "Wiping-off," "Sopping-up" or "Blotting-up" to produce a finished surface.

The Encyclopedia Judaica acknowledged that the customary rendering of כִּפֵּר as "to atone for", or even "to expiate", is misleadingly inaccurate — and the "dumbing down" in translation often produces an a•vōd•âh zâr•âh. Insist on exclusive explanation & use of the Hebrew terms.


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כִּסֵּא/​כֵּסPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.06.03]

  • masc . n. כִּסֵּא (ki•sei); plural כִּסְאוֹת (ki•sᵊōt) – כסא,kisei,keis chair or seat; especially "bench" in the sense of the "bench" of a Beit-Din, judge or other court. The meaning of throne was originally exclusively in the sense of a kritarchy ("bench"); only later evolving to a king's throne.

  • masc . n. כֵּס (keis; same meaning as above; a hapax legomenon in Ta•na"kh (Shᵊm•ōt 17.16); probably a sing. combinative form.


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כִּתִּיִּים or כִּתִּיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.08.02]

masc . n. (pl.) Kit•im; כתיים, Kitim, Kittim identified with the indigenous inhabitants of the Greek-Aegean islands. Kit•im, a great-grandson of akh, was the son of the patriarch of the Greeks: יָוָן (bᵊ-Reish•it 10.4), Greek Ἴωνες, who was the ultimate origin of the religious-culture that would later, following the widespread forcible export of יָוָן / Ἴωνες culture by Alexander (B.C.E. 356-323), become known as ἙλλάςHellenism. Though Scripture associates כִּתִּים with several entities, the one distinguishing theme every instance shares is Hellenism.more


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כִּיּוֹרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.02.04]

masc . n. ki•yōr;כיור,kiyor basin, sink.


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KJ/V [Updated: 2012.08.26]

The King James [per]Version (NT) was published 1611 C.E. (ridiculously recent) under the rule of a misojudaic King James of England—in which Jews had been banned for more than three centuries (since 1290 C.E.; a lot these misojudaic English gentiles knew about Jewish Scripture…some "authorities"!)—from which, outrageously, the later Elzevir Textus Receptus of 1624 C.E. (not a typo! look at the anachronism!) was translated into Greek.

Perversely, most Christians think that the Textus Receptus is the Greek source text of their NT! Although one Christian door-to-door pentecostal responded to this news, before walking off in a huff, eliminated any Hebrew or Greek sources altogether by declaring "If the KJV was good enough for Paul, it's good enough for me!" rofl (rolling on the floor laughing)

This KJ/V 1611 C.E. Greek source text KJ/V created a closed, circular, misojudaic text-source, preserving the intrinsic Hellenist (antinomian / misojudaic) nature, which is intractably incompatible with the Ta•na"kh and from which all subsequent Christian versions emanate. For its veracity and relevance, see NT).


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Klein, Ernest [Updated: 2012.08.26]

Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language For Readers of English (Ernest Klein)
Klein's (Etymological Dictionary)
(1899-1983), Rabbi (Czechoslovakia) Ph.D. (Univ. of Vienna) Semitic languages and literature. Also a survivor of both Auschwitz and Dachau, after which, he moved to Canada and spent 20 years studying the history of the English language.

A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language For Readers of English (Jerusalem: Carta, Haifa: Univ. of Haifa, 1987.


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כֹּהֵןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.05.16]

masc . n. (pl.) Ko•hein, pl. כֹּהֲנִים (Ko•han•im; כוהן, כהנים, kohein, kohenim priests genealogically descended from A•har•on, and later Tzâ•doq. (cf. Yᵊkhëz•qeil 44.15), able to prove their genealogy from the ancient yo•khas•in public registers (Nᵊkhëm•yâh 7.63)—which were destroyed by the Romans!!!

הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל was the High (lit. "big") Priest.

Cognate: כְּהֻנָּה (kᵊhun•âh; priesthood). more info


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כּוֹלֵלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.10.26]

masc . n. ko•leil; כולל, koleil, kollel full-time yᵊshiv•âh (advanced study of the Ta•lᵊmud and rabbinic literature) for married students, for which students receive an exemption from serving in the IDF as well as a stipend from the Israeli government instead of working.


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Kurush (Persian cuneiform by Ebraminio @ persian.ir)
Kurush (Persian cunei­form; Ebraminio @ persian.ir)

כֹּרֶשׁPronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.06.13]


masc . n. rësh; כורש, Koresh from Persian (modern Iran) Kurush (Jr., "the Great"); Persian king who conquered Babylon ca BCE 538, permitted Jews who wished to return to Israel to do so and authorized rebuilding the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh.


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כּוּשִׁיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.02.07]

Kūsh•i, fem. Kūsh•it, pl. Kūsh•im; כטשית, KushiAfrican – including Egypt(ian), in contrast to nomads of the Sin•ai and Levant.


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כֹּתֶלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

1995 Kotel, Paqid Yirmeyahu
Pâ•qid Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu at the כֹּתֶל ‭ ‬ (1985).Click to enlarge

masc . n. tël; כותל, Kotel wall, usually refers to the 'Western Wall'. (Though more than a few Jews ignorantly use the phrase, 'Wailing Wall' is offensive to knowledgeable Jews.)


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כֻּתֹּֽנֶתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.02.08]

fem. n. kū•tōnët (pl. כֻּתֳּנֹת);כתנת,כתונת,kutonet kaftan, tunic of linen; nightshirt or nightgown; derived from כֻּתְנָה (kū•tᵊn•âh, linen; MH: cotton — origin of associating cotton with underwear).


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לְהִתרָאוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.08.10]

Lᵊhit•râ•ōt; להתראות, lehitraot, l'hitraot see you later (lit. "to seeings").


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לְPronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.11.27]

lᵊ- prefix; lit. "{toward, to, for}…"

Contraction of לְ and ה (ha-, the); form depending on subsequent letter:

  • לַla- prefix; lit. "{toward, to, for} the…"
  • לָ- prefix; lit. "{toward, to, for} the…"

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לֵאָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.10.25]

fem. n. Leiâh; לאה, Leiah, Leah weary, short-tempered.


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לֵב \ לֵבָבPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.02.25]

masc . n. Leiv/leiv•âv לב, leiv, lev heart (the second form is formal or poetic); understood by the sō•phᵊr•im of Ta•na"kh to be the seat of thought and decision-making—i.e. sapience, reasoning, logic, intelligence; which forms one’s intellectual orientation, the conscience and nëphësh; i.e. the will and resulting personality, character, integrity and moral values—characteristics we ascribe today to the brain—certainly not the modern romantic connotation.

Remnants of this surface centuries later. "In his treatise On the Usefulness of the Parts of the Body, written in the second century [C.E.], Galen reaffirmed common ideas about the heart… as the organ most closely related to the [nëphësh]… He argued that the expansion and contraction of the heart was a function of its role as an intelligent organ: "The complexity of [the heart's] fibers… was prepared by Nature to perform a variety of functions… enlarging when it desires to attract what is useful, clasping its contents when it is time to enjoy what has been attracted, and contracting when it desires to expel residues."

Thus, חָכָם לֵב is to be understood as excelling in sapience, reasoning, logic and intelligence; i.e. perspicacious, astute. This was especially applied to a top expert artisan or craftsman in a given field of expertise.


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לֵוִיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Lei•wi, לוויים, Leiwi, Leiviy, Lewiyim, L'wiyim, Levipl. לְוִיִּים (Lᵊwiy•im; escorts, ushers, accompaniers), (Hellenized to 'Levi' and 'Levites'). 3rd son of Ya•a•qov (mother: Leiâh).


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לֶ֣חֶםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.12.26]
Pitah Iraqit (haShipudia)
Ërëv Shab•ât: Pitâh I•raq•it/​Lâfah (photo: ha-Shi•pudi•a Restaurant, Yᵊru•shâ•layim)

masc . n. Lëkhëm; בית לחם, Beit Lekhem, Bet Lekhem bread.

In the time of Av•râ•hâm, long before Har Sin•ai, leavened (yeast-risen fluffy) bread referred to something very similar to the qu•bân•âh of the Tei•mân•im.

חַלָּה/קוּבָנָה (khallâh/pitâ)
Shab•ât noon: Qu•bânâh (popularly corrupted "Kubaneh"; i.e., Khal•âh Tei•mân•it), with baked egg in shell.

Until the 15th century, all Jews used their weekday rectangular loaves or round loaves for Shab•ât. Eventually, however, German (Ash•kᵊnazi) Jews began assimilating a "new form of Sabbath bread, an oval, braided loaf modeled on [i.e. assimilated from] a popular Teutonic bread."

מַצּ֖וֹת לֶ֣חֶם עֹ֑נִי (Dᵊvâr•im 16.3): an unleavened-flatbread of response—barley being the spring crop variety of unleavened-flatbread in the panicked fleeing response of the Yᵊtzi•âh bug-out.

לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים (Lëkhëm ha-Pân•im; Bread of the Inner [Sanctum]). הַפָּנִים can mean either "the face(s)" or "the interior/​inner". The popular stretch, from "Face Bread" to "Display Bread" is logically indefensible and without credible precedent or support. The correct understanding is "Bread of the Inner Sanctum." The Israeli מִשְׂרַד הַפְּנִים (Mis•rad ha-Pᵊn•im) is the Office (i.e., Ministry) of the Interior—not the Office of the Face (or Display Office). One should keep in mind that the difference in vowels is a product of the 9th-10th centuries C.E. and represents evolution in the language rather than indicating any particular difference in meaning.

בֵּית-לֶחֶם (Beit-Lëkhëm; House of Bread, the bread house), Hellenized to today's Arab-occupied "Bethlehem."

See also khal•âh.


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לְחִי-חֲמוֹרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.10.30]

Egyptian khophesh Tel Apheq
Click to enlargeBronze Age Lᵊkhi-Kha•mōr (”Jawbone Of An Ass”) Sword

Lᵊkhi-Kha•mōrלחי-חמור,lekhi-khamor teriyah (“Jawbone of An Ass”) — originally a Kᵊna•an•i sword; hence, perhaps the original name. The Egyptians, who adopted the sword, called it the “Khopesh” (”foreleg”). more

Jawbone of an ass
Jawbone of an ass; either side resembling a weapon.

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לְשׁוֹן הָרָעPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.08.22]

fem. n. Lᵊshōn hâ-Râ; לשון הרע,leshon hara,l'shon hara unnecessary and wrongful – i.e. harmful – communication; including defamation (e.g., slander, libel, passive defamation of character) and gossip; lit. "the Wrongful Tongue/​Language".

"Death and life are in the hand [i.e. power] of the lᵊshōn" (Mi•shᵊl•ei Shᵊlōmōh 18.21). Lᵊshōn hâ-râ is regarded so serious in Tōr•âh that it has historically been equated to murder, incest and idolatry; the three only cardinal transgressions of Tōr•âh not overridden by pi•quakh nëphësh! (I.e. one must choose to die rather than commit any of these three cardinal transgressions of Tōr•âh.) Murder of a person's reputation equates to murder of that person, the penalty for which was capital punishment by stoning! (Ma•sëkët Arâkh•in 15b)

This historic correlation of lᵊshōn hâ-râ with murder derives directly from Tōr•âhShᵊm•ōt 23.7: "Distance yourself from baseless-chatter — don't kill anyone with clean hands or who is a tza•diq; for neither will I exonerate-as-a-tza•diq anyone who is a rësha!"

Lᵊshōn hâ-râ also includes unnecessary and harmful communication even when it's true; e.g., divulging confidential information (financial, etc.) detrimental to the victim; e.g., the "bottom line" buying or selling price of an item leaked to victim's competitor (see Ta•lᵊmud Bâ•vᵊl•i, Ma•sëkët Yom•â 4b). However, the notion that because some true communications are lᵊshōn hâ-râ excludes defamatory lies from the definition — making it ok to to defame someone as long as it's a lie — is non sequitur and does extreme perversion to the words of the Sages (Ram•ba"m, Mi•shᵊn•eih Tor•âh, Hi•lᵊkh•ōt Dei•ōt 7.4).

See also the more serious transgression of publishing or broadcasting defamation—mō•tzi sheim ra.


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לְצַדPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.03.13]

lᵊtzad;לצד,letzad,peers,beside to the side or flank; i.e. beside, as a peer beside.

In Dân•iy•eil's prophecy of the 11th qërën (popularly the 666 "antichrist"), this is the key word in the original language (Aramaic Dân•iy•eil 7.25): וּמִלִּין לְצַד עליא [עִלָּאָה] יְמַלִּל—(and he shall absolutely proclaim proclamations as a peer beside the Most-High). See also Hō•sheia 13.4 & Yᵊsha•yâhu 45.21-22.

Logical/​scientific interpretations of Scripture (Ha•lâkh•âh) is unavoidable and complementary to Scripture. Rabbinic or other adding to (or, even worse, contradicting) Scripture transgresses an explicit mi•tzᵊwâh ! Those who pō•seiq Dark Ages rabbinic or Christian, or even later and further removed Muslim, additions or contradictions of Scripture blaspheme; vaunting themselves to be peer spokespersons of י‑‑ה.

A millennium after Dân•iy•eil, the earliest extant Christian Church historian, Eusëbios, recorded all ten of these original "beams of the beast"; i.e. the first 10 gentile/​Christian Church episkopos who "changed the times and the religion", from the original and first gentile/​Christian episkopos: Marcus, in 135 C.E. For further details, see my 1990 book, which later proved accurate: The 1993 Covenant Live-Link 


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לִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִיתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.04.04]

Lishkat ha-Gazit (red dot)
Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh – Sanhedrin (red dot)

fem. n. Lish•kat ha-Gâ•zit (connective form of לִשְׁכָּה); לשכת הגזית, lishkat hagazit the Chamber of Dressed Stone, located on the upper level of the portico in the southeastern corner of the Ëz•rat Yi•sᵊ•râ•eil – where the Beit Din -Jâ•dol convened (see also Beit Din hâ-Jâ•dol).


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λογος [Updated: 2011.04.03]

The origin of λογος traces back to Heraclitus (ca. B.C.E. 535–475), who used the term for the principle of [spoken] order and knowledge (Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (2nd ed): Heraclitus, 1999), in other words, intellectual oral discourse. Aristotle, similarly, used λογος in the sense of reasoned oral (rhetorical) discourse (Paul Anthony Rahe, Republics Ancient and Modern: The Ancient Régime in Classical Greece, University of North Carolina Press, 1994, ISBN 080784473X, p. 21.). more


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לוּחַPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.10.12]

irreg. n. (m.s./​f.p.) akhלוחות,luakhot — stone slab or slate (e.g., blackboard), tablet (incl. for writing), panel (incl. control-panel), matrix (i.e. row-column—not furniture—table; incl. a list, calendar or game-board); pl. לוּחוֹת (lūkh•ōt).


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לוּלָבPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.07.15]

Lulav Teimani & Pomegranate
Lu•lâv Tei•mân•i and ri•mōn (pomegranate, not post-500 C.E. Ët•rōg)

masc . n. lū•lâv לולב, lulav a bunch consisting of a budding date-palm frond to which is tied (by slats from the date-palm frond) two branches of a special variety of willow and, in the Yemenite lu•lâv, a generous bunch (a minimum of three are required) of a special variety of myrtle. The lu•lâv is especially associated with Suk•ot. See wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 23.40, 43.


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LXX [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Codex Sinaiticus (earliest extant source of Septuagint)
LXX – in Codex Sinaiticus with the Christian Διαθηκη Καινη (Diathækæ Kainæ; NT)

The Septuagint / 70; Greek translation of Ta•na"kh translated by 70 (LXX) Hellenist Jews in Yᵊru•shâ•layim ca. B.C.E. 200 for Hellenist Jews of the tᵊphutz•âh in Alexandria, Egypt).


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מַעֲרִיבPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.07.16]

masc . n. Ma•a•riv;מעריב,maariv,ma'ariv evening — routinely understood to refer to the first tᵊphil•ōt of the new day, thus beginning the new day with praise.

Mi•nᵊkh•âh is popularly recited late in the afternoon, yet early enough to allow congregants to finish in time to take a couple of minutes break and still begin reciting Ma•a•riv a bit before sunset, timing the service so that it's dark, having begun the new day, before reciting the Shᵊm•a.


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מַעֲשֶׂהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.09.02]

masc . n. Ma•as•ëhמעשה, maaseh, ma'aseh, Essenes — a practice, doing or making; from עָשָׂה (âs•âh; he/​it did; i.e. "to do").

Ma•as•ëh was also the name of the corpus of case law—stare decisis—court adjudications (i.e. interpretations) of the Biblically commanded khuq•im and mi•shᵊpât•im, comprising the Oral Law of the Qum•rân Kha•sid•im Tzᵊdoq•im.

When the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im priest, Iason (Yәho•shua Bën-Shim•on Jr.), purchased control over the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh and priesthood from the Hellenist Syrian overlord, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, in B.C.E. 165, the Ma•as•ëh served as the blueprint that was subsequently re-interpreted, and adopted as Oral Law, by the Hellenized pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im (i.e. Χειρόγραφον Τοις Δόγμασιν) and "Enlightened"/​"Reformed" (of their day) Pᵊrush•im (i.e. Ha•lâkh•âh).

Together, khuq•im and mi•shᵊpât•im comprised Mishᵊnâh, the Oral (interpretations of the) Law until the codification of all three:

  1. the Qum•rân Kha•sid•im-Tzᵊdoq•im interpretations as documented in Dead Sea Scroll 4Q MMT,

  2. the post-B.C.E. 165 Hellenized Pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im interpretations, in their Χειρόγραφον Τοις Δόγμασιν, and

  3. the rabbinic Pᵊrush•im interpretations—the interpretations endorsed by Ribi Yᵊho•shua in The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) 23:1-3—in Tal•mud. See also Ha•lâkh•âh.


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מַעֲשֵׂרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

irreg. n. (m.s./​f.p.) ma•a•seir, pl. מַעַשׂרוֹת (ma•a•sᵊr•ōt); מעשרות, maaseir, ma'aseir, maasrot, ma'asrot tenths (or tithes). “Each year, a person [was required] to tithe all the newborn offspring of his cattle, sheep, and goats. Each tenth animal automatically [became] consecrated as a מַעֲשֵׂר, maaser [tithe] offering.” See also qârᵊbân more


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Πραχεις Αποστολων Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.04.04]

Praxeis A•pos•tolōn; מעבר, maavar, ma'avar the praxis of the emissaries), Anglicized to "Acts." / מַעֲבָר (Ma•a•vâr; transition; also aisle, passage or pass). For details on provenance, etc., see also Acts

The "A•postol•oi" are the Hellenist impression and Hellenized version of the שְׁלִיחִים (shᵊlikh•im; emissaries).

Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Transition. Ma•a•vâr is a more accurate title for the NT book de-Judaized to "Acts." Ma•a•vâr records the transition of the Nᵊtzâr•im from the personal supervision of historical Ribi Yᵊho•shua to the operation of the Beit Din ha-Nᵊtzâr•im under the first Nᵊtzâr•im Pâ•qid, Pâ•qid Ya•a•qov "ha-Tza•diq" (the brother of Ribi Yᵊho•shua) in the Ruakh ha-Qodësh.


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מַבּוּלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Ma•būl; מבול, mabulthe Deluge (popularly "Flood")


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מד"אPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

MDA ambulance
Click to enlargeMDA ambulance

masc . n. Mad"a; מד"א, מד''א, Magein David Adom, Magen David Adomacronym for מָגֵן דָוִד אָדֹם (Mâ•gein Dâ•wid •dom; Red Shield—NOT star, which is כּוֹכָב—of David), the Judaic (in contrast with Christian Red Cross and Muslim Red Crescent) emergency rescue service. Note: while the International and American Red Cross have long recognized the Islamic Red Crescent, they STILL do NOT recognize מד"א.


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מַדְרִיךְPronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.03.25]

masc . n. Ma•dᵊrikh; מדריך, madrikh, madrich guide (the Way) – subst. use of the part. of the hiph•il of דרך, from which derives dërëkh.


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מַכַּבִּיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.08.20]

masc . n. (pl.) Ma•kab•im; מכבים, Makabimfrom כִּבָּה – Extinguishers (Hellenized & Anglicized to "Maccabees").


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מַכָּה pl. מַכּוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. mak•âh, plural mak•ōt; מכה, מכות, makah, makot strike, hit, smite, lash (from a whip); popularly "plague"


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מָחַלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.01.29]

mâ•khal; מחל, makhal absolve, to remit a debt.

See also סָלַח (sâ•lakh) and חָנַן (khâ•nan).


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מַחֲזוֹרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.07.03]

masc . n. ma•kha•zōr; מחזור, makhzor, machzorcycle – liturgical guide for Yōm Tᵊrū•âh and Yōm ha-Ki•pūr•im.


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מְעָרַת הַמַּכפֵּלָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

M'arat ha-Makhpeilah (Cave of the Patriarchs), Khevron (corrupted to ''Hebron'')
Pâ•qid Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu, Karen & Yâ•eil visiting and praying at מְעָרַת הַמַּכפֵּלָה ‭ ‬(1996)

fem. n. Mᵊ•âr•at ha-Makh•peil•âh; מערת המכפלה, Ma'arat ha-Makhpeilah, Ma'arat ha-Machpelah The Cave of Makh•peil•âh, i.e., The Cave of the Tomb of the Patriarchs, located in Khë•vᵊr•on


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מַלְאָךְPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.12.03]

Kenaani Neolithic ritual mask
c. B.C.E. 7000 – Kᵊna•an•i Neolithic ritual mask

masc . n. ma•lᵊâkh, pl. מַלְאָכִים (ma•lᵊâkh•im), pl. conn. -מַלְאֲכֵי (ma•lᵊakh•ei-…); מלאך, מלאכים, malakhim messenger, one who has been dispatched on a mission, a missionary, Hellenized (simultaneously de-Judaized) to αγγελος (aggelos or angelos; messenger—anglicized to "angel." This is the most probable origin of the terms "Angles," "Anglos" and "English"; all of which trace back to Germanic tribes that migrated to today's England. This etymology may also have contributed to the Germans, seeing themselves as the original Germanic "Angles" (angels) and various other "supremacy" groups.

Anubis Tutankhamun Tomb wall Getty
Click to enlargec. B.C.E. 1338 – Egyp­tian priest wear­ing Anubis mask (Tutankhamun Tomb wall, Getty 2001)

The מַלְאָךְ traces back to Neolithic times when the tribal leader or village shaman-priest would don a mask representing their primary god, which, they believed, transformed the wearer of the mask into the priest-Spokesman/​Voice of their deity – the "Angel" of their deity speaking through the Unchanging Eyes and Mouth of their deity.

At Har Sin•ai, soon after the Yᵊtzi•âh (c. B.C.E. ), Mōsh•ëh relayed an absolute prohibition on the idolatry of anthropomorphism – which banned such ritual masks. However, in his absence, his priest-brother, A•ha•ron, produced and used a gold mask that was familiar to them from Egypt, of Hât-Hōr – the calf-faced Egyptian goddess with cow horns (usually framing a solar disk representing their sun-god).

The unused root verb is לאך, meaning to send. To distinguish this connotation from שָׁלַח (shâ•lakh; to send [something or someone]), לאך seems closer to the English "dispatch."

מַלְאָכִי (Ma•lᵊâkh•i; My ma•lᵊâkh; Hellenized to "Malachi" or "My angel," is the last of the twelve minor Nᵊviy•im in Ta•na"kh.

See also the cognate mᵊlᵊâkh•âh


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מַלַאווַחPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.07.27]

Teimani malawakh
Malawakh

Ma•lawakh; מלאווח, malawakh(borrowed from Arabic) . Most people buy this but here is a basic recipe (you can refine it each time you make it):

  • 2½ cups pastry (or white) flour

  • 1 cup warm water

  • 1 teaspoon salt

  • ¼ lb butter


  1. Put flour and salt in food processor and add water. (Use plastic blade.)

  2. Process until dough forms a ball

  3. Add more flour or water as needed. Dough should be very soft, but not sticky

  4. Transfer dough to a bowl, cover and let stand 1 hour

  5. Divide it into 2 parts

  6. Roll out 1 part and spread with half the butter.

  7. Fold in thirds, roll out and fold in thirds again. Do this 1 more time

  8. Let stand covered with a damp towel for 1 hour.

  9. Do the same with rest of dough

  10. Divide dough in thirds

  11. Roll out each piece thinly

  12. Heat skillet add 1 tsp butter and fry bread until golden brown. Flip over and cook second side until golden too

Serve with a sauce of mashed tomatoes with skhug and salt to taste


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מַלְשִׁיןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.12.22]

masc . n. ma•lᵊshin, pl. מַלְשִׁינִים (ma•lᵊshin•im); מלשין, מלשינים, malshin, maleshinimderived from לשון: tongue-wagging slanderers, defamers, besmirchers – shorthand for lᵊshon hâ-râ (term used in Bi•rᵊk•at ha-Min•im along with min and mâ•sōr).


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מַמָּשׁPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.25]

ma•mâsh; ממש, mamash palpably, substantially, concretely, really (adv.).


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מַמְלָכָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.25]

fem. n. ma•mᵊlâkh•âh, ממלכה, mamlakhahconnective form מַמְלֶכֶת (ma•mᵊlëkhët); kingdom of…, domain of…, realm of…, reign of….


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מָןPronunciation Table [Updated: ,2006.04.27 2017.12.05]

manna Sinai Haloxylon salicornicum Avinoam Danin 1968
Click to enlargeManna/​رمت in Sin•ai – "Fig. 5.7.1: White drops rich in minute air-bubbles on Haloxylon salicornicum from the Sinai desert." photo: Avinoam Danin 1968)

masc . n. Mân ("what"; corrupted to "manna") – A plethora of botanists and other scholars have suggested identifying מָן with the sweet exudations of aphids (scale insects, mealybugs) found on Haloxylon salicornicum (aka salicornia), which is reportedly abundant around the salty marshes and waters along the northern coast of the Sinai peninsula.

Not knowing what מָן was, Scripture (and modern scholars) seem to confuse and conflate the bread/​dough source(s), the honeydew sweetener and the resulting combined (and then baked) מָןmore


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mapsPronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.03.12]

Chronologically ordered history in maps: more


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מַפטִירPronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.06.27]

masc . n. Ma•phᵊtir; מפטיר, maphtir, maftir the one who reads the Ha•phᵊtâr•âh). Excepting special Shab•ât•ot, this refers to the last paragraph of the concluding (seventh) section of the weekly Tōr•âh portion, which precedes the Ha•phᵊtâr•âh. The person about to read the Haphtâr•âh begins by first repeating the Maph•tir.


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מַקֵּלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.02.05]

Egyptian heqa (l) & sekhem (r) scepters
Click to enlargeEgyptian heqa (l) & שְׂכֶם (r) scepters. Rulers would hold one in each hand when adjudicating a matter; the שְׂכֶם in the right hand and the heqa in the left hand.

masc . n. ma•qeil; מקל, maqeil, maqel stick, walking cane, shepherd's staff, rod, fighting stick. (See also ma•tëh and sheivët.)


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יהוה = הַמָּקוֹםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.10.04]

masc . n. הַ (ha-; the) + מָקוֹם המקום, ha-Maqom (mâ•qōm; fixed or standing place, location, locale, venue); lit. the Place; namely, Yᵊru•shâ•layim. Like "the White House" refers to the American president,הַמָּקוֹם (ha-Mâ•qōm = Yᵊru•shâ•layim) is often used to refer metonymically to the Creator-Singularity Who has associated His Name with the Place (Yᵊru•shâ•layim)—namely, י‑‑ה.

Note: Only the prepositional prefix changes for "in, at or by" the place: בַּ (ba-; in the) + מָקוֹם (mâ•qōm; fixed or standing place, location), where בַּ is the contraction of בְּ + הַ.

מָקוֹם derives from קוּם, to stand-up. (Compare and contrast קוּם with its synonym עָמַד (â•mad; to be standing).


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מָרוֹרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.06.13]

Maror plant, flowers & thistles; Sonchus <i>oleraceus</i> (photo: spontaneousurbanplants.org)Maror leaves; Sonchus <i>oleraceus</i> (photo: spontaneousurbanplants.org)
Click to enlargeמָרוֹר plant (flowers & thistle; Sonchus oleraceus (photo: spontaneousurbanplants.org)Click to enlargeמָרוֹר (leaves; Sonchus oleraceus (photo: spontaneousurbanplants.org)

masc . n. מרור,חזרת,maror,khazeret pl. מְרֹרִים; wild or garden spring salad greens; wild herbs (bitters) of the fields that one could pick nearly everywhere in Biblical Israel in the spring; especially dandelion leaves (מָרוֹר הַגִּנָּה; Sonchus oleraceus).

Christian-era rabbis of Dark Ages Europe syncretized (assimilated into Ta•lᵊmud) local European customs, producing new, reformed redefinitions of מָרוֹר, naming some substitute plants that didn't even exist in the Levant during the Biblical era (e.g., בָּצָל and PBH חֲזֶרֶת). more


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מַסֶּכֶת אֳהָלוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

IDF tents
IDF Tents

fem. n. Ma•sëkët •hâl•ot; מסכת אהלות, Maseket Ahalot Tractate Tents (if uncleanness is introduced under a common roof), in Seidër Tâ•hâr•ot.


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מַסֶּכֶת עֲרָכִיןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët A•râkh•in; מסכת ערכין, Maseket Arakhin Tractate Measures (vows concerning valuations), in Seidër Qâ•dâsh•in.


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מַסֶּכֶת עָרלָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.09.02]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët •rᵊl•âh; מסכת ערלה, Maseket Arlah Tractate •rᵊl•âh, in Seidër Tâ•hâr•ot.


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מַסֶּכֶת עֲבוֹדָה זָרָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët A•vōd•âh Zâr•âh; מסכת עבודה זרה, Maseket Avodah Zarah Tractate Strange Service (i.e., idolatry), in Seidër Nᵊziq•in.


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מַסֶּכֶת אָבוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Âv•ōt; מסכת אבות, Maseket Avot Tractate Fathers (i.e., Patriarchs), in Seidër Nᵊziq•in.


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מַסֶּכֶת בָּבָא בַּתרָאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

property law
Property Law

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Bâ•vâ Bat•râ; מסכת בבא בתרא, Maseket Bava Batra Tractate Portal, Closing (property law), in Seidër Nᵊziq•in.


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מַסֶּכֶת בָּבָא מְצִיעָאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

civil law
Civil Law

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Bâ•vâ Mᵊtziy•â; מסכת בבא מציעא, Maseket Bava Metziya, Maseket Bava M'tziya Tractate Portal, Middle (civil law), in Seidër Nᵊziq•in.


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מַסֶּכֶת בָּבָא קַמָּאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

tort law
Tort Law

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Bâ•vâ Qamâ; מסכת בבא קמא, Maseket Bava Qama Tractate Portal, Opening (tort law), in Seidër Nᵊziq•in.


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מַסֶּכֶת בֵּיצָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Egg: post-70CE symbol of Pilgrims' Offering

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Beitz•âh; מסכת ביצה, Maseket Beitzah Tractate Egg (laws of pilgrimages), in Seidër Mo•eid.


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מַסֶּכֶת בְּכוֹרוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Bᵊkhōr•ōt; מסכת בכורות, Maseket Bekhorot, Maseket B'khorot, Maseket Bechorot Tractate Firstlings, in Seidër Qâ•dâsh•in.


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מַסֶּכֶת בְּרָכוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Bᵊrâkh•ōt; מסכת ברכות, Maseket Berakhot, Maseket B'rakhot Tractate Blessings, in Seidër Zᵊrâ•im.


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מַסֶּכֶת בִּכּוּרִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Bi•kūr•im; מסכת בכורים, Maseket Bikurim Tractate Firstfruits, in Seidër Zᵊrâ•im.


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מַסֶּכֶת דְמַאיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Dᵊmai; מסכת דמאי, Maseket Demai, Maseket D'mai Tractate Doubtfully-Tithed (corn), in Seidër Zᵊrâ•im.


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מַסֶּכֶת עֵדֻיּוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Eid•ūy•ōt; מסכת עדיות, Maseket Eiduyot, Maseket Eduyot Tractate Testimonies (of witnesses), in Seidër Nᵊziq•in.


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מַסֶּכֶת עֵרוּבִיןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Ei•rūv•in; מסכת ערובין, Maseket Eiruvin, Maseket Eruvin Tractate Mixings (boundaries of Shab•ât travel), in Seidër Mo•eid.


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מַסֶּכֶת גִטִּיןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

get
agunah (chained woman - husband refuses to grant get)
A•gun•âh (chained woman – husband refuses to grant get)

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Git•in מסכת גטין, Maseket Gitin (Aramaic pl. of geit); Tractate Divorce-Contracts, in Seidër Nash•im.


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מַסֶּכֶת הוֹרָיוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

oops
undo

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Hō•rây•ōt; מסכת הוריות, Maseket Horayot Tractate Teachings (erroneous rulings of the Beit-Din), in Seidër Nᵊziq•in.


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מַסֶּכֶת כֵּלִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

keilim (kitchenware & utensils)
Kitchenware & Utensils

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Keil•im; מסכת כלים, Maseket Keilim, Maseket Kelim Tractate Utensils (uncleanness of), in Seidër Tâ•hâr•ot.


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מַסֶּכֶת כְּרִיתוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

the axe

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Kᵊrit•ōt; מסכת כריתות, Maseket Keritot, Maseket K'ritot Tractate Excisions, in Seidër Qâ•dâsh•in.


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מַסֶּכֶת כְּתֻבּוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

ketubah
Kᵊtub•âh

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Kᵊtūb•ōt; מסכת כתבות, Maseket Ketubot, Maseket K'tubot Tractate Marriage-Contracts, in Seidër Nash•im.


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מַסֶּכֶת חֲגִיגָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.06.04]

Har Megido (corrupted to ''Armageddon''), Control Point of Damascus-Egypt Trade Route
Click to enlargeNorthern Khag RouteHar Mᵊgido (Hellenized to ''Arma­geddon''), choke/​control point in Eimëq Yiz•rᵊël  of the Trunk Road connecting to the King's Highway on the ancient trade (& Khag) routes between Africa & Egypt via Dërëkh ha-Yâm  to Damascus, Turkey, Europe, Iraq & Persia (Iran).

fem. n.חגיגה,Khagigah,chagigah Ma•sëkët Khag•ig•âh; 12th century C.E. European (Italian) Ta•lᵊmud Tractate "Khaging"—annual pilgrimaging to Yᵊru•shâ•layim (verbal noun of חָגַג).

Contrary to this European (not Holy Land) Dark Ages Orthodox reform (a priori syncretizing the Romans' traditional Easter egg on the Seidër plate), the "Pilgrim's/​Peace Offering" was nothing other than the Khag-Shëlëm (pl. shᵊlâm•im; Khag-completion) yearling lamb/​goat-kid qâ•rᵊb•ân for each triannual Khag-Shᵊlâm•im—i.e. the qâ•rᵊb•ân celebrating the shëlëm (completion) of a Khagmore


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מַסֶּכֶת חַלָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Pitah Iraqit (haShipudia)
Pita Iraqit (ha-Shipudia)

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Khal•âh; מסכת חלה, Maseket Khalah, Maseket Khallah Tractate Dough Portion For Kō•hein, in Seidër Zᵊrâ•im.


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מַסֶּכֶת חֻלִּיןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Kasheir deli counter St Pete, Florida
Kâ•sheir deli counter where I ate in St Pete, Florida

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Khūl•in; מסכת חלין, Maseket Khulin Tractate Seculars (animals slaughtered for food), in Seidër Qâ•dâsh•in.


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מַסֶּכֶת כִּלאַיִםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Ki•layim; מסכת כלאים, Maseket Kilayim Tractate Hybrids, in Seidër Zᵊrâ•im.


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מַסֶּכֶת קִנִּיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

columbarium (dove pigeon cote rookery) Beit-Guvrin, Israel
Columbarium (dove pigeon cote rookery) Beit-Guvrin Click to enlarge

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Kin•im; מסכת קנים, Maseket Qinim Tractate Nests (bird offerings), in Seidër Qâ•dâsh•in.


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מַסֶּכֶת מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Ma•a•seir Shein•i; מסכת מעשר שני, Maseket Maaseir Sheini, Maseket Ma'aseir Sheini Maseket Maaseir Sheni, Maseket Ma'aseir Sheni Tractate Second-Tithe, in Seidër Zᵊrâ•im.


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מַסֶּכֶת מַעַשׂרוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Ma•a•sᵊr•ōt; מסכת מעשרות, Maseket Maasrot, Maseket Ma'asrot Tractate Tithes, in Seidër Zᵊrâ•im.


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מַסֶּכֶת מַכשִׁירִיןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

(certificate of fitness - dairy only) תעודת כשרות - חלבי בלבד
Typical Certificate of Kash•rut:
Khâ•lâv•i
(certificate of fitness - meat only) תעודת הכשר - בשרי בלבד
Typical Certificate of Kash•rut:
Bᵊsâr•i

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Ma•khᵊshir•in; מסכת מכשירין, Maseket Makhshirin, Maseket Makh'shirin Tractate Ka•shᵊr•ut, in Seidër Tâ•hâr•ot.


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מַסֶּכֶת מַכּוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Egyptian (crook &) flabellum - 3 stranded flail
Egyptian (crook &) flabellum – 3 stranded flail

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Mak•ōt; מסכת מכות, Maseket Makot, Maseket Makkot Tractate Beatings (whipstrokes, flagellations), in Seidër Nᵊziq•in.

"It appears that, where no other punishment was expressly prescribed, flogging was in biblical law the standard punishment for all offenses (Deut. 25:2)… There is no record of the manner in which floggings were administered in biblical times. Various instruments of beating are mentioned in the Bible (Judg. 8:7, 16; Prov. 10:13; 26:3; I Kings 12:11, 14; et al.), but any conclusion that they (or any of them) were the instruments used in judicial floggings is unwarranted." ( Jewish Virtual Library; 2012.05.06).

Thus, the method and instrument likely derived from their Gâl•ut in Egypt.

"The flail was a rod with three attached beaded, strands. The strands could [vary] considerably, using different types of beads and the lengths between the beads could be broken up into several segments." (touregypt; 2012.05.06).


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מַסֶּכֶת מְגִלָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Megilat Esteir (nosachteiman.co.il)
Mᵊgil•at ës•teir (nosachteiman.co.il)

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Mᵊgil•âh; מסכת מגלה, מסכת מגילה, Maseket Megilah, Maseket M'gilah, Maseket Megillah, Maseket M'gillah Tractate Scroll (Pur•im; lots), in Seidër Mo•eid.


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מַסֶּכֶת מְעִילָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Mᵊ•il•âh; מסכת מעילה, Maseket Meilah, Maseket M'ilah Tractate Sacrileges, in Seidër Qâ•dâsh•in.


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מַסֶּכֶת מְנָחוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Mᵊnâkh•ōt; מסכת מנחות, Maseket Menakhot, Maseket M'nakhot Tractate Presentations (meal offerings), in Seidër Qâ•dâsh•in.


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מַסֶּכֶת מִדּוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Mid•ōt; מסכת מדות, מסכת מידות, Maseket Midot, Maseket Middot Tractate Measurements (of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh), in Seidër Qâ•dâsh•in.


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מַסֶּכֶת מִקוָאוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Miqweh steps adjacent to Har ha-Bayit
1st-century Mi•qᵊwëh beside Har ha-•Bayit

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Miq•wâ•ōt; מסכת מקואות, Maseket Miqwaot, Maseket Miqvaot Tractate Ablution-Pools, in Seidër Tâ•hâr•ot.


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מַסֶּכֶת מוֹעֵד קָטָןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Mō•eid Qâ•tân; מסכת מועד קטן, Maseket Moeid Qatan, Maseket Mo'eid Qatan Tractate Little Appointeds (intermediate days of pilgrimages), in Seidër Mo•eid.


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מַסֶּכֶת נָזִירPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Nâ•zir; מסכת נזיר, Maseket Nazir Tractate Nazirite, in Seidër Nash•im.


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מַסֶּכֶת נְדָרִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Nᵊdâr•im; מסכת נדרים, Maseket Nedarim, Maseket N'darim Tractate Vows, in Seidër Nash•im.


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מַסֶּכֶת נְגָעִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Nᵊgâ•im; מסכת נגעים, Maseket Negaim, Maseket N'gaim Tractate Infections, in Seidër Tâ•hâr•ot.


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מַסֶּכֶת נִדָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Nid•âh; מסכת נידה, מסכת נדה, Maseket Nidah, Maseket Niddah Tractate Menstruant, in Seidër Tâ•hâr•ot.


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מַסֶּכֶת פָּרָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

American Red Brangus Grand Champion Heifer, 2012 Houston Livestock Show & Rodeo
Click to enlargeRed Heifer (American Brangus, 2012 Grand Champion)

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Pâr•âh; מסכת פרה, Maseket Parah Tractate Cow (chestnut-red), in Seidër Tâ•hâr•ot.


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מַסֶּכֶת פֵּאָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Emeq Yizr'el looking NE from foot of Har Megido toward mountains of Afula
NE Eimëq Yiz•rᵊël (corrupted to "Jezreel Valley"): hay at foot of Har Mᵊgido (corrupted to "Armageddon")

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Pei•âh; מסכת פאה, Maseket Peiah Tractate Edge (gleaning of fields), in Seidër Zᵊrâ•im.


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מַסֶּכֶת פְּסָחִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Pesakh Table (Teimani)
Pësakh Table

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Pᵊsâkh•im; מסכת פסחים, Maseket Pesakhim, Maseket P'sakhim Tractate Skip-overs (Hellenized to "Passovers"), in Seidër Mo•eid.


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מַסֶּכֶת קִדּוּשִׁיןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

wedding khupah
Click to enlargeרַב קָאפֵח (next to the groom) performing the marriage of my friend. (1998)

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Qi•dūsh•in; מסכת קדושין, Maseket Qidushin Tractate Sanctifications (relative to weddings), in Seidër Nash•im.


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מַסֶּכֶת רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Shophar (ayal-ram)

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Rōsh ha-Shân•âh; מסכת ראש השנה, Maseket Rosh ha-Shanah, Maseket Rosh haShanah Tractate Head-of-the-Year (New Year), in Seidër Mo•eid.


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Συνεδριον מַסֶּכֶתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Lishkat ha-Gazit (red dot)
Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol (red dot)

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Συνεδριον מסכת Sanhedrin, Maseket Sanhedrin (Greek-Hellenist Sunedrion, Angliciized to "Sanhedrin"); Tractate Assembly (i.e., the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol), in Seidër Nᵊziq•in.

Interestingly, although this is one of the few Hellenist (Greek) words that made it into wide Jewish usage, the KJ/V buries the reference to the Beit-Din ha-Ja•dol by rendering "council" instead of "Sanhedrin." This demonstrates the lengths to which Christians go to conceal the Judaism they displaced.


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מַסֶּכֶת שַׁבָּתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Shabat collage
Shab•ât Collage

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Shab•ât; מסכת שבת, Maseket Shabat, Maseket Shabbat Tractate Shab•ât, in Seidër Mo•eid.


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מַסֶּכֶת שְׁקָלִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Sheqel Tetradrachm Bar-Kokhva (Obverse: Temple facade w-rising star; Reverse: Lulav, To freedom of Jerusalem)
Sheqel Tetradrachm Bar-Kokhva (Obverse: Temple facade w-rising star; Reverse: Lulav, "To freedom of Jerusalem")

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Shᵊqâl•im; מסכת שקלים, Maseket Sheqalim, Maseket Sh'qalim Tractate Shᵊqâl•im, in Seidër Mo•eid.


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מַסֶּכֶת שְׁבִיעִיתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Shemitah year fallow field
Shᵊmit•âh year fallow field

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Shᵊvi•it; מסכת שביעית, Maseket Sheviyit, Maseket Sh'viyit Tractate Seventh (Shᵊmit•âh), in Seidër Zᵊrâ•im.


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מַסֶּכֶת שְׁבוּעוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Shᵊvū•ōt; מסכת שבועות, Maseket Shevuot, Maseket Sh'vuot Tractate Sevens / Oaths / Weeks, in Seidër Nᵊziq•in.


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מַסֶּכֶת סֹוטָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Sōt•âh; מסכת סוטה, Maseket Sotah Tractate Suspected-Adulteress, in Seidër Nash•im.


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מַסֶּכֶת סֻכָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Ben-David Family's Sukah
Bën-Dâ•wid Family Suk•âh

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Sūk•âh; מסכת סכה, מסכת סוכה, Maseket Sukah, Maseket Sukkah Tractate Hut, in Seidër Mo•eid.


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מַסֶּכֶת תַּעֲנִיתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fast

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Ta•an•it; מסכת תענית, Maseket Taanit Tractate Fast, in Seidër Mo•eid.


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מַסֶּכֶת טָהֳרוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Miqweh steps adjacent to Har ha-Bayit
1st-century Mi•qᵊwëh beside Har ha-•Bayit

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Tâ•hâr•ōt; מסכת טהרות, Maseket Taharot Tractate Tâ•hâr•ot, in Seidër Tâ•hâr•ot.


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מַסֶּכֶת תָּמִידPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Tâ•mid; מסכת תמיד, Maseket Tamid Tractate Forever (daily qor•bân), in Seidër Qâ•dâsh•in.


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מַסֶּכֶת תְּמוּרָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Tᵊmūr•âh; מסכת תמורה, Maseket Temurah, Maseket T'murah Tractate Exchange (substitute qor•bân), in Seidër Qâ•dâsh•in.


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מַסֶּכֶת תְּרוּמוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Tᵊrum•ōt; מסכת תרומות, Maseket Terumot, Maseket T'rumot Tractate Offerings (wave), in Seidër Zᵊrâ•im.


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מַסֶּכֶת טְבוּל יוֹםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

miqweh, Har Noph, Yerushalayim
Click to enlargeמִקְוֶה

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Tᵊvūl Yōm; מסכת טבול יום, Maseket Tevul Yom, Maseket T'vul Yom Tractate Immersion of the Day (i.e., one who has immersed and awaits evening to become clean), in Seidër Tâ•hâr•ot.


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מַסֶּכֶת עוּקְצִיןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

Caustics

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Ū•qᵊtz•in; מסכת עוקצין, Maseket Uqetzin, Maseket Uq'tzin Tractate Sting, thorn (i.e., stinging remark, sarcasm), in Seidër Tâ•hâr•ōt.


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מַסֶּכֶת יָדַיִםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

netilat yadaim
Cup for washing hands

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Yâd•ayim; מסכת ידים, מסכת ידיים, Maseket Yadayim Tractate Pair-of-Hands (contaminations of), in Seidër Tâ•hâr•ot.


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מַסֶּכֶת יְבָמוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Yᵊvâm•ōt; מסכת יבמות, Maseket Yevamot, Maseket Y'vamot Tractate Widows-of-Deceased-Childless-Brothers, in Seidër Nash•im.


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מַסֶּכֶת יוֹמָאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fast

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Yōm•â; מסכת יומא, Maseket Yoma Tractate Yom (Ki•pur), in Seidër Mo•eid.


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מַסֶּכֶת זָבִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Zâv•im; מסכת זבים, Maseket Zavim Tractate Discharges, in Seidër Tâ•hâr•ot.


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מַסֶּכֶת זְבָחִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkët Zᵊvâkh•im; מסכת זבחים, Maseket Zevakhim, Maseket Z'vakhim Tractate Sacrifices, in Seidër Qâ•dâsh•in.


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מָשָׁלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.01.14]

masc . n.משלי שלומוה, משלי שלמה, mashal, Mishlei Shlomoh, Mishlei Shelomoh mâ•shâl; allegory, simile, metaphor or parable.

Pl. מְשָׁלִים (mᵊshâl•im) and pl. connective …מִשְׁלֵי (mi•shᵊl•ei…, allegories, similes, metaphors or parables of…).

מִשְׁלֵי שְׁלֹמֹה (Mi•shᵊl•ei Shᵊlōmōh; the allegories, similes, metaphors or parables of Shᵊlōmōh ha-Mëlëkh); a book of Kᵊtuv•im in Ta•na"kh de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Proverbs (of Solomon).'


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מָשִׁיחַPronunciation TableHear it! [Updated: 2019.07.21]

masc . n.Mâ•shiakh,משיח,משחה, Mashiakh,mishkhah,mashakh anointee (from root v.t. מָשַׁח, with f.n. מִשְׁחָה)—by religious leaders of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil who must be recognized by the established community of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil”—not by goy•im. There’s no ancient, nor Dark Ages, magic (which Tōr•âh explicitly prohibits) in the olive-oil, nor in any incantation, nor in the ceremony, which is merely recognition, by legitimate representatives of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil, of commissioning and their support; not empowering.

In Ta•na"kh familiar to Ribi Yᵊho•shua, the מָשִׁיחַ merely officiates a symbolic ceremony, while ki•pur is conferred:

  1. exclusively and directly by י‑‑ה and

  2. only to those doing their best to live according to Tōr•âh and

  3. only when making tᵊshuv•âh for every shortcoming.

Lᵊ‑ha•vᵊdil, in Christianity (i.e. the Displacement Theology of the Apostate Paul), by contrast, "Jesus" is proclaimed to be the ki•pur-god, that grants expiation.

Especially in the first three centuries following 135 C.E., goy•im Roman Hellenist followers of the Apostate Paul and his Καινής Διαθήκης succeeded in Hellenizing this concept to "Christ" and their "Jesus"-god-on-a-stick idolmore


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מַטֶּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.02.05]

Egyptian heqa (l) & sekhem (r) scepters
Click to enlargeEgyptian heqa (l) & שְׂכֶם (r) scepters. Rulers would hold one in each hand when adjudicating a matter; the שְׂכֶם in the right hand and the heqa in the left hand.

masc . n. ma•tëh; מטה, mateh police baton, nightstick, billy club, truncheon, bat; used metaphorically as a symbol of authority. (See also sheivët and ma•qeil.)


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מַתִּתְיָהוּ הַלֵּוִיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu ha-Lei•wi מתתיהו הלוי, Matityahu ha-Leiwi, Matityahu ha-Leivi (the Levite), an eye-witness tal•mid of Ribi Yᵊho•shua and author of the pre-Christian (pre-62 C.E.) Nᵊtzâr•im account, in Hebrew, of the halakhically Judaic life and teachings of the historical Pharisee Ribi Yᵊho•shua. This was later extensively redacted to reflect Hellenist and Christian Displacement Theology, the Hellenized—misojudaic anthetical—product known as "Gospel of St. Matthew" in the NT. Even the first Church historians acknowledged that the original followers of historical Ribi Yᵊho•shua accepted only their own Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu, rejecting the later NT and excising Paul as an apostate (Eusebius, Eccl. Hist. III.xxvii.4).

Extant Nᵊtzâr•im source documents underlying Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu comprise Greek codices from the 3rd -4th century (א and β), Aramaic Pᵊshitᵊtâ, Latin a-3, and earlier Greek papyri, some of which may date back into the 1st century C.E. Other mss. are either of later vintage—and, hence, more extensively redacted to reflect Christian doctrines—or spurious.


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מַצָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.05.31]

Soft Matzah
Soft מַצָּה

fem. n. matz•âh;מצה,מצות,matzah,matzot pl. מַצּוֹת – barley dough and resulting barley flatbread, which:

  • has not been infused with שְׂאוֹר (much less modern yeast, un­known until the 17th century C.E.), and

  • is not permitted to rest, being cooked before wild yeast, u­biq­ui­tous in the en­vi­ron­ment (on the skin of grains, plants and even in the soil), leavens it into an observably חָמֵץ state.

  • In Biblical ancient Israel, before the existence of yeast was even identified (in the 17th century C.E., much less in a package on the shelf of a supermarket), this was a soft bread. The "start-to-finish" deadline of 18 minutes, producing a cracker, is a recent reform-innovation of the late 18th century C.E. introduced by a Lithuanian European Rebbe (see חָמֵץ). more

    See also Khag ha-Matz•ōt


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מַיִםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.11.30]

Yam Kinneret (''Violin Sea / Lake'' - corrupted to Sea of Galilee)
Click to enlargeAbba & Yael on rock, shore of Yâm Ki•nërët (1992)

masc . n. (pl.) mayim, מים, מיים, mayim a pair of waters – the □ayim ending (see, inter alia, ha-shâ•mayim) is a dual (paired) form. The ancients perceived water (the waters) as twofold: what we understand today as the lakes and seas (which we sail and in which fish swim) and the clouds above that rained. There was no concept, nor word expressing, a single water.

See also the phrase מַיִם חַיִּים (mayim khayim; lit. "living water(s)".


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מְגִלָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Megilat Esteir (nosachteiman.co.il)
Mᵊgil•at ës•teir (nosachteiman.co.il)

fem. n. Mᵊgil•âh; מגלה, מגילה, Megilah, Megillah, M'gilah, M'gillah scroll, primarily referring to one of the five Mᵊgil•ōt (plural) in Ta•na"kh: Shir ha-Shir•im, Rut, Eikh•âh, Qo•hëlët, and Ës•teir. The English phrase, "the whole megillah," derives from Jews using this Hebrew term.


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מֵי נִדָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. mei nid•âh; מי נדה, מי נידה, mei nidah, mei niddah water of the menstruant. This is the title of the decontaminating ointment made by adding water to the ashes from the Pâr•âh A•dum•âh, which contained crimson dye (making the water blood-red), oregano (hyssop) and cedar. The explanation of the symbolism of the operation of the mei nid•âh and the Pâr•âh A•dum•âh, which has remained a mystery to all of the Jewish Sages until this author published the explanation, is found in my paper (in English or Hebrew): "Pâr•âh A•dum•âh – 'Red Heifer' Finally Explained (English)."


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מְכִירַת חָמֵץPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.10.02]

Mᵊkhir•at Khâ•meitz,מכירת חמץ,מכירה,mekhirah,mekhirat khameitz,mechirat the sham “sale” of one’s khâ•meitz to a gentile, via a rabbi acting as an agent, before Pësakh for a token price (with the understanding that it is to be “purchased” back after Pësakh at the same, token, price). This sham is a brazenly sanctimonious fraud reform by Dark Ages European rabbis; a blatant rabbinic leading-astray not only of all Yi•sᵊr•â•eil from Ta•na"kh (Tōr•âh); gentiles are no less required to adhere to Tōr•âh than Jews. Goy•im differ from Jews only in refusing to live according to Tōr•âh! Consequently, the practice of Mᵊkhir•at Khâ•meitz, like the “Shabbos goy”, is also racist!!!


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מְעִילPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.03.08]

mᵊil;מעיל,meil short-robe or dinner-jacket, with elbow-length sleeves.


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מְלָאכָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.08.07]

person at work

fem. n. mᵊlâkh•âh מלאכה,melakhah,m'lakhah (from the root verb לאך) — all עֲבוֹדָה motivated by (i.e. with a mission of) kheiphëtz; ergo, work that does not logically qualify as קֹדֶשׁ.

Secular, temporal/​material-worldly—i.e. khōl (profane)—effort (work, service) in pursuit of primarily worldly gain; efforts primarily oriented to goals or pursuits in this ephemeral and evanescent corporeal (physical, material) world as contrasted against the incorporeal, eternal, supernal (i.e., spiritual) Realm of י‑‑ה. Work that is primarily related to the pursuit of worldly needs and goals, including worldly-related work that may reasonably be done or prepared before Sha•bât, or deferred without suffering unreasonable damage until after Sha•bât.

Includes 1. work, trade, skill, art or occupation; a practical profession in which a person works. 2. worker and work products, objects, tools and appurtenant movable property.

מְלָאכָה is energy, effort or exertion expended in this-worldly (secular, profane, ordinary – khol) pursuits that can reasonably be done during week-days, in contrast to energy, effort or exertion expended pursuant to incorporeal spiritual, קֹדֶשׁ, missions (goals). מְלָאכָה includes income-related, occupational or non-imperative worldly work, including preparations that can be done during week-days. מְלָאכָה also includes work performed as a result of being dispatched or paid by, or in the employ of, human beings, including preparation, education and training for such work, all, lᵊ-hav•dil (as distinguished from), work for י‑‑ה, i.e., work that is קֹדֶשׁ.

Since קֹדֶשׁ is appropriate and encouraged at all times while מְלָאכָה, alone, is prohibited on Sha•bât, it's imperative to be able to differentiate מְלָאכָה from other types of עֲבוֹדָה that are not only permitted on Sha•bât but are often unavoidable (e.g., picking up a glass of water or a fork, carrying food to the table) and even commanded by Tōr•âh to be performed on Sha•bât (e.g., picking up a Qi•dūsh goblet or lifting and carrying a Seiphër Tōr•âh in order to read it).

It is מְלָאכָה, i.e., מְלֶאכֶת-עֲבוֹדָה, not exertion or עֲבוֹדָה generally, that is prohibited on Shab•ât

עֲבוֹדָה‎ = קֹדֶשׁ‎ + מְלָאכָה Ergo, מְלָאכָה‎ = עֲבוֹדָה‎ - קֹדֶשׁ

There are a number of cognates deriving from the same root verb לאך.

  • The combinative form, …-…-מְלֶאכֶת

  • מְלָאכָה is the fem. noun counterpart of מַלאָך

  • the adj. formed from the f.n. מְלָאכָה is מְלָאכוּתִי

Logical fallacy ex falso quodlibet
What a tangled web is weaved, when first we reason upon fallacies received

From the contra-science rabbinic-supposed date of creation (exactly BCE 3760) to science-ignorant assumptions about electricity and fire, rabbinic argumentation, at its most fundamental level, typically reasons from post-Biblical, logical fallacies (rabbinic interpretations) comprised of invalid generalizations and naked assumptions frequently contradicting science and the archaeological-historical record. Unsurprisingly, the product of this mass ex falso quodlibet routinely presumes to contradict the Laws of the Creator-Singularity — reality; which, science demonstrates, define and operate His universe.more

Next time you're asked what you "are" (i.e., what you do for a living, your zodiac sign, your sexual or political orientation, your citizenship, fraternal affiliation, etc.), will you answer "I'm a [truck driver, chef, plumber, doctor, accountant, Jew, Pisces, American, liberal, conservative, Labor, Likud, Ashkenazi, Sephardi, Democrat, Republican, fraternity or sorority affiliation, Mason, Marine, vet, etc. – all profane מְלָאכָה]?" Or are you more? Have you the nëphësh to answer: "I'm a servant of י‑‑ה" (e.g., merely earning a living as a [truck-driver, et al.] to enable me and my family to serve the incorporeal קֹדֶשׁ Realm י‑‑ה)? So what are you really?


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מֶלֶךְPronunciation Table [Updated: 2009.06.14]

masc . n. lëkh, מלך, מלכים, melekh, melakhim, m'lakhim pl. מְלָכִים (mᵊlâkh•im); "king(s)"; including the two books of the Ta•na"kh (Âlëph = first; Beit = second). Connective plural -מַלכֵי (malkh•ei-; kings of…).

The possessive form, מַלכִּי (malk•i; my king) is connected to צֶדֶק (tzëdëq; justice) to form the name מַלְכִּי-צֶדֶק (Ma•lᵊk•i-Tzëdëq), Hellenized to "Melchizadek."

Cognate: מַלְכוּת (ma•lᵊkh•ut; kingship, monarchy, kingdom)


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מְנַשֶּׁהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.02.02]

masc . n. Mᵊnash•ëh מנשה, Menasheh, M'nasheh – because ël•oh•im na•shani of all my labor and all of my father's house. (Hellenized to "Manasseh.") more


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מְנוֹרָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.01.08]

Menorah, most accurate found (source unknown)
Mᵊnōr•âh (most historically accurate depic­tion found as of 2019.01; source unknown).

fem. n. mᵊnōr•âh; מנורה, menorah, m'norah candelabra.

מְנוֹרַת הַמָּאוֹר (Mᵊnor•at ha-Mâ•ōr; "The Candelabra of the Luminary") is the text codifying Middle Ages Yemenite views on Talmudic Ha•lâkh•âh, was authored by יִצְחָק אֲבּוּהָב (Yi•tzᵊkhâq A•bu•hâv), a Jew who was perhaps in contact with the Tei•mân•im (as Maimonides was), and may have been Tei•mân•i himself. A•bu•hâv lived in the Netherlands, or perhaps Spain, at the end of the 14th century. His grandson lived in the Netherlands.

"His use of passages from aggadic works now lost and the variants in the talmudic and midrashic texts he cites make the Mᵊnor•at ha-Mâ•or of great importance for establishing the text of the Tal•mūd used in the Spanish-North African [i.e., Sᵊpha•rad•i; ybd] academies as distinct from that of the Franco-German [i.e. Ash•kᵊnazi; ybd] school" ("Aboab, Isaac I," Ency. Jud., 2.91). more


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מֶרְכָּבָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.04.21]

Keruv / Merkhavah - Assyria 9th or 8th century Ivory
Click to enlargeKᵊruv – Assyria, B.C.E. 9th-8th century ivory perception of animated figure that powered a celestial Më•rᵊkâv•âh
Merkavah Tut-ankh-amun tomb gold-plated royal
Click to enlargeMë•rᵊkâv•âh Tut-ankh-amun tomb; gold-plated royal

fem. n. Më•rᵊkâv•âh; מרכבה,merkavah ancient winged-lion or winged-chariot; also a war chariot, especially Egyptian, which could travel up to 60 km (37 mi) /day. It is as misleading to insist that Më•rᵊkâv•âh be interpreted only as a chariot – or only as a symbolic heavenly vehicle – as to insist that modern automobiles still be called "horseless carriages."


The Më•rᵊkâv•âh is the subject of the visions in chapter 1 of Yᵊkhëz•qeil ha-Nâ•vimore


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מְשֻׁמָּדPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.01.23]

masc . n.BH: mᵊshū•mâd (pl. מְשֻׁמָּדִים); משומד,משמד, meshumad, m'shumad, meshummad, m'shummadmale forced to convert from Tōr•âh. Adopted from Jewish Levantine Aramaic שַׁמֵּד – a contraction of שעמד. Thus, מְשֻׁמָּד "is an inexact vocalization of מְשׁוּעְמָד, and lit. means 'forcibly baptized; converted forcibly (from Judaism)'…"

While widely misused in MH: among Israeli and Tᵊphutz•âh Jews today, this term is not appropriate to describe willful apostasy by choice (for which see mū•mâr), whether of tō•âh neglect/​backsliding, or by hitᵊbō•leil acculturation or intermarriage.

fem. n.Fem. מְשֻׁמֶּדֶת (mᵊshu•mëdët).

fem. n.מְשֻׁמָּדוּת (mᵊshu•mâd•ut) – n. forced apostasy from Tōr•âh.

DAEH: Consequent to mass forced-conversions of Jews coupled with the genocide of refuser-Jews in Dark Ages Spain and Portugal of 1391 C.E., Jews began to refer to the forced-converts as victims of (religious) rape – אָנוּסִים.

See also mū•mâr, geir, hitᵊbō•leil, kheit and tō•âh.


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"Messianic" Jews / "Messianic" Judaism [Updated: 2013.09.20]

For the legitimate use and historically accurate meaning of the term messianic, see a legitimate Judaic authority, e.g. Gershom Scholem, The Messianic Idea in Judaism. Historically, "messianic" implies a non-divine Mâ•shiakh who must (Dᵊvâr•im 13.1-6) unalterably oppose Displacement Theology.

Lᵊ-hav•dil— According to Christian theology, "Christ" purportedly displaced the OT—what the Christian "Fathers" referred to as "the law of sin and death."

Lᵊ-hav•dil— The Mâ•shiakh, by contrast, refines, repairs the breaches (Yᵊkhëz•qeil 22.30) and restores Tōr•âh. The Mâ•shiakh is a mortal Jew who serves יהוה. References to the Davidic נָשִׂיא (corrupted to "Prince"; cryptonym for the Mâ•shiakh) officiating in a Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh forever (inter alia, Yᵊkhëz•qeil 44.1-4; 45.7-9; 46.4-18) refer to the after-life of a physically ordinary mortal human being descendant of Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkhnot a man-god! more


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מְצֹרָעPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. (adjectival n.) mᵊtzōr•â; מצורע, מצרע, metzora, m'tzora person afflicted with tzâ•raat.


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מְזוּזָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

qlaph mezuzah Teimani
Qᵊlaph Mᵊzuz•âh Tei•mân•i

fem. n. mᵊzūz•âh; מזוזה, mezuzah, m'zuzah doorpost, plural מְזוּזוֹת (mᵊzuz•ot)


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מִדָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.04.07]

fem. n. mid•âh; מידה, מדה, midah, middah dimension, measurement, size, ration, attribute, characteristic; plural מִידּוֹת (mid•ōt)

"Rules of hermeneutics" or "rules for interpreting Scripture" are called מִידּוֹת. Contrast מִידּוֹת against the Hebrew term popularly understood as logic: הִגָּיוֹן (hi•gâ•yon; common sense, intuition), which is inadequate to express mathematically precise logic, though popularly rendered as such despite its inadequacy.

Notice that the Hebrew theological meaning differs significantly from Aristotelian analytics and mathematical logic—which the rabbis dismiss as "Hellenist." This is one of the two unreliable pillars of rabbinic evolution that has, in a number of significant cases, caused logically-incompetent rabbis to stray far from Tōr•âh.


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מִדבָּרPronunciation TableHear it! [Updated: 2007.03.06]

Negev, Midbar Paran (Mark A. Wilson, Wooster.com)
Nëgëv, Mi•dᵊbar Pa•ran

masc . n. mid•bâr; מדבר, במדבר, Midbar, Mid'bar, be-Midbar, beMidbar badlands, arid hills. בְּמִדבָּר (bᵊ-Mid•bar; in the badlands); fourth book of Tōr•âh shë-bikh•tâv, Hellenized / de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Numbers."


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מִדרָשׁPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.09.16]

Beit Midrash Teiman (Rav Amram, WIZO mitaiman.com)
Beit Mid•râsh Tei•mân (Rav Amram, WIZO mitaiman.com)

masc . n. Mi•dᵊrâsh מדרש רבה, בראשית רבה, שמות רבה, ויקרא רבה, במדבר רבה, דברים רבה, שיר רבה, רות רבה, איכה רבה, קוהלת רבה, אסתר רבה, Midrash Rabbah, Midrash Rabah, beReishit Rabah, Shemot Rabah, wa-Yiqra Rabah, wa-Yiqera Rabah, be-Midbar Rabah, Shir Rabah, Shir ha-Shirim Rabah, Rut Rabah, Eikhah Rabah, Qohelet Rabah, Esteir Rabah – homiletics; the content of preaching, a sermon; typically a rabbinic homiletical commentary on specific books of Ta•na"kh; as found, for example, in Ta•lᵊmud. The preacher is the דַּרְשָׁן.

Mi•dᵊrâsh was originally oral and conducted in a Beit ha-Mi•dᵊrâsh.

The earliest extant Mi•dᵊrâsh is embedded in the Ta•lᵊmud.

מִדרָשׁ רַבָּה, collection of 10 Babylonian agadic legends and homilies allegorized, by different authors in different eras of the C.E., from the 5 books of Tōr•âh and the 5 Mᵊgil•ōt:

  1. bᵊ-Reish•it Rabâh – redacted in 5th century C.E.
  2. Shᵊm•ōt Rabâh – 11-12th century C.E.
  3. wa-Yi•qᵊr•â Rabâh – 7th century C.E.
  4. bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbar Rabâh – 12th century C.E.
  5. Dᵊvâr•im Rabâh – 10th century C.E.
  6. Shir ha-Shir•im Rabâh – 9th century C.E.
  7. Rut Rabâh – 9th century C.E.
  8. Eikh•âh Rabâh – 7th century C.E.
  9. Qō•hëlët Rabâh – 6th-8th centuries C.E., much of it based on earlier works.
  10. ës•teir Rabâh – parts date from ca. 500 C.E.; redactions continued up through the 11th century C.E.

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מִדְיָןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.08.01]

Mi•dᵊyân•im; מדין, מדינים, MidyanimDescendants of Avᵊrâ•hâm and his Egyptian wife, Qᵊtūrâh, inhabiting what is, today, western Saudi Arabia along the Gulf of Eil•at.


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מִגְבַּעַתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.10.09]

fem. n. mi•gᵊba•at;מגבעת, migbaat hill-like ("turban'' is MH) – this seems to have been a mi•tzᵊnëphët wound, untwisted (bandage-like, not rope-like), atop the head in a turban style, as Arabs sometimes do today. The mi•gᵊba•at was worn by ordinary ko•han•im. Contrasts with twisted (rope-like) mi•tzᵊnëphët worn by the Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol.

Ordinary Yi•sᵊr•â•eil•im seem to have worn a mi•tzᵊnëphët draped over their shoulders, typical of all ancient Egyptians and Middle-Easterners; the style preserved by modern Arab native dress.


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מִיכָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Mikh•âh; מיכה, Mikhah "Who is like" [Eil being understood; probably a diminutive of מִיכָאֵל (Mi•khâ•eil)]; sixth of the twelve minor Nᵊviy•im in Ta•na"kh (de-Judaized to Micah).


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מִלְחָמָה לַי‑‑הPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

מִלְחָמָה לַי‑‑ה (Mi•lᵊkhâm•âh la-​י‑‑ה;‎ י‑‑ה has a war, there is a war for/​[belonging] to י‑‑ה; i.e. ha-Sheim's War), Shᵊm•ōt 17.16.

Pl. מִלחָמוֹת הַשֵּׁם (Mi•lᵊkhâm•ōt ha-Sheim; Wars of י‑‑ה); bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbar 21.14; Shᵊmu•eil Âlëph 18.17 and 25.28. Also, commentary polemicizing the Christian NT by Ya•a•qov Bën-Rᵊu•vein in 1170 C.E.מלחמות השם, Milkhamot haSheim, Milkhamot haShem


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מִלּוּאִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.06.11]

masc . n.mi•lū•im;מלואים,miluim a filling-up, filling, fulfilling. MH: serving (lit. fulfilling) annual Tzah"l reserve duty; derived from מָלֵא.

Biblical מִלּוּאִים‎—7-Day Wine-Fest of “Commissioning” (Not “Consecrating” ) Kō•han•im

Shëva (seven/​swearing-in) -day commissioning (i.e. filling one’s hand; i.e. ena­bling) i.e. Hi•lūl•â.

The qâr•bân מִלּוּאִים, which was a type of שְׁלָמִים, was preceded by a khat•ât and an ōl•âh.


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מִנְהָגPronunciation Table [Updated: 2009.10.15]

masc . n. mi•nᵊhâg; מנהג, Minhag custom, manner.


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מִינִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.03.31]

masc . n. (pl.) min•im; מינים, מין,minim,7 Species,Seven Species,5 Species,Five Species,4 Species,Four Species kinds, species, genders, sexes, denominations, sectarians or cults. The singular form is מִין (min).

Min tracks, via LXX, to the Greek αἵρεσις, the origin of the English "heresy"—see בִּרְכַּת הַמִּינִים.

אַרְבַּעַת הַמִּינִים—The Four Species (Of Suk•ōt Flora Native To Biblical Yi•sᵊr•â•eil): ët•rōg, ha•das, a•râv•âh and lū•lâv.

חֲמֵשֶׁת הַמִּינִים—The Five Species (of grain native to Biblical Israel).

שִׁבְעַת הַמִּינִים—The Seven Species (Of Grains & Fruits Native To Biblical Yi•sᵊr•â•eil): wheat, barley, vines, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates. (Further details see ët•rog.)


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מִנחָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.07.16]

fem. n. Mi•nᵊkh•âh;מנחה,Minkhah,Mincha,Minha — Originally the formal presentation of a gift to an important personage, in modern times, Mi•nᵊkh•âh refers to the last tᵊphil•ōt of the day (starting from half an hour after noon, but early enough to conclude before sunset). more


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מִנּוּיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.10.30]

masc . n. min•ūi (unvowelled מנוי); מינוי, minuimeasured allocation or portion; apportionment; from the verb מִנָּה (min•âh; to weigh-out a portion {see Dân•iy•eil 5}, reckon, allocate, apportion).

"After the *Bar-Kōkh Revolt (132–35 C.E.), the Roman emperor Hadrian attempted to end the spiritual authority still wielded by the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον, which had been shorn of all government support, by forbidding the granting of [sᵊmikh•âh] to new scholars. It was declared that 'whoever performed [a sᵊmikh•âh] should be put to death, and whoever received [sᵊmikh•âh] should be put to death, the city in which the [sᵊmikh•âh] took place demolished, and the boundaries wherein it had been performed uprooted'."  

Consequently, in 135 CE yet another reform, מנוי, was devised to replace the eliminated sᵊmikh•âh.


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מִניָןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.10.19]

masc . n. mi•nᵊyân; מנין, minyan a quorum of ten adult Jews, is required for

  1. the public recitation from the Seiphër Tōr•âh and

  2. Ha•phᵊtâr•âh,

  3. the Bi•rᵊk•at ha-Kō•han•im,

  4. the Qa•dish,

  5. the public (i.e. aloud) recitation of the A•mid•âh and

  6. the Bâ•rᵊkh•u.

  7. Also, when saying the Bi•rᵊk•at ha-Mâ•zōn, if a mi•nᵊyân is lacking the parts marked "בַּעֲשָׂרָה" (ba-a•sâr•âh; by 10) or "וּ)מַעֲשָׂרָה)" ((u-)ma-a•sâr•âh; (and) from [at least] 10) in the si•dur Tei•mân•i are skipped.

Ancient Middle-Eastern societies considered women to be female human livestock property of men. Ancient Yi•sᵊr•â•eil correspondingly, and understandably from their ancient societal perspective, interpreted Tōr•âh from that world perspective. As a result, Orthodox rabbis today typically additionally stipulate 10 adult male Jews.

While Tōr•âh is as Immutable as its Author, י‑‑ה the Creator-Singularity, human interpretations are fallible and often proven vastly inferior. הָעוֹלָם הִשְׁתַּנָּה (mundus mutatus), women are not livestock, they are not owned by men and neither their status nor their rights may be adjudicated by res judicata or stare decisis that have been derived from property law. While reflecting biological differences in gender, laws governing women must also reflect societal advancements in medicine, science and sanitariness (abandoning Dark Ages superstitions of evil spirits) and be rederived, not from property law, but from the same set of Tōr•âh Principles as are applied to men.


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מִקְדָּשׁPronunciation TableHear it! ‭ ‬ [Updated: 2017.08.13]

Beit ha-Miqdash
Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh ha-Shein•i

masc . n. Mi•qᵊdâsh; בית מקדש, Beit Miqdash, Bet Miqdash, Beit ha-Miqdash, Bet ha-Miqdash, Beit haMiqdash, Bet haMiqdash Holyplace.

בֵּית-הַמִקְדָּשׁ / ביהמ"ק (Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh; The House of the Holy Place) Hellenized / de-Judaized, to the Greek ιερον (ieron; an idolatrous pagan temple), to "Temple." (See also Hei•khâl.)

  1. Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh hâ-Rish•ōn (corporeal)

  2. Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh ha-Shein•i (corporeal)

  3. Beit Tᵊphil•âh (eternal incorporeal "'House of Prayer' for all kindreds"; Yᵊsha•yâhu 56.7; Yᵊkhë•zᵊq•eil 40-47; Qum•rân DSS 11QTa).

"ה' cannot dwell in a physical palace or temple like an idol. Ergo, any reference to dësh dwelling in a Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh can only refer to the Shᵊkhin•âh / Ruakh ha-Qodësh dwelling in the hearts of His human ma•lâkh•im who serve within the complex [e.g., the human ma•lâkh Mâ•shiakh]." (quoted from soon-to-be-published "Science-Friendly Tōr•âh Family Bedtime Bible Stories."more


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מִקְרָא קֹדֶשׁPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.07.24]

masc . n.מקרא קדש,מקרא קודש,Miqra Qodesh,Miq'ra Qodesh Miqᵊrâ dësh (pl. mi•qᵊrâ•eidësh); miqᵊrâ, meaning "call-to-[Tōr•âh]-recitation" and dësh, [of] holiness; popular­ly shortened to "a holy convocation," which loses the centrality of both the callings and Tōr•âh-recitation.

מִקְרָא refers to that which is read (in the call-to-reading); the liturgical reading of the most pristine text of Ta•na"kh, chanted according to the most ancient and pristine tradition—No•sakh Tei•mân. Thus, מִקְרָא means the oral recitation of Ta•na"kh. This is the Mi•shᵊnaic term for Scripture or "Bible".


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מִקוֶהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.08.24]

miqweh, Har Noph, Yerushalayim
Click to enlargeמִקְוֶה

masc . n. miq•wëh; מקוה, מקווה, miqweh, miqveh pool meeting halakhic criteria for tᵊvil•âh, one requirement of which is mayim khayim. In English, the term is often inaccurately distorted to mean the act of tᵊvil•âh rather than correctly referring to the halakhically-qualified pool, in the phrase: 'to take a' (tᵊvil•âh in a) miq•wëh.


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מִרְיָםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.09.20]

Mirᵊyâm מרים, מירים, Miryam (Aramaic, same spelling; cf. Shᵊm•ot 15.23), anglicized to "Miriam."

In the NT, it is transliterated into Greek as Μαριαμ, Hellenized to Μαρια, then anglicized to "Marian" – and "Mary".

The Aramaic name so often associated with her, מַרְתָּא, may well derive from the adverb מָרָתָה, in this same verse (15.23).

The etymology of her name is unclear. Some mistakenly connect her name with the incident of מָרִים, interpreting her name as some form of "bitter." However… more


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מִי שֶׁבֵּרַךְPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Mi shë-beir•akh; מי שברך, mi she-beirakh, mi sh'beirakh "[May He] Who Blesses…" Special Tᵊphil•ot in Beit ha-Kᵊnësët for government leaders and, in addition to other special occasions, particularly those individuals who have:

  • Recovered from an illness,

  • Been released from prison,

  • Returned safely from a trip (all trips are dangerous these days), and /or

  • Returned safely from the sea.


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מִשְׁכָּןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.03.24]

Mishkan / Ohel Moeid, model
Mishkan / Ohel Moeid full-scale replica, Timna Park Mishkan / Ohel Moeid full-scale replica, Timna Park - Courtyard Altar & Tent Mishkan / Ohel Moeid full-scale replica, Timna Park - Courtyard Tent of Meeting
Mi•shᵊkân / Ohël Mo•eid (click photos to enlarge)

masc . n. Mi•shᵊkân; משכן, Mishkan Neighbor's-Dwelling; the mobile "Neighboring Complex" erected Firstmonth 01, year 2 after the Yᵊtzi•âh.

The Mi•shᵊkân consisted of the

שְׁכִינָה is the verbal noun of שָׁכַן and the gerund לִלִשׁכֹּן.

This was the pre-fab Traveling Sanctuary which served as the nomadic pre-Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh while bivouacking in the arid-wilderness. Popularly de-Judaized (Hellenized, then Anglicized) to "Tabernacle."


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מִשְׁנָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.01.06]

fem. n. Mishᵊnâh; משנה,Mishnah repetition; pl. מִשְׁנָיוֹת ׁׂ(Mi•shᵊnâ•yot).

Not to be confused with מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה

The term Mishᵊnâh derives from שָׁנָה (shân•âh; he memorized by rote).

Mishᵊnâh is the oldest part of Ta•lᵊmud. The final redaction of Mishᵊnâh was compiled by R. Yᵊhudâh ha-Nâ•si ca. 200 C.E. (greatx4-grandson of Hi•leil Sr. "the Babylonian", of the Royal Beit-Dâ•wid) and comprises the Ha•lâkh•âh taught by the Tanâ•im.

The Tannaitic exposition in Ta•lᵊmud contrasts with Gᵊmâr•â, To•sëph and Bâ•ra•yᵊtâ, which, in that order, follow the statement of Mishᵊnâh in the Ta•lᵊmud.

Mishᵊnâh is often used, inaccurately, to describe the complete body of oral tradition, including the Mi•dᵊrâsh, Ha•lâkh•âh and Ha•gâd•âh. This confusion arises because Jews regularly abbreviate (or confuse) the מִשְׁנֶה תּוֹרָה of Ram•ba"m with Mishᵊnâh.

For further details, see box in The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 7.1.1.


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מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.07.08]

(also called סֵפֶר יָד הַחֲזָקָה) משנה תורה, Mishneih Torah, Mishneh Torah

Rambam's Mishneh Torah, autograph draft in cursive Sephardic (Cairo Genizah)
Rambam's Mishneh Torah, autograph draft in cursive Sephardic (Cairo Genizah)

masc . n. Mi•shᵊn•eih Tōr•âh, not to be confused with the מִשְׁנָה (Mishᵊnâh), is a comprehen­sive compendium, in י"ד books (hence the recursive backronym יָד abbreviating סֵפֶר יָד הַחֲזָקָה), of Ha•lâkh•âh.

Composed by Ram•ba"m ca. 1180 C.E., after having moved from Israel to Cairo, Egypt, it was designed to be everyman's "FAQ" complement of Tōr•âh shë-bikh•tâv for interpretive explanations.


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מִשְׁפָּחָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.08.01]

fem. n. Mi•shᵊpâkh•âh, משפחה, mishpakhah pl. Mi•shᵊpâkh•ot; family


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מִשׁפָּטPronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2018.07.06]

mishpat
Civil Law

masc . n. mi•shᵊpât;משפט, mishpat, mish'pat, mishepat BH: a sentence (in both senses: jurisprudence & grammar); adjudication/​judgment of a Beit Din (court of law); especially a judicial precedent serving for Stare Decisis; pl. מִשׁפָּטִים.

In modern usage, מִשׁפָּט has been corrupted to refer exclusively to a trial or court hearing, in a "secular" court, but not in a Beit Din.

On the other hand, a מִשְׁפְּטָן is recognized in both courts.

מִשׁפָּט derives from the shōrësh שָׁפַט, a cognate of שׁוֹפֵט. (The connective plural is …מִשׁפְּטֵי).

This term has been Hellenized (de-Judaized, Christianized) and anglicized to "judgment" and various other renderings to avoid recognition of the historic Biblical Beit-Din system. In Biblical times, מִשׁפָּט concerned the definitive, authoritative and just interpretation of Tōr•âh applied to real life situations—case law. All other interpretations are "following one's own heart and one's own eyes" (Shᵊm•ōt 15:39; Dᵊvâr•im 17:9-13). Although מִשׁפָּטִים became corrupted by the post-70 C.E. European Gâl•ut Tzᵊdoq•im during the Dark Ages and Medieval times, they had, until then, been handed down by the Beit-Din in a chain uninterrupted from Moshëh at Har Sin•ai. more


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Misojudaism/​MisojudaicPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.10.17]

misojudaism

μισο-, from μισεω + Judaism or Judaic, which is intrinsic to the Διαθηκη Καινη (NT): Lu 19.27; Jn 8.44-47; 14.6; Rom. 8.1-7; 1 Corinthians 16:22; I Thes. 2.15-16; I Jn 2.22.

For the primary cause of, & solution to, miso-Judaism see Kha•reid•im.

As our Arab cousins are correct in pointing out, being Semites themselves, hatred of Jews or Israel on their part cannot be anti-Semitism because they are not anti-themselves or anti- other Arabs. Even non-Arab Muslims and racists argue that they don't hate Arabs, therefore they are not anti-Semitic—and they are right! They hate Israel and Jews, not Semites. Not even all Jews are Semites (viz., converted Jews); certainly, not all Semites are Jews.

Judeophobic, "an irrational fear of Judaism / Jews" is even more inaccurate than anti-Semitism.

The Nᵊtzâr•im borrow from the authoritative definition that the International Holocaust Remembrance Association (IHRA) carelessly termed "anti-Semitism", to neologically define miso-Judaism and miso-Judaic:

“Miso-Judaism and miso-Judaic is

  • the perception of Tanakh-centrism or Biblical Judaism, the nation of Israel, Jews or other Tanakh-centric individuals or community institutions

  • that may find expression in hatred toward Tanakh-centrism, Jews, Israel or anyone who is Tanakh-centric.

Rhetorical and physical manifestations directed toward

  • anyone who is Tanakh-centric and/or their property or their Tanakh-centric symbols (e.g., a mᵊzuz•âh), toward Jewish community or Israel-oriented institutions or Tanakh-centric religious facilities

  • comprise miso-Judaic views and miso-Judaism.

These include, inter alia,


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מִשׂרַד הַחוּץPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Mis•rad ha-Khutz; משרד החוץ, Misrad ha-Khutz, Misrad haKhutz Office of the Exterior (i.e., Foreign Ministry, Ministry of Foreign Affairs)


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מִשׂרַד הַקְּלִיטָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

merkaz qlitah Raanana
Livingroom-bedroom, Merkaz Qlitah Raanana Entire Kitchen (note fridge behind Karen), Merkaz Qlitah Raanana Bathroom, Merkaz Qlitah Raanana No-stall, open shower area (bathroom), Merkaz Qlitah Raanana
Spartan conditions – Më•rᵊkâz ha-Qᵊlit•âh (Absorption Center) Ra•a•nanâ(h) (Our first home in Yi•sᵊrâ•eil)

masc . n. Mis•rad ha-Qlit•âh; משרד הקליטה, Misrad ha-Qlitah, Misrad haQlitah Office of Absorption (i.e., Absorption Ministry, Ministry of Reception)


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מִצְנֶפֶתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.10.08]

Paroh Tut-ankh-amun gold mask
Par•oh Tut-ankh-Amun gold burial mask wearing a mi•tzᵊnëphët simulating a weave of tᵊkheilët and gold threads, held in place by a tō•tëphët.

fem. n. mi•tzᵊnëphët, pl. מִצְנָפוֹת (mi•tzᵊnâph•ōt, from צָנַף‎;) —מיצנפת,מיצנפות,מצנפת,mitznaphot,mitznephet a rec­tan­gu­lar scarf folded into a triangle, forming the ancient head­dress universal throughout Egypt & and the Middle-East, affording protection from the Middle-Eastern sun, dust and blowing sand.

The mi•tzᵊnëphët was worn either as shown in the burial mask or wound atop the head in a turban. In either case, it was held in place by a tō•tëphët.

Egyptian nemes scarf (front)Egyptian nemes scarf (back)
Click to enlargeEgyptian nemes striped headscarf: front (polkadotpanther.com)Click to enlargeEgyptian nemes striped headscarf: back (polkadotpanther.com)
מִצְנֶפֶת Middle-Eastern head scarf headdress of the Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol follows the Egyptian style of the striped scarf of the Par•oh, held in place by a tō•tëphët royal tiara-diadem crown).

To protect the head from chafing under the tō•tëph­ët, a kip•âh was worn under the mi•tzᵊnëphët.

ghutrah-agal Arab head scarf Trump NBC News 20170520
Ghutrah-agal Arab head scarf (Trump visiting Saudi palace; NBC News 2017.05.20)

This ancient Middle-East practice is evidenced today in the Arab طاقية‎ (taqiyah; dome), worn by Arabs under their غُترَة (ghutrah; head scarf) and عقال‎ (agal; black goat-hair rope).

By the end of the Talmudic period (5th century C.E.), the rabbinic "Sages" assimilated and reformed the ancient fringed kaftan, conflating it with the mi•tzᵊnëphët, resulting in today's ta•lit.

In Biblical Hebrew this is not a shtreimel, nor a fur hat, nor a mitre, nor any modern "Jewish" head covering, all of which, except for the kip•âh, are relatively recent reforms entirely alien to Biblical Israel and Jews!

Thus, it would appear that (in addition to wearing a fringed-kaftan, probably not much different than modern Arab dress, with a thread of tᵊkheilët on each corner), Jews should be wearing the mi•tzᵊnëphët-ta•lit over their kip•âh, held in place by their tō•tëphët-tᵊphil•in.


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מִצרַיִםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.12.19]

Mi•tzᵊr•ayim; מצרים, Mitzrayim "a pair of מֵצַר" (first Yō•seiph sold into bondage, later the enslavement of the entire am Yi•sᵊr•â•eil). This etymology predates the contra-historic, silly misojudaic Arabic claim of Quran by more than a millennium.

Khwt-ka-Ptakh (house-temple of the ka of xPtakh)
Khwt-ka-Ptakh, house-temple of the ka of Ptakh.

hieroglyphs Inebu-hedj (White Walls, Memphis, Cairo) White Chapel Karnak
Click to enlargeInebu-hedj ("White Walls"), i.e. Memphis, modern Cairo (White Chapel, Karnak)

In the times of the Hellenist Greeks, the land was called "Khwt-ka-Ptakh" – the name of the temple of Ptakh, in Inebu-hedj ("White Walls"), i.e. Memphis, modern Cairo, Egypt. The Hellenist Greeks translated Khwt-ka-Ptakh as Αἴγυπτος; which morphed to Latin Aegyptus to French Egypte and English Egypt.

Adj. (masc. sing.) מִצרִי (Mi•tzᵊr•i; Egyptian).


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מִצְוָהPronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Mi•tzᵊwâh, מצוה, מצווה, מצוות, mitzvah, mitzwah, mitzvot, mitzwotpl. מִצְווֹת (mi•tzᵊwōt); a directive or military-style order, pop. de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "commandment," specifically of Tōr•âh.

מִצְוָה derives from the verb צִוָּה (tzi•wâh; he commanded as a Mi•tzᵊwâh), with its various conjugations.

A Bar Mi•tzᵊwâh (son of the Mi•tzᵊwâh) is a young male Jew who has reached the religious age of majority (12), becoming responsible and accountable in his own right for keeping Tōr•âh.


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מִזבֵּחַPronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.04.05]

View of Har Zeitim fm approx Mizbeiakh ha-Qetoret on Har ha-Bayit
Har ha-•Bayit: view of Har ha-Zeit•im from ancient site of the Mi•zᵊbeiakh ha-Qᵊtorët

masc . n. Mi•zᵊbeiakh; מזבח, mizbeiakh altar.

  • מִזְבַּח הַנְּחשֶׁת, also called מִזְבַּח הָעוֹלָה

  • מִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב, also called מִזְבַּח הַקְּטֹרֶת

Among all ancient peoples, their מִזבֵּחַ was the dining table of their deity—and all other altars were dining tables of rival demons. A diner's religion and nëphësh was determined by which מִזבֵּחַ his or her table identified – to which they offered blessings.more


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מִזְרָחPronunciation Table [Updated: 2009.09.29]

masc . n. Mi•zᵊrâkh; מזרח, mizrakh East, lit. "from the shining," referring to the rising sun . (See also Âd•ot.)

Also adjective m.s. מִזרָחִי (Miz•râkhi), m.p. מִזְרָחִיִּים (Miz•râkhi•yim); easterner(s); Eastern (i.e., "Middle Eastern" or "Oriental").


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Discoveries in the Judaean Desert X Qumran Cave 4 V Miqsat Maase Ha-Torah

מִקצָת מַעֲשֶׂה הַתּוֹרָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.07.11]

מִקצָת מַעֲשֶׂה הַתּוֹרָה Pronunciation Table
(Mi•qᵊtzât Ma•as•ëh ha-Tōr•âh; "some Ma•as•ëh of Tōr•âh.") conventionally abbreviated to MMT; ca. B.C.E. 156).

MMT is the only insider’s view of the Yᵊhud•im community predating Hellenist influences of the Apostate Paul. Familiarity with MMT is, therefore, essential—square one—to the undistorted understanding of 1st-century “Jewish” community and Judaism in which Ribi Yᵊhō•shūa was born, educated in Mi•tzᵊrayim (most likely in the ancient world’s greatest university in Alexandria) and taught! 

The writer of MMT is thought to have been Yᵊkhōn•yâh Bën-Shim•ōn II Bᵊn-Tzâ•dōq (Hellenized to “Khonyo”)—the last Tōr•âh-faithful Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl, who subsequently became the Mōreih Tzëdëq, founder of the Ōs•in (see also Kha•sid•im). MMT was written only 9 years or so after his brother, Yᵊhō•shūa Bën-Shim•ōn II Bën-Tzâ•dōq (Hellenized to “Jason”; who became the first Kō•hein hâ-Rësha in the resulting succession) Hellenized the Temple. MMT was a plea for his rabidly Hellenist brother to make tᵊshuv•âh.

No less important, MMT acknowledges the Jewish community in which Ribi Yᵊhō•shūa was born as comprising only his own min (true Tzᵊdoq•im = Ōs•in), his Hellenist brother’s min (Hellenist Pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im) and the “slippery sophist” Pᵊrush•im min—the 3 min•im counted by Josephus.more


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מוֹאָבPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Amaleiq
Click to enlargeMap: Israel ca. B.C.E. 1000

Mō•âv מואב, Moav ("from father"); nation east of the southern half of Yâm ha-Mëlakh.


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מוֹעֵדPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.07.24]

Soft MatzahOmer (barley or wheat) - ShavuotBen-David family's Sukah
Khag ha-Matz•ōt (Pësakh)Khag ha-Shâvu•ōtKhag ha-Suk•ōt

masc . n.מועדים,Moeid,Mo'eid,Moed,Mo'ed,Moadim Mō•eid; pl. מוֹעֲדִים (mō•ad•im), convoked, convoking(s), convocation(s); usually referring to the 1st & 7th "Convoked" days of Khag ha-Matz•ōt and the 1st & 8th "Convoked" days of Suk•ōt.

חֹל הַמּוֹעֵד (khōl ha-mō•eid; profane [days contained in] the convocation) refers to the intermediate "profane" days between the 1st & 7th "Convoked" days of Khag ha-Matz•ōt and between the 1st & 8th "Convoked" days of Suk•ōt.

מוֹעֲדִים לְשִׂמחָה (mō•ad•im lᵊ-si•mᵊkh•âh; convocations for rejoicing), the greeting for Khaj•im, refers to the convoked Khaj•im being days "convoked" specifically and explicitly "convoked" for rejoicing.

אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד (Ōhël Mō•eid; Tent of Convoking, Convocation) demonstrates that מוֹעֵד (convoked) can refer to the place of convocation as well as the time or event.

סֵדֶר מוֹעֵד (Seidër Mō•eid—Order: Convocation, Convoking), 2nd order of the Mishᵊnâh (i.e., Tal•mūd)


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מוֹהֵלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.12.30]

masc . n. heil; מוהל, moheil, mohel halakhic circumciser (PBH)


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מָר/מָרָאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.03.05]

masc . n. mâr/​mâr•â;מר,מרא,mar,mori,mara,Marta,Moreih Tzedeq,Moreh Tzedeq instructor or master (used in the same sense as "master" in martial arts or chess; i.e. a master of Tōr•âh, not the student's master). Also masc. מוֹרֶה and fem. מוֹרַה. These terms derive from the same root as Tōr•âh (Instruction). Thus, whenever found in the context of Ta•na"kh, Tōr•âh is the implied Instruction.  more

See also Mōreih  ha-Tzëdëq; "The Teacher of Justness" (universally mistranslated "Teacher of Righteousness") more


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מוֹרֶשֶת אָבוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Mō•rëshët Âv•ōt; מורשת אבות, Moreshet Avot (Legacy of the Patriarchs)

Name of the largest Beit ha-Kᵊnësët ha-Tei•mân•i (Orthodox) in Ra•a•nana, perhaps in the world.


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הַר הַמּוֹרִיָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Har ha-Mōr•i•yâh; הר המוריה, Har Moriyah, Har Moriah the Mount Mori + Yâh (a Name of ha-Sheim).

Some translate this as "the Mount of Myrrh." However, this name more likely derives because it is from this same mount (also symbolizing a principal, leader or power in the Bible) that Av•râ•hâm and Yi•tzᵊkhâq Âv•inu were yâr•âh concerning the A•qeid•âh—the paradigm for the mor•ëh (instructor) in every generation, the Bible promises, binding Yi•sᵊr•â•eil to Tōr•âh, causing Tōr•âh to go forth (Yᵊsha•yâhu 2.3; Mikh•âh 4.2).


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מוֹשָׁבPronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.10.05]

masc . n. mō•shav; מושב, moshav settlement (pl. מוֹשָׁבִים mo•shav•im; settlements).


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[Updated: 2018.02.07]

Cartouche: ''Moses'' (in original Egyptian)
Hover over glyph for xlit & xlatn
3 jackal pelts = ''M▫s'' (as in MOS[es] and [Ra]MES[es], properly Ra-Moses) door-bolt = ''z''

□-M▫s▫zמושה, משה, Mosheh 

□-incarnate — demigod born of [deity], [deity]-reborn.

Scripture records that Egypt's Royal Pharaonic Princess adopted M▫s▫z into Egypt's Royal Pharaonic Household, Palace and Karnak Temple in the Egyptian capital of Waset on the east bank of the Nile River.

Karnak Temple Complex ruins
Click to enlargeMoses' Hometown – Karnak Temple Complex ruins, New Kingdom capital of Waset (modern Thebes/​Luxor), Upper (i.e. Southern) Egypt. (Note: most Israelis were settled in the Delta, on the northern coast, Lower Egypt.)
ccc
Click to enlargeAncient Egypt

Scipture documents that M▫s▫z was perceived by those around him not as a Hebrew but as "an Egyptian"! He grew up as the adopted little-brother of the Egyptian Royal Pharaonic Princess, in the Egyptian Royal Pharaonic Palace, in the Egyptian capital of Waset, speaking Egyptian as his first language (learning "halting" Hebrew as a second language) – so much so that all those who saw him, even those who personally interacted with him, identified him as a Royal Egyptian Pharaonic Prince of Egypt! M▫s▫z was educated, dressed, groomed, militarily trained in weaponry, tactics and strategy as an Egyptian Prince-General, and behaved as a culturally-educated Egyptian Royal Prince in Par•oh's Palace. Moreover, aside from the fact that this name had no precedent in Hebrew, Scripture explicitly specifies, that it was the Egyptian Royal Pharaonic Princess, not his Hebrew birth parents, who named him, i.e. according to her, Egyptian surname—"□-m▫s▫z"!

The realization that M▫s▫z was the surname of the Pharaonic Princess is a critical piece of information essential to homing in on when M▫s▫z lived and, therefore, when the Yᵊtzi•âh occurred. Searchers have never found a shred of evidence to support the Biblical Yᵊtzi•âh because they've been looking in the wrong places and ruling-out evidence from the correct period.more


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מוֹצִיא שֵם רַעPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.08.22]

Mō•tzi sheim râ; מוציא שם רע, motzi sheim ra, motzi shem ra publish or broadcast defamation, slander or libel; disclosing defamation of character or slander to others (lit. "Issuing a bad name"). See also the lesser transgression of defamation— Lᵊshon hâ-Râ


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𝕸 or MT [Updated: 2012.06.10]

Masoretic Text; the vowelized version of the Hebrew text of Ta•na"kh.

MT was primarily compiled, edited and distributed by a group of Jews known as the Masoretes, derived from מָסוֹרָה (mâ•sor•âh′ ), between the 7th-10th centuries C.E. (though the consonants differ little from the text generally accepted in the early 2nd century C.E.). By contrast, MT differs often from LXX, sometimes significantly.

Klein holds that, contrary to popular misconception, מָסוֹרָה is "A secondary form of מָסֹרֶת [mâ•sorët]. The word מָסֹרֶת is prob. contracted from מַאֲסוֹרֶת and is formed with instr. suff. ❏מַ from אָסַר (= to bind). Later, however, the word מָסוֹרָה was explained as the summary of traditions concerning the correct writing and reading of the Bible and, accordingly, was regarded as a derivitave of the verb מָסַר (= to hand down, hand over)." (Ernest Klein. A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language For Readers of English. Jerusalem & Haifa: Carta & Univ. of Haifa, 1987. p. 360). more


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מוּלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.09.02]

mūl; מול, mul to circumcise; secondary form מָהַל (mâ•hal), from which מוֹהֵל (mo•heil; circumciser) derives.


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מוּםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.20]

masc . n. mūm (rhymes with "broom," not "dumb"); מום, mum point, spot, dot, defect; popularly "blemish."


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מוּמָרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.01.18]

masc . n.mū•mâr;מומר,mumar participle of hōphil of מור. BH: a Jew who exchanges, as in exchanging currency or importing something – esp. religion. From the Jews' perspective, that means one who converts-out from Tōr•âh to another religion (historically Christianity). However, in contrast to mᵊshū•mâd, there is no implication of coercion or force.

fem. n.מוּמָרִית (mū•mâr•it; a Jewess who changes (converts-out) from Tōr•âh to another religion.

See also geir, hitᵊbō•leil, kheit, mᵊshū•mâd and tō•ëh.


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מָסוׂרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.12.22]

irreg. n. (m.s./​f.p.) mâ•sōr, pl. מָסוׂרוׂת (mâ•sōr•ōt); מסורות, masorot informer, snitch (term used in Bi•rᵊk•at ha-Min•im along with min and ma•lᵊshin).


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מֻקצֶהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.07.30]

mū•qᵊtz•ëh; מקצה, מוקצה, muqtzeh(adj.) – cut off, removed, set apart; especially an item forbidden to be used on Shab•ât. An item that is mu•qᵊtz•ëh shouldn't even be left out where it can be seen on Shab•ât and remind one of profane weekday matters, much less be handled or touched on Shab•ât.


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מוּסָףPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Mū•sâph; מוסף, Musaph, Musaf additional, refers to the "Additional" sacrifice (and, therefore, liturgy) on Shab•ât and holy days in the Beit ha-Kᵊnësët, paralleling the Mu•sâph services of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh. The Mu•sâph service follows the Sha•khar•it service. In modern liturgy, there is little discernible break, making Sha•khar•it and Mu•sâph services seem, to the uninitiated, to merge into one service.


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