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Hebrew Glossary: E-J

The reason this simple page of glossary definitions is ranked so popular with the search engine is because so many people click on our links to these definitions from the content in… the 'Netzarim Quarter' Village web site in Ra•an•anâ(h), Israel at www.netzarim.co.il

The real content is in the 'Netzarim Quarter'! Click on our logo above for an exciting visit to the 'Netzarim Quarter' where you'll learn about Historical Ribi Yehoshua and his original, Jewish, followers before the great Roman-Hellenist apostasy of 135 C.E.—and even more importantly, how you (whether Jew or non-Jew) can follow the historically true, Judaic, Ribi Yehoshua. In Hebrew, his original followers were called the Netzarim (Hellenized to "Nazarenes").

Until Paqid Yirmeyahu researched the Netzarim name and sect and began publishing about it in 1972 in The Netzarim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matityahu (NHM) no one in modern times was even aware of the name Netzarim. It stretches credulity that no one in modern times had heard of the Netzarim until Paqid Yirmeyahu published it in 1972… and then, suddenly, everybody figured it out??? Check (and verify) the dates of the earliest works about the Netzarim by the others and you'll see that they are deceiver-plagiarists. Then insist on the person whom ha-Sheim selected to entrust the knowledge, not imposters who falsely call their continuing practice of Displacement Theology "Nazarene Judaism" or directly plagiarize the name "Netzarim."

Because we teach and practice the authentic Judaic teachings of Ribi Yehoshua—not Displacement Theology—we are the only group who have restored the Netzarim to be accepted in the legitimate Jewish community in Israel—genuinely like Ribi Yehoshua and the original Netzarim. Consequently, the 'Netzarim Quarter' is the only web site of legitimate Netzarim / Nazarene Judaism.

Give all the friends you've ever known the chance to know about this exciting site; send them our web site address (www.netzarim.co.il) that opens modern eyes for the first time to the Judaic world that Ribi Yehoshua and his original Netzarim knew, practiced and taught.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.03.25]

Amaleiq
Click to enlargeMap: Israel ca. B.C.E. 1000

Ë•dom ("Red [clay]," later Idumea, was the nation south of Yâm ha-Mëlakh of the Arabs descended from Ei•sâu, who was renamed Ë•dom, a cognate of (â•dom; red)—a reference to the pot of red lentils for which he sold his birthright. See also Har Ei•saw.

(Ë•dom•i), pl. (Ë•dom•im), is an Edomite or Idumean.

As Ei•sâu was born of the same mother as Ya•a•qov, yet became an Arab patriarch, Ei•sâu is proof that the racist argument of simply being born of a Jewish mother or having Jewish DNA isn't sufficient to make one a Jew. Abandoning Tor•âh excludes even one born of a Jewish mother from Yi•sᵊr•â•eil and from being a Jew.

The most infamous Ë•dom•i was the grandson of Ei•sâu: ! Remember!

Ancient Ë•dom (later Idumea) today comprises part of the Israeli Nëgëv and southwestern Jordan. Today's Ei•dom•im (Edomites, Idumeans) are the Arabs of Jordan.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.04.21]

Eid•âh; pl. (eid•ot), compound forms: sing. □- (ad•at-…), pl. □- (ad•ot-…); evidentiary testimony, as of an (eid; eyewitness; witness); collectively, of a group of witnesses (in the sense of subpoenaed; popularly assembly, congregation; more accurately convocation). This noun derives from the verb (yâ•ad; he appointed, designated, convoked). See also cognate Mo•eid.

– Jews of Middle Eastern origin, Middle Eastern Jews in contrast to Ash•kᵊnazim and Sᵊphârâd•im, both of which are European Jews.

Jews from middle-eastern countries preserve more authentic traditions than the European-accultured Ash•kᵊnazim and Sᵊphâ•râd•im.

Tei•mân•im are one of the .

eid•ut; evidence, physical evidence, physical proof, which Moshëh placed in the (Shᵊm•ot 40.20, inter alia).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Eikh•âh; "how?"; Hellenized (Hellenized) to "Lamentations." Written by Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu ha-Nâ•vi, this is the third of the five Mᵊgil•âh.

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, Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.05.15]

ël•oh•im (masc. collective pl.); "gods and goddesses." (There was no capitalization in Hebrew nor in other ancient languages. Use of a capital letter to distinguish "God" from "god" is an artificial introduction into modern languages that was non-existent in their roots.) This noun is almost always confined to the plural, meaning "the gods"; as in the Shᵊm•a: ‑‑ Alone, though a Singularity, is sing. (for Yi•sᵊr•â•eil) "all of the gods to us"!

<s>il</s>
il – Ugaritic cuneiform; equates to Hebrew and Arabic Al•lah.

The etymology is uncertain and disputed (Ernest Klein, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English, p. 28). Scholars disagree concerning the anomalous and enigmatic singular form. Because has a different plural form, (Eil•im), most scholars consider Ël•oh•im to be the plural of ël•oh•a. It follows neither the typical masc. nor fem. pattern. Confounded scholars, disagreeing among themselves, have performed numerous contortions of gi•matri•yâh, introducing a infix and capriciously assigned the fem. construct to the masc. gender. Yet, the distortion should tell scholars something basic: this was a term that was deliberately distorted out of existence; excised from the Hebrew lexicon—and that is what Tor•âh commanded regarding the names of an idol (Shᵊm•ot 23.13; Dᵊvâr•im 12.3; Yᵊho•shua 23.7)!!!

il Canaanite creator idol, Megido
il — truncated to or distorted to (to displace both il and its consort goddess, il•âh), to avoid uttering the name of the Kᵊna•an•im creator god; found at Mᵊgidō, or its consort goddess.

Only recognition of the tell-tale Judaic excision of the idol name clarifies the enigma: the deliberately distorted substitute term, (also spelled ) has blotted-out the original idol name ()—lingering in the Arab cognate: Al•lah.

From earliest times in ancient Egypt and the Near East, men of great renown, especially the Pharaohs, were believed to achieve the status of . Hence, man-Gods – until Avᵊrâ•hâm.

Subsequently, within Am Yi•sᵊrâ•eil, not even Shi•mᵊsh•on (Hellenized to "Samson") was regarded as an ! With Avᵊrâ•hâm, all notions and "versions" of became exclusive to -- alone (note Shᵊm•a, below); while among the goy•im man-Gods would continue to range from Amun and Hōrus Pharaoh gods to the Greco-Roman pantheon of Ζεύς culminating in Jesus.

In the dim haze of antiquity, the narrator of bᵊ-Reish•it speculates the origins of these human- in the prehistoric Near East:

The blurring and intersecting of all of these terms seems to derive from the ancient Egyptian belief that mighty Pharaohs projected themselves into planets and stars, their reputations being exaggerated into man-God status. This suggests that, behind all of the ancient Gods may have been some great warrior whose reputation was exaggerated into man-God status.

Today, we aren't phased, and don't think supernatural beings if a struggling entrepreneur refers to a venture capitalist investor as an "angel." Likely, neither did ancient soldiers when their great warrior "saving angel" appeared on the battlefield. Only later, when memory of the real person has faded, does the exaggerated reputation, through the retelling of "tall tales," inflate them to god – or "angel" – status.

The English term God derives from the name of the heathen idol of fortune and the uttering of its name is, therefore, the application of ones tongue, which is supposed to be kept holy, into an idolatrous practice. Uttering the term "God" transgresses Tor•âh (Shᵊm•ot 23.13; Dᵊvâr•im 12.3 and Yᵊho•shua 23.7).

Understanding the meaning of Ëlohim is the key enabling the decoding the Shᵊm•a: "Hearken Yi•sᵊr•â•eil! ' is [note the singular form] our Ëlohim. [Note that this is plural] ' is the Singularity." With the Shᵊm•a, the Jews daily declare that, for us, ' encapsulates all of the ëlohim.

Rather than denoting a "royal we," as popularly asserted, denotes that, for Israel and the Patriarchs, -- is a Singularity; i.e., all of the forces that goy•im had reckoned to be , Israel attributed to a Singularity; displacing all of the (Gods) of the goy•im.— as recited in the Shᵊm•a.

has been de-Judaized and thoroughly Hellenized—idolized—to the heathen (God; pronounced God by all but the Tei•mân•im) and anglicized to "Gad" to conceal its pagan origin.

Rakh•eil named one of her children Gâd (God, pronounced identically), after one of the idols that she stole from her father's house. (She named another son Ashër, the masc. form of the Goddess from which Easter derives—the other of her idols). Two of the 10 Lost Tribes, neither exist today.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Eil•i•yâhu, "My Eil is --"; Hellenized (de-Judaized (Hellenized)) to "Elijah"

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.11.30]

Eimëq, a long nakhal (vale), typically including an emanating plateau or its culminating plain.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ei•phod; apron (vest in ancient times)

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.01.24]

A great mixture, mingling or convergence (e.g., of goy•im, Shᵊm•ot 12.38).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Eiruv - which wire? (Phoenix)

Ei•ruv; confluence, convergence. A boundary delineating and enclosing a communal area that is, by means of symbolic mutual ownership, defined as a private-communal domain wherein one may carry on Shab•ât without transgressing the prohibition against carrying in public.



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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.04.15]

Eisau-Edom, capital: Mt. Seiir (''Bozrah'')
Click to enlargeEi•sâu-Εd•ōm and capital, Mt. Seiir (, corrupted to "Bozrah")
Batzrah ruins (Har Seeir)
Click to enlargeHar Seiir – ruins of ancient capital, (corrupted to "Bozrah")

Ei•sâu (done), from the verb (â•sâh; he did, he made), referring to his hairy-red "done" look at birth; Hellenized (de-Judaized) to "Eesau"

As Ei•sâu was born of the same mother as Ya•a•qov, yet was an Arab (the Εd•om•i tribe), Ei•sâu is proof that simply being born of a Jewish mother or having Jewish DNA isn't sufficient to make one a Jew by the Biblical standard. Abandoning Tor•âh excludes even one born of a Jewish mother from Yi•sᵊr•â•eil and from the definition of a Jew.

Because Ei•sâu traded his birthright inheritance for a pot of " " lintel stew (bᵊ-Reish•it 25.30), he became called , patriarch of the tribe of Arabs.

Hellenist Pan
Hellenist Greco-Roman Pan

Because Ya•a•qov declared to his mother, Râ•kheil, that (bᵊ-Reish•it 27.11), the name – goat-like or satyr-like – has also been associated with -. As a result, - has been associated with the Greek satyr idol Pan.

That -- settled and conquered the land of the Sᵊir•im, - (capital of Ë•dōm at Bâ•tzᵊr•âh), firmly corroborated the association. This association with the Greek satyr idol Pan, in turn, shares a connection with Sâ•tân. This resulted in becoming the symbol of Sâ•tân – and Hellenist Greek – Christian – Rome! This connection, in turn, further connected (see Sâ•tân) with the "Great Whore of Babylon, the Mesopotamian idol Ishtar (morphed into Greek Aphrodite, morphed into Roman Venus, morphed into Latin Lucifer).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.01.20]

eish; fire

The Biblical precept was demonstratively directed at prohibiting the mᵊlâkh•âh involved in the ancient method of collecting kindling and manually kindling a fire. The man in bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbar 15.32ff who was executed, was executed for gathering and preparing kindlingmᵊlâkh•âh, not for "lighting a fire"! He never even got as far as lighting his fire! more

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.04.08]

goat Nubian buck kid

Eiz; goat. Compare & contrast with ayil, tal•ëh, këvës, tzon and sëh.



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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.07.13]

 (eizov; hyssop, Origanum-syriacum
Click to enlarge

According to legend, this "Israel sage" (Salvia palaestina Benth., Biblical "hyssop") was the inspiration for the Mᵊnor•âh. This is an endangered and protected plant in Israel – strictly enforced.

ei•zōv; (sprig of) hyssop (Origanum syriacum; Syrian oregano).


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EJ [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Encyclopedia Judaica (also Ency. Jud.)

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εκκλησια [Updated: 2011.04.03]

(ek•klæ•sia)

Hellenist Roman (increasingly gentile) churchnot a Pᵊrush•im (= modern Orthodox) - of Nᵊtzâr•im (who were Jews and geir•im praying according to Tor•âh liturgy; not gentiles).

- was Hellenized (see, inter alia, LXX) to συναγωγη (su•na•gō•gæ; anglicized to synagogue).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.06.03]

ë•lil, pl. , combinative pl. …-; feckless-deity, false god; i.e., an idol.

See Yᵊsha•yâhu 19.1 (…); Yᵊkhë•zᵊq•eil 34; Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 10.21; 23.1-8; 3.15; Zᵊkhar•yâh 11.16-17 ( ); as cause of internal schism, see Israel's Main Threat: Schismatic Sinkhole

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ël•i•shâ, "My Eil shall save"; Hellenized (de-Judaized (Hellenized)) to "Elisha"

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.09.28]

Ë•mor, pl. Ë•mor•im; known as Amurra in Akkadian and Sumerian. A Semitic, and apparently nomadic, people of B.C.E. 21st to 17th centuries who controlled the regions of present-day Lebanon, Syria and southern Iraq (Babylon). Colonized areas of southern Kᵊna•an around Yâm ha-Mëlakh and Khë•vᵊr•on and the two regions of the east bank of Nᵊhar Ya•rᵊd•ein of Mo•âv, later granted to God, and Bashan (or Basan), part of which was subsequently awarded as the eastern half of Mᵊnash•ëh.

Egypt & Kᵊnaan, BCE 1570-1200
Click to enlargeMi•tzᵊrayim & Kᵊna•an, BCE 1570-1200
Tribes of Israel
Click to enlargeShi•vᵊt•ei Yi•sᵊr•â•eil

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ë•mët; Truth.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.07.02]

Ë•mun•âh; state of trained proficiency and reliability inducing trustworthiness or faithfulness; also, the resulting "faith" or "belief-system" satisfying that description—defined by, and according to the standards of, Tor•âh. The Hebrew noun "coach" is a cognate: (mᵊ•a•mein). See also This is the accurate Hebrew term underlying the grossly inadequate Hellenizations as "belief" and "faith"; particularly in the NT.

The hiph•il verb bin•yân is (hë•ë•min; he trusted, he had faith, he believed).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.11.02]

Ë•phᵊr•ayim; from hi•phᵊrahni. more

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Επιφανιος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Ep•i•phani•os); Anglicized to Epiphanius)

Christian (Catholic) Bishop of Salamis, Cyprus (c. 315—404 C.E.); born in Judea and educated in the Hellenist center of Egypt; author of "Against Heresies" (Haer.) and Panarion (Pan.); a defender of western Catholicism (Rome) against eastern Catholicism and an antagonist of Origen.

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ἐπίσκοπος [Updated: 2014.06.17]

(ë•piskop•os)

bishop, pope from epi, over, and skopos, to watch, to supervise; i.e, , overseer, German übermeister; Hellenist (Greek) translation — gentilization, Hellenization (Christianization), usurpation and counterfeiting — of (Pâ•qid)

O.E. papa, from M.L. papa "bishop, pope" (in classical L., "tutor"), from Gk. papas "patriarch, bishop," originally "father." Applied to [ἐπίσκοπος (bishops)] of Asia Minor and taken as a title by the [ἐπίσκοπος (Bishop)] of Alexandria c.250. In Western Church, applied especially to the [ἐπίσκοπος (Bishop)] of Rome [i.e., Pope] since the time of Leo the Great (440-461 [C.E.]) and claimed exclusively by them from 1073 [C.E.]. (etymonline.com).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ërëv; dusk (i.e. convergence or confluence), eve (of…). By Jewish reckoning, the day begins at ërëv, not dawn or midnight as reckoned by the Romans and other Goy•im.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.04.30]

Ō•sin; those who are doing or making, doers or makers (Aramaic, pres. m.p.); parallels Hebrew ; Hellenized to Εσσηνοι ("Essenes").

The Qum•rân Tzᵊdoq•im were called because Aramaic was popular and they were well known (in Hebrew) as the of their interpretation of Oral Law, which was a cognate from this same verb root:

The rabbis referred to the (Mishᵊnâh ,Suk•âh 5.4) as " " Although translators generally translate these as two groups behaving as one, there is no reason to think of them as two groups. "Men of the " were known to be . These were " [who were] (also) " – the "Essenes."

In B.C.E. 175, the rabid Hellenist ko•hein, Yәho•shua Bën-Shim•on Jr. Bën-Tzâ•doq (Hellenized to Jason), went to Syria, who then ruled over Yᵊhudâh, and purchased from king Antiochus IV Epiphanes the office of Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol. He thereby usurped his own brother, Yәkhon•yâh Bën-Shim•on Jr. Bën-Tzâ•doq ha-Ko•hein (Hellenized to Onias III), who had been Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol. Having assumed the office of Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol, Yәho•shua Bën-Shim•on Jr. set about Hellenizing both the office of Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol and the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh. This created a permanent schism in what had formerly been the Kha•sid•im. The rift developed between the nouveau, Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im and the original Kha•sid•im whom they displaced. After the split, the remaining original Kha•sid•im seem to have been expelled from the Hellenized "Temple" principally to Qum•rân, as the " ," whom the rabbis called .

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.08.28]

Megilat Esteir (nosachteiman.co.il)

Ësteir, Hellenized to Esther; from Persian (Iranian) sitareh "star" and name of their pagan Goddess; by which Persians (modern Iranians) called (Ha•das•âh; fem. of "myrtle"), the heroin in the Mᵊgil•at Ësteir who lived in the Tᵊphutz•âh of West Iran (Susa, Persia).

This name is the same deity as "Ashtarte", Ashtoret, Ishtar, Esotera and Easter). The name is also related to "astral" and astrology.

The Scroll of Ësteir, a book of the Kᵊtuv•im, is last of the five Megilot.

The Nᵊtzâr•im prefer to use her Hebrew name, Ha•dasah.

(ha•das; "myrtle"; pl. , ha•das•im) is the "kâ•sheir" (Israeli triple-pinnate myrtle branches) comprising the lu•lâv. Return to Previous Page
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Lulav & etrog Teimani

Ët•rog; citron. Somewhat like an oversized lemon, the Ët•rog used by the Yemenite Jews is a special variety, different from the Ët•rog used by other Jews.



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Ευσεβιος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Eu•sëbi•os); Anglicized to Eusebius)

(260—340 C.E.) Palestinian-born Greek Hellenist Catholic Christian Church apologist and bishop of Kei•sari•yah ("Caesarea"), Israel, and earliest extant Church historian; see Eccl. Hist.

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Ευτυχιος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Eutukhios; Anglicized to Eutychius. Arab birth name: Sa•id Ibn-Batriq.

(ca. 876 C.E.—940.05.11 C.E.) Egyptian Arab Catholic Christian patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt. His writings are in Arabic (Catholic Encyclopedia).

"…from the late account of [Sa•id Ibn-Batriq] (PG 111, 1012-13) that, just at this time, the faithful while they were leaving the church on Easter day, were forced to eat pork under pain of death. We know how the [Ëv•yon•im and any last remnants of the Nᵊtzâr•im who may have survived 135 C.E. into the 4th century—there was no such thing as the oxymoronic "Judaeo-Christians"] refused this in order not to transgress the Mosaic law to which they held they were bound" (Sa•id Ibn-Batriq in Bellarmino Bagatti, The Church from the Circumcision, Yᵊru•shâ•layim: Franciscan Press, 1971, p. 13-14ff).

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-Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Even Bokhan

Ëvën Bo•khan; The Touchstone (abbreviated EB), the earliest extant complete source text for Hebrew Ma•tit•yâhu, compiled by Sheim-Tov Bën-Yi•tzᵊkhâq Bën-Sha•pᵊr•ut in Spain, for polemical purposes, ca. 1380 C.E.

In Bible Review (Winter 1986, p. 15), George Howard—Emeritus Head of the Department of Religion and Professor of Religion at the University of Georgia—argues that EB reflects the ancient Hebrew ms. Top scholars increasingly agree that, just as Eu•sëbi•os documented, the original version of The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English), note 1.0.1). EB is, as of this writing, the earliest extant complete Hebrew ms. of Ma•tit•yâhu (Hellenized to "Matthew"). Its integrity within the Hebrew-Ma•tit•yâhu tradition remains unresolved (Hellenized to Greek Matthew).

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Εβιονιτών / pl. Ἐβιωναῖοι / Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.09.25]

Ëb•i•ō•naῖoi, later anglicized to "Ebionites". This name was transliterated into Greek from the Hebrew , based on the gift-giving to the inaugurated in Ës•teir 9.22:

The language and culture chasm, sharply demonstrated in MMT, between the Pᵊrush•im (who included Ribi Yᵊho•shua and his original Nᵊtzâr•im followers) and the Hellenists (including the Roman occupiers and proto-Christians who, after 135 C.E., were syncretized into Christianity), has gone unrecognized. One cannot understand 1st century Judaism without fully grappling with this chasm just as they did. more

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ëzᵊr•â; "[--] helps, assists" (Aramaic); a book in the Kᵊtuv•im.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.04.22]

ë•zᵊrâkh, pl. (ë•zᵊrâkh•im); a homeborn (in modern parlance, "born Jew") or native; modern: citizen. This was one whose name had been inscribed in the yu•khas•in (public genealogical registries), which included 10 categories of (Ma•sëkët Qidush•in 69a-b and detailed explanation in Atonement In the Biblical 'New Covenant' (ABNC)) – until shortly after 135 C.E., when the Romans destroyed all but two of the yu•khas•in. See also geir.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.04.04]

Ëz•rat Yi•sᵊ•râ•eil; the Courtyard of Israel – the inner courtyard surrounding the Beit ha-Miq•dâsh.

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The Five Species (Kinds, of Grain)[Updated: 2006.04.27]

    (According to Ency. Jud., 6.1332)

  1. Khitim  hard wheat; Triticum durumKhitim  common winter wheat; Triticum vulgare (aestivum)

    (hard wheat {Genus: Triticum Species: duram} and bread wheat {Genus: Triticum Species: vulgare}) — modern Hebrew: wheat.


  2. Kusᵊmin  rice wheat; Triticum dicoccum

    (rice wheat {Genus: Triticum Species: dicoccum}) — modern Hebrew: spelt.


  3. Shiphon  spelt; Triticum spelta

    (spelt {Genus: Triticum Species: spelta}) — modern Hebrew: rye, which did not grow in ancient Israel.


  4. Sᵊorim  6-rowed barley; Horedeum sativumSᵊorim  4-rowed barley; Horedeum vulgare

    ‭ ‬ (6-rowed barley {Genus: Hordeum Species: sativum} and 4-rowed barley {Genus: Hordeum Species: vulgare}) — modern Hebrew: barley.


  5. Shibolet shuâl  2-rowed barley; Horedeum distichum

    ‭ ‬ (2-rowed barley {Genus: Hordeum Species: distichum}) — modern Hebrew: oats, which did not grow in ancient Israel.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.04.19]

Gâ•dōl fem. gᵊdōl•âh, big, large; the adjective used to describe the "Great" Sanhedrin and the "High" Priest (lit. the Big Beit-Din and Big Ko•hein, respectively).

When prefixed by the specifier, (hâ-; "the"), the (gâ•dol) receives a dâ•geish, which Tei•mân•im pronounce "j" rather than "g" (like other Israelis): hâ-Jâ•dol.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Galil (gogalilee.org)

Gâ•lil, Hellenized to "Galilee"



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Pronunciation TableHear it! [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Gâl•ut; the countries of the Exile. See also Tᵊphutz•âh.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.25]

Jam•liy•eil. This is the Yemenite Jewish pronunciation. Other Jews pronounce this "Gamlieil" (or Gamliel).

Nâ•si of the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol ("Gamaliel, Rabban," EJ 7:295) beginning ca. 20 C.E. (Chronology of the Tanakh from the Big (nât•âh; Stretch-Apart) (see also Ta•na"kh and Big Stretch-Apart)).

Filtering, as far as possible, all Christian redactions and interpretations and translating directly from the earliest extant source documents to reconstruct Hebrew Ma•a•vâr 5.34-40:

"And a certain man of the rabbinic-Pᵊrush•im in the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol named Jam•liy•eil, a teacher of Tor•âh esteemed by all of the kinsmen, rose up and ordered that the [Nᵊtzâr•im] Shᵊlikh•im be excused from [the proceedings] for a short time. Then he addressed the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol saying,

'Men, Bᵊn•ei-Yi•sᵊr•â•eil, take heed to yourselves what you intend to impose upon these men; for in earlier days [Hellenist Greek] Theudas rose up claiming to be the Mâ•shiakh and had a following of about 400 men. He was taken up, and as many as were persuaded by him dispersed and came to nothing. After him, in the days of the census, Yᵊhud•âh of the Gâ•lil rose up and incited the am to stray and follow him. But he was finally brought to an end and as many as were persuaded by him dispersed. And now I tell you, Turn aside from these men, tolerate them, because if this counsel or this work is of men it will cease. But if it be of Ël•oh•im, then you will not be able to make them cease and, in that case, you would also be found to be fighters against Ël•oh•im…'

"So the Pᵊrush•im-dominated Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol was persuaded by him but, having recalled the Shᵊlikh•im, the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im whipped them and conveyed instructions to them that they should not speak in the name of Ribi Yᵊho•shua, and released them."

Until ca. 20 C.E., the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol had been predominated by the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im. It wasn't Pᵊrush•im (predecessors of today's Orthodox rabbis) who defied the explicit instruction of their first, and very own, Pᵊrush•im Nâ•si, Jam•liy•eil, and the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol to whip the Nᵊtzâr•im or order them to cease.

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-Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.12.09]

Gan Eidën; Eidën Park, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "the Garden of Eden."

The Biblical description locates Gan Eidën at an intersection of rivers that, today, could only be under the Persian Gulf. Now, Jeffrey Rose, an archeologist from the University of Birmingham in the U.K. has discovered evidence of an ancient civilization—under the Persian Gulf. "…this 'Persian Gulf Oasis' may have been host to humans for over 100,000 years before it was swallowed up by the Indian Ocean around 8,000 years ago… Historical sea level data show that, prior to the flood, the Gulf basin would have been above water beginning about 75,000 years ago. And it would have been an ideal refuge from the harsh deserts surrounding it, with fresh water supplied by the Tigris, Euphrates, Karun, and Wadi Baton Rivers, as well as by underground springs." ("Lost civilization under Persian Gulf," Univ. of Chicago Press Journals, www.eurekalert.org, accessed 2010.12.09).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.02.24]

– Hellenized to "Gethsemane." Return to Previous Page
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.11.11]

gâ•on; excellence, genius; pl. (gᵊ•on•im; MH: heads of Jewish academies, 7th- 11th centuries C.E.

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- also Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.09.14]

Gei-Hinom (Ravine/Gorge of Hinom): hell

Jei-Hi•nom and contraction Gei•hi•nom (Hellenized to (γεεννα; geenna; corrupted to "Gehenna"); "Ravine of Hi•nom"; the ravine coming north from the direction of Beit Lëkhëm (southeast), intersecting with the Qidron Valley at the southeast corner of Yᵊru•shâ•layim, and, principally, running east-west across the south side of Yᵊru•shâ•layim. Jei-Hi•nom is where was located. was the site of the worship of , consisting of "burning children in the fire."

is a deliberate dysphemism of , "the original vowels being changed and patterned after the vocalization of boshët, 'shame,' which was often used as an intentional substitute for Baal" (ibid.).

There is no "hell" in the Bible. "Hell" is an innovation of Roman Hellenist Christians. The only word mistranslated as "hell" in the King James [per]Version (KJ/V) of 1611 C.E. is .

The notion of "hell" arose out of the Biblical principle of tzëdëq, "an eye for an eye" (interpreted and applied by the Bat•ei-Din as monetary compensation), implying that punishment should fit the a•veir•âh against Tor•âh. Therefore, one would reason, just as some crimes and evil is worse than other crimes and evil, so some punishment should, accordingly, be worse than other punishment; there must be degrees of punishment. The rabbis reasoned (mistakenly, as you'll see below) that the same principle must apply in hâ-o•lâm ha-bâ. Hence, death must not be the end for evil people who never suffered appropriate punishment in this life. Such people die deserving more punishment. That's the human view of tzëdëq. Therefore, they reasoned, there must be a "hell" where such punishment is meted out to evil people in the same degree as the evil they perpetrated.

However, this reasoning is not found anywhere in the Bible; nor is there any direct support for this reasoning.

The notion of "the fires of hell" may, perversely, derive from the description of the "Fourth " being to the holy (by definition) - emanating from the of the (Dân•i•eil 7.9-11).

Appended to this reasoning was the human instinct that fire is probably the most painful and torturous—punishing—death possible; hence, burning alive in fire must be the punishment for the worst crimes and evil.

On the southeast side of Yᵊru•shâ•layim in ancient times, in the valley called -, at a place called , mᵊshum•âd•im adopted idolatrous rites of passage to adulthood, dedicating them to baal by requiring their sons and their daughters to walk between fires, or jump through hoops of fire or, most likely, walk on fiery coals. Contrary to popular misconceptions, they were dedicated—perhaps "married" to, not sacrificed, to baal. In the Bible, this is called "pass[ing] their sons and their daughters to . This is how these terms became associated with "hell." Today, in this valley, the last I knew they were selling T-shirts reading "My parents went to hell and all I got was this lousy T-shirt" or "I've been to hell and back."

These passages in Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu were cited to support their reasoning: 7.31-32; 19.2, 6 & 32.35.

All of this, however, is human reasoning; not Biblical instruction. If it were such a key principle, it could not have been entirely absent from the Bible. It's even more suspicious that it's found only in Hellenist doctrines.

Its absence in the Bible suggests that, contrary to human reasoning based on a deterrent (and sometimes vengeful) perception of tzëdëq necessary in this world, -- appears to deem degrees of punishment unnecessary in the non-dimensional hâ-o•lâm ha-bâ.

The Compassionate ha-Sheim, being Perfect, cannot commune with imperfection. To mingle with imperfection would render Him imperfect, which cannot be permitted.

Thus, a Perfect Singularity could only admit perfection to His eternal, non-dimensional hâ-o•lâm ha-bâ.

While we cannot attain perfection on our own, Tor•âh provides that those who do their utmost to keep Tor•âh obtain ki•pur resulting in perfection by the of --.

This describes a binary state: 1=Perfect; 0=Not Perfect. The linear, analog "eye for an eye" of this world, where we need training, appears to give way, in the non-dimensional realm beyond this life, to an absolute {0,1} binary outcome. 1=Life (Torah-keepers), 0=Not (All others)Contrary to the linear analog paradigm of degrees of punishment in payment for degrees of transgression of Tor•âh, necessary as long as we're in training in this life, every indication in the Bible implies that the operative system in the design of the non-dimensional realm after this world is discrete and binary: 1=life continuing after death for Tor•âh-keepers, or 0=not, for all others (goy•im).

Life in the non-dimensional world is solely for those who are compatible with -- without need of punishment. Why, then, would punishment exist? The rest seems to be scare tactics of Christian clerics (the teaching of "hell" is virtually absent outside of Hellenist Christianity) trying to motivate people into following their teaching.

There is no Biblical instruction concerning those who are not transitioned to spiritual life in the non-dimensional hâ-o•lâm ha-bâ. However, we may conjecture that it may be like before our own life: simply "not."

Transliterated in LXX as γεεννα (geenna, Hellenized to "gehinna"), the symbolism of the "fires" of "gehenna" (corrupted from Gei-Hi•nom) were associated with "hell" from Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu and Mᵊnor•at ha-Mâ•or (") to The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) 5:22, 29, 30; et al. Scholars have shown (cf. "Moloch, Cult of," Ency. Jud. 12.230-3), however, that the "burning" of children was only a symbolic marriage ritual dedicating boys to be priests, or girls to be mistresses, of Molakh Hadad aka Mithra aka Helios aka Zeus, aka the sun God, Shëmësh, whose consort was Ashtart (aka Ishtar, aka Easter).

The Book of Jubilees (30.7ff) demonstrates that the "burning of children to Molakh" ritual marriage referred to intermarriage (then a parental decision). "The common denominator of all these traditions is the understanding of [Molakh] worship as the transfer of Jewish children to paganism either by delivering them directly to pagan priests or by procreation through intercourse with a pagan woman… This is supported by the fact that in some cases it is explicitly specified that the offender will dedicate his sons as priests to [H]adad and his daughters as hierodules to Ishtar" (ibid.).

Thus, the "sin of Molakh is intermarriage and/or assimilation!

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Pronunciation TableHear it! [Updated: 2014.07.01]

Geir (recognized – i.e., adjudicated – by a Beit-Din to be a "legal alien"); one of 10 categories of persons inscribed in the yu•khas•in (public genealogy registries of Yi•sᵊrâ•eil; Ma•sëkët Qi•dush•in 69a-b; see detailed explanation in Atonement In the Biblical 'New Covenant' (ABNC)).

Onᵊqᵊlos illuminates some of the range of meaning of in his Aramaic Tar•gum of Shᵊm•ot 21.20, translating in the first instance, but in the last instance. When "sojourning" outside of Israel, the Jew is a geir ("Diaspora Jew" – Homey Or Geir?)

The Biblical — and Ram•ba"m — definition of (i.e., before Medieval European – in contrast to Har Sin•ai – reforms) referred to an in-training, exclusively pre-conversion, non-Jew proselyte-candidate. The reason that the Kha•khâm•im of Tal•mud described such a wide (and otherwise contradictory) range of practices for geir•im is because they were describing geir•im in various stages of learning, from day-one (knowing nothing except the threshhold Shëva Mi•tzᵊw•ot Bᵊn•ei Noakh) until fully knowledgeable, practicing and ready for conversion.

"It was only during the later [Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh ha-Shein•i] period that a sharp distinction and a barrier of separation was erected between the Jew and the gentile… In addition to [idolatry] the low moral, social, and ethical standards of the surrounding gentiles were continually emphasized, and social contact with them was regarded as being a pernicious social and moral influence… Only considerations of humanity, such as relief of their poor, visiting the sick, affording them last rites (Ma•sëkët Git•in 61a) and discretion… were reasons for breaking the otherwise impenetrable barrier" ("Gentile," EJ, 7.410-412). more

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.07]

get

Geit (corrupted to "get"); a certificate of divorce granted by a Beit Din.



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"Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.07]

Gᵊma"kh, acronym for (gᵊmil•ut khësëd; khësëd fund); a benevolent fund, administered by a Beit ha-kᵊnësët or Beit Din, providing interest-free loans for needy Jews, which are repayable as the debtor is able and forgiven if the debtor cannot repay the loan.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.01.27]

(Gᵊmâr•â; concluded, i.e. well-solved) commentary of the A•mor•ayim on the Mish•nâh. The term Gᵊmâr•â is often applied to Tal•mud as a whole.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Gᵊniz•âh storage area for discarding sacred objects, and books containing the Name, so that they will not be desecrated by ordinary means of disposal.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.10.05]

ji•lul, pl. (ji•lul•im). (Israeil pronunciations: gi•lul, pl. gi•lul•im) derives from (jâ•lâl; he rolled, rolled away) with cognate (jâ•lâl; rolls or balls of dung). Vowelized like shi•qutz, gi•lul•im is used euphemistically of idols.

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Γερουσια [Updated: 2011.04.01]

(Gë•rou•sia)

Senate. A council of elders (from [γερων] gerōn, an old man, a term which early assumed a political sense among the Greeks, the notion of age being merged in that of dignity)" (Vine, W.E., An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words (Iowa Falls, Iowa: Riverside Book and Bible House, [no date], p. 1014). This was the Hellenist term for the Zᵊqan•im.

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[Updated: 2006.04.27]

Gi•ma•tri•yâh; numerology. Though there are several methods of encryption, the following is the usual convention.

(âlëph) =1
(beit) = 2
(gimël) = 3
(dâlët) = 4
(hei) = 5
(wâw (vâv)) = 6
(zayin) = 7
(kheit) = 8
(teit) = 9
(yud) = 10
/ (kaph/kaph soph•it) = 20
(lâmëd) = 30
/ (mëm/mëm soph•it) = 40
/ (nun/nun soph•it) = 50
(sâmëkh) = 60
(ayin) = 70
/ (pei/pei soph•it) = 80
/ (tzâdëh/tzadëh soph•it) = 90
(quph) = 100
(rësh) = 200
(shin/sin) = 300
(tâw (tâv)) = 400

See also Si•mân and Biblical numerology.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.10.26]

god (fate, destiny), skygod Amun-Ra Zeus Jupiter
Click to enlargeGod (sky and lightning god of fate, destiny and chief god.

God ( Gâd, god and gâd); sky & lightning god of fate, destiny – associated sacred animal is the eagle (often holding a thunderbolt in its talons), and sacred tree is the oak; evolved from the ram-headed Egyptian Amun-Ra, later evolved into Hellenist Ζεύς (Roman Jupiter); origin of English "God"; also name of Ya•a•qov's 7th son (mother: Zi•lᵊp•âh, Leiâh's maid).

The kᵊtiv of bᵊ-Reish•it 30.11, , means "by God!," similar to the form (la•gad; for God) in Yᵊsha•yâhu 65.11 (in contrast to the qᵊrei of bᵊ-Reish•it 30.11, (bō gâd; [sky-]god comes!).

The form (Gad•i; "My God") is found in bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbar 13.10-11.

The cognate (gᵊdi; goat-kid) perhaps led to the association, with the adoption of some features (e.g., the ram's horns) of the Egyptian idol, Amun-Ra = Ammon, as in Ammonites = Amman, origin of the name of the capital of Jordan.

As the deity of the sky & lightning,   I•yov  Jove   (Anglicized to "Job") was regarded as the chief god. Later, evolved (Hellenized by the Greeks) to Ζεύς and Roman (Latinized directly from Jove to) Jupiter.

For heirs of Avᵊrâ•hâm, Yi•tzᵊkhâq and Yi•sᵊr•â•eil, ‑‑ has always been our Only "Ël•oh•im" (see the Shᵊm•a).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.04.22]

Jo•eil (popularly go•eil; requiter, avenger; also the verb "requite" or "avenge"; less accurately "redeemer."

 

derives from the verb (ga•al; he requited, avenged or redeemed). (jo•eil ha-dâm) means "requiter (i.e. avenger) of blood." (jo•eil Yi•sᵊr•â•eil) means "requiter (i.e. avenger) of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil."

( jᵊul•âh), a fem. noun, means restorative (redeeming) requital (e.g., reacquiring a previously-owned field—the case of the land of Yis•râ•eil today—or purchasing the freedom of an enslaved relative—the case of the people of Yis•râ•eil today); especially the redeeming retaliation and retribution—Vengeance—of --, on behalf of His kindred Israel, against the Goy•im, i.e. the 'Day of --,' the 'Last Day' and the Great Day of His mi•shᵊpât—which is the definition of Israel's redemption. Over centuries of persecution by the Church, translators have been cowed into neutralizing the translation to the misleading "Day of Redemption" rather than the correct 'Day of the Vengeance of --' against the Goy•im.

See also pâd•âh redeem(er) / ransom(er).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2009.05.11]

Goy; a people. Plural (goy•im; peoples) Pronounced by Tei•mân•im, when reading the Bible, as "joy" and "joyim." (In profane conversation, Tei•mân•im use the Israeli pronunciation.)

Tor•âh refers to Yi•sᵊr•â•eil as a goy in bᵊ-Reish•it 35.11-12 et al.) Nevertheless, the usual term for the Jewish people is .

Meaning "people," not a person, no individual can properly be called a goy (a people). Accordingly, a goy equates to "a people," not "a gentile." Hebrew doesn't even have a word for gentile (which is why goy•im—"the [other] peoples" is used). The closest Hebrew translation for "a gentile" would be a (lo Yᵊhud•i; a non-Jew) and the plural, "gentiles," would be the plural in Hebrew: (lo Yᵊhud•im; non-Jews).

Generally used in the plural, although goy•im (the peoples) includes Yᵊhud•im as a goy, the term is generally used by Yᵊhud•im referring to "the [other] peoples" (in contrast to Yᵊhud•im as a goy). Hence, the popular connotation.

probably derives from (geiv, Tei•mân•im jeiv; back, as the posterior part of a body from the neck to the end of the spine and, by extension, the body (although the proper word for body is ). Accordingly, connotes "an ethnic body."

The use of (goy•âh or joy•âh) for a gentile woman is a modern Hebrew innovation unknown in earlier Hebrew.

Also related and similarly derived from , is (gᵊwi•yâh or jᵊwi•yâh); a dead body, corpse or cadaver—probably deriving from the image of many backs littering a battlefield or after a plague.

The only correct term for "gentile" is documented from the warning stone and is non-Hebrew, a warning in Greek barring αλλογενης (allogeneis; another species, kind; i.e. gentiles) from approaching any closer to the Beit-ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh ha-Shein•i. Αλλογενης, mentioned only once in the entire NT, refers there to an "almost-Jew" (Samaritan, Lu. 17:18). English translators injected "gentiles" and "Greeks" into the NT as part of their Displacement Theology where even the Hellenist Romans didn't (see Ελλενης (elleneis) and Εθνος (ethnos).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

ha- or - prefix (depending upon the subsequent letter); "the…"

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.07.09]

Teimani Hebrew-English Haggadah

Ha•gâd•âh (fem. noun); narrative; a relating, recounting or telling; specifically, the Pësakh Ha•gâd•âh that serves as the liturgy for the Pësakh Seidër.



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Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2012.08.05]

Ha•lâkh•âh, pl. (halâkh•ot); evolved in Post-Talmudic, rabbinic Hebrew to mean The Walk (which is, properly, ), or the Way (which is, properly, ). This fem. noun is the post-Biblical Talmudic term for stare decisis, comprising mi•shᵊpât and khuq•im (the non-Ha•gâd•âh portion of Mi•shᵊn•ëh Tor•âh). Together these were called Dërëkh Ha•lâkh•âh — or Dërëkh --, the original name, in Biblical Hebrew, for what is today called "Judaism"!

The import of Ha•lâkh•âh cannot be grasped apart from the Judaic definition of Tor•âh, which has remained unchanged for millennia—and which differs dramatically from the non-Judaic (i.e., Christian or Hellenist) perception. Since Har Sin•ai, Oral Law—Tor•âh shë-bᵊ•al pëh—has always been paired with Tor•âh shë-bi•khᵊtâv in the Judaic definition of Tor•âh. (Tor•âh shë-bᵊ•al pëh is documented as preceding Tor•âh shë-bi•khᵊtâv from the earliest times ("Ha•lâkh•âh," EJ, 7.1156). Before Har Sin•ai, there was only Oral Law, which had deteriorated into twelve tribal versions, creating schisms between the tribes.)

Tor•âh shë-bᵊ•al pëh comprises two Biblical components extensively ordained and required by Tor•âh shë-bi•khᵊtâv (in over 450 passages, see Atonement In the Biblical 'New Covenant' (ABNC)):

  1. Mi•shᵊpât and

  2. Khoq.

Both forms issue only from a legitimate Beit-Din with an unbroken Pᵊrush•im-heritage succession, which was ordained by Moshëh (Shᵊm•ot 18.25-26). Since the time of Moshëh, Mi•shᵊpât and Khoq have always comprised Tor•âh shë-bᵊ•al pëh, defining the legitimate guidelines for interpreting and implementing Tor•âh shë-bi•khᵊtâv.

Ha•lâkh•âh is the Pᵊrush•im interpretation of Tor•âh shë-bᵊ•al pëh.

In the 1st century there were three, and only three, interpretations of Oral Law recognized by the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol—which was the ultimate and undisputed earthly Judaic authority:

  1. The interpretations of the Qum•rân Kha•sid•im Bᵊn-Tzâ•doq Tzᵊdoq•im, who called their Oral Law interpretations Ma•as•ëh.
  2. The interpretations of the Roman-vassal Hellenist Pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim, who called their Oral Law interpretations—which they codified in an attempt to terminate oral transmission by the other two min•im—their "Book of Decrees."
  3. The interpretations of the Pᵊrush•im, who called their Oral Law interpretations, the interpretations endorsed by historical Ribi Yᵊho•shua, Ha•lâkh•âh.

There are two levels of authority for Ha•lâkh•âh:

  1. (Ha•lâkh•âh dᵊ-or•âi•tâ; of Tor•âh—Aramaic); mi•shᵊpât or khoq derived by formal logic directly from Tor•âh shë-bikh•tâv. (Ha•lâkh•âh dᵊ-or•âi•tâ) is a subset of Tor•âh shë-bᵊ•al pëh, which is equivalent to (logic and discrete math) and carries the same authority as Tor•âh shë-bikh•tâv.
  2. (dᵊ-rabân•an—Aramaic); (Ha•lâkh•âh dᵊ-rabân•an) mi•shᵊpât or khoq [a] necessitated by implementation and [b] derived by formal logic indirectly from Tor•âh shë-bikh•tâv; i.e., from Tor•âh shë-bᵊ•al pëh and, therefore, of lesser—rabbinic rather than Tor•âh shë-bikh•tâv—authority relative to Ha•lâkh•âh dᵊ-or•âi•tâ.

Discrete Logical Analysis of:

Sources (in order of consulting):
Understand each of the following according to the original language of the earliest extant mss., strictly within the confines of discrete logic (including science), which is according to the Order of --, echoed and reflected in His universe.
    Tor•âh shë-bikh•tâv
  1. Ta•na"kh I•vᵊr•it

  2. Tor•âh shë-Bᵊal Pëh
  3. Subject matter: 1st century CE – Pre-dating Tal•mud by nearly four centuries, The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) (pre-135 CE) recorded the halakhic interpretations of the most famous tal•mid of Ribi Hi•leil, and the most famous and only world-changing Ribi in all of history, who himself predated virtually all of the Sages of the Tal•mud – see, inter alia, The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 7.1.1

  4. My friend's wedding khupah and Rav Qapakh
    Click to enlargeFriend's wedding Khup•âh, officiated by Rav Qapakh (1998)
    Subject matter: 2nd-5th century CE – Mi•shᵊn•ëh Tor•âh of Ram•ba"m, with Tei•mân•i commentary by , ".

  5. Subject matter: 2nd-5th century CE – Clarifications, if needed, from both Tal•muds – Yᵊru•shal•mi takes precedence

  6. Check Tei•mân•i differences from Ram•ba"m Tei•mân•im Dor Daim Ha•lâkh•âh takes precedence.

  7. Obtain the opinion of one or more moderate (not Ultra-Orthodox or Kha•reid•i) Orthodox rabbi(s), preferably locally when viable (since some questions, like dress, may vary slightly according to local custom / tradition), else online, to confirm your finding – or alert you that you missed something(s).

  8. Only questions that still appear to defy logic and science after researching the above, or are not answered in the sources above, or concerning scientific and technical advances, or national, political and other changes in the world since Ram•ba"m: consult the Nᵊtzâr•im Beit Dinaccompanied by your written compendium of all of the above relative to the question, with proper citations – since Ha•lâkh•âh must be determined compatible with the above and it shouldn't be necessary to waste time figuring out what citations you may have used when they should be included with the inquiry to demonstrate the inquirer has done his or her utmost to learn the pertinent Ha•lâkh•âh and not become totally dependent on any human(s) – Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 31.30-33.

To get even the most elementary handle on historical Ribi Yᵊho•shua's relationship to Ha•lâkh•âh requires completing our Khav•rut•a.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ha•leil (giving fame, glorifying); the title given to the chanting of Tᵊhil•im 113-118

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/ Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

huph•al; Causative-passive verb bin•yân; also hoph•al and haph•al

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.07.22]

Haph•târ•âh (concluding), participle (verbal n.) of hiph•il (hiph•tir; 1 he opened wide; 2 PBH he exempted, set free, dismissed), i.e., released, concluded; from the verb (pâ•tar; he broke free, set free, dismissed). A selection of passages from the Nᵊviy•im associated with the weekly Tor•âh portion, and which are read concluding the Tor•âh service.

Notice that this is not a cognate of Tor•âh; not a "half-Torah."

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ha•qâph•ot; circuits

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Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Har; mountain, pl. (hâr•im; mountains; connective pl. - (hâr•ei-□; Mountains of… Often a metaphor for a leader (king or chief). more info Return to Previous Page
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Pronunciation TableHear it! [Updated: 2017.06.22]

Also abbreviations ‑‑ / / ׳

ha-Sheim; lit. "the Name"; is an oral substitution to preserve the holiness of the Tetragrammaton from profane (i.e. ordinary) conversation—contrary to the goy•im who ignorantly, but perversely, profane His Name (see Profaning the Holy Name Unawares).

From the times of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh, the Name has been regarded with such sanctity that it was only uttered in the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh, in the Mu•sâph service, on Yom ha-Ki•pur•im, by the Ko•hein ha-Ja•dol.

Since the destruction of the Beit ha-Miq•dâsh, even when reading Tor•âh in Beit ha-Kᵊnësët, the term A•don•âi is substituted for the Tetragrammaton. This has been the legally established practice—the Ha•lâkh•âh—from antiquity. See also the plural—Shᵊm•ot

"[‑‑] derives from (verb: to be). The usual transliteration '[J-----h]' is based on the supposition that the Tetragrammaton is the imperfect Qal ["easy"; ≡ pa•al] or hiph•il of and lit. means 'the one who is', 'the existing', [respectively,] 'who calls into existence'. In reality, however, the pronunciation and literal meaning of the Tetragrammaton is unknown. cp. ." (A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language For Readers of English, p. 255). Thus, the overall theme suggests the meaning of "the Self-Existent Creator" ("Who calls into [being or] existence").

My take is that the Name is a portmanteau of the hiph•il present with future. Thus, the Name of the Unchanging Eternal-Creator-Singularity of the universe translates into English as: "I am what I shall always be." (The parallel portmanteau translation might produce an English counterfeit name like "Iamwillbe"). The Name simply enables humans to capture and encapsulate the breadth of the historically and scientifically-grounded, Judaic-origin concept and holiness of the Unchanging Eternal-Creator-Singularity of the universe. To be valid (i.e., not-idolatry), the Name in other languages, or even other life if it exists elsewhere in the Cosmos, must capture and encapsulate this same concept and holiness of the Unchanging Eternal-Creator-Singularity of the universe.

—"on the Way" or "Enroute," probably the original name of "Judaism," later evolved into ' and ).

' – see geir.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.07.05]

Yemen Myrrh tree (Commiphora myrrha)

Hav•dâl•âh; in Biblical (as contrasted with subsequent usage) Hebrew: detachment, removal or separation from; staying or keeping away from (Klein, p. 64).

The liturgy concluding Shab•ât that differentiates between Shab•ât and the profane (ordinary) days of the week.

Hadas (myrtle)Based on wa-Yi•qrâ 10.10; 11.47, et al., the cognate (lᵊ-Hav•dil; to differentiate) often used to differentiate holy discussion from profane matters.

Authentic Tei•mân•im Hav•dâl•âh doesn't make use of a typical Ash•kᵊnazi "Havdalah Set." They do not use a spice box. Instead, they hold a sprig of fresh ha•das in one hand and the Qi•dush cup in the other (switching to the right hand according to which bᵊrâkh•âh is being recited – ). In Tei•mân, they held incense, probably myrrh. – , , - (: - " " '', ")

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Hawaij [Updated: 2007.02.26]

(borrowed from Arabic)

Hawaij

Yemenite spice powder Basic recipe (refine to personal taste over time):

  • 5 Tablespoons ground cumin
  • 2 Tablespoons ground cardamom
  • 5 teaspoons ground black pepper
  • 3 teaspoons ground turmeric
  • 2 teaspoons ground coriander

Mix ingredients. Makes about 1/2 cup

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Ηγησιππος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Æ•gæsip•pos); Anglicized to Hegesippus

(ca. 110—ca.180 C.E.), wrote ca. 174-180 C.E. but is only extant through quotations (redacted) by later Christians, the earliest of whom was Eu•sëbi•os (325-339 C.E.). Contrary to accounts of gentile Roman Christians, centuries later, who knew no Hebrew whatsoever, we can be reasonably sure this Hellenist quoted from the Greek LXX), Ægæsippos may have been an apostate (i.e., Hellenist) Jew (Ægæsippos being a Hellenist Greek, not Judaic name) who converted to the foetal Christian Hellenist Gentile Catholic Church.

"According to Eu•sëbi•os, he was by birth a Jew; and though this is only an induction on the part of Eu•sëbi•os, it may be accepted as true." (jewishencyclopedia.com, 2011.03.29). In any case, he was perhaps the earliest Hellenist Roman Christian chronicler. His works, however, are lost excepting some passages (redacted and) quoted by Eu•sëbi•os and known to Ierōnumos. ("Hegesippus (1)," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," II:875ff.)

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.09.29]

Hei•khâl; palace; synonym for (and see also) the middle sanctuary (Ency. Jud. 15.946) of the Beit ha-Miq•dâsh – popularly Hellenized-Anglicized to "Temple."

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.01.30]

Typical Certificate of Kash•rut
(certificate of fitness - dairy only)   -
Typical Certificate of Kash•rut
(certificate of fitness - meat only)   -

hë•khᵊsheir; popularly pronounced "hëkhsheir"; a certificate, granted by an Orthodox authority, that a business or establishment maintains Orthodox halakhic standards of kash•rut. More than a few unscrupulous business people falsely claim to be "kosher" – or "kosher style" (totally fraudulent) – when they are not. Insist on seeing their hëkhsheir. Legitimate businesses that have a hëkhsheir make sacrifices to obtain and maintain it. Far from being offended, they will proud of their hëkhsheir and glad that you are discerning and share their faithfulness to Ha•lâkh•âh to insist on seeing it. They hang it in plain view of the public and will be proud to show it to you. If not, they're not "kosher"!

(The proper phrase is .)

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Hi•leil (he praised, Hellenized to Hillel); lived at end of B.C.E. 1st century and beginning of 1st century C.E.—"the greatest of the sages of the Second Temple period" ("Hillel," Ency. Jud., 8:482). He is calculated to have died in 10 C.E. ("Hillel," Jewish Ency.) – when Ribi Yᵊho•shua, born B.C.E. 7 (The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English), notes 2.0.1, et al.) was 17.

The founding Ribi of the tolerant, reluctant-to-build-fences Pᵊrush•im school of interpreting Oral Law (Ha•lâkh•âh), in contrast to the strict, eager-fence-building Pᵊrush•im school founded by Sham•ai.

Hi•leil was one of the leaders of the Pᵊrush•im contingent in the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol, which, until 20 C.E. was controlled by the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im. During the tenure of the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im the stricter views of Sham•ai prevailed (within the Pᵊrush•im community only; not among the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im). By the time of the destruction in 70 C.E., however, the more lenient views of Hi•leil came to prevail.

Hi•leil is related to Ha•leiland the root of (Ha•lᵊl•u•yâh; praise --!).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.05.14]

Typical Israeli Orthodox Jewish Wedding Banquet –
Women's Dancing Section
(Notice no bare shoulders)
Israeli Orthodox Jewish Wedding Dancing - Women
Typical Israeli Orthodox Jewish Wedding Banquet –
Men's Dancing Section
Israeli Orthodox Jewish Wedding Dancing - Men

Hi•lul•â (Aramaic); wedding praise-festivity banquet; Hebrew ; derives from (see Hi•leil); the transcending of the nëphësh (i.e., death) of a Tza•diq-Khâ•sid viewed as the spiritual marriage of the betrothed (cf. Ho•sheia 2.21) Tza•diq-Khâ•sid with ha-Sheim. See wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 19.24; Sho•phᵊt•im 9.27 and L"g la-Omër.

The term has become so strongly a metonym for death among Qabâlist Jews that its primary meaning—a wedding banquet—has become lost to most Jews, who now see no connection between and a wedding.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Hiph•il; Causal transitive / active verb bin•yân.

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Ιππολυτος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

((Ippolutos); Anglicized to Hipploytus)

Beginning of 3rd century C.E. after the gentile Hellenist Christian Church had become firmly established, known only from what Eu•sëbi•os inferred from works that had reached him and mention by Ierōnumos. ("Hippolyus (2) Romanus," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," III:85ff.)

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

hit•pa•eil; he motivated (someone) to action, he induced someone to act, he activated, he set in motion. Reflexively-causal intransitive passive verb bin•yân of (Ernest Klein, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language For Readers of English, p. 518).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.08]

Hoshana Raba 2006 (Paqid Yirmeyahu in center)
2006 (Pâ•qid Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu in center). Click for video

Ho•sha-nâ; "Save, prithee!" refers to the willow branch waved during Suk•ot. This derives from the chanting, while making a circuit around the bimâh, of Tᵊhil•im containing the phrase ).

(Ho•sha-nâ Rab•â; "the Great 'Save, prithee!' "), the seventh day of Suk•ot, when seven circuits carrying the lu•lâv and ët•rog are made around the bim•âh. (Ho•shan•ot are chanted during every circuit.)

(Ho•shan•ot; "save-prithee"s [plural]; specifically, the circuits around the bim•âh chanting Tᵊhil•im containing the phrase ).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ho•sheia; "Save!" (cf. note to bᵊ-Mid•bar 13.16 in the Stone Ta•na"kh); de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Hosea'.

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Ιγνατιος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

((Ig•nati•os); Anglicized to Ignatius)

(ca. 105 C.E.—117), Syrian or Turk; the second Hellenist "bishop" of Antakya, Turkey (then part of Syria), antedating the first "bishop" in Yᵊru•shâ•layim who ousted and usurped the 15th Pâ•qid of the Nᵊtzâr•im (in 135 C.E.). Ig•nati•os is the first to coin the phrase "Catholic Church," the first to reject "apostolical authority and succession" (i.e., the authority of the Nᵊtzâr•im pᵊqid•im) to equate episcopal (bishop) authority with "Christ the Lord," already denying the Nᵊtzâr•im, sowing the first seeds of misojudaism.

Therefore, Ig•nati•os is both the first proper Roman Catholic Christian and "inventor" of the concept of a Catholic pope (the "papal succession" not existing until later, when retroactively fabricated by Hegesippus in the 3rd century C.E.). These earliest Christians retained their Sun-God-day worship, merely transforming it from worshipping the sun to worshipping the Hellenist man-God patterned after Zeus ("Ignatius (1)," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," III:209ff.)

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' Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.07.14]

Im yi•rᵊtz•ëh ha-Sheim; lit. "With the Will of ha-Sheim, i.e. with ha-Sheim's favor. This phrase is generally preferred in oral conversation. The abbreviation is " and may occasionally even be abbreviated in English letters: Iy"h. This may be the source from which the Arabic "In shᵊ-Allah" (if Allah wills) derived. More popular is the phrase bᵊ-ë•zᵊr•at ha-Sheim. In written communications, however, the standard Aramaic parallel is invariably used: "

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

I•qᵊsh•im; pl. of (i•qeish, twisted, perverted, obdurate, and intransigent); name of the Qabâlists in Yemen who opposed the Dar•daim.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.08.01]

Ir; city Return to Previous Page
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.12.28]

The Old City; the Upper City, to the north of Ir Dâ•wid, which included Har ha-Bayit.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.09.31]

Ir Dâ•wid; [ancient] "City of David," ancient Yᵊru•shâ•layim
Yerushalayim Return to Previous Page
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Ειρηναιος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

((Ei•ræ•naios); Anglicized to Irenaeus)

(born ca. 135 C.E., d. ca. 202-203 C.E.) in western Turkey, probably a Syrian whose native tongue was Syriac and, being Hellenist (knowledgeable in the Greek poets and philosophers loathed by religious Jews like the Nᵊtzâr•im), his second tongue was the international language of the time: Greek. He was a disciple of Polycarp and became bishop of Lyons in the foetal (64 C.E.—135 C.E.), proto-Christian Hellenist Gentile Catholic Church of the late 2nd century. ("Irenaeus (1)," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," III:253ff.)

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Hieroglyph Habiru (Apiru)
Habiru – Egyptian term for "Hebrews"

I•vᵊr•it (f.s.); (I•vᵊr•i, m.s.) – Hebrew; pl. (I•vᵊr•im, m.p.) – Hebrew-speakers, Hebrews. These adjectival nouns derive from their patronym, (bᵊ-Reish•it 11.14), great-grandson of (bᵊ-Reish•it 11.11), one of the 3 sons of akh.

Ancient Akkadian-Egyptian Habiru (or Apiru); from scholars' "best guess" pronunciation of ancient Egyptian. This is a foreign (i.e., non-Hebrew) pronunciation transliterated into Hebrew, as ' or . The Egyptian term referred to Hebrew-speaking non-Egyptians, whom Egyptians considered foreigners. Although Israelis weren't the only Hebrew-speakers of the day (so were, for example, the Jebusites), to say the Habiru weren't primarily Israelis is blatant misojudaic polemic, not history.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

I•yov (corrupted to "Job"). Neither the etymology nor the meaning are known (though widely, and wildly, hypothesized by many).

In Hebrew, this would be "either passive, meaning [ from Sâ•tân] … or active, meaning []" (Jewish Ency.).

The illusion of a link between ("Job"), which dates from ca. B.C.E. 6th century, and Jove, the Roman god of the bright sky, Iuppiter (gen. Iovis) in classical Latin (corrupted to "Jupiter"), stumbles on chronology. The use of Jove dates back only to 14th century C.E. Europe and traces back etymologically to the older Proto-Indo-European dyeu (to shine) = Zeus (Online Etymology Dictionary).

Iuppiter, via its genitive case Iovis, derived etymologically from *djous patær ("Day-sky father"), in turn derived from the earlier Proto-Indo-European *dyew- (Day, an ancient god of daylight, or "sky") – a cognate of the ancient Greek Zeus.

Similarly, the hypothesis that (based on the illusion above) is a refinement of the name of an ancient idol and a cognate of ‑‑ not only stumbles on chronology, but, additionally, is plainly ignorant to anyone who knows how to spell in Hebrew.

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'Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.02.26]

Jakhnun, ventura-im.comJakh•nun (borrowed from Arabic). Yemenite Shab•ât bread Basic recipe (refine over time):

  • 4 ajin
  • 5 eggs in the shell
  • butter

Place 4 ajin in a well-buttered pan. Push one egg between each ajin, plus one more egg in the center

Bake at low heat, 120° C (250° F) all night (6 to 8 hrs).

Remove from the oven and serve at room temperature

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'Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.09.12]

Jalëh; appetizer (borrowed from Arabic)

As in Yemen, at Beit ha-Kᵊnësët they serve nuts, dried fruits and fresh fruits of the season. Here in Israel, this additionally includes at least khumus in pita with beverages accompanied by Tei•mân•i (Zᵊmir•ot; songs of Shab•ât) and Di•vᵊr•ei-Tor•âh. Often the Jalëh is more elaborate, including jakhnun with khilbâh and sometimes Ma•lawakh garnished with a sauce made of tomato paste, skhug and zaatar.

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Ιερωνυμος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

((Ierōnumos); Anglicized to Jerome)

(ca. 346—420 C.E.) Ëb•i•ō•naῖoi Sophronios Ierōnumos. Born in south-eastern Europe (modern Bosnia and Herzegovina, across the Adriatic Sea, east of Italy) of Hellenist Catholic Christian parents, Ierōnumos was an Italian Hellenist Catholic Christian Church Historian who translated Ta•na"kh into Latin (Vulgate) from Hebrew (rather than from LXX Greek). See also Samuel Krauss, "The Jews in the Works of the Church Fathers," The Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. V, 1893, p. 132-3; Solomon Schechter, "Genizah Specimens," The Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. X, 1898, p. 656-7 and "Atonement Under the Biblical 'New Covenant.'"

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Jerusalem Post [Updated: 2006.04.27]

The Jerusalem Post, Israel's English-language newspaper, is miniscule compared to any of the three major Israeli Hebrew-language newspapers. Aside from the relatively small community of English speaking Israelis, The Jerusalem Post is entirely ignored within Israel. The daily domestic circulation is 11,000, rising to 25,000 for the Day6 (week-end) edition. The Jerusalem Post International Edition has a circulation of 26,000. The Jerusalem Post French weekly has a circulation of 3,000. (Figures as of 2003).

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Ιωσηπος Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.04.03]

(sæp•os – Anglicized to "Josephus"); born - (Yo•seiph Bën-Ma•tit•yâhu ha-Ko•hein), 37 C.E. – d. 100+ C.E.

Son of a Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im father (certainly not of the strict Qum•rân Kha•sid•im Tzᵊdoq•im), and Khash•mo•nâ•im mother, boasting royal lineage, he rose to general in the Tzahal but became a traitor, persuading his officers to commit suicide (pretending he would also) then defecting to the Hellenist Roman occupiers during the Jewish Revolt of 68-70 C.E.

Corroborating his Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im orientation, Yo•seiph relied on LXX rather than MT. Like Shâ•ul, who, subsequent to his kâ•reit was called exclusively by his Hellenist name (Paul); similarly, Yo•seiph Bën-Ma•tit•yâhu ha-Ko•hein is known almost solely by his Hellenized name: 'Flavius Josephus.'

Josephus authored "Wars of the Jews" ca. 78-79 C.E. and "Antiquities of the Jews" ca. 94 C.E. (in foreward to William Sanford LaSor in William Whiston, Josephus, Grand Rapids, MI, Kregel Publications, 1960, p. ix-x.) and widely acknowledged to have been redacted by No•tzᵊr•im

"Josephus gives the impression that the sects were primarily divided over theological questions… He was concerned to produce an explanation that would make sense to his Greek (and Hellenist Roman) readers [and, perhaps, his own secular nature; ybd]. But the fact that only matters of practice are mentioned in MMT confirms the view that it was not dogma, but law that was apt to produce lasting schisms in Judaism." (Ëlish•â Qim•ron and John Strugnell, Discoveries in the Judaean Desert x, Qumran Cave 4.v, Miqsat Ma'ase ha-Torah, in consultation with Y. Sussmann and with contributions by Y. Sussman and A. Yardeni, Oxford,at the Clarendon Press, 1994, p. 176).

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Judaism/Judaic/Judea/Jew(ess). [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Both "Judaism" and "Jew," derive from (Yᵊhud•i; Judean or Jew), plural (Yᵊhud•im; Judeans or Jews), and the related (Yᵊhud•âh, de-Judaized to "Judah" and "Judea"). Jews should properly be called (Yᵊhud•im).

"The term Judaism is first found among the Greek-speaking [i.e. Hellenist] Jews of the first century C.E… Its Hebrew equivalent, [] Ya•had•ut, found only occasionally in medieval literature…, but used frequently in modern times, has parallels neither in the Bible (but see Ës•teir 8.17, [] mit•ya•had•im, "became Jews" [joined the tribe of Yᵊhud•âh specifically?]) nor in the rabbinic literature." (Judaism, EJ 7.383). For the most Biblically authentic ancient name, see Dërëkh ("Way").

(‮) ‬ (Yᵊhud•i(t); masc./fem., respectively) native of Yᵊhud•âh one who is born of a Jewess, or converted to Judaism (see below) according to Ha•lâkh•âh and does not practice another religion. (For exceptions, however, see of Yᵊsha•yâhu 42.1-4)

Originally, this people of the Ta•na"kh were called (Yi•sᵊr•â•eil), designating all twelve tribes of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil.

These terms were applied to the entire people only after the destruction of the Northern Kingdom of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil (B.C.E. 722). "However, while the name 'Jew' became common usage outside the Land of Israel, the Hebrew-speaking Jews within the land were particular to call themselves 'Yi•sᵊr•â•eil' (de-Judaized to "Israelites")…

In the time of the Beit-ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh, Hellenist Romans applied the term "Judaeanism" (in Greek) to "the religion of the Judeans." Judaeanism was contracted to Judaism. Similarly, Judeans was contracted to "Jews."

Like "Sanhedrin," Judaism and Jew were originally external terms applied by Goy•im. Christians early conflated the word 'Judaeus' with the name of the villain of the gospel story, Judas Iscariot, whom they stereotyped as the typical Jew. Judas was linked with the devil (Lu. 22:3), and the result, in Hellenist Greek, was devil-Ιουδας (Ioudas; Judas = Judah = Judea—deriving from a single Hebrew term, [Yᵊhud•âh], differences in the Greek and English terms are artificial)." Further, while Sâ•tân is often transliterated into Greek letters in the NT, it is also translated in other passages into Greek: διαβολος (diabolos, which is frequently translated into English as "devil" and is equivalent to Sâ•tân; see, in this regard, Jn. 8.44.) Thus, via Lu. 22.3, Ioudas = Judas = Judah = Judea was equated to diabolos = Sâ•tân. This relationship established the pejorative meaning of the word 'Jew' in the earliest Christian Church. ("Jew," Encyclopedia Judaica, 10:21-2.)

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"Judaizers" [Updated: 2011.04.07]

Acts 15.24 lacked the phrase in the KJ/V that has been the basis of denigrating "Judaizers": λεγοντες περιτεμνεσθαι και τηρειν τον νομον (legontes peritemnesthai kai tærein ton nomon; ye must be circumcised and keep the law), until redacted into ms. C #04 in the 5th century C.E.

To Ribi Yᵊho•shua and the original Nᵊtzâr•im, being circumcised and keeping Tor•âh had always been a good thing. It wasn't until the 5th century that gentile Hellenist Christians were finally able to reverse that image via this redaction.

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Flavius Iustinus [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Anglicized to Justin {Martyr})

(writings dating to ca. 150-163 C.E.) Iustinus Martyr, who reportedly died at age 30 ca. 163 C.E., was born in Roman-occupied Shᵊkhëm (Hellenist "Nablus"—Flavia Neopolis, named after Roman Emperor Flavius Vespasian) of Hellenist Roman gentile parents, Iustinus, who "has not heard, even, of Moses or of the Prophets, until well on in life" claimed to be a Samaritan Christian—demonstrating that he was as confused about the difference between a gentile and a Samaritan as he was about the difference between a Syrian Arab (Trypho) and a Jew. If Iustinus converted before 135 C.E., as reported, he would have been about two years old.

The Hellenist orientation of the original (post-135 C.E.) Christian Church is typified in Iustinus' listing of the Patriarchs of "the Word of God"—"Socrates, and Heraclitus, Abraham and Elias"—as well as his defense of Christianity: "We alone are hated, even though we hold the same as the Greeks."

The antinomianism and misojudaism of the original (post-135 C.E.) Christian Church is also evidenced by Iustinus, who equates gentile Romans with Christians, declaring that the Romans' enemy—the Jews—"had tortured and slain Christians without pity under Bar-Kokh, and made Jews everywhere the most violent and remorseless of the church's slanderers and persecutors (ch. 108, § 335)." Iustinus believes in "the new Israel, the abandonment of the old Israel, the sons of Abraham, unless they will accept the new covenant." Already in contrast to the , Nᵊtzâr•im keeping of the Judaic festivals, "this the main body of Christians repudiated, so that it was by most treated as a criminal heresy [emphasis added] to keep the Sabbath, and they refused to hold communion with those [Nᵊtzâr•im] who still held to these Jewish customs" (Justinus Martyr, St., A Dictionary of Christian Biography, Smith & Wace, III.560ff).

"It was for you Jews alone that it was necessary; because you forgot Him, He had to decree your Sabbaths; because you fell away to idols, He had to demand of you sacrifices (Dialog. 19, § 236, E). He ordered you a temple, lest you should worship images. All was done to distinguish the Jewish race from the heathen; and this, not on account of the race's virtue, so much as for its proneness to evil… It is foretold all along that the Gentiles are the children of prophecy, the true Israel, the perfect proselytes; it is of them that all the good promises are spoken… We realize in Iustinus the complete Gentilism of the Christianity of 140 [C.E.]. He regards the Law rather as an evidence of peculiar evil… in the Jews; so he even says in scorn that circumcision only serves to mark them out for condemnation, as the accursed who are forbidden to enter Jerusalem." Iustinus regards Plato as the highest authority and is entirely ignorant of Hebrew. (Smith & Wace).

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