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Hebrew Glossary: E-J

The reason this simple page of glossary definitions is ranked so popular with the search engine is because so many people click on our links to these definitions from the content in… the 'Netzarim Quarter' Village web site in Ra•an•anâ(h), Israel at www.netzarim.co.il

The real content is in the 'Netzarim Quarter'! Click on our logo above for an exciting visit to the 'Netzarim Quarter' where you'll learn about Historical Ribi Yehoshua and his original, Jewish, followers before the great Roman-Hellenist apostasy of 135 C.E.—and even more importantly, how you (whether Jew or non-Jew) can follow the historically true, Judaic, Ribi Yehoshua. In Hebrew, his original followers were called the Netzarim (Hellenized to "Nazarenes").

Until Paqid Yirmeyahu researched the Netzarim name and sect and began publishing about it in 1972 in The Netzarim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matityahu (NHM) no one in modern times was even aware of the name Netzarim. It stretches credulity that no one in modern times had heard of the Netzarim until Paqid Yirmeyahu published it in 1972… and then, suddenly, everybody figured it out??? Check (and verify) the dates of the earliest works about the Netzarim by the others and you'll see that they are deceiver-plagiarists. Then insist on the person whom ha-Sheim selected to entrust the knowledge, not imposters who falsely call their continuing practice of Displacement Theology "Nazarene Judaism" or directly plagiarize the name "Netzarim."

Because we teach and practice the authentic Judaic teachings of Ribi Yehoshua—not Displacement Theology—we are the only group who have restored the Netzarim to be accepted in the legitimate Jewish community in Israel—genuinely like Ribi Yehoshua and the original Netzarim. Consequently, the 'Netzarim Quarter' is the only web site of legitimate Netzarim / Nazarene Judaism.

Give all the friends you've ever known the chance to know about this exciting site; send them our web site address (www.netzarim.co.il) that opens modern eyes for the first time to the Judaic world that Ribi Yehoshua and his original Netzarim knew, practiced and taught.

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אֱדוֹםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.03.16]

Click to enlargeLocation of Ë•dōm about 300 yrs after Ei•sau

Ë•dōm אדום,Edom("clay-red"), cognate of אָדֹם—nickname of Ei•sau referencing his redness at birth, further reinforced by the pot of אָדֹם lentils for which he demonstrated his nomadic disinterest in settling down in his birthright Khë•vᵊr•ōn ranch.

Ë•dōm was further the patronym of his homeland, and that of his descendants, in what is today the southern Israeli Nëgëv, south of Bᵊeir Shëva and extending eastward, south of Yâm ha-Mëlakh, into what is today west-central Jordan. See also Har Ei•saw.

Both the region & people of Ë•dōm later became known by the name of his, infamous, grandson—A•mâ•leiq!!! (Gratefully, there are no known extant genealogical records connecting any individual Jordanians to A•mâ•leiq.)

אֱדוֹמִי, pl. אֱדוֹמִים later, Hellenized to Idumea (think Herod).

As Ei•sâu was born of the same mother as Ya•a•qov, yet became an Arab patriarch, Ei•sâu is proof that the racist argument of simply being born of a Jewish mother or having Jewish DNA isn't sufficient to make one a Jew. Abandoning Tōr•âh excludes even one born of a Jewish mother from Yi•sᵊr•â•eil and from being a Jew.

The most infamous Ë•dōm•i was the grandson of Ei•sâu: עֲמָלֵק! Remember!

Ancient Ë•dōm (later Idumea) today comprises part of the Israeli Nëgëv and southwestern Jordan. Today's Ei•dōm•im (Edomites, Idumeans) are the Arabs of Jordan.

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עֵדָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.03.04]

fem. n. Eid•âh; עדה,עדות,eidah,eidot,eidutpl. עֵדוֹת (eid•ōt), compound forms: sing. □-עֲדַת (ad•at-…), pl. □-עֲדוֹת (ad•ōt-…); evidentiary testimony.

masc . n. עֵד (eid; eyewitness; witness); collectively, of a group of witnesses (e.g., in the sense of subpoenaed), pl. עֵדִים; popularly assembly or congregation; more accurately convocation. This noun derives from the verb יָעַד (yâ•ad; he appointed, designated, convoked). See also cognate Mō•eid.

עֲדוֹת הַמִּזְרָח – Jews of Middle Eastern origin, Middle Eastern Jews in contrast to Ash•kᵊnazim and Sᵊphârâd•im, both of which are European Jews.

Jews from middle-eastern countries preserve more authentic traditions than the European-accultured Ash•kᵊnazim and Sᵊphâ•râd•im.

Tei•mân•im are one of the עֲדוֹת הַמִּזְרָח.

fem. n. עֵדוּת eid•ūt; evidence, physical evidence, physical proof, which Moshëh placed in the אֲרוֹן הָעֵדוּת (Shᵊm•ot 40.20, inter alia).

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אֵיכָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Eikh•âh; איכה, Eikhah"how?"; Hellenized (Hellenized) to "Lamentations." Written by Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu ha-Nâ•vi, this is the third of the five Mᵊgil•âh.

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אֱלֹהִים, אֱלוֹהִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.12.13]

masc . n. ël•oh•im (collective pl. of אֱלְֹהַּ; Arabic counterpart: Al•âh) — אלהים,אלוהים,אלים,Eil,eilim,Eloha,elohim,il "the gods".

fem. n. אֵלָה, pl. אֵלוֹת

There was no capitalization in Hebrew nor in other ancient languages. Use of a capital letter to distinguish "God" from "god" is a foreign introduction, by modern languages, that was non-existent in the original language. This plural noun is universally misunderstood and always means "the gods", especially when all of "the gods" (Jesus and Al•âh subsumed), for Yi•sᵊr•â•eil, are superseded and displaced by י‑‑ה solely — as in the Shᵊm•a:

י‑‑ה, the Lone-Singularity — is all of ‘the gods’ to us!”

il – Ugaritic cuneiform. Hebrew אֵלָה/​Arabic Al•lah, consort of אֱלְֹהַּ

The etymology is uncertain and disputed. Scholars of MH disagree concerning the anomalous and enigmatic singular form. Because אֵל has a different plural form, אֵלִים (Eil•im), most scholars consider Ël•ōh•im to be the plural of ël•ōh•a. It follows neither the typical masc. nor fem. pattern. Confounded scholars, disagreeing among themselves, have performed numerous contortions of gi•matri•yâh, introducing a ה infix and capriciously assigned the fem. construct to the masc. gender. Yet, the distortion should tell scholars something basic: this was a term that was deliberately distorted out of existence; excised from the Hebrew lexicon—and that is what Tōr•âh commanded regarding the names of an idol (Shᵊm•ot 23.13; Dᵊvâr•im 12.3; Yᵊho•shua 23.7)!!!more

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אֵלִיָּהוּPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Eil•i•yâhu, אליהו, Eiliyahu"My Eil is י‑‑ה"; Hellenized (de-Judaized (Hellenized)) to "Elijah"

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עֵמֶקPronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.11.30]

masc . n. Eimëq, עמק, eimeqa long nakhal (vale), typically including an emanating plateau or its culminating plain.

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אֵיפָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.01.22]

eiph•âh;איפה,eiphah measure of volume: ≈22 li. (5 gal. 3¼ quarts).

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אֵפוֹדPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.01.29]

Click to enlargeBigedei haKohein haGadol

masc . n. Ei•phōd; אפוד, Eiphod, Eifod a sleeveless, poncho-like mantle, vest or cuirass; from the verb אָפַד.

lamellar cuirass leather scales
Click to enlargeAncient lamellar (leather scales) cuirass body armor.

The Ei•phōd for the Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl was woven of gold thread, tᵊkheilët, crimson and royal purple. The Ei•phōd was held in place by a belt.

As a cuirass-like garment worn overtop of the kaftan, the Ei•phōd corresponded to the ancient Egyptian and Levantine lamellar (leather scales), tunic-like, body armor — similar to the recently-discovered personal body armor of Par•oh Tutankh­amun.

Thus, we may think of the Ei•phōd as the spiritual counterpart of ancient body armor.

See also Khōshën Mi•shᵊpât, mi•tzᵊnëphët, tō•tëphët, Ur•im wᵊ-Tum•im and Tzitz.

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עֵרֶב רַבPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.08.01]

masc . n. A great, multitudinous mixture, mingling or convergence (e.g., of goy•im, Shᵊm•ōt 12.38).ערב רב, eirev rav

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masc . n. אֵרוּסִיןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.12.25]

masc . n. ei•rūs•inארוסין,ארוסה,eirusin,erusin,arusah – betrothals, engagements; i.e. precursors or pre­liminaries to marriage; m. pl. from the base אָרַס (â•ras).

masc . n. אָרוּס (m.s.) — a fiancé, an engaged man.

fem. n. אֲרוּסָה (f.s.) — a fiancée, an engaged woman. (Contrast with ish•âh.)

It wasn't until the 3rd century C.E. that rabbis introduced a reform, intended as a prophylaxis against impulsive actions, fixing a limitation on the timing of the ארוסין – to take place at the table of the ארוס no more than a year before the planned khūp•âh. The main features of the ארוסין are (1) the negotiated written תְּנַאִים setting forth the date, time and some financial arrangements of the khūp•âh, (2) the oral reading and (3) the signing by both families, of the תְּנַאִים, written in Aramaic, which creates the Tōr•âh legal status of ארוסין.

Reciting the proper bᵊrâkh•âh, the ארוס then places the engagement ring on the hand of the ארוסה.

In some traditions, a special plate is smashed on the ground during the festivities, usually by the couple's mothers. This symbolizes "sealing the deal"; and the plate pieces may later be framed (in its distinct pieces, not glued back together) as a keepsake. Typically, this is followed by a dinner, hosted by the family of the ארוס for both families concluded by the Bi•rᵊk•at ha-Mâ•zōn.

ארוסין is a metaphor of the bᵊrit between י‑‑ה and Yi•sᵊr•â•eil.

In the 11th century C.E., so as to to postpone the fiancée's exposure to capital punish­ment for any charges of violating ni•ūph (which derived from property law) in the interim "engagement" period, European Orthodox rabbis reformed ארוסין from its original time and purpose, shifting it to the 2nd of the 3 components (ignored or) performed under the khup•âh prior to the reading of the kᵊtūb•âh & ni•sū•in.

Preceded by bᵊrâkh•âh over wine, ארוסין is a bᵊrâkh•âh celebrating betrothal/​engagement.

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עֵשָׂוPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.03.20]

וַיֵּצֵ֤א הָרִאשׁוֹן֙ אַדְמוֹנִ֔י כֻּלּ֖וֹ כְּאַדֶּ֣רֶת שֵׂעָ֑ר וַיִּקְרְא֥וּ שְׁמ֖וֹ עֵשָֽׂו׃

Click to enlargeLocation of Ë•dōm about 300 yrs after Ei•sau

Ei•sâu;עשוו,שעיר,Eisau,Eisav,Seir,Seiir elder twin-brother of Ya•a•qōv-Yi•sᵊr•â•eil; the twins of Yi•tzᵊkhâq & Rivᵊq•âhmore

Because Ei•sâu traded his birthright inheritance for a pot of "הָאָדֹם הָאָדֹם" lintel stew (bᵊ-Reish•it 25.30), he became called אֱדוֹם, patriarch of the אֱדוֹמִי tribe of Arabs. more

Sei•ir more

As Ei•sâu was born of the same mother as Ya•a•qov, yet was an Arab (the Εd•om•i tribe), Ei•sâu is proof that simply being born of a Jewish mother or having Jewish DNA isn't sufficient to make one a Jew by the Biblical standard. Abandoning Tōr•âh excludes even one born of a Jewish mother from Yi•sᵊr•â•eil and from the definition of a Jew.

Because Ya•a•qov declared to his mother, Rivᵊq•âh, that עֵשָׂו אָחִי אִישׁ שָׂעִר (bᵊ-Reish•it 27.11, 23), the name שָׂעִיר – goat-like or satyr-like – has also been associated with עֵשָׂו-אֱדוֹם. As a result, עֵשָׂו-אֱדוֹם has been associated with the Greek satyr idol Pan.

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אֵשׁPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.11.08]

fem. n. eish;אשה,eish,isheh fire

masc . n.אִשֶּׁה (ish•ëh); a fire-sacrifice.

Ancient Fire-Making (Friction) Fire Plow (left), Fire Drill (right)

בְּעֵרַת אֵשׁ (fire-making) in antiquity—In ancient times, fire was the central pillar of everyday survival. Every family needed a fire to cook, for light in the evenings and, in winter, for warmth. There was neither electricity, nor matches nor even steel to strike over a flint stone to make a fire. Making fire required rubbing two sticks, or scratching two stones, against each other. If you don't understand the critical need for fire, and how difficult it was to make in antiquity, then you don't understand early Israel at all—and you don’t grasp why the kindling of fire was defined as mᵊlâkh•âh prohibited on Sha•bât. The man in bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbar 15.32ff who was executed, was executed for gathering and preparing kindlingmᵊlâkh•âh, not for "lighting a fire"! He never even got as far as lighting his fire! more

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אִישׁPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.08.15]

masc . n.ish;איש an adult (in Biblical times, ≥13 years old) male mortal human being; synonymous, in ancient times, with: husband. The rarely used true plural is אִישִׁים. In customary usage, though, אֲנָשִׁים (plural of אֱנוׂשׁ) is used as the plural. Contrast with â•dâm.

fem. n.אִשָּׁה (ish•âh; a woman, an adult (in Biblical times, ≥12 years old) female human being; synonymous, in ancient times, with: wife). The combinative form is □-אֵֽשֶׁת (eishët-□; woman/​wife of…), most popular as the title of a husband's weekly Ërëv Sha•bât serenade-chant to his wife: אֵֽשֶׁת-חַ֭יִל ( Mi•shᵊl•ei Shᵊlōmōh 31.10-31). See video: אֵֽשֶׁת-חַ֭יִל

Contrast with a•rūs•âh.

Although etymologists opine, with uncertainty, that אִשָּׁה (woman-wife) is unrelated to אֵשׁ (fire), it seems to stretch credulity that there’s no correlation between woman-wife and the fire within man.

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עֵזPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.07.23]

fem. n. goat Nubian buck kidEiz; עז, eizgoat. Compare & contrast with ayil, tal•ëh, këvës, tzōn and sëh.

Before there was paper money, checks, credit cards or banks, an eiz served as a donation, or payment of a court-imposed fine, equal in today’s currency (2019), to approx. ₪1,100 or U.S. $300.

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אֵזוֹבPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.05.05]

אזוב (eizov - Origanum-syriacum {Syrian oregano}; hyssop, Arabic: zaatar
Click to enlargeאֵזוֹבOriganum syriacum (Syrian oregano), hyssop (Arabic: zaatar).

This is a protected plant in Israel — strictly enforced with large fines. (photo © Martha Modzelevich; flowersinisrael.com)

masc . n. ei•zōv; אזוב,eizov,ezovBiblical hyssop: Origanum syriacum (Syrian oregano); Arabic زَعْتَر (za•a•tar).

Incorporated directly from Ta•na"kh into the original Pësakh Seidër, אֵזוֹב was dipped in red wine vinegar to commemorate the original Pësakh dipping of אֵזוֹב in the blood of a goat-kid or lamb. The אֵזוֹב was then used to spatter it onto the mᵊzuz•âh of every home, so that Par•oh's soldiers (who were carrying out Par•oh's decree to check the mᵊzuz•âh of every home), would see the blood and assume that the male firstborns in that house had been sacrificed—and pësakh (skip-over) the household without checking further.

This is also why no evidence of the deception (leftover meat, bones, innards or skin) were permitted to remain in the morning. Every part of the evidence had to be eaten, or burned in the fire, that evening. Thus י‑‑ה delivered Bᵊn•ei-Yi•sᵊrâ•eil from Par•oh's decree.

During the Hellenist Period, the early rabbis assimilated in Hellenizing אֵזוֹב to ka•rᵊpas (familiar in the modern Pësakh Seidër).

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EJ [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Encyclopedia Judaica (also Ency. Jud.)

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εκκλησια [Updated: 2011.04.03]


Hellenist Roman (increasingly gentile) churchnot a Pᵊrush•im (= modern Orthodox) בֵּית-הַכְּנֶסֶת of Nᵊtzâr•im (who were Jews and geir•im praying according to Tōr•âh liturgy; not gentiles).

בֵּית-הַכְּנֶסֶת was Hellenized (see, inter alia, LXX) to συναγωγη (su•na•gō•gæ; anglicized to synagogue).

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עֶלְיוֹןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.08.15]

Ël•yōn;עליון,Elyon uppermost, highest, most high; supreme.

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אֱלִילPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.05.21]

masc . n. ë•lil, האליל, אלילים, ha-elil, elilimpl. אֱלִילִים, combinative pl. …-אֱלִילֵי; a nihility, nullity; a nothing; something worthless, of no value, useless; especially of a powerless, feckless null-deity; false god (e.g., an idol or depiction of a supposed deity).

See Yᵊsha•yâhu 19.1 (…אֱלִילֵי); Yᵊkhë•zᵊq•eil 34; Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 10.21; 23.1-8; 3.15; Zᵊkhar•yâh 11.16-17 (רֹעִי הָאֱלִיל); as cause of internal schism, see Israel's Main Threat: Schismatic Sinkhole

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אֱלִישָׁעPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ël•i•shâ, אלישע, Elisha "My Eil shall save"; Hellenized (de-Judaized (Hellenized)) to "Elisha"

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אֱמֹרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.09.28]

Ë•mor, אמרים, אמורים, Emorimpl. Ë•mor•im; known as Amurra in Akkadian and Sumerian. A Semitic, and apparently nomadic, people of B.C.E. 21st to 17th centuries who controlled the regions of present-day Lebanon, Syria and southern Iraq (Babylon). Colonized areas of southern Kᵊna•an around Yâm ha-Mëlakh and Khë•vᵊr•on and the two regions of the east bank of Nᵊhar Ya•rᵊd•ein of Mo•âv, later granted to God, and Bashan (or Basan), part of which was subsequently awarded as the eastern half of Mᵊnash•ëh.

Egypt & Kᵊnaan, BCE 1570-1200
Click to enlargeMi•tzᵊrayim & Kᵊna•an, BCE 1570-1200
Tribes of Israel
Click to enlargeShi•vᵊt•ei Yi•sᵊr•â•eil

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אֶמֶתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Ë•mët; אמת, emetTruth.

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אֱמוּנָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.07.02]

fem. n. Ë•mūn•âh; אמונה, emunahstate of trained proficiency and reliability inducing trustworthiness or faithfulness; also, the resulting "faith" or "belief-system" satisfying that description—defined by, and according to the standards of, Tōr•âh. The Hebrew noun "coach" is a cognate: מְאַמֵּן (mᵊ•a•mein). See also אָמֵן This is the accurate Hebrew term underlying the grossly inadequate Hellenizations as "belief" and "faith"; particularly in the NT.

The hiph•il verb bin•yân is הֶאֱמִין (hë•ë•min; he trusted, he had faith, he believed).

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אֶפְרַיִםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.11.02]

masc . n. Ë•phᵊr•ayim; אפרים, Ephrayimfrom hi•phᵊrahni. more

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Ἐπίκουρος/​אֶפִּיקוֹרוֹסPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.06.23]

masc . n. Epikoros; אפיקורוס, EpikorosEpicureanists, referring to the Greek philosopher, Epicurus (BCE 341-270) – i.e. the effluence of hedonists, pleasure-seekers, sensualists, narcophiles, erotophiles and libertines – usually nescient. Epikoros shroud their perversions in euphemistic labels: liberals, progressives or "gay"/​"pride".

According to Ta•lᵊmud, "And these are the ones who do not have a portion in -Ō•lâm ha-Bâ: He who maintains that there is no resurrection of the dead deriving from the Tōr•âh, and [He who maintains] that the Tōr•âh is not from the Heavens, and an Epikoros." (Mishᵊnâh, Seidër-Nezikin, Ma•sëkët Συνέδριον 90a).

In modern Rabbinic usage: primarily any skeptic of rabbinic tradition (i.e. anyone who challenges a rabbi; particularly anyone who bests a rabbi in pi•lᵊpul) – synonym for Hellenist or "goy•im". Secondarily, a heretic, agnostic, secular person; infidel, impious person or nescient.

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Επιφανιος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Ep•i•phani•os); Anglicized to Epiphanius)

Christian (Catholic) Bishop of Salamis, Cyprus (c. 315—404 C.E.); born in Judea and educated in the Hellenist center of Egypt; author of "Against Heresies" (Haer.) and Panarion (Pan.); a defender of western Catholicism (Rome) against eastern Catholicism and an antagonist of Origen.

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ἐπίσκοπος [Updated: 2014.06.17]

ë•piskop•os – bishop, pope from epi (over) plus skopos (to watch, to supervise); i.e, , overseer, German übermeister – Romanization, gentilization, mythicization, Christianization, usurpation and counterfeiting of the Hebrew title: פָּקִיד – of the original Nᵊtzâr•im Jews. While no title is Scripturally attested for Mōsh•ëh Bën-Amᵊrâm, This is likely an historic title hearkening back to the more likely title, based on the core verb (פָּקַד) describing the activities, of the former prince of the Egyptian Royal Pharaonic House of Tut-moses 3rd, Par•oh of the Yᵊtzi•âhMōsh•ëh, Pᵊqid•einu.

Ἐπίσκοπος didn't morph into Hellenist (Greek) πάππας (pappas; Pope, Latin form of papa, father) – until the 3rd century CE: "…taken as a title by the Bishop of Alexandria c.250. In Western Church, applied especially to the Bishop of Rome since the time of Leo the Great (440-461) and claimed exclu­sively by them from 1073".

In other words, the first Pope in Rome was Leo the Great in the middle of the 5th century C.E.!!!

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עֶֽרֶבPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.06.15]

masc . n. Ërëv;ערב,ערוב תבשילין,erev,eiruv tavshilin dusk, eve (of…); the buffer-zone confluence or convergence, and co-mingling, of daylight transitioning to night; from the shōrësh עָרַבmore

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עוֹשִׂיןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.07.06]

masc . n. (Aramaic pl.) Ōs•in;עושין, Osin,Essenes those who are doing or making, doers or makers (Aramaic, pres. m.p.); parallels Hebrew עוֹשִׂים; Hellenized to Εσσηνοι ("Essenes").

Solving who the עוֹשִׂים were, and what happened to them, is pretty much the key to unlocking a proper understanding of all events in the Jewish community up to and including 135 CE!

In BCE 165, the brother of the Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl, (himself also a kō•hein), went to the Syrian Suzerain, Antiochus Epiphanes, and purchased the High Priesthood, displacing his brother.

The Qum•rân Tzᵊdōq•im were called עוֹשִׂין because Aramaic was popular and they were well known (in Hebrew) as the עוֹשִׂים of their interpretation of Oral Law, which was a cognate from this same verb root: מַעֲשֶׂה

The rabbis referred to the עוֹשִׂין (Mishᵊnâh ,Suk•âh 5.4) as "חֲסִידִים וְאַנְשֵׁי מַעֲשֶׂה" Although translators generally translate these as two groups behaving as one, there is no reason to think of them as two groups. "Men of the מַעֲשֶׂה" were known to be חֲסִידִים. These were "חֲסִידִים [who were] וְ (also) אַנְשֵׁי מַעֲשֶׂה" – the "Essenes."

In B.C.E. 175, the rabid Hellenist ko•hein, Yәho•shua Bën-Shim•on Jr. Bën-Tzâ•doq (Hellenized to Jason), went to Syria, who then ruled over Yᵊhudâh, and purchased from king Antiochus IV Epiphanes the office of Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol. He thereby usurped his own brother, Yәkhon•yâh Bën-Shim•on Jr. Bën-Tzâ•doq ha-Ko•hein (Hellenized to Onias III), who had been Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol. Having assumed the office of Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol, Yәho•shua Bën-Shim•on Jr. set about Hellenizing both the office of Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol and the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh. This created a permanent schism in what had formerly been the Kha•sid•im. The rift developed between the nouveau, Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im and the original Kha•sid•im whom they displaced. After the split, the remaining original Kha•sid•im seem to have been expelled from the Hellenized "Temple" principally to Qum•rân, as the "אַנְשֵׁי הַיַחַד," whom the rabbis called עוֹשִׂין.

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אֶסְתֵּרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.08.28]

Megilat Esteir (nosachteiman.co.il)

Ësteir, אסתר, חדסה, Esteir, Hadasah, HadassahHellenized-Anglicized to Esther; from Persian (Iranian) sitareh "star" and name of their pagan Goddess; by which Persians (modern Iranians) called הֲדַסָּה (Ha•das•âh; fem. of "myrtle"), the heroin in the Mᵊgil•at Ësteir who lived in the Tᵊphutz•âh of West Iran (Susa, Persia).

This name is the same deity as "Ashtarte", Ashtoret, Ishtar, Esotera and Easter). The name is also related to "astral" and astrology.

The Scroll of Ësteir, a book of the Kᵊtuv•im, is last of the five Megilot.

The Nᵊtzâr•im prefer to use her Hebrew name, Ha•dasah.

הֲדַס (ha•das; "myrtle"; pl. הֲדַסִּים, ha•das•im) is the "kâ•sheir" (Israeli triple-pinnate myrtle branches) comprising the lu•lâv.

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אֶתרוֹגPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.09.21]

masc . n. Lulav Teimani & Pomegranate Ët•rōg;אתרוג, etrog more accurately, verbatim from Ta•na"kh: "פְּרִ֨י עֵ֚ץ הָדָר֙".

New research by Orthodox Rabbi Ph.D. David Z. Moster, has documented that, for over 1,000 years after Har Sin•ai, the Biblical & historical "פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר" could not possibly have referred to the אֶתרוֹג because the אֶתרוֹג did not exist in Israel until more than 1,000 years later!!!

Etrog, fruit of a not-very-majestic tree – which couldn't possibly have meant citrus in Biblical times.

Recent research from Tel Aviv University revealed that the אֶתרוֹג and lemons were clear status symbols for the ancient Roman ruling elite…”, and that no citrus arrived in the Middle East until a millennium after Har Sin•ai: in the BCE 5th-4th centuries. Rabbi Moster corroborates that the אֶתרוֹג was first introduced into Israel "at some point during the Second Temple period… The fruit originated in China…. Eventually, the fruit made its way from East Asia to India… From there it traveled to Iran… As the Land of Israel came under Persian control in 539 BCE, the אֶתרוֹג spread [here] as well… the 'product of the goodly tree' [or the 'majestic fruit of the tree'?] became widely seen to refer to the אֶתרוֹג".

So, אֶתרוֹגִּים didn't exist in the Middle East in the Biblical era. Ergo, the rabbinic interpretation of אֶתרוֹגִּים is the one interpretation that cannot have been the Biblically specified פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר" ('majestic fruit of the tree', wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 23.40). Rather, the etrog is yet another item on the list of rabbinic assimilations and reforms – strayings from the pristine Tōr•âh.

Candidates: "The Seven Species (Of Grains & Fruits Native To Biblical Yi•sᵊr•â•eil)"
Click to enlargeשִׁבְעַת הַמִּינִים

The overarching importance of the prin­ci­ples of res judica­ta and stare decisis (i.e. "tradition") virtually dictate that the פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר be a tree (a priori, neither of the two grain species: wheat or baley) from the שִׁבְעַת הַמִּינִים: ergo, either:

  1. עֵץ הַזַּיִת (olive, fruit or tree). Tōr•âh predominantly describes olives not as fruit to be eaten but, rather, to be pressed for its oil, which is strongly associated with the Ruakh ha-Qodësh and consecration. The tree is not very large, its leaves small and offers only partial shade. Neither the fruit nor the tree seems a likely candidate for the "majestic tree-fruit."

  2. תָּמָר (date, described by Scripture as a דֶּקֶל, differentiated from an עֵץ and, thereby, disqualified).

  3. תְּאֵנָה (fig, tree or fruit). The fig fruit is sweet and juicy, but small and associated with fertility, not majesty. The fig tree, on the other hand, qualifies as a most majestic tree. But the cantillation of the phrase seems to point to the fruit being majestic, rather than the tree. Man was first clothed by the great leaves of the fig tree. So the fig tree is an arguable, but weak, candidate.

  4. רִמּוֹן (pomegranate: the fruit, majestically crowned with a seven-point crown; not the small, rather spindly, עֵץ, which offers very little shade);

Fig (sycamore) tree
Click to enlargeMajestic תְּאֵנָה tree, fruit and shade; next door backyard, Ra•a•nanâ(h). © 2017 Yirmeyahu Ben-David.

Only the kingly רִמּוֹן wears a majestic crown – extending the principal theme of the preceding High Holidays. So, was the original fruit accompanying the lu•lâv fig or pomegranate? When there's doubt, logic dictates humility and tolerance of diverse opinions (the opposite of displacing doubt with the arrogance of imposed rabbinic rule).

To folks today, BCE 539 seems like the age of dinosaurs and the ice age. But BCE 539 is more than 1,000 years after י‑‑ה revealed Tōr•âh to Mōsh•ëh at Har Sin•ai c. BCE . Yet, it wasn't until subsequent to B.C.E. 539 that the rabbis Reformed the interpretation of the Biblical "פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר" to assimilate to the newly-introduced into Israel אֶתרוֹג. The אֶתרוֹג used by the Tei•mân•im Jews is a special variety, different (though hardly discernible visually) from the אֶתרוֹג used by other modern Jews.

Thus, the adoption of the citrus ët•rōg from the Persians or Romans exposes yet another blatant Ultra-Orthodox rabbinic assimilation Reform (like Babylonian Rōsh ha-Shân•âh, month names, weekday names, the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον, Pësakh horseradish, celery and saltwater, use of electricity on Sha•bât, etc.)!

If Israel had followed the consensus at Har Sin•ai (as today's rabbis define Ha•lâkh•âh – in direct defiance of Shᵊm•ōt 23.2), Jews would all be wearing a gold עֵגֶל מַסֵּכָה of Hât-Hōr for prayers in today's συναγωγή! This is yet another historic and erosive rabbinic assimilation, a corruptive reform that has evolved the gaping chasm between legitimate historical Tōr•âh of Mōsh•ëh at Har Sin•ai v today's rabbinic laws; which, in addition to being the only viable cause of the Shō•âh, has spawned the gaping chasm between today's ≈8% Ultra-Orthodox Kha•reid•i Israeli Rabbinate and the remaining – 92%! – of the Jewish world around the planet. This centuries-old rabbinic heresy exposes the over-the-horizon straying from the original Tōr•âh, which has come to be imposed on Israel by today's Ultra-Orthodox Kha•reid•im רֹעֵי הָאֱלִיל

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Ευσεβιος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Eu•sëbi•os); Anglicized to Eusebius)

(260—340 C.E.) Palestinian-born Greek Hellenist Catholic Christian Church apologist and bishop of Kei•sari•yah ("Caesarea"), Israel, and earliest extant Church historian; see Eccl. Hist.

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Sa•id Ibn-​Batriq (Εὐτυχíος) – re: 333 C.E. [Updated: 2018.12.07]

(Ca. 876 C.E. – 940.05.11 C.E.) Egyptian-Arab Catholic Christian patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt. His writings are in Arabic.

“…from the late account of [Sa•id Ibn-Batriq] that, just at this time [namely, 333 C.E.], the faithful while they were leaving the church on Easter day, were forced to eat pork under pain of death. We know how the [Ëv•yōn•im 1] refused this in order not to transgress the Mosaic law to which they held they were bound.

  1. Ëv•yōn•im (not the modern baseless conflated and blurred phrase "Judaeo-Christians") – 9th century C.E. Egyptian-Arab Hellenist (gentile Roman) Christian Said Ibn-Batriq could never have encountered a Nᵊtzâr•im (who were ousted by the Roman Christians in 135 C.E., when they were last documented with certainty some 741 years before Said Ibn-Batriq was born) and, indeed, wouldn't have known what a Nᵊtzâr•im was! Any Tōr•âh-faithful Nᵊtzâr•im who may have survived the Roman extermination of the royal Davidic yō•khas•in into the 4th century never mingled in the Hellenist (gentile Roman) miso-Judaic Christian church – which impugned Tōr•âh as the "Jewish law of sin and death")! Nor did Nᵊtzâr•im assimi­late the idolatrous spring festival of Ishtar/​Esotera (i.e. Easter). Ergo, there were no Nᵊtzâr•im even present at any Christian church or Easter event. Rather, until they disappeared from the historical record in 135 C.E., Nᵊtzâr•im had continued to observe Pësakh within the Jewish community. There was never any such mixing as the oxymoronic "Judaeo-Christians"; only Hellenist (i.e. apostate) Jews who out-converted to the Hellenist (gentile Roman) miso-Judaic Christian churchReturn to text

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אֶבֶן-בֹּחַןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Even Bokhan

Ëvën Bō•khan; Even Bokhan, אבן-בחן, אבן-נוחןThe Touchstone (abbreviated EB), the earliest extant complete source text for Hebrew Ma•tit•yâhu, compiled by Sheim-Tov Bën-Yi•tzᵊkhâq Bën-Sha•pᵊr•ut in Spain, for polemical purposes, ca. 1380 C.E.

In Bible Review (Winter 1986, p. 15), George Howard—Emeritus Head of the Department of Religion and Professor of Religion at the University of Georgia—argues that EB reflects the ancient Hebrew ms. Top scholars increasingly agree that, just as Eu•sëbi•os documented, the original version of The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English), note 1.0.1). EB is, as of this writing, the earliest extant complete Hebrew ms. of Ma•tit•yâhu (Hellenized to "Matthew"). Its integrity within the Hebrew-Ma•tit•yâhu tradition remains unresolved (Hellenized to Greek Matthew).

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Εβιονιτών / pl. Ἐβιωναῖοι / אֶבְיוֹנִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.09.25]

Ëb•i•ō•naῖoi, Evyonim, Evionim, אביוניםlater anglicized to "Ebionites". This name was transliterated into Greek from the Hebrew אֶבְיוֹנִים, based on the פּוּרִים gift-giving to the אֶבְיוֹנִים inaugurated in Ës•teir 9.22:

וּמַתָּנוֹת לָאבְיוֹנִים

The language and culture chasm, sharply demonstrated in MMT, between the Pᵊrush•im (who included Ribi Yᵊho•shua and his original Nᵊtzâr•im followers) and the Hellenists (including the Roman occupiers and proto-Christians who, after 135 C.E., were syncretized into Christianity), has gone unrecognized. One cannot understand 1st century Judaism without fully grappling with this chasm just as they did. more

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עֶזֱרָאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.08.14]

Ëzᵊr•â;Ezra,עזרא ‎"[י‑‑ה] helps, assists, enables" (Aramaic); also סֵפֶר עֶזֱרָא (i.e. Ëzᵊr•â-Nᵊkhëm•yâh in the Kᵊtūv•im of Ta•na"kh).

עֶזֱרָא הַסוֹפֵר, הַכֹּהֵן returned to Yᵊru•shâ•layim from the Chaldean-Babylonian Decapitations of BCE 597 & 586, imposing the assimilations of Tōr•âh picked up in Babylon by the leading kō•han•im-aristocracy during their exile.

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אֶזְרָחPronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.04.22]

masc . n. ë•zᵊrâkh, ezrakhim, אזרחיםpl. אֶזְרָחִים (ë•zᵊrâkh•im); a homeborn (in modern parlance, "born Jew") or native; modern: citizen. This was one whose name had been inscribed in the yu•khas•in (public genealogical registries), which included 10 categories of אֶזְרָח (Ma•sëkët Qidush•in 69a-b; detailed explanation in ABNC Live-Link Technology). This practice continued until shortly after 135 C.E., when the Romans destroyed all but two of the yu•khas•in. See also geir.

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עֶזרַת יִשׂרָאֵלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.04.04]

fem. n. Ëzᵊr•at Yi•sᵊ•râ•eil; עזרת ישראל, Ezrat Yisraeilthe Annex of Israel (namely, men's Courtyard) – the inner courtyard of the Beit ha-Miq•dâsh'

עֶזרַת נָשִׁים, Women's Annex (namely, women's Courtyard, MH section) – the outer courtyard of the Beit ha-Miq•dâsh'.

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חֲמֵשֶׁת הַמִּינִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.03.31]

The Five Species (Of Grain Native To Biblical Israel)
  1. Khitim – hard wheat; Triticum durumKhitim – common winter wheat; Triticum vulgare (aestivum)

    חִיטִים—common bread wheat or hard wheat.

  2. Kusᵊmin – rice wheat; Triticum dicoccum

    כֻּסְמִין —emmer wheat. (MH: contra-historical "spelt".)

  3. Shiphon – spelt; Triticum spelta

    שִׁיפוֹן —spelt wheat. (MH: contra-historical "rye", didn't grow in Biblical Israel.)

  1. Sᵊorim – 6-rowed barley; Horedeum sativumSᵊorim – 4-rowed barley; Horedeum vulgare

    שְׂעוֹרִים‎—6-rowed barley and 4-rowed barley.

  2. Shibolet shuâl – 2-rowed barley; Horedeum distichum

    שִׁיבּוֹלֶת שׁוּעָל‎—2-rowed barley (Hordeum distichum; MH: contra-historical "oats" didn't grow in Biblical Israel.)

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גָדוֹלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.04.19]

Gâ•dōl גדול, gadol(adj., fem. gᵊdōl•âh) — big, large; the adjective used to describe the "Great" Sanhedrin and the "High" Priest (lit. the Big Beit-Din and Big Ko•hein, respectively).

When prefixed by the specifier, ה (hâ-; "the"), the גָדוֹל (gâ•dol) receives a dâ•geish, which Tei•mân•im pronounce "j" rather than "g" (like other Israelis): hâ-Jâ•dol.

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גָּלוּתPronunciation Table    Hear it! [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Gâl•ut; גלות, galutthe countries of the Exile. See also Tᵊphutz•âh.

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רַבַּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הַזָּקֵן, הַתַּנָּא, הַנָשִׂיא Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.12.31]

Rab•ân Ja•mᵊl•i•eil  Sr., ha-Tan•â, ha-Nâ•si ,, 1st century C.E. grandson of Hi•leil ha-Za•qein ha-Bâ•vᵊl•i.גמליאל,Gamlieil,Gamaliel,Jamaliel,Jamliyeil —  more

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גַּןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.11.13]

masc . n.Gan;גן BH: garden-grove (of date palms). NH: kindergarten (short for גַּן-יְלַדִים).

fem. n.גִּנָּה (gin•âh; garden).

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גַן-עֵדֶןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.12.09]

masc . n. Gan Eidën;גן-עדן, Gan-Eiden Eidën Park, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "the Garden of Eden."

The Biblical description locates Gan Eidën at an intersection of rivers that, today, could only be located on the seabed in the vicinity of the Persian Gulf, The Gulf of Oman, the Arabian Sea and, not coincidentally, the Gulf of "Aden", off the coast of "Aden.".

Interestingly, Jeffrey Rose, an archeologist from the University of Birmingham in the U.K. has discovered evidence of an ancient civilization—under the Persian Gulf. "…this 'Persian Gulf Oasis' may have been host to humans for over 100,000 years before it was swallowed up by the Indian Ocean around 8,000 years ago… Historical sea level data show that, prior to the flood, the Gulf basin would have been above water beginning about 75,000 years ago. And it would have been an ideal refuge from the harsh deserts surrounding it, with fresh water supplied by the Tigris, Euphrates, Karun, and Wadi Baton Rivers, as well as by underground springs."

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גַן גַת שְׁמָנִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.02.24]

גַן גַת שְׁמָנִים‎ – גן בת שמנים, Gan Gat ShemanimHellenized to "Gethsemane."

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גָאוֹןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.11.11]

masc . n. gâ•on; גאון, גאונים, gaonimexcellence, genius; pl. גְאוֹנִים (gᵊ•on•im; MH: heads of Jewish academies, 7th- 11th centuries C.E.

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גְּדִיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.06.01]

Gedi (kid)
Click to enlargeGᵊdi

masc . n.gᵊdi;גדי,gedi kid (goat).

Before there was paper money, checks, credit cards or banks, a gᵊdi served as a donation, or payment of a court-imposed fine, equal in today’s currency (2019), to approx. ₪1100 or U.S. $300.

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גֵּיא-הִנֹּם also גֵיהִנּוֹםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.12.15]

Gei-Hinom (Hinom Ravine)
Click to enlargeGei-Hi•nōm (Bridal-Couch Ravine; top yellow line)

masc . n. Gei-Hi•nōm גיא-חנם, גיא-חינום, תפת, תופת, שאול, מלך, מולך, Molekh, Sheol, Gei-Hinom, Tophetand contraction Gei•hi•nom (Hellenized to γέεννα); "Ravine of Hi•nōm"; the ravine running along the west (far) side of Yᵊru•shâ•layim (top yellow line) from NW to SE (right-to-left) to the southernmost tip of Ir Dâ•wid, where it intersects with Nakhal Qi•dᵊrōn at ancient תֹפֶת; and from there southeast to Beit Lëkhëm.

The intersection of Gei-Hi•nōm with Nakhal Qi•dᵊrōn, in the valley below the southernmost tip of Ir Dâ•wid, is the ancient site of תֹפֶת.

"Hell" Isn't From The Bible!

None of the popular conceptions of "hell" originated in the Bible. The only Biblical (Ta•na"kh Hebrew) word even mistranslated as "hell" in the Christian KJ/V of 1611 C.E. Greek Textus Receptus rewrite of Καινής Διαθήκης, is שְׁאוֹל.

תֹפֶת‎ & מֹלֶך – Passing One's Tweenagers Through Fire more
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גֵּרPronunciation Table    Hear it! [Updated: 2021.04.03]

masc . n. Geir גריםIn Ta•lᵊmud, always refers to a foreigner (including an unconverted foreign sojourner; esp. a preconversion disciple) adjudicated by a Beit-Din to be a "legal alien" in country, not a "convert"!

Though there have always been persons who convert (Avᵊrâ•hâm being the first we know), there has never been such thing in ancient (or, therefore, in modern) Am Yi•sᵊr•â•eil as a "convert"! A person who converts is a straight-up Bën-Yi•sᵊr•â•eil, a Jew, not a convert—and no different, whatsoever, from "born Jews" (who, if they do not take on the practice of Tōr•âh at their Bar-Mi•tzᵊwâh age, are no longer "presumed Jewish"; becoming goy•im)! From the time of Ei•sau (Israel's twin brother, of the same mother), true Tōr•âh has never, ever been a racist/genetic/DNA/maternal nor paternal thing in legitimate Tōr•âh teaching or Israel! Moreover, once converted, the Jew (!) is no longer a geir!

B.C.E. 1st Century — Rabi Hi•leil

When asked by a gentile to be converted while the Rabi stood on one foot, Rabi Hi•leil replied: "That which you eschew, don’t inflict on your fellow! That's the entirety of Tōr•âh. What remains is pei•rush•âh. Now, go-weave your lifetime-learning-practice.”

29 C.E. — Ribi Yᵊho•shua

Hillside Address At Yâm Ki•nërët
Everything you wish that persons would do for you, so you also do for them — for this is the Tōr•âh and the Nᵊviy•im. 

12th Century C.E. — Ram•ba"m

"Even a geir who was not examined, or who was not informed of the mi•tzᵊw•ōt and their punishments, but was administered the Bᵊrit Mil•âh and immersed in the presence of three הִדְיוֹטוֹת — then nevertheless indeed, he is a geir. Even if it is known that he converted for some ulterior motive, inasmuch as he has been administered the Bᵊrit Mil•âh and immersed, he has made the Yᵊtzi•âh from the goy•im population, and we are concerned for him until his tzi•dᵊq•ut is clarified. Even if he reverted and worshiped idols, indeed, he is like an apostate of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil. If he makes קִדּוּשִׁין, they are קִדּוּשִׁין, and the mi•tzᵊwâh to return an article he lost applies to him. After having been administered the Bᵊrit Mil•âh, he has become like Yi•sᵊr•â•eil." (Ram•ba"m, Mi•shᵊn•ëh Tōr•âh, Qᵊdush•âh, Hi•lᵊkh•ōt-I•sūr•ei-Bi•âh 13.17).

Everyone (!) today involved in reforming this 3¼+ millennia historical practice to disenfranchise even one Jew, anywhere in the world, as defined by this ancient standard is a kōphër!!! No one today has authority to overturn this Ha•lâkh•âh/​Tōr•âh, which has stood from long before the time of Mōsh•ëh at Har Sin•ai until long after Ram•ba"m. The Nᵊtzâr•im practice, and herald, this standard.

"You shall not taunt or oppress a geir, for you were geir•im in Egypt. You shall not cause pain to any widow or orphan. If you dare cause any [of these] pain, if he shall cry out to Me, I shall absolutely hear his outcry. My wrath shall blaze and I shall kill you by the sword, and your wives shall be the widows and your children the orphans." (Shᵊm•ot 22.12, 20-23).

"You shall not boil the kid in the milk of its mother " (Shᵊm•ot 23.19; 34.26; Dᵊvâr•im 14.21). more

This teaching was considered so grave and imperative that, to remind us every time we eat, Jews are forbidden to eat khâ•lâv with bâ•sâr together. This is interpreted to include: Jews always separating the two – from storage to their respective dishes, utensils, pots & pans, dish-washing sinks, cloths, towels & dish-washing machines, etc. This is to remind us, every time we touch anything having to do with food or eating, of the priority—immediately following command to serve only י‑‑ה—and gravity of this command.

A geir who converts comes out of the mi•qᵊwëh a newly-born Yᵊhud•i(t) (Jew(ess)), then the same as any other Jew, not any longer a "convert"! While there are Jews who did convert, they are, afterward, Jews, no longer "converts" – and Ta•lᵊmud forbids any referencing to their conversion or their pre-conversion past as "boiling the kid in its mother's milk" — even appending "Bën-Avᵊrâ•hâm " when calling such a person to read Tōr•âh transgresses Tōr•âh! Such Jews are not to be celebrated as different in any way, including not as trophy "converts"! Nor does the marriage restrictions of a geir any longer apply to them after conversion.

Another implication is that all non-Jews in Israel are geir•im and every Jew outside of Israel is, like Avᵊrâ•hâm was in Mi•tzᵊrayim, a geir wherever they live outside of Israel.

Geir is one of 10 categories of persons inscribed in the yu•khas•in (public genealogy registries of Yi•sᵊrâ•eil; Ma•sëkët Qi•dush•in 69a-b; see detailed explanation in Atonement In the Biblical 'New Covenant' (ABNC)).

Onᵊqᵊlos illuminates some of the range of meaning of גֵּר in his Aramaic Tar•gum of Shᵊm•ot 21.20, translating גִּיּוֹרָא in the first instance, but דַּיָּיר in the last instance. When "sojourning" outside of Israel, the Jew is a geir ("Diaspora Jew" – Homey Or Geir?)

The Biblical — and Ram•ba"m — definition of גֵּר (i.e., before Medieval European – in contrast to Har Sin•ai – reforms) referred to an in-training, exclusively pre-conversion, non-Jew proselyte-candidate. The reason that the Kha•khâm•im of Ta•lᵊmud described such a wide (and otherwise contradictory) range of practices for geir•im is because they were describing geir•im in various stages of learning, from day-one (knowing nothing except the threshhold Shëva Mi•tzᵊw•ōt Bᵊn•ei akh) until fully knowledgeable, practicing and ready for conversion.

"It was only during the later [Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh ha-Shein•i] period that a sharp distinction and a barrier of separation was erected between the Jew and the gentile… In addition to [idolatry] the low moral, social, and ethical standards of the surrounding gentiles were continually emphasized, and social contact with them was regarded as being a pernicious social and moral influence… Only considerations of humanity, such as relief of their poor, visiting the sick, affording them last rites (Ma•sëkët Git•in 61a) and discretion… were reasons for breaking the otherwise impenetrable bar­ri­er." more

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גֵטPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.07]


masc . n.Geit (corrupted to "get"); גט, geita certificate of divorce registered with a Beit Din.

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גמ"חPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.07]

Gᵊma"kh, gemakh, gem"khacronym for גְמִילוּת חֶסֶד (gᵊmil•ūt khësëd; khësëd fund); a benevolent fund, administered by a Beit ha-kᵊnësët or Beit Din, providing interest-free loans for needy Jews, which are repayable as the debtor is able and forgiven if the debtor cannot repay the loan.

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גְמָרָאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.01.27]

fem. n. Gᵊmâr•â; גמרא, Gemarawell-solved and concluded) commentary of the A•mor•ayim on the Mish•nâh. The term Gᵊmâr•â is often applied to Tal•mud as a whole.

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גְּנִיזָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Gᵊniz•âh גניזה,genizahstorage area for discarding sacred objects, and books containing the Name, so that they will not be desecrated by ordinary means of disposal.

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גָּלַלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.06.02]

Click to enlargeGâ•lil

גָּלַלגלולים,גלגל,גלגול,גלל,גליל,gilulim,galgal,gilul,Galil — he rolled (away; especially a large stone)

גָּלְגֵּל (pâl•peil of גָּלַל) — to roll, scroll, furl, unroll, unscroll, unfurl (especially a scroll)

masc . n.גַּלְגַּל (from pâl•peil of גָּלַל) — a roller, axle, pulley or gear; a cycle

masc . n.גִּלְגּוּל (verbal n. of גָּלְגֵּל) — rolling, scrolling, furling, unrolling, unscrolling, unfurling.

masc . n. גִּלּוּלִ, pl. גִּלּוּלִים (derives from גָּלָל) — a roll or ball of dung. Vowelized like shi•qūtz (i.e. gi•lūl), a dysphemism for idol.

masc . n. גָּלִיל (derives from גָּלָל) — rolling (hills); Hellenized then Anglicized to "Galilee"

See also synonym אוֹפֵן

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Γερουσία [Updated: 2011.04.01]


Gerousia; Senate. A council of elders (from [γερων] gerōn, an old man, a term which early assumed a political sense among the Greeks, the notion of age being merged in that of dignity)" (Vine, W.E., An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words (Iowa Falls, Iowa: Riverside Book and Bible House, [no date], p. 1014). This was the Hellenist term for the Zᵊqan•im.

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גִימַטרִיָּה [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Gi•ma•tri•yâh; גימטריה, Gimatriyah, Gimatriah, Gematrianumerology. Though there are several methods of encryption, the following is the usual convention.

א (âlëph) =1
ב (beit) = 2
ג (gimël) = 3
ד (dâlët) = 4
ה (hei) = 5
ו (wâw (vâv)) = 6
ז (zayin) = 7
ח (kheit) = 8
ט (teit) = 9
י (yud) = 10
כ/ך (kaph/kaph soph•it) = 20
ל (lâmëd) = 30
מ/ם (mëm/mëm soph•it) = 40
נ/ן (nun/nun soph•it) = 50
ס (sâmëkh) = 60
ע (ayin) = 70
פ/ף (pei/pei soph•it) = 80
צ/ץ (tzâdëh/tzadëh soph•it) = 90
ק (quph) = 100
ר (rësh) = 200
ש (shin/sin) = 300
ת (tâw (tâv)) = 400

See also Si•mân and Biblical numerology.

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גָּדPronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.10.26]

god (fate, destiny), skygod Amun-Ra Zeus Jupiter
Click to enlargeGod (sky and lightning god of fate, destiny and chief god.

masc . n. God גד, gad, god( Gâd, god and gâd); sky & lightning god of fate, destiny – associated sacred animal is the eagle (often holding a thunderbolt in its talons), and sacred tree is the oak; evolved from the ram-headed Egyptian Amun-Ra, later evolved into Hellenist Ζεύς (Roman Jupiter); origin of English "God"; also name of Ya•a•qov's 7th son (mother: Zi•lᵊp•âh, Leiâh's maid).

The kᵊtiv of bᵊ-Reish•it 30.11, בגד, means "by God!," similar to the form לַגַּד (la•gad; for God) in Yᵊsha•yâhu 65.11 (in contrast to the qᵊrei of bᵊ-Reish•it 30.11, בּׂא גָד (bō gâd; [sky-]god comes!).

The form גַּדִּי (Gad•i; "My God") is found in bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbar 13.10-11.

The cognate גְּדִי (gᵊdi; goat-kid) perhaps led to the association, with the adoption of some features (e.g., the ram's horns) of the Egyptian idol, Amun-Ra = Ammon, as in Ammonites = Amman, origin of the name of the capital of Jordan.

As the deity of the sky & lightning, גָּד  I•yov  Jove   (Anglicized to "Job") was regarded as the chief god. Later, גָּד evolved (Hellenized by the Greeks) to Ζεύς and Roman (Latinized directly from Jove to) Jupiter.

For heirs of Avᵊrâ•hâm, Yi•tzᵊkhâq and Yi•sᵊr•â•eil, י‑‑ה has always been our Only "Ël•oh•im" (see the Shᵊm•a).

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גּׂאֵל or גּוֹאֵלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.10.29]

masc . n. Jō•eil (modern Israeli pronunciation: gō•eil)גואל הדם,גאולה,גואל ישראל,Geulah,Goeil ha-Dam,Goeil Yisraeil,Jeulah,Joeil ha-Dam,Joeil Yisraeil requiter, avenger; executor of requital, vengeance or retribution (on behalf of…); also the verb "requite" or "avenge" (less accurately "redeemer").

גוֹאֵל derives from the verb גָאַל (ga•al); he requited, avenged or executed retribution (on behalf of…).

גוֹאֵל הַדָּם (jō•eil ha-dâm) means "requiter (i.e. avenger) of blood", one who executes blood vengeance.

גוֹאֵל יִשְׂרָאֵל (jō•eil Yi•sᵊr•â•eil) means "requiter (i.e. avenger) of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil."

גְּאוּלָה (jᵊūl•âh), a fem. noun, means restorative (redeeming) requital (e.g., reacquiring a previously-owned field—the case of the land of Yis•râ•eil today—or purchasing the freedom of an enslaved relative—the case of the people of Yis•râ•eil today); especially the redeeming retaliation and retribution—Vengeance—of י‑‑ה, on behalf of His kindred Israel, against the Goy•im, i.e. the 'Day of י--ה,' the 'Last Day' and the Great Day of His mi•shᵊpât—which is the definition of Israel's redemption. Over centuries of persecution by the Church, translators have been cowed into neutralizing the translation גְאוּלָה to the misleading "Day of Redemption" rather than the correct 'Day of the Vengeance of י--ה' against the Goy•im.

See also pâd•âh redeem(er) / ransom(er).

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גֹּלֶם /​ גּוֹלֶםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.08.21]

Golem Prague repro
Prague reproduction of a Golem

lëm (pl. גְלָמִים);golem

  • BH: (a hapax legome­non) a pupa; inchoate ob­ject or amorphous mass.
  • MH: human-like figure form­ed from mud or clay (imitating the creation of •dâm), purpor­tedly su­pernaturally enlivened by an Orthodox rabbi, through Ortho­dox rabbinic sorcery/​wizard­ry, into a zombie-​like, totally subservient and obedi­ent, hu­manoid automaton.

Several Medieval (16th century CE) European Ash•kᵊnazim, Kha•sid•im  Ultra-Orthodox Qabâlist mystic rabbis; most nota­bly the Rabbi Eliyahu "Baal Sheim" in Chelm, Poland; the "Maharal", Rabbi Loew, in Prague, Czech Republic; and the 18th century CE "Vilna Gaon" Rabbi Zalman of Vilnius, Lithuania claimed to have demonstrated mastery of the Name (Baal Sheim) to create and enliven a lëm.

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גֹּשֶׁןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.02.28]

Gōshënגשן, גושן, GoshenThe Egyptian Delta; likely mutated into Hebrew from the Aramaic plural of גּוּשׁ, i.e. גּוּשׁין.

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גּוֹיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.10.31]

masc . n. Goy; גויים, גוים, goyima people (not an individual person). Pl. גּוֹיִם (goy•im; peoples). Contrast with â•reil (gentile).

Tōr•âh refers to Yi•sᵊr•â•eil as a goy in bᵊ-Reish•it 35.11-12 et al.) Nevertheless, the term specific to the Jewish people is עַם.

Modern Hebrew utilizes “non-Jew”; i.e. לֹא יְהוּדִי (lō Yᵊhūd•i); pl., לֹא יְהוּדִים (lō Yᵊhūd•im).

Generally used in the plural, although goy•im (the peoples) includes Yᵊhūd•im as a goy, the term is generally used by Yᵊhūd•im to refer to "the [other] peoples" (in contrast to Yᵊhūd•im as a goy). Hence, the universally popular misuse.

The use of גּוֹיָה (goy•âh) for a “gentile woman” is a modern Hebrew innovation unknown in earlier Hebrew.

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הPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

ha- or - prefix (depending upon the subsequent letter); "the…"

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הַדְלָקַת נֵרוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.07.01]

fem. n. Ha•dᵊlâq•at Neir•ōt;הדלקת נרות,להדליק,lighting,candle,oil-lamp lighting of olive-oil lamps (or modern candles) (≈18 min. before sunset), last preparation before Sha•bât.

neir (oil lamp)The women of the household, first light the נֵר (to avoid lighting a fire on Sha•bât), then inaugurate the observance of Sha•bât by reciting:

בָּרוּךְלְהַדְלִיק נֵר שֶׁל שַׁבָּת

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הַגָּדָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.04.13]

fem. n. Ha•gâd•âh;הגדה, Hagadah elaboration; record of learned argument; hiph•il verbal f.n. of נגד (to be opposite, contrary, against); PBH "narration"; specifically, the Pësakh Ha•gâd•âh that serves as the elaboration guide for the Pësakh Seidër.

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הֲלָכָהPronunciation Table     Hear it![Updated: 2017.12.18]

fem. n. Ha•lâkh•âh, הלכה, הלכות, הלכה דאוריתא, הליכה, הלכה דרבנן, halakhah d'Oraita, halakhah d'Rabanan, halakhot, halikhahpl. הֲלָכוֹת (halâkh•ot); evolved in Post-Talmudic, rabbinic Hebrew to mean The Walk (which is, properly, הַהֲלִיכָה), or the Way (which is, properly, הַדֶּרֶךְ). This is the post-Biblical Talmudic term for stare decisis, comprising mi•shᵊpât and khuq•im (the non-Ha•gâd•âh portion of Mi•shᵊn•eih Tōr•âh). Together these were called Dërëkh Ha•lâkh•âh — or Dërëkh י‑‑ה, the original name, in Biblical Hebrew, for what is today called "Judaism"!

1st Century C.E. – 3 Versions Of Oral Law

In the 1st century there were three, and only three, interpretations of Oral Law recognized by the Beit Din -Gâ•dōl—which was the ultimate and undisputed earthly Judaic authority:

  1. The interpretations of the Qū•mᵊr•ân Kha•sid•im Bᵊn•ei Tzâ•dōq ko•han•im Tzᵊdōq•im, who called their Oral Law interpretations Ma•a•sëh. (These genuine Tzᵊdōq•im were usurped and expelled from the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh by the Hellenist Pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im.)

  2. The interpretations of the Roman-vassal Hellenist Pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim, who called their Oral Law interpretations—which they codified in an attempt to terminate oral transmission by the other two min•im—their "Χειρόγραφον τοῖς Δόγμασιν"

  3. The interpretations of the Pᵊrush•im, who called their Oral Law discussions Ta•lᵊmud; and their resulting interpretational verdicts derived therefrom, the interpretational verdicts endorsed by historical Ribi Yᵊho•shua: Ha•lâkh•âh.

Ergo, Ha•lâkh•âh is the Pᵊrush•im compendium of interpretations of Tōr•âh shë-bᵊ-al-pëh based on the discussions recorded in Ta•lᵊmud.more

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הַלֵּלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.05.18]

masc . n. Ha•leil הלל,Haleil(m.n.) — a faming, a heralding as renowned or famous, glorification; the title given to the chanting (in Hebrew) of Tᵊhil•im 113-118.

הַלֵּל מִצְרִי (Tᵊhil•im 113-114)

הַלֵּל (Tᵊhil•im 115-118)

הַלֵּל הַגָּדוֹל (Tᵊhil•im 136)

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הֻפעַל / הוֹפעַלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

huph•al; הופעל, הופעל, hophal, huphalCausative-passive verb binᵊyân; also hōph•al and haph•al

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הַפטָרָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.07.22]

fem. n. Haph•târ•âh הפטרה, Haphtarah(concluding), participle (verbal n.) of hiph•il הִפטִיר (hiph•tir; 1 he opened wide; 2 PBH he exempted, set free, dismissed), i.e., released, concluded; from the verb פָּטַר (pâ•tar; he broke free, set free, dismissed). A selection of passages from the Nᵊviy•im associated with the weekly Tōr•âh portion, and which are read concluding the Tōr•âh service.

Notice that this is not a cognate of Tōr•âh; not a "half-Torah."

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הַקָּפוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. (pl. of הַקָּפָה) Ha•qâph•ōt; הקפה, הקפות, Haqaphah, Haqaphotcircumambulations, walk-arounds, circuits.

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הַרPronunciation Table     Hear it!. [Updated: 2017.12.04]

masc . n. Har; mountain, הריםpl. הָרִים (hâr•im; mountains; connective pl. הָרֵי- (hâr•ei-□; Mountains of… Often a metaphor for a leader (king or chief).

Har Sin•ai more info

Other mountains: more info

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Proto-Sinaitic hei, for haleil (English: praise-pray Proto-Sinaitic wawProto-Sinaitic hei, for haleil (English: praise-pray Proto-Sinaitic yod (English: arm reaching-out) [Updated: 2020.08.18]

ה',ה',יי,השם,י--ה,הקדש,Yahweh,Existant,Holy Being,Holiness,Creator-Singularity,JehovahThe Existant — Contemporary mystic cultists who fixate on the perfect, original pronunciation of "the Name" are buried in the mindset of Dark Ages sorcerers' beliefs in the magical power of perfectly enunciated incantations. The documented facts are that, from the time of Avᵊrâ•hâm (c BCE 2039 ), when mankind was still developing the first written alephbeit, until the Masoretes first inserted vowels, accents and punctuation (e.g., יְהֹוָ֨ה ) after the 7th century CE— ≈3 millennia of assimilations later— no vowels were written. Audio recordings hadn't been invented so pronunciation was entirely dependent upon hearing the word—spoken by a Kᵊna•an•i  or Israeli (Jews were only one of the 12 tribes of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil). That also means the Masoretic vowels, upon which all modern researchers depend, reflect not original pronunciation but linguistic evolution nearly 3 millennia after the fact! And the Masoretes depended entirely upon context enhanced by Ta•lᵊmūd (itself codified only in the 5th century CE, only ≈2 centuries before themselves)! More recent researchers have resources (Dead Sea Scrolls, archeological information, etc.) to determine context (and resulting vowelization) that were undiscovered in the time of the Masoretes.

From the beginning, Avᵊrâ•hâm and his descendants, including Mōsh•ëh at Har Sin•ai, prohibited only desecrating the Name, pronouncing Proto-Sinaitic hei, for haleil (English: praise-pray Proto-Sinaitic wawProto-Sinaitic hei, for haleil (English: praise-pray Proto-Sinaitic yod (English: arm reaching-out) (later Middle-Semitic Middle-Semitic heiMiddle-Semitic wawMiddle-Semitic heiMiddle-Semitic yod, now Modern יהוה), both aloud in praise-prayer and in sworn testimony for almost 2 millennia—until cBCE 169, when Hellenist Syrian king Antiochus Epiphanes decreed Talmud Tractate Rosh haShanah 18b his prohibition against speaking aloud the Name of any non-Hellenist god. As Yi•sᵊr•â•eil had earlier done during the Babylonian Exile, they eventually rationalized why they were practicing the religious changes that foreign rulers had imposed upon them—internalizing (assimilating) the rationalizations as having been rabbinically-derived; ergo, rabbinic tradition overriding Ta•na"khmore

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הַשְׂכָּלָה Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.05.16]

fem. n.hasᵊkâl•âhHaskalah, השכלה:

  • BH: prudent, judicious (verbal n. of שׂכל).

  • PBH erudition, intelligence.

  • NH: culture, the Enlightenment movement.

masc . n.מַשְׂכִּיל (Masᵊkil; a luminary, enlightened one, an enlightener), adj. & n.; pl. מַשְׂכִּילִים (Masᵊkil•im).

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הַבדָלָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.07.05]

Yemen Myrrh tree (Commiphora myrrha)
Click to enlargeYemen Myrrh tree (Commiphora myrrha)

fem. n. Hav•dâ;l•âh; הבדלה, להבדיל, havdalah, l'havdil, lehavdilin Biblical (as contrasted with subsequent usage) Hebrew: detachment, removal or separation from; staying or keeping away from (Klein, p. 64).

The liturgy concluding Shab•ât that differentiates between Shab•ât and the profane (ordinary) days of the week.

Hadas (myrtle)Based on wa-Yi•qrâ 10.10; 11.47, et al., the cognate לְהַבדִיל (lᵊ-Hav•dil; to differentiate) often used to differentiate holy discussion from profane matters.

Authentic Tei•mân•im Hav•dâl•âh doesn't make use of a typical Ash•kᵊnazi "Havdalah Set." They do not use a spice box. Instead, they hold a sprig of fresh ha•das in one hand and the Qi•dush cup in the other (switching to the right hand according to which bᵊrâkh•âh is being recited – תכלאל). In Tei•mân, they held incense, probably myrrh. – קפאח, יוסף, הליכות תימן - חיי היהודים בצנעא ובנותיה (ירושלים: מכון בן-צבי ו"קרית ספר" בע''מ, תשס"ז)

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حوايج (hawaij, Arabic)Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.05.15]

Click to enlargeחוויאג' לִמְרַק

חוויאג' Yemenite spice mixture Basic recipe (adjust and refine to personal taste over time):

  • 5 Tablespoons ground cumin
  • 2 Tablespoons ground cardamom
  • 5 teaspoons ground black pepper
  • 3 teaspoons ground turmeric
  • 2 teaspoons ground coriander

Mix ingredients. Makes about 1/2 cup

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הֶדְיוֹטPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.02.15]

masc . n.hë•dᵊyōt;hedyot,hedeyot,hediyot,non-priest,layman,laymen,layperson,laity not a kō•hein or Lei•wi (i.e. Yi•sᵊr•â•eil), a non-priest; a layman or layperson.

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Ηγησιππος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Æ•gæsip•pos); Anglicized to Hegesippus

(ca. 110—ca.180 C.E.), wrote ca. 174-180 C.E. but is only extant through quotations (redacted) by later Christians, the earliest of whom was Eu•sëbi•os (325-339 C.E.). Contrary to accounts of gentile Roman Christians, centuries later, who knew no Hebrew whatsoever, we can be reasonably sure this Hellenist quoted from the Greek LXX), Ægæsippos may have been an apostate (i.e., Hellenist) Jew (Ægæsippos being a Hellenist Greek, not Judaic name) who converted to the foetal Christian Hellenist Gentile Catholic Church.

"According to Eu•sëbi•os, he was by birth a Jew; and though this is only an induction on the part of Eu•sëbi•os, it may be accepted as true." (jewishencyclopedia.com, 2011.03.29). In any case, he was perhaps the earliest Hellenist Roman Christian chronicler. His works, however, are lost excepting some passages (redacted and) quoted by Eu•sëbi•os and known to Ierōnumos. ("Hegesippus (1)," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," II:875ff.)

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הֵיכָלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.09.29]

masc . n. Hei•khâl; היכל, Heikhalpalace; synonym for (and see also) the middle sanctuary (Ency. Jud. 15.946) of the Beit ha-Miq•dâsh – popularly Hellenized-Anglicized to "Temple."

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הֶכְשֵׁר Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.01.30]

Typical Certificate of Kash•rut
(certificate of fitness - dairy only) תעודת כשרות - חלבי בלבד
Typical Certificate of Kash•rut
(certificate of fitness - meat only) תעודת הכשר - בשרי בלבד

masc . n. hë•khᵊsheir; הכשר, תעודת כשרות, hekhsheir, teudat kashrutpopularly pronounced "hëkhsheir"; a certificate, granted by an Orthodox authority, that a business or establishment maintains Orthodox halakhic standards of kash•rut. More than a few unscrupulous business people falsely claim to be "kosher" – or "kosher style" (totally fraudulent) – when they are not. Insist on seeing their hëkhsheir. Legitimate businesses that have a hëkhsheir make sacrifices to obtain and maintain it. Far from being offended, they will proud of their hëkhsheir and glad that you are discerning and share their faithfulness to Ha•lâkh•âh to insist on seeing it. They hang it in plain view of the public and will be proud to show it to you. If not, they're not "kosher"!

(The proper phrase is תְּעוּדַת כַּשְׁרוּת.)

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הִלֵּל הַזָּקֵן הַבָּבְלִי Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.01.01]

masc . n.Hi•leil  Sr., "the Babylonian"הלל,הילל,Hileil (born in the later half of the B.C.E. 1st-century in Bâ•vël, migrated as an adult to Yᵊhūdâh where he died c. 10 C.E.—when Ribi Yᵊho•shua  was ≈17 ). Like Ribi Yᵊho•shua, Hi•leil Sr. was also born into the Royal Beit-Dâ•wid!

Hi•leil Sr. was the Minority Pᵊrush•i Complement who, paired with the Majority Tzᵊdoq•i Sha•mai Sr. Complement, comprised "The Last Zūgōt".

Additionally, Hi•leil Sr. was also the grandfather of Rab•ân Ga•mᵊl•i•eil Sr.—who came to the aid of the Nᵊtzâr•im when they were being persecuted by the Tzᵊdōq•im more

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הִלּוּלָאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.04.11]

fem. n. Hi•lūl•â הלולא.הלולה,Hilula(Aramaic); Hebrew הִלּוּלָה, which derives from הִלֵל—i.e. the שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הַמִּשְׁתֶה. Biblical: 7-Day Wine-Fest Banquet Preceding 8th-Day Wedding (sequence reversed millennia later). more

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הִיןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.01.22]

hin; volume measure: ≈3.8 li.. (1 gal.)

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הִפעִילPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Hiph•il; הפעיל, hiphilCausal transitive / active verb bin•yân.

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Ιππολυτος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

((Ippolutos); Anglicized to Hipploytus)

Beginning of 3rd century C.E. after the gentile Hellenist Christian Church had become firmly established, known only from what Eu•sëbi•os inferred from works that had reached him and mention by Ierōnumos. ("Hippolyus (2) Romanus," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," III:85ff.)

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הִתְבּוׂלֵלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.01.22]

hitᵊbō•leil; he acculturated, assimilated, intermarried; subsumes syncretism, eclecticism, Hellenist (Christian) ecumenism and egalitarianism.

See also kheit.

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הִתפָּעֵלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

hit•pa•eil; התפעל, hitpaeilhe motivated (someone) to action, he induced someone to act, he activated, he set in motion. Reflexively-causal intransitive passive verb bin•yân of פָּעַל.

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הוֹשַׁענָאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.08]

Hoshana Raba 2006 (Paqid Yirmeyahu in center)
הוֹשַׁענָא רַבָּא 2006 (Pâ•qid Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu in center). Click for video

fem. n. Ho•sha-nâ; הושענא רבא, Hoshana Raba"Save, prithee!" refers to the willow branch waved during Suk•ot. This derives from the chanting, while making a circuit around the bimâh, of Tᵊhil•im containing the phrase הוֹשַׁענָא).

הוֹשַׁענָא רַבָּא (Ho•sha-nâ Rab•â; "the Great 'Save, prithee!' "), the seventh day of Suk•ot, when seven circuits carrying the lu•lâv and ët•rōg are made around the bim•âh. (Ho•shan•ot are chanted during every circuit.)

הוֹשַׁענוֹת (Ho•shan•ot; "save-prithee"s [plural]; specifically, the circuits around the bim•âh chanting Tᵊhil•im containing the phrase הוֹשַׁענָא).

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הוֹשֵׁעPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ho•sheia; הושע, Hosheia"Save!" (cf. note to bᵊ-Mid•bar 13.16 in the Stone Ta•na"kh); de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Hosea'.

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Humanzee [Updated: 2019.03.19]

According to research by the American Psychological Association, "More than one-third of first-year university students in eight industrialized countries around the globe report symptoms consistent with a diagnosable mental health disorder, according to research published by the American Psychological Association."

But the news gets worse: "…Gen Z, those between the ages of 15 and 21. Our 2018 survey results show that… America’s youngest adults are most likely of all generations to report poor mental health, and Gen Z is also significantly more likely to seek professional help for mental health issues" with females twice as problematic as males. Dependence on social media for peer acceptance is one factor.

Have you noticed the rise of mushroommushroommushroom (media term: "snowflakes") in the news? "Entitled" to everything, all free and owed to them, from the government, with no thought of who will eventually pay the cost? They're not defined by race, skin color, gender, genetics, religion or ethnic background. They are liberals, mostly socialists, who include science-deprived, arts-degreed college grads and professors who tend to be walking encyclopedias of grades of cannabis or any tattoos that Madonna or Kardashian may have; but most come up blank when asked simple questions about economics, logic, science, civics or how Hillary Clinton was related to Benghazi (Chelsea married a Muslim named Benghazi?).Roll eyes They also predominate media bobble-heads and propagandists.

As a result, what once were mere trivialities merit formal medical naming as mental conditions requiring psychotherapy, protective "safe zones" for the budding mushrooms and chemical tranquilizing—whether street or "medicinal". These are a generation of child-victims of their gullible parents' transferral of parental responsibilities to "professional" psychologist "experts" who knew better than the "uninformed parents"—because publishers published their books—how to raise children: protecting them from any harshness of reality. They are human beings, but not competent sapiens! While they're all flakes, they don't all snort "snow"; nor do they do melt away in spring.

Scientists have shown that, in some food-related experiments, chimpanzees out-think – and embarrass – many humans. Accordingly, it's no stretch to describe the "safe zone" protected- (disconnected-) from-reality mind of these socialist mushrooms as rivaling chimpanzees. Ergo, humanzees.

In my day—the Peak Generation, 1943 (between the 'Lucky Few' Generation and the post-WWII Baby-Boomers Generation), we, too, were concerned about peer acceptance. The Peak Generation, itself peaked around the early '60s, in many ways (even the music) suggesting a fork between the science-compatible intelligentsia (who continued to advance) in contrast to the"safe zone" dependent, protected-from-science-and-reality (often arts-degreed up to tenured professorship) "humanzees", (i.e. mushrooms, snowflakes) who began to devolve, precipitating downward into dependence, entitlement and chemical tranquilization (putting the opioid demand and profits on steroids with their brains going to pot, literally). Unable to think and behave as independent human beings, humanzees are herd animals, well typified by the "metoo" movement. If you're following the herd, you're a humanzee. Think for yourself and be a human being.

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kheqᵊqa (sing.)khasᵊt
kheqᵊqaw (pl.)

Hover over glyph symbol for explanations"Hyksos"
[Updated: 2018.02.18]

kheq (Gardiner S38, shepherd's crook) q (Gardiner N29, sandy slope) a (Gardiner G1, vulture) nobleman determinant, not pronounced (Gardiner A40) kheq (Gardiner S38, shepherd's crook) q (Gardiner N29, sandy slope) a (Gardiner G1, vulture) ew/u, plural determinate (Gardiner G43, quail chick) ordinary man determinant, not pronounced (Gardiner A1) plural determinant, not pronounced (3 vertical dashes) kha (Gardiner M12, lotus stem with leaf & rhizome) s (Gardiner S29, folded cloth) not pronounced (Gardiner Aa1, undeciphered horizontally-lined disk). The Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary assigns it ''kh''. t (Gardiner X1, bread loaf) Levant determinate, not pronounced (Gardiner N25, 3 stacked [plural] mountains of the Levant)

Khëqᵊqa Khâsᵊt;חיקסוס (sing.) a Levantine nobleman; a nobleman/​ruler indigenous to the hills of the Levant

Khëqᵊqaw Khâsᵊt;חיקסוס (pl.) Levantines; ordinary men indigenous to the hills of the Levant.

The term Khëqᵊqâ(w) Khâsᵊt was Hellenized to Ὑκσώς/​Ὑκουσσώς, then transliterated into Hebrew as חִיקְסוֹס and finally Anglicized to "Hyksos".

This ethnonym developed in Egyptian usage sometime during the Egyptian 2nd Intermediate Period (14C c BCE 1761-1572), – "coincidentally" about the time that Yo•seiph was sold in Egypt (c BCE 1709)! "Hyksos" therefore predates the emergence of the term Ă•bi•ru by nearly 4 centuries. This anomaly has now (2020.07) been explained by the discovery that the "Hyksos" were long-time, non-indigenous, resident-immigrants in Egypt who rose to power internally, not a foreign invasion! This matches exactly with the internal rise to power in Egypt of Yo•seiph, who was at first recognized as "a Levantine nobleman" ("Hyksos"). After the Yᵊtzi•âh, however, they became recognized as •vᵊr•u ("Habiru")—Hebrews!

"Hyksos" thus describes what Egyptians increasingly regarded as a problematic eirëv rav – hordes of non-Egyptian geir•im, who fled a prolonged drought in the Sinai and Levant to sojourn in the "International Breadbasket" of the fertile, Nile-irrigated Delta – i.e. Gōshën. Interestingly, this developed from the time of the emergence of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil and the eirëv rav as a distinct "problem" in Egypt leading up to the time of the Yᵊtzi•âh – about the time ("coincidentally" again Roll eyes) that the term Shasu eclipsed both "Hyksos" and Ă•bi•ru!

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Ιγνατιος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

((Ig•nati•os); Anglicized to Ignatius)

(ca. 105 C.E.—117), Syrian or Turk; the second Hellenist "bishop" of Antakya, Turkey (then part of Syria), antedating the first "bishop" in Yᵊru•shâ•layim who ousted and usurped the 15th Pâ•qid of the Nᵊtzâr•im (in 135 C.E.). Ig•nati•os is the first to coin the phrase "Catholic Church," the first to reject "apostolical authority and succession" (i.e., the authority of the Nᵊtzâr•im pᵊqid•im) to equate episcopal (bishop) authority with "Christ the Lord," already denying the Nᵊtzâr•im, sowing the first seeds of misojudaism.

Therefore, Ig•nati•os is both the first proper Roman Catholic Christian and "inventor" of the concept of a Catholic pope (the "papal succession" not existing until later, when retroactively fabricated by Hegesippus in the 3rd century C.E.). These earliest Christians retained their Sun-God-day worship, merely transforming it from worshipping the sun to worshipping the Hellenist man-God patterned after Zeus ("Ignatius (1)," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," III:209ff.)

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'אִם יִרצֶה הPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.07.14]

Im yi•rᵊtz•ëh ha-Sheim; אם ירצה ה', אם ירצה ה', Im yirtzeh ha-Sheimlit. "With the Will of ha-Sheim, i.e. with ha-Sheim's favor. This phrase is generally preferred in oral conversation. The abbreviation is אי"ה and may occasionally even be abbreviated in English letters: Iy"h. This may be the source from which the Arabic "In shᵊ-Allah" (if Allah wills) derived. More popular is the phrase bᵊ-ë•zᵊr•at ha-Sheim. In written communications, however, the standard Aramaic parallel is invariably used: בס"ד

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Inebu-hedj (White Walls) [Updated: 2021.03.14]

Inebu-Hedj Inbu-Hedj White Walls (white limestone fragments) RT
Russian archeologists discover white limestone wall fragments at Inebu-Hedj (Inbu-Hedj) "White Walls" (later Ankh-Tawi), near modern Memphis-Cairo, Egypt (photo © www.cesras.ru)

Inebu-hedj;Inebu-hedj ("White Walls"), original name of the ancient capital of Lower Egypt before the unification; i.e. during the Old Kingdom (BCE c. 2686–2181). This is the name by which the capital was known from the time of Lëmëkh, father of akh, to the time of Nâ•khōr, grandfather of Avᵊrâ•hâm.

Upon the unification of Upper & Lower Egypt, during the Middle Kingdom (c. BCE 2055–1640), the city name became known as Ankh-Tawi (Life of Two-lands). This is the name by which the capital was known from the birth of Avᵊrâ•hâm to the birth of Mōsh•ëh Bën-Amᵊrâm.

Today, this is the city of Memphis, Egypt.

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עִקְּשִׁיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

I•qᵊsh•im; עקשים, Iqshimpl. of adj. עִקֵּש (i•qeish, twisted, perverted, obdurate, and intransigent); name of the Qabâlists in Yemen who opposed the Dar•daim.

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עִירPronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.08.01]

fem. n. Ir; עירcity
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הָעִיר הָעַתִּיקָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.12.28]

The Old City; העיר העתיקה, ha-Ir ha-Atiqahthe Upper City, to the north of Ir Dâ•wid, which included Har ha-Bayit.

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עִיר דָוִדPronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.09.31]

Ir Dâ•wid; עיר דוד, Ir David, Ir Dawid[ancient] "City of David," ancient Yᵊru•shâ•layim

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Ειρηναιος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

((Ei•ræ•naios); Anglicized to Irenaeus)

(born ca. 135 C.E., d. ca. 202-203 C.E.) in western Turkey, probably a Syrian whose native tongue was Syriac and, being Hellenist (knowledgeable in the Greek poets and philosophers loathed by religious Jews like the Nᵊtzâr•im), his second tongue was the international language of the time: Greek. He was a disciple of Polycarp and became bishop of Lyons in the foetal (64 C.E.—135 C.E.), proto-Christian Hellenist Gentile Catholic Church of the late 2nd century. ("Irenaeus (1)," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," III:253ff.)

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waw (waw; Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew)resh (head; Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew)beit – hard: b/​soft: v (house; Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew)ayin (eye; Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew)
Ă•vᵊr•uHover over letter for xlit & xlatn
(malcontent) emi­grants
Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.06.16]

עָבְרוּ (•vᵊr•u, corrupted to "Habiru") —Khabiru, Amarna,עברית, עברים, עברו,they (who) traversed, passed over/​through; derived originally from עֵבֶר.

ḫ (kh, Akkadian cuneiform lacked an ayin U1212A tenu) p (Gardiner's List Q3, a block) r (Gardiner's List D21, mouth) u/​w (Gardiner's List G43, quail chick - plurality, faces beginning of glyph) (person determinate, not pronounced) - Gardiner's List A1, kneeling & imploring man, faces beginning of glyph (plural determinate, not pronounced) 3 vertical dashes
a•bi•ruHover over letter for xlit & xlatn
(malcontent) emi­grants
Ă•pᵊr•uHover over glyph symbol for xlit & xlatn(disreputable)

עָבְרוּ (•vᵊr•u) originally developed from Euphrates-crossers – hence Akkadian-Persian cognate Ḫapᵊru, transliterated into Egyptian as Ăpᵊru – emigrating westward out of Mesopotamia. Subsequently, the (m.p.) noun and (fem.) adj. עִברִים and עִבְרִית (Hebrew). more

עֵבֶר was the great-grandson of Sheim (c BCE 2218), who was the patronym of Semites. By the time of עֵבֶר, Semites had already been identifiable as a distinct ethnonym for more than a century. The עִברִים (i.e. •vᵊr•u) thereafter established themselves as a distinct ethnos within the Semites. Thus, Avᵊrâ•hâm was called an עִברִי.

Click to enlargeAmarna Tablets EA285 & EA286, mentioning "Ă•bi•ru" (Akkadian cuneiform)

Contrary to academic bluster, Harvard Ph.D. Brian Doak affirmed that "All lines of argumentation in this regard have been met with opposition, and there is currently no consensus on the spelling or etymology of the term" (emphasis added). Yet, the etymological chain is straightforward and unassailable: the descendants of עֵבֶר, the patronymic patriarch of all עִברִים, were •vᵊr•u – called eber nāri" ("crossers of the Euphrates") by the Assyrians.

Avᵊru: migrating from Ur (in today's southern Iraq) across the Euphrates River to the Levant (via Paddan Aram to Kᵊnaan)
Click to enlargeA•vᵊr•u ('those [Semites] who migrated') — from Ur (in today's southern Iraq) crossing the Euphrates River, around the desert via the northern "Fertile Crescent" route (via Paddan Aram, then south to Kᵊna•an in the Levant.

Even the name Euphrates itself is related, deriving "from Old Persian Ufratu, perhaps from Avestan huperethuua "good to cross over," from hu- "good" + peretu- 'ford' ", cross or traverse. "([F]rom PIE root *per-(2) 'to lead, pass over')… In Akkadian, purattu" (loc. cit., see also Khëqᵊqâw Khâsᵊt (Hyksos) and Shasu). more

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אִיּוֹבPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

I•yōv איוב, Iyov(corrupted to "Jove," "Jupiter" and "Job"). Neither the etymology nor the meaning are known (though widely, and wildly, hypothesized by many).

In Hebrew, this would be "either passive, meaning [נֶאֱיַב from Sâ•tân] … or active, meaning [אָיַב]" (Jewish Ency.).

The illusion of a link between אִיּוֹב ("Job"), which dates from ca. B.C.E. 6th century, and Jove, the Roman god of the bright sky, Iuppiter (gen. Iovis) in classical Latin (corrupted to "Jupiter"), stumbles on chronology. The use of Jove dates back only to 14th century C.E. Europe and traces back etymologically to the older Proto-Indo-European dyeu (to shine) = Zeus (Online Etymology Dictionary).

Iuppiter, via its genitive case Iovis, derived etymologically from *djous patær ("Day-sky father"), in turn derived from the earlier Proto-Indo-European *dyew- (Day, an ancient god of daylight, or "sky") – a cognate of the ancient Greek Zeus.

Similarly, the hypothesis that (based on the illusion above) אִיּוֹב is a refinement of the name of an ancient idol and a cognate of י‑‑ה not only stumbles on chronology, but, additionally, is plainly ignorant to anyone who knows how to spell in Hebrew.

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גַ'חנוּןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.02.26]

Jakhnun, ventura-im.comJakh•nun ג'חנון, Jakhnun(borrowed from Arabic). Yemenite Shab•ât bread Basic recipe (refine over time):

  • 4 ajin
  • 5 eggs in the shell
  • butter

Place 4 ajin in a well-buttered pan. Push one egg between each ajin, plus one more egg in the center

Bake at low heat, 120° C (250° F) all night (6 to 8 hrs).

Remove from the oven and serve at room temperature

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גּ'עלהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.09.12]

Jalëh; ג'עלה, Jalehappetizer (borrowed from Arabic)

As in Yemen, at Beit ha-Kᵊnësët they serve nuts, dried fruits and fresh fruits of the season. Here in Israel, this additionally includes at least khumus in pita with beverages accompanied by Tei•mân•i זְמִירוֹת (Zᵊmir•ot; songs of Shab•ât) and Di•vᵊr•ei-Tōr•âh. Often the Jalëh is more elaborate, including jakhnun with khilbâh and sometimes Ma•lawakh garnished with a sauce made of tomato paste, skhug and zaatar.

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גַּנְבִּיָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.07.05]

Janbiya in belt
Click to enlargeJanbiya in belt (photo: Anthony Pappone )
fem. n. Janᵊbiyâh (MH spelling: גַּ'נְבִּיָה,Janbiyah,Jambiya,Jambia,sicarii from גָּנַב, necessarily via Aramaic גַּ'נְבִּיָא (same pronunciation), to Arabic janaba but still retaining the original Janbiya — the short curved dagger used by the Qa•nâyim (Roman Latin: sicarii ). more

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Ιερωνυμος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

((Ierōnumos); Anglicized to Jerome)

(ca. 346—420 C.E.) Ëb•i•ō•naῖoi Sophronios Ierōnumos. Born in south-eastern Europe (modern Bosnia and Herzegovina, across the Adriatic Sea, east of Italy) of Hellenist Catholic Christian parents, Ierōnumos was an Italian Hellenist Catholic Christian Church Historian who translated Ta•na"kh into Latin (Vulgate) from Hebrew (rather than from LXX Greek). See also Samuel Krauss, "The Jews in the Works of the Church Fathers," The Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. V, 1893, p. 132-3; Solomon Schechter, "Genizah Specimens," The Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. X, 1898, p. 656-7 and "Atonement Under the Biblical 'New Covenant.'"

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Jerusalem Post [Updated: 2006.04.27]

The Jerusalem Post, Israel's English-language newspaper, is miniscule compared to any of the three major Israeli Hebrew-language newspapers. Aside from the relatively small community of English speaking Israelis, The Jerusalem Post is entirely ignored within Israel. The daily domestic circulation is 11,000, rising to 25,000 for the Day6 (week-end) edition. The Jerusalem Post International Edition has a circulation of 26,000. The Jerusalem Post French weekly has a circulation of 3,000. (Figures as of 2003).

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Ἰώσηπος [Updated: 2018.04.24]

born יוֹסֵף בֶּן-מַתִּתְיָהוּ הַכֹּהֵן, ‎ 37 C.E. – d. Τίτος Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος 100+ C.E.

Son of a Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im father (certainly not of the strict Qum•rân Kha•sid•im Tzᵊdōq•im), and Khash•mo•nâ•im mother, boasting royal lineage, he rose to general in the Tzahal but became a traitor, persuading his officers to commit suicide (pretending he would also) then defecting to the Hellenist Roman occupiers during the Jewish Revolt of 68-70 C.E.

Corroborating his Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im orientation, Yo•seiph relied on LXX rather than MT. Like Shâ•ul, who, subsequent to his kâ•reit was called exclusively by his Hellenist name (Paul); similarly, Yo•seiph Bën-Ma•tit•yâhu ha-Ko•hein is known almost solely by his Hellenized name: 'Flavius Josephus.'

Josephus authored "Wars of the Jews" ca. 78-79 C.E. and "Antiquities of the Jews" ca. 94 C.E. (in foreward to William Sanford LaSor in William Whiston, Josephus, Grand Rapids, MI, Kregel Publications, 1960, p. ix-x.) and widely acknowledged to have been redacted by No•tzᵊr•im

"Josephus gives the impression that the sects were primarily divided over theological questions… He was concerned to produce an explanation that would make sense to his Greek (and Hellenist Roman) readers [and, perhaps, his own secular nature; ybd]. But the fact that only matters of practice are mentioned in MMT confirms the view that it was not dogma, but law that was apt to produce lasting schisms in Judaism." (Ëlish•â Qim•ron and John Strugnell, Discoveries in the Judaean Desert x, Qumran Cave 4.v, Miqsat Ma'ase ha-Torah, in consultation with Y. Sussmann and with contributions by Y. Sussman and A. Yardeni, Oxford,at the Clarendon Press, 1994, p. 176).

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Judaism/Judaic/Judea/Jew(ess). [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Both "Judaism" and "Jew," derive from יְהוּדִי (Yᵊhud•i; יהדות, YahadutJudean or Jew), plural יְהוּדִים (Yᵊhud•im; Judeans or Jews), and the related יְהוֹדָה (Yᵊhud•âh, de-Judaized to "Judah" and "Judea"). Jews should properly be called יְהוּדִים (Yᵊhud•im).

"The term Judaism is first found among the Greek-speaking [i.e. Hellenist] Jews of the first century C.E… Its Hebrew equivalent, [יַהֲדוּת] Ya•had•ut, found only occasionally in medieval literature…, but used frequently in modern times, has parallels neither in the Bible (but see Ës•teir 8.17, [מִתיַהֲדִים] mit•ya•had•im, "became Jews" [joined the tribe of Yᵊhud•âh specifically?]) nor in the rabbinic literature." (Judaism, EJ 7.383). For the most Biblically authentic ancient name, see Dërëkh ("Way").

יְהוּדִי(ת‮) ‬ (Yᵊhud•i(t); masc./fem., respectively) native of Yᵊhud•âh one who is born of a Jewess, or converted to Judaism (see below) according to Ha•lâkh•âh and does not practice another religion. (For exceptions, however, see פִּשׁתָּה כֵּהָה of Yᵊsha•yâhu 42.1-4)

Originally, this people of the Ta•na"kh were called יִשְׂרָאֵל (Yi•sᵊr•â•eil), designating all twelve tribes of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil.

These terms were applied to the entire people only after the destruction of the Northern Kingdom of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil (B.C.E. 722). "However, while the name 'Jew' became common usage outside the Land of Israel, the Hebrew-speaking Jews within the land were particular to call themselves 'Yi•sᵊr•â•eil' (de-Judaized to "Israelites")…

In the time of the Beit-ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh, Hellenist Romans applied the term "Judaeanism" (in Greek) to "the religion of the Judeans." Judaeanism was contracted to Judaism. Similarly, Judeans was contracted to "Jews."

Like "Sanhedrin," Judaism and Jew were originally external terms applied by Goy•im. Christians early conflated the word 'Judaeus' with the name of the villain of the gospel story, Judas Iscariot, whom they stereotyped as the typical Jew. Judas was linked with the devil (Lu. 22:3), and the result, in Hellenist Greek, was devil-Ιουδας (Ioudas; Judas = Judah = Judea—deriving from a single Hebrew term, יְהוּדָה [Yᵊhud•âh], differences in the Greek and English terms are artificial)." Further, while Sâ•tân is often transliterated into Greek letters in the Καινής Διαθήκης, it is also translated in other passages into Greek: διαβολος (diabolos, which is frequently translated into English as "devil" and is equivalent to Sâ•tân; see, in this regard, Jn. 8.44.) Thus, via Lu. 22.3, Ioudas = Judas = Judah = Judea was equated to diabolos = Sâ•tân. This relationship established the pejorative meaning of the word 'Jew' in the earliest Christian Church. ("Jew," Encyclopedia Judaica, 10:21-2.)

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"Judaizers" [Updated: 2011.04.07]

Prior to being redacted into ms. C #04 – in the 5th century C.E., Acts 15.24 lacked the phrase in the KJ/V of 1611 C.E. that has been the basis of denigrating "Judaizers": λέγοντες περιτέμνεσθαι καὶ τηρεῖν τὸν νόμον.

To Ribi Yᵊho•shua and the original Nᵊtzâr•im, being circumcised and keeping Tōr•âh had always been a good thing. It wasn't until the 5th century that gentile Hellenist Christians were finally able to reverse that image via this redaction.

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Flavius Iustinus [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Anglicized to Justin {Martyr})

(writings dating to ca. 150-163 C.E.) Iustinus Martyr, who reportedly died at age 30 ca. 163 C.E., was born in Roman-occupied Shᵊkhëm (Hellenist "Nablus"—Flavia Neopolis, named after Roman Emperor Flavius Vespasian) of Hellenist Roman gentile parents, Iustinus, who "has not heard, even, of Moses or of the Prophets, until well on in life" claimed to be a Samaritan Christian—demonstrating that he was as confused about the difference between a gentile and a Samaritan as he was about the difference between a Syrian Arab (Trypho) and a Jew. If Iustinus converted before 135 C.E., as reported, he would have been about two years old.

The Hellenist orientation of the original (post-135 C.E.) Christian Church is typified in Iustinus' listing of the Patriarchs of "the Word of God"—"Socrates, and Heraclitus, Abraham and Elias"—as well as his defense of Christianity: "We alone are hated, even though we hold the same as the Greeks."

The antinomianism and misojudaism of the original (post-135 C.E.) Christian Church is also evidenced by Iustinus, who equates gentile Romans with Christians, declaring that the Romans' enemy—the Jews—"had tortured and slain Christians without pity under Bar-Kokh, and made Jews everywhere the most violent and remorseless of the church's slanderers and persecutors (ch. 108, § 335)." Iustinus believes in "the new Israel, the abandonment of the old Israel, the sons of Abraham, unless they will accept the new covenant." Already in contrast to the , Nᵊtzâr•im keeping of the Judaic festivals, "this the main body of Christians repudiated, so that it was by most treated as a criminal heresy [emphasis added] to keep the Sabbath, and they refused to hold communion with those [Nᵊtzâr•im] who still held to these Jewish customs" (Justinus Martyr, St., A Dictionary of Christian Biography, Smith & Wace, III.560ff).

"It was for you Jews alone that it was necessary; because you forgot Him, He had to decree your Sabbaths; because you fell away to idols, He had to demand of you sacrifices (Dialog. 19, § 236, E). He ordered you a temple, lest you should worship images. All was done to distinguish the Jewish race from the heathen; and this, not on account of the race's virtue, so much as for its proneness to evil… It is foretold all along that the Gentiles are the children of prophecy, the true Israel, the perfect proselytes; it is of them that all the good promises are spoken… We realize in Iustinus the complete Gentilism of the Christianity of 140 [C.E.]. He regards the Law rather as an evidence of peculiar evil… in the Jews; so he even says in scorn that circumcision only serves to mark them out for condemnation, as the accursed who are forbidden to enter Jerusalem." Iustinus regard for Plato as the highest authority is compounded by his own entire ignorance of Hebrew. (Smith & Wace).

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