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Hebrew Glossary: E-J

The reason this simple page of glossary definitions is ranked so popular with the search engine is because so many people click on our links to these definitions from the content in… the 'Netzarim Quarter' Village web site in Ra•an•anâ(h), Israel at www.netzarim.co.il

The real content is in the 'Netzarim Quarter'! Click on our logo above for an exciting visit to the 'Netzarim Quarter' where you'll learn about Historical Ribi Yehoshua and his original, Jewish, followers before the great Roman-Hellenist apostasy of 135 C.E.—and even more importantly, how you (whether Jew or non-Jew) can follow the historically true, Judaic, Ribi Yehoshua. In Hebrew, his original followers were called the Netzarim (Hellenized to "Nazarenes").

Until Paqid Yirmeyahu researched the Netzarim name and sect and began publishing about it in 1972 in The Netzarim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matityahu (NHM) no one in modern times was even aware of the name Netzarim. It stretches credulity that no one in modern times had heard of the Netzarim until Paqid Yirmeyahu published it in 1972… and then, suddenly, everybody figured it out??? Check (and verify) the dates of the earliest works about the Netzarim by the others and you'll see that they are deceiver-plagiarists. Then insist on the person whom ha-Sheim selected to entrust the knowledge, not imposters who falsely call their continuing practice of Displacement Theology "Nazarene Judaism" or directly plagiarize the name "Netzarim."

Because we teach and practice the authentic Judaic teachings of Ribi Yehoshua—not Displacement Theology—we are the only group who have restored the Netzarim to be accepted in the legitimate Jewish community in Israel—genuinely like Ribi Yehoshua and the original Netzarim. Consequently, the 'Netzarim Quarter' is the only web site of legitimate Netzarim / Nazarene Judaism.

Give all the friends you've ever known the chance to know about this exciting site; send them our web site address (www.netzarim.co.il) that opens modern eyes for the first time to the Judaic world that Ribi Yehoshua and his original Netzarim knew, practiced and taught.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.03.25]

Amaleiq
Click to enlargeMap: Israel ca. B.C.E. 1000

Ë•dom , Edom("Red [clay]," later Idumea, was the nation south of Yâm ha-Mëlakh of the Arabs descended from Ei•sâu, who was renamed Ë•dom, a cognate of (â•dom; red)—a reference to the pot of red lentils for which he sold his birthright. See also Har Ei•saw.

(Ë•dom•i), pl. (Ë•dom•im), is an Edomite or Idumean.

As Ei•sâu was born of the same mother as Ya•a•qov, yet became an Arab patriarch, Ei•sâu is proof that the racist argument of simply being born of a Jewish mother or having Jewish DNA isn't sufficient to make one a Jew. Abandoning Tōr•âh excludes even one born of a Jewish mother from Yi•sᵊr•â•eil and from being a Jew.

The most infamous Ë•dom•i was the grandson of Ei•sâu: ! Remember!

Ancient Ë•dom (later Idumea) today comprises part of the Israeli Nëgëv and southwestern Jordan. Today's Ei•dom•im (Edomites, Idumeans) are the Arabs of Jordan.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.04.21]

fem. n. Eid•âh; , , eidah, eidot, eidutpl. (eid•ōt), compound forms: sing. □- (ad•at-…), pl. □- (ad•ot-…); evidentiary testimony.

masc . n. (eid; eyewitness; witness); collectively, of a group of witnesses (in the sense of subpoenaed; popularly assembly, congregation; more accurately convocation). This noun derives from the verb (yâ•ad; he appointed, designated, convoked). See also cognate Mo•eid.

– Jews of Middle Eastern origin, Middle Eastern Jews in contrast to Ash•kᵊnazim and Sᵊphârâd•im, both of which are European Jews.

Jews from middle-eastern countries preserve more authentic traditions than the European-accultured Ash•kᵊnazim and Sᵊphâ•râd•im.

Tei•mân•im are one of the .

fem. n. eid•ūt; evidence, physical evidence, physical proof, which Moshëh placed in the (Shᵊm•ot 40.20, inter alia).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Eikh•âh; , Eikhah"how?"; Hellenized (Hellenized) to "Lamentations." Written by Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu ha-Nâ•vi, this is the third of the five Mᵊgil•âh.


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, Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.12.13]

masc . n. ël•oh•im (collective pl. of ; Arabic counterpart: Al•âh) — , , , Eil, eilim, Eloha, elohim, il "the gods".

fem. n. , pl.

There was no capitalization in Hebrew nor in other ancient languages. Use of a capital letter to distinguish "God" from "god" is a foreign introduction, by modern languages, that was non-existent in the original language. This plural noun is universally misunderstood and always means "the gods", especially when all of "the gods" (Jesus and Al•âh subsumed), for Yi•sᵊr•â•eil, are superseded and displaced by ‑‑ solely — as in the Shᵊm•a:

‑‑, the Lone-Singularity — is all of ‘the gods’ to us!”

<s>il</s>
il – Ugaritic cuneiform. Hebrew /​Arabic Al•lah, consort of

The etymology is uncertain and disputed. Scholars of MH disagree concerning the anomalous and enigmatic singular form. Because has a different plural form, (Eil•im), most scholars consider Ël•ōh•im to be the plural of ël•ōh•a. It follows neither the typical masc. nor fem. pattern. Confounded scholars, disagreeing among themselves, have performed numerous contortions of gi•matri•yâh, introducing a infix and capriciously assigned the fem. construct to the masc. gender. Yet, the distortion should tell scholars something basic: this was a term that was deliberately distorted out of existence; excised from the Hebrew lexicon—and that is what Tōr•âh commanded regarding the names of an idol (Shᵊm•ot 23.13; Dᵊvâr•im 12.3; Yᵊho•shua 23.7)!!!more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Eil•i•yâhu, , Eiliyahu"My Eil is ‑‑"; Hellenized (de-Judaized (Hellenized)) to "Elijah"


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.11.30]

masc . n. Eimëq, , eimeqa long nakhal (vale), typically including an emanating plateau or its culminating plain.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Ei•phōd; , Eiphod, Eifodapron (vest in ancient times)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.01.24]

masc . n. A great mixture, mingling or convergence (e.g., of goy•im, Shᵊm•ōt 12.38). , eirev rav


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Eiruv - which wire? (Phoenix)Ei•rūv; , eiruvconfluence, convergence. A boundary delineating and enclosing a communal area that is, by means of symbolic mutual ownership, defined as a private-communal domain wherein one may carry on Shab•ât without transgressing the prohibition against carrying in public.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.04.15]

Eisau-Edom, capital: Mt. Seiir (''Bozrah'')
Click to enlargeEi•sâu-Εd•ōm and capital, Mt. Seiir (, corrupted to "Bozrah")
Batzrah ruins (Har Seeir)
Click to enlargeHar Seiir – ruins of ancient capital, (corrupted to "Bozrah")

Ei•sâu , , Eisau, Eisav, Seir(done), from the verb (â•sâh; he did, he made), referring to his hairy-red "done" look at birth; Hellenized (de-Judaized) to "Eesau"

As Ei•sâu was born of the same mother as Ya•a•qov, yet was an Arab (the Εd•om•i tribe), Ei•sâu is proof that simply being born of a Jewish mother or having Jewish DNA isn't sufficient to make one a Jew by the Biblical standard. Abandoning Tōr•âh excludes even one born of a Jewish mother from Yi•sᵊr•â•eil and from the definition of a Jew.

Because Ei•sâu traded his birthright inheritance for a pot of " " lintel stew (bᵊ-Reish•it 25.30), he became called , patriarch of the tribe of Arabs.

Hellenist Pan
Hellenist Greco-Roman Pan

Because Ya•a•qov declared to his mother, Râ•kheil, that (bᵊ-Reish•it 27.11), the name – goat-like or satyr-like – has also been associated with -. As a result, - has been associated with the Greek satyr idol Pan.

That -- settled and conquered the land of the Sᵊir•im, - (capital of Ë•dōm at Bâ•tzᵊr•âh), firmly corroborated the association. This association with the Greek satyr idol Pan, in turn, shares a connection with Sâ•tân. This resulted in becoming the symbol of Sâ•tân – and Hellenist Greek – Christian – Rome! This connection, in turn, further connected (see Sâ•tân) with the "Great Whore of Babylon, the Mesopotamian idol Ishtar (morphed into Greek Aphrodite, morphed into Roman Venus, morphed into Latin Lucifer).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.01.20]

fem. n. eish; , eishfire

The Biblical precept was demonstratively directed at prohibiting the mᵊlâkh•âh involved in the ancient method of collecting kindling and manually kindling a fire. The man in bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbar 15.32ff who was executed, was executed for gathering and preparing kindlingmᵊlâkh•âh, not for "lighting a fire"! He never even got as far as lighting his fire! more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.06.20]

masc . n.ish; a male adult (in Biblical times, ≥13 years old) human being, male gender, a man; by extension: husband (contrast with â•dâm).

fem. n. (ish•âh; a woman, an adult (in Biblical times, ≥12 years old) female human being, female gender; by extension: a wife); combin. form □- (eishët-□; woman/​wife of…)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.04.08]

fem. n. goat Nubian buck kidEiz; , eizgoat. Compare & contrast with ayil, tal•ëh, këvës, tzon and sëh.



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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.07.13]

 (eizov; hyssop, Origanum-syriacum
Click to enlarge

According to legend, this "Israel sage" (Salvia palaestina Benth., Biblical "hyssop") was the inspiration for the Mᵊnor•âh. This is an endangered and protected plant in Israel – strictly enforced.

masc . n. ei•zōv; , eizov(sprig of) hyssop (Origanum syriacum; Syrian oregano).


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EJ [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Encyclopedia Judaica (also Ency. Jud.)

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εκκλησια [Updated: 2011.04.03]

(ek•klæ•sia)

Hellenist Roman (increasingly gentile) churchnot a Pᵊrush•im (= modern Orthodox) - of Nᵊtzâr•im (who were Jews and geir•im praying according to Tōr•âh liturgy; not gentiles).

- was Hellenized (see, inter alia, LXX) to συναγωγη (su•na•gō•gæ; anglicized to synagogue).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.05.21]

masc . n. ë•lil, , , ha-elil, elilimpl. , combinative pl. …-; a nihility, nullity; a nothing; something worthless, of no value, useless; especially of a powerless, feckless null-deity; false god (e.g., an idol or depiction of a supposed deity).

See Yᵊsha•yâhu 19.1 (…); Yᵊkhë•zᵊq•eil 34; Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 10.21; 23.1-8; 3.15; Zᵊkhar•yâh 11.16-17 ( ); as cause of internal schism, see Israel's Main Threat: Schismatic Sinkhole


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ël•i•shâ, , Elisha "My Eil shall save"; Hellenized (de-Judaized (Hellenized)) to "Elisha"

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.09.28]

Ë•mor, , , Emorimpl. Ë•mor•im; known as Amurra in Akkadian and Sumerian. A Semitic, and apparently nomadic, people of B.C.E. 21st to 17th centuries who controlled the regions of present-day Lebanon, Syria and southern Iraq (Babylon). Colonized areas of southern Kᵊna•an around Yâm ha-Mëlakh and Khë•vᵊr•on and the two regions of the east bank of Nᵊhar Ya•rᵊd•ein of Mo•âv, later granted to God, and Bashan (or Basan), part of which was subsequently awarded as the eastern half of Mᵊnash•ëh.

Egypt & Kᵊnaan, BCE 1570-1200
Click to enlargeMi•tzᵊrayim & Kᵊna•an, BCE 1570-1200
Tribes of Israel
Click to enlargeShi•vᵊt•ei Yi•sᵊr•â•eil

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Ë•mët; , emetTruth.


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a id= "Df-emunah" name= "Df-emunah">

Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.07.02]

fem. n. Ë•mūn•âh; , emunahstate of trained proficiency and reliability inducing trustworthiness or faithfulness; also, the resulting "faith" or "belief-system" satisfying that description—defined by, and according to the standards of, Tōr•âh. The Hebrew noun "coach" is a cognate: (mᵊ•a•mein). See also This is the accurate Hebrew term underlying the grossly inadequate Hellenizations as "belief" and "faith"; particularly in the NT.

The hiph•il verb bin•yân is (hë•ë•min; he trusted, he had faith, he believed).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.11.02]

masc . n. Ë•phᵊr•ayim; , Ephrayimfrom hi•phᵊrahni. more


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Ἐπίκουρος/​Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.06.23]

masc . n. Epikoros; , EpikorosEpicureanists, referring to the Greek philosopher, Epicurus (BCE 341-270) – i.e. the effluence of hedonists, pleasure-seekers, sensualists, narcophiles, erotophiles and libertines – usually nescient. Epikoros shroud their perversions in euphemistic labels: liberals, progressives or "gay"/​"pride".

According to Ta•lᵊmud, "And these are the ones who do not have a portion in -Ō•lâm ha-Bâ: He who maintains that there is no resurrection of the dead deriving from the Tōr•âh, and [He who maintains] that the Tōr•âh is not from the Heavens, and an Epikoros." (Mishᵊnâh, Seidër-Nezikin, Ma•sëkët Συνέδριον 90a).

In modern Rabbinic usage: primarily any skeptic of rabbinic tradition (i.e. anyone who challenges a rabbi; particularly anyone who bests a rabbi in pi•lᵊpul) – synonym for Hellenist or "goy•im". Secondarily, a heretic, agnostic, secular person; infidel, impious person or nescient.


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Επιφανιος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Ep•i•phani•os); Anglicized to Epiphanius)

Christian (Catholic) Bishop of Salamis, Cyprus (c. 315—404 C.E.); born in Judea and educated in the Hellenist center of Egypt; author of "Against Heresies" (Haer.) and Panarion (Pan.); a defender of western Catholicism (Rome) against eastern Catholicism and an antagonist of Origen.

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ἐπίσκοπος [Updated: 2014.06.17]

ë•piskop•os – bishop, pope from epi (over) plus skopos (to watch, to supervise); i.e, , overseer, German übermeister – Romanization, gentilization, mythicization, Christianization, usurpation and counterfeiting of the Hebrew title: – of the original Nᵊtzâr•im Jews. While no title is Scripturally attested for Mōsh•ëh Bën-Amᵊrâm, This is likely an historic title hearkening back to the more likely title, based on the core verb () describing the activities, of the former prince of the Egyptian Royal Pharaonic House of Tut-moses 3rd, Par•oh of the Yᵊtzi•âhMōsh•ëh, Pᵊqid•einu.

Ἐπίσκοπος didn't morph into Hellenist (Greek) πάππας (pappas; Pope, Latin form of papa, father) – until the 3rd century CE: "…taken as a title by the Bishop of Alexandria c.250. In Western Church, applied especially to the Bishop of Rome since the time of Leo the Great (440-461) and claimed exclu­sively by them from 1073".

In other words, the first Pope in Rome was Leo the Great in the middle of the 5th century C.E.!!!


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Ërëv; , erevdusk (i.e. convergence or confluence), eve (of…). By Jewish reckoning, the day begins at ërëv, not dawn or midnight as reckoned by the Romans and other Goy•im.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.04.30]

masc . n. (Aramaic pl.) Ōs•in; , Osinthose who are doing or making, doers or makers (Aramaic, pres. m.p.); parallels Hebrew ; Hellenized to Εσσηνοι ("Essenes").

The Qum•rân Tzᵊdōq•im were called because Aramaic was popular and they were well known (in Hebrew) as the of their interpretation of Oral Law, which was a cognate from this same verb root:

The rabbis referred to the (Mishᵊnâh ,Suk•âh 5.4) as " " Although translators generally translate these as two groups behaving as one, there is no reason to think of them as two groups. "Men of the " were known to be . These were " [who were] (also) " – the "Essenes."

In B.C.E. 175, the rabid Hellenist ko•hein, Yәho•shua Bën-Shim•on Jr. Bën-Tzâ•doq (Hellenized to Jason), went to Syria, who then ruled over Yᵊhudâh, and purchased from king Antiochus IV Epiphanes the office of Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol. He thereby usurped his own brother, Yәkhon•yâh Bën-Shim•on Jr. Bën-Tzâ•doq ha-Ko•hein (Hellenized to Onias III), who had been Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol. Having assumed the office of Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol, Yәho•shua Bën-Shim•on Jr. set about Hellenizing both the office of Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol and the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh. This created a permanent schism in what had formerly been the Kha•sid•im. The rift developed between the nouveau, Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im and the original Kha•sid•im whom they displaced. After the split, the remaining original Kha•sid•im seem to have been expelled from the Hellenized "Temple" principally to Qum•rân, as the " ," whom the rabbis called .


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.08.28]

Megilat Esteir (nosachteiman.co.il)

Ësteir, , , Esteir, Hadasah, HadassahHellenized-Anglicized to Esther; from Persian (Iranian) sitareh "star" and name of their pagan Goddess; by which Persians (modern Iranians) called (Ha•das•âh; fem. of "myrtle"), the heroin in the Mᵊgil•at Ësteir who lived in the Tᵊphutz•âh of West Iran (Susa, Persia).

This name is the same deity as "Ashtarte", Ashtoret, Ishtar, Esotera and Easter). The name is also related to "astral" and astrology.

The Scroll of Ësteir, a book of the Kᵊtuv•im, is last of the five Megilot.

The Nᵊtzâr•im prefer to use her Hebrew name, Ha•dasah.

(ha•das; "myrtle"; pl. , ha•das•im) is the "kâ•sheir" (Israeli triple-pinnate myrtle branches) comprising the lu•lâv.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.08.20]

Lulav & etrog Teimani

masc . n. Ët•rōg; , etrogcitron. This traditional citrus is like an over-sized lemon, the Ët•rōg used by the Yemenite Jews is a special variety, different (though hardly discernible visually) from the Ët•rōg used by other modern Jews.

New research from Tel Aviv University reveals that citrons and lemons were clear status symbols for the ancient Roman ruling elite, and that no citrus arrived in the Middle East until a millennium after Har Sin•ai: in the BCE 5th-4th centuries. Ët•rōg•im didn't exist in the Middle East in the Biblical era. Ergo, ët•rōg•im cannot have been the Biblically specified " (fruit of the splendorous tree, wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 23.40).

ccc
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Whereas until now researchers admitted they didnt know and (anachronically and wrongly) conjectured citrus (rabbis later further narrowing the already erroneous definition, which is their modus operandi, to the ët•rōg), now we must continue to admit we dont know but that research is conclusive that, in Biblical times, it was not the ët•rōg!

It would seem virtually certain to be a tree from the : either pomegranate, olive, date (palm) or fig (tree). The Scriptural specification is that the tree itself, not the fruit, is what is splendorous. Pomegranate and olive trees lack this Scripture-stipulated grandeur, splendor and majesty. Date palms are usually identified as palms rather than trees.

Fig (sycamore) tree
Click to enlargeSplendorous fig tree, fruit and shade; next door backyard, Ra•a•nanâ(h) (taken through anti-pigeon netting over our window). © 2017 Yirmeyahu Ben-David.

Finally, the tree most noted for it's grand, magnificent splendor, sweet fruit and shade is the fig tree. Man was first clothed by the great leaves of the fig tree.

Thus, the adoption of the citrus ët•rōg from the Romans turns out to be yet another blatant assimilation Reform (like Babylonian Rōsh ha-Shân•âh, month names, Great (Judean) Συνέδριον, Pësakh horseradish, celery and saltwater, etc.)! But was the original fruit accompanying the lu•lâv fig or pomegranate? When there's doubt, tolerance of diverse opinions (the opposite of displacing doubt with imposed rabbinic rule).


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Ευσεβιος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Eu•sëbi•os); Anglicized to Eusebius)

(260—340 C.E.) Palestinian-born Greek Hellenist Catholic Christian Church apologist and bishop of Kei•sari•yah ("Caesarea"), Israel, and earliest extant Church historian; see Eccl. Hist.


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Ευτυχιος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Eutukhios; Anglicized to Eutychius. Arab birth name: Sa•id Ibn-Batriq.

(ca. 876 C.E.—940.05.11 C.E.) Egyptian Arab Catholic Christian patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt. His writings are in Arabic (Catholic Encyclopedia).

"…from the late account of [Sa•id Ibn-Batriq] (PG 111, 1012-13) that, just at this time, the faithful while they were leaving the church on Easter day, were forced to eat pork under pain of death. We know how the [Ëv•yon•im and any last remnants of the Nᵊtzâr•im who may have survived 135 C.E. into the 4th century—there was no such thing as the oxymoronic "Judaeo-Christians"] refused this in order not to transgress the Mosaic law to which they held they were bound" (Sa•id Ibn-Batriq in Bellarmino Bagatti, The Church from the Circumcision, Yᵊru•shâ•layim: Franciscan Press, 1971, p. 13-14ff).


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-Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Even Bokhan

Ëvën Bō•khan; Even Bokhan, -, -The Touchstone (abbreviated EB), the earliest extant complete source text for Hebrew Ma•tit•yâhu, compiled by Sheim-Tov Bën-Yi•tzᵊkhâq Bën-Sha•pᵊr•ut in Spain, for polemical purposes, ca. 1380 C.E.

In Bible Review (Winter 1986, p. 15), George Howard—Emeritus Head of the Department of Religion and Professor of Religion at the University of Georgia—argues that EB reflects the ancient Hebrew ms. Top scholars increasingly agree that, just as Eu•sëbi•os documented, the original version of The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English), note 1.0.1). EB is, as of this writing, the earliest extant complete Hebrew ms. of Ma•tit•yâhu (Hellenized to "Matthew"). Its integrity within the Hebrew-Ma•tit•yâhu tradition remains unresolved (Hellenized to Greek Matthew).


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Εβιονιτών / pl. Ἐβιωναῖοι / Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.09.25]

Ëb•i•ō•naῖoi, Evyonim, Evionim, later anglicized to "Ebionites". This name was transliterated into Greek from the Hebrew , based on the gift-giving to the inaugurated in Ës•teir 9.22:

The language and culture chasm, sharply demonstrated in MMT, between the Pᵊrush•im (who included Ribi Yᵊho•shua and his original Nᵊtzâr•im followers) and the Hellenists (including the Roman occupiers and proto-Christians who, after 135 C.E., were syncretized into Christianity), has gone unrecognized. One cannot understand 1st century Judaism without fully grappling with this chasm just as they did. more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ëzᵊr•â; Ezra, "[‑‑] helps, assists" (Aramaic); a book in the Kᵊtuv•im.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.04.22]

masc . n. ë•zᵊrâkh, ezrakhim, pl. (ë•zᵊrâkh•im); a homeborn (in modern parlance, "born Jew") or native; modern: citizen. This was one whose name had been inscribed in the yu•khas•in (public genealogical registries), which included 10 categories of (Ma•sëkët Qidush•in 69a-b; detailed explanation in ABNC Live-Link Technology). This practice continued until shortly after 135 C.E., when the Romans destroyed all but two of the yu•khas•in. See also geir.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.04.04]

fem. n. Ëzᵊr•at Yi•sᵊ•râ•eil; , Ezrat Yisraeilthe Annex of Israel (namely, men's Courtyard) – the inner courtyard of the Beit ha-Miq•dâsh'

, Women's Annex (namely, women's Courtyard, MH section) – the outer courtyard of the Beit ha-Miq•dâsh'.


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The Five Species (Kinds, of Grain)[Updated: 2006.04.27]

  1. Khitim  hard wheat; Triticum durumKhitim  common winter wheat; Triticum vulgare (aestivum)

    (hard wheat {Triticum duram} and bread wheat {Triticum vulgare}) — modern Hebrew: wheat.


  2. Kusᵊmin  rice wheat; Triticum dicoccum

    (rice wheat {Triticum dicoccum}) — modern Hebrew: spelt.


  3. Shiphon  spelt; Triticum spelta

    (spelt {Triticum spelta}) — modern Hebrew: rye, which did not grow in ancient Israel.


  4. Sᵊorim  6-rowed barley; Horedeum sativumSᵊorim  4-rowed barley; Horedeum vulgare

    ‭ ‬ (6-rowed barley {Hordeum sativum} and 4-rowed barley {Hordeum vulgare}) — modern Hebrew: barley.


  5. Shibolet shuâl  2-rowed barley; Horedeum distichum

    ‭ ‬ (2-rowed barley {Hordeum distichum}) — modern Hebrew: oats, which did not grow in ancient Israel.



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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.04.19]

Gâ•dōl , gadol(adj., fem. gᵊdōl•âh) — big, large; the adjective used to describe the "Great" Sanhedrin and the "High" Priest (lit. the Big Beit-Din and Big Ko•hein, respectively).

When prefixed by the specifier, (hâ-; "the"), the (gâ•dol) receives a dâ•geish, which Tei•mân•im pronounce "j" rather than "g" (like other Israelis): hâ-Jâ•dol.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Galil
Click to enlargeGâ•lil

masc . n. Gâ•lil, Hellenized to "Galilee"


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Pronunciation Table    Hear it! [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Gâl•ut; , galutthe countries of the Exile. See also Tᵊphutz•âh.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.01.24]

Ja•mᵊl•i•eil, pronounced by modern Israelis as , Gamlieil, JamliyeilGa•mᵊl•i•eil; lit. "My camel is Eil." In those days, the camel was the equivalent of today's "big rigs"; the heavy haulers, freight transporters, the ancient trucking, train and air transport industries combined – the vehicles that "delivered," got things done; the backbone of the economy and civilization. From this background, the verb (jâ•mal; pronounced by modern Israelis as gâ•mal) developed to mean "do or render, to deliver pay, reward or recompence"; i.e., deliver the goods.

Ga•mᵊl•i•eil was the first Pᵊrush•i to become Nâ•si of the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dōl/​Great (Judean) Συνέδριον c 20 CE (see also The "Big Stretch-Apart").

Filtering, as far as possible, all Christian redactions and interpretations and translating directly from the earliest extant source documents to reconstruct my unpublished book, Hebrew Ma•a•vâr 5.34-40:

"Then a certain man of the rabbinic-Pᵊrush•im in the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dōl, named Ga•mᵊl•i•eil, who was a teacher of Tōr•âh esteemed by all of the am, rose up and ordered that the [Nᵊtzâr•im] Shᵊlikh•im be excused from [the proceedings] for a short time. Then he addressed the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dōl saying,

'Men, Bᵊn•ei-Yi•sᵊr•â•eil, take heed to yourselves what you intend to impose upon these men; for in earlier days [Hellenist] Theudas rose up claiming to be the Mâ•shiakh and had a following of about 400 men. He was taken up, and as many as were persuaded by him dispersed and came to nothing. After him, in the days of the census, Yᵊhud•âh of the Gâ•lil rose up and incited the am to stray and follow him. But he was finally brought to an end and as many as were persuaded by him dispersed. And now I tell you, Turn aside from these men, tolerate them, because if this counsel or this work is of men it will cease. But if it be of Ël•oh•im, then you will not be able to make them cease and, in that case, you would also be found to be fighters against Ël•oh•im…'

"So the Pᵊrush•im-dominated Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dōl was persuaded by him but, having recalled the Shᵊlikh•im, the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im whipped them and conveyed instructions to them that they should not speak in the name of Ribi Yᵊhō•shua, and released them."

Until ca. 20 C.E., the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dōl had been predominated by the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im. It wasn't Pᵊrush•im (predecessors of today's Orthodox rabbis) who defied the explicit instruction of their first, and very own, Pᵊrush•im Nâ•si, Ga•mᵊl•i•eil, and the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dōl to whip the Nᵊtzâr•im or order them to cease.

As a result, the Tzᵊdoq•im ignored the early Pᵊrush•im chain of Mishᵊnâh tradition (Rabi Hi•leil to Ga•mᵊl•i•eil to his protégé to whom he had granted sᵊmikh•âh, Ribi Yᵊho•shua, subsequently to Yōkhâ•nân Bën-Za•kai), emphasizing their own Beit Sha•mai v Beit Hi•leil, avoiding naming individuals to refer, instead, only to the schools collectively.


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-Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.12.09]

masc . n. Gan Eidën; -, Gan-EidenEidën Park, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "the Garden of Eden."

The Biblical description locates Gan Eidën at an intersection of rivers that, today, could only be under the Persian Gulf. Now, Jeffrey Rose, an archeologist from the University of Birmingham in the U.K. has discovered evidence of an ancient civilization—under the Persian Gulf. "…this 'Persian Gulf Oasis' may have been host to humans for over 100,000 years before it was swallowed up by the Indian Ocean around 8,000 years ago… Historical sea level data show that, prior to the flood, the Gulf basin would have been above water beginning about 75,000 years ago. And it would have been an ideal refuge from the harsh deserts surrounding it, with fresh water supplied by the Tigris, Euphrates, Karun, and Wadi Baton Rivers, as well as by underground springs." ("Lost civilization under Persian Gulf," Univ. of Chicago Press Journals, www.eurekalert.org, accessed 2010.12.09).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.02.24]

, Gan Gat ShemanimHellenized to "Gethsemane."


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.11.11]

masc . n. gâ•on; , , gaonimexcellence, genius; pl. (gᵊ•on•im; MH: heads of Jewish academies, 7th- 11th centuries C.E.


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- also Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.12.15]

Gei-Hinom (Hinom Ravine)
Click to enlargeGei-Hi•nōm (Bridal-Couch Ravine; top yellow line)

masc . n. Gei-Hi•nōm -, -, , , , , , Molekh, Sheol, Gei-Hinom, Tophetand contraction Gei•hi•nom (Hellenized to γέεννα); "Ravine of Hi•nōm"; the ravine running along the west (far) side of Yᵊru•shâ•layim (top yellow line) from NW to SE (right-to-left) to the southernmost tip of Ir Dâ•wid, where it intersects with Nakhal Qi•dᵊrōn at ancient ; and from there southeast to Beit Lëkhëm.

The intersection of Gei-Hi•nōm with Nakhal Qi•dᵊrōn, in the valley below the southernmost tip of Ir Dâ•wid, is the ancient site of .

"Hell" Isn't From The Bible!

None of the popular conceptions of "hell" originated in the Bible. The only Biblical (Ta•na"kh Hebrew) word even mistranslated as "hell" in the Christian KJ/V of 1611 C.E. Greek Textus Receptus rewrite of Καινής Διαθήκης, is .

‎ & – Passing One's Tweenagers Through Fire more
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Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2018.07.03]

masc . n. Geir an unconverted (esp. a preconversion disciple) sojourner (adjudicated by a Beit-Din to be a "legal alien"), not a "convert"! There is no such thing in Am Yi•sᵊr•â•eil as a "convert" – though there are persons who convert! But a person who converts is a straight-up Jew, not a convert; and no different, whatsoever, from "born Jews"! Moreover, once converted, the Jew (!) is no longer a geir!

Tōr•âh declares: "You shall not taunt or oppress a geir, for you were geir•im in Mi•tzᵊrayim. You shall not cause pain to any widow or orphan. If you dare cause any [of these] pain, if he shall cry out to Me, then I shall absolutely hear his outcry! My wrath shall blaze and I shall kill you by the sword, and your wives will be widows and your children orphans." (Shᵊm•ōt 22.20-23).

According to Ram•ba"m, "[Even] a geir who was not examined, or who was not informed of the mi•tzᵊw•ot and their punishments, and was administered the Bᵊrit Mil•âh and immersed in the presence of three [laypersons] – still indeed, he is a geir. Even if it is known that he converted for some ulterior motive, inasmuch as he has been administered the Bᵊrit Mil•âh and mi•qᵊwëh , he has made the Exodus from the general goy•im, and we are concerned for him until his tzi•dëq•ut is clarified. Even if he reverted and worshiped idols, indeed, he is like an apostate of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil. If he makes Qi•dush•in [betrothal], they are Qi•dush•in, and the mi•tzᵊwâh to return a lost article applies to him. After having immersed, he has become as Yi•sᵊr•â•eil." (Ram•ba"m, Mi•shᵊn•eih Tor•âh, Qᵊdush•âh [Holiness], Hi•lᵊkh•ōt I•sūr•ei Biy•âh [Walkings of Prohibited {Sexual} Coming], 13.17).

Tōr•âh: "You shall not boil a kid in its mother's milk" (Shᵊm•ōt 23.19; 34.26; Dᵊvâr•im 14.21). A geir who converts comes out of the mi•qᵊwëh a Jew, like any other Jew, not a "convert"! While there are Jews who did convert, they are Jews, not "converts" – and Ta•lᵊmud forbids any referencing to their conversion or their pre-conversion past as "boiling the kid in its mother's milk"! Even appending "Bën-Avᵊrâ•hâm " when calling such a person to read Tōr•âh transgresses Tōr•âh! Such Jews are not to be celebrated as different in any way, including not as trophy "converts"! Nor does the marriage restrictions of a geir any longer apply to them after conversion.

Another implication is that all non-Jews in Israel are geir•im and every Jew outside of Israel is, like Avᵊrâ•hâm was in Mi•tzᵊrayim, a geir wherever they live outside of Israel.

Geir is one of 10 categories of persons inscribed in the yu•khas•in (public genealogy registries of Yi•sᵊrâ•eil; Ma•sëkët Qi•dush•in 69a-b; see detailed explanation in Atonement In the Biblical 'New Covenant' (ABNC)).

Onᵊqᵊlos illuminates some of the range of meaning of in his Aramaic Tar•gum of Shᵊm•ot 21.20, translating in the first instance, but in the last instance. When "sojourning" outside of Israel, the Jew is a geir ("Diaspora Jew" – Homey Or Geir?)

The Biblical — and Ram•ba"m — definition of (i.e., before Medieval European – in contrast to Har Sin•ai – reforms) referred to an in-training, exclusively pre-conversion, non-Jew proselyte-candidate. The reason that the Kha•khâm•im of Ta•lᵊmud described such a wide (and otherwise contradictory) range of practices for geir•im is because they were describing geir•im in various stages of learning, from day-one (knowing nothing except the threshhold Shëva Mi•tzᵊw•ōt Bᵊn•ei akh) until fully knowledgeable, practicing and ready for conversion.

"It was only during the later [Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh ha-Shein•i] period that a sharp distinction and a barrier of separation was erected between the Jew and the gentile… In addition to [idolatry] the low moral, social, and ethical standards of the surrounding gentiles were continually emphasized, and social contact with them was regarded as being a pernicious social and moral influence… Only considerations of humanity, such as relief of their poor, visiting the sick, affording them last rites (Ma•sëkët Git•in 61a) and discretion… were reasons for breaking the otherwise impenetrable barrier" ("Gentile," EJ, 7.410-412). more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.07]

get

masc . n.Geit (corrupted to "get"); , geita certificate of divorce granted by a Beit Din.


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"Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.07]

Gᵊma"kh, gemakh, gem"khacronym for (gᵊmil•ūt khësëd; khësëd fund); a benevolent fund, administered by a Beit ha-kᵊnësët or Beit Din, providing interest-free loans for needy Jews, which are repayable as the debtor is able and forgiven if the debtor cannot repay the loan.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.01.27]

fem. n. Gᵊmâr•â; , Gemarawell-solved and concluded) commentary of the A•mor•ayim on the Mish•nâh. The term Gᵊmâr•â is often applied to Tal•mud as a whole.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Gᵊniz•âh , genizahstorage area for discarding sacred objects, and books containing the Name, so that they will not be desecrated by ordinary means of disposal.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.10.05]

masc . n. (pl.) ji•lul, , gilulimpl. (ji•lul•im). (Israeil pronunciations: gi•lul, pl. gi•lul•im) derives from (jâ•lâl; he rolled, rolled away) with cognate (jâ•lâl; rolls or balls of dung). Vowelized like shi•qutz, gi•lul•im is used euphemistically of idols.

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Γερουσία [Updated: 2011.04.01]

(Gë•rou•sia)

Gerousia; Senate. A council of elders (from [γερων] gerōn, an old man, a term which early assumed a political sense among the Greeks, the notion of age being merged in that of dignity)" (Vine, W.E., An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words (Iowa Falls, Iowa: Riverside Book and Bible House, [no date], p. 1014). This was the Hellenist term for the Zᵊqan•im.


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[Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Gi•ma•tri•yâh; , Gimatriyah, Gimatriah, Gematrianumerology. Though there are several methods of encryption, the following is the usual convention.

(âlëph) =1
(beit) = 2
(gimël) = 3
(dâlët) = 4
(hei) = 5
(wâw (vâv)) = 6
(zayin) = 7
(kheit) = 8
(teit) = 9
(yud) = 10
/ (kaph/kaph soph•it) = 20
(lâmëd) = 30
/ (mëm/mëm soph•it) = 40
/ (nun/nun soph•it) = 50
(sâmëkh) = 60
(ayin) = 70
/ (pei/pei soph•it) = 80
/ (tzâdëh/tzadëh soph•it) = 90
(quph) = 100
(rësh) = 200
(shin/sin) = 300
(tâw (tâv)) = 400

See also Si•mân and Biblical numerology.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.10.26]

god (fate, destiny), skygod Amun-Ra Zeus Jupiter
Click to enlargeGod (sky and lightning god of fate, destiny and chief god.

masc . n. God , gad, god( Gâd, god and gâd); sky & lightning god of fate, destiny – associated sacred animal is the eagle (often holding a thunderbolt in its talons), and sacred tree is the oak; evolved from the ram-headed Egyptian Amun-Ra, later evolved into Hellenist Ζεύς (Roman Jupiter); origin of English "God"; also name of Ya•a•qov's 7th son (mother: Zi•lᵊp•âh, Leiâh's maid).

The kᵊtiv of bᵊ-Reish•it 30.11, , means "by God!," similar to the form (la•gad; for God) in Yᵊsha•yâhu 65.11 (in contrast to the qᵊrei of bᵊ-Reish•it 30.11, (bō gâd; [sky-]god comes!).

The form (Gad•i; "My God") is found in bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbar 13.10-11.

The cognate (gᵊdi; goat-kid) perhaps led to the association, with the adoption of some features (e.g., the ram's horns) of the Egyptian idol, Amun-Ra = Ammon, as in Ammonites = Amman, origin of the name of the capital of Jordan.

As the deity of the sky & lightning,   I•yov  Jove   (Anglicized to "Job") was regarded as the chief god. Later, evolved (Hellenized by the Greeks) to Ζεύς and Roman (Latinized directly from Jove to) Jupiter.

For heirs of Avᵊrâ•hâm, Yi•tzᵊkhâq and Yi•sᵊr•â•eil, ‑‑ has always been our Only "Ël•oh•im" (see the Shᵊm•a).


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or Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.07.26]

masc . n. Jō•eil , , , Geulah, Goeil ha-Dam, Goeil Yisraeil, Jeulah, Joeil ha-Dam, Joeil Yisraeil(modern Israeli: gō•eil); requiter, avenger; also the verb "requite" or "avenge"; less accurately "redeemer."

 

derives from the verb (ga•al; he requited, avenged or redeemed). (jo•eil ha-dâm) means "requiter (i.e. avenger) of blood." (jo•eil Yi•sᵊr•â•eil) means "requiter (i.e. avenger) of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil."

( jᵊul•âh), a fem. noun, means restorative (redeeming) requital (e.g., reacquiring a previously-owned field—the case of the land of Yis•râ•eil today—or purchasing the freedom of an enslaved relative—the case of the people of Yis•râ•eil today); especially the redeeming retaliation and retribution—Vengeance—of ‑‑, on behalf of His kindred Israel, against the Goy•im, i.e. the 'Day of --,' the 'Last Day' and the Great Day of His mi•shᵊpât—which is the definition of Israel's redemption. Over centuries of persecution by the Church, translators have been cowed into neutralizing the translation to the misleading "Day of Redemption" rather than the correct 'Day of the Vengeance of --' against the Goy•im.

See also pâd•âh redeem(er) / ransom(er).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.02.28]

Gōshën, , GoshenThe Egyptian Delta; likely mutated into Hebrew from the Aramaic plural of , i.e. .


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2009.05.11]

masc . n. Goy; , , goyima people. Plural (goy•im; peoples) Pronounced by Tei•mân•im, when reading the Bible, as "joy" and "joyim." (In profane conversation, Tei•mân•im use the Israeli pronunciation.)

Tōr•âh refers to Yi•sᵊr•â•eil as a goy in bᵊ-Reish•it 35.11-12 et al.) Nevertheless, the usual term for the Jewish people is .

Meaning "people," not a person, no individual can properly be called a goy (a people). Accordingly, a goy equates to "a people," not "a gentile." Hebrew doesn't even have a word for gentile (which is why goy•im—"the [other] peoples" is used). The closest Hebrew translation for "a gentile" would be a (lo Yᵊhud•i; a non-Jew) and the plural, "gentiles," would be the plural in Hebrew: (lo Yᵊhud•im; non-Jews).

Generally used in the plural, although goy•im (the peoples) includes Yᵊhud•im as a goy, the term is generally used by Yᵊhud•im referring to "the [other] peoples" (in contrast to Yᵊhud•im as a goy). Hence, the popular connotation.

probably derives from (geiv, Tei•mân•im jeiv; back, as the posterior part of a body from the neck to the end of the spine and, by extension, the body (although the proper word for body is ). Accordingly, connotes "an ethnic body."

The use of (goy•âh or joy•âh) for a gentile woman is a modern Hebrew innovation unknown in earlier Hebrew.

Also related and similarly derived from , is (gᵊwi•yâh or jᵊwi•yâh); a dead body, corpse or cadaver—probably deriving from the image of many backs littering a battlefield or after a plague.

The only correct term for "gentile" is documented from the warning stone and is non-Hebrew, a warning in Greek barring αλλογενης (allogeneis; another species, kind; i.e. gentiles) from approaching any closer to the Beit-ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh ha-Shein•i. Αλλογενης, mentioned only once in the entire NT, refers there to an "almost-Jew" (Samaritan, Lu. 17:18). English translators injected "gentiles" and "Greeks" into the NT as part of their Displacement Theology where even the Hellenist Romans didn't (see Ελλενης (elleneis) and Εθνος (ethnos).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

ha- or - prefix (depending upon the subsequent letter); "the…"


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.07.09]

Teimani Hebrew-English Haggadah

fem. n. Ha•gâd•âh;, Hagadah narrative; a relating, recounting or telling; specifically, the Pësakh Ha•gâd•âh that serves as the liturgy for the Pësakh Seidër.


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Pronunciation Table     Hear it![Updated: 2017.12.18]

fem. n. Ha•lâkh•âh, , , , , , halakhah d'Oraita, halakhah d'Rabanan, halakhot, halikhahpl. (halâkh•ot); evolved in Post-Talmudic, rabbinic Hebrew to mean The Walk (which is, properly, ), or the Way (which is, properly, ). This is the post-Biblical Talmudic term for stare decisis, comprising mi•shᵊpât and khuq•im (the non-Ha•gâd•âh portion of Mi•shᵊn•eih Tōr•âh). Together these were called Dërëkh Ha•lâkh•âh — or Dërëkh ‑‑, the original name, in Biblical Hebrew, for what is today called "Judaism"!

1st Century C.E. – 3 Versions Of Oral Law

In the 1st century there were three, and only three, interpretations of Oral Law recognized by the Beit Din -Gâ•dōl—which was the ultimate and undisputed earthly Judaic authority:

  1. The interpretations of the Qū•mᵊr•ân Kha•sid•im Bᵊn•ei Tzâ•dōq ko•han•im Tzᵊdōq•im, who called their Oral Law interpretations Ma•a•sëh. (These genuine Tzᵊdōq•im were usurped and expelled from the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh by the Hellenist Pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im.)

  2. The interpretations of the Roman-vassal Hellenist Pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim, who called their Oral Law interpretations—which they codified in an attempt to terminate oral transmission by the other two min•im—their "Χειρόγραφον τοῖς Δόγμασιν"

  3. The interpretations of the Pᵊrush•im, who called their Oral Law discussions Ta•lᵊmud; and their resulting interpretational verdicts derived therefrom, the interpretational verdicts endorsed by historical Ribi Yᵊho•shua: Ha•lâkh•âh.

Ergo, Ha•lâkh•âh is the Pᵊrush•im compendium of interpretations of Tōr•âh shë-bᵊ-al-pëh based on the discussions recorded in Ta•lᵊmud.more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Ha•leil , Haleil(giving fame, glorifying); the title given to the chanting of Tᵊhil•im 113-118


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/ Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

huph•al; , , hophal, huphalCausative-passive verb binᵊyân; also hōph•al and haph•al


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.07.22]

fem. n. Haph•târ•âh , Haphtarah(concluding), participle (verbal n.) of hiph•il (hiph•tir; 1 he opened wide; 2 PBH he exempted, set free, dismissed), i.e., released, concluded; from the verb (pâ•tar; he broke free, set free, dismissed). A selection of passages from the Nᵊviy•im associated with the weekly Tōr•âh portion, and which are read concluding the Tōr•âh service.

Notice that this is not a cognate of Tōr•âh; not a "half-Torah."


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. (pl. of ) Ha•qâph•ōt; , , Haqaphah, Haqaphotcircumambulations, walk-arounds, circuits.


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Pronunciation Table     Hear it!. [Updated: 2017.12.04]

masc . n. Har; mountain, pl. (hâr•im; mountains; connective pl. - (hâr•ei-□; Mountains of… Often a metaphor for a leader (king or chief).

Har Sin•ai more info

Other mountains: more info


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Pronunciation Table    Hear it! [Updated: 2017.06.22]

Also abbreviations ‑‑

(masc. n.) ha-Sheim; ', ' , , --, lit. "the Name"; is an oral substitution to preserve the holiness of the Tetragrammaton from profane (i.e. ordinary) conversation—contrary to the goy•im who ignorantly, but perversely, profane His Name (see Profaning the Holy Name Unawares).

From the times of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh, the Name has been regarded with such sanctity that it was only uttered in the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh, in the Mu•sâph service, on Yom ha-Ki•pur•im, by the Ko•hein ha-Ja•dol.

Since the destruction of the Beit ha-Miq•dâsh, even when reading Tōr•âh in Beit ha-Kᵊnësët, the term A•don•âi is substituted for the Tetragrammaton. This has been the legally established practice—the Ha•lâkh•âh—from antiquity. See also the plural—Shᵊm•ot

"[‑‑] derives from (verb: to be). The usual transliteration '[J-----h]' is based on the supposition that the Tetragrammaton is the imperfect Qal ["easy"; ≡ pa•al] or hiph•il of and lit. means 'the one who is', 'the existing', [respectively,] 'who calls into existence'. In reality, however, the pronunciation and literal meaning of the Tetragrammaton is unknown. cp. ." (A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language For Readers of English, p. 255). Thus, the overall theme suggests the meaning of "the Self-Existent Creator" ("Who calls into [being or] existence").

My take is that the Name is a portmanteau of the hiph•il present with future. Thus, the Name of the Unchanging Eternal-Creator-Singularity of the universe translates into English as: "I am what I shall always be." (The parallel portmanteau translation might produce an English counterfeit name like "Iamwillbe"). The Name simply enables humans to capture and encapsulate the breadth of the historically and scientifically-grounded, Judaic-origin concept and holiness of the Unchanging Eternal-Creator-Singularity of the universe. To be valid (i.e., not-idolatry), the Name in other languages, or even other life if it exists elsewhere in the Cosmos, must capture and encapsulate this same concept and holiness of the Unchanging Eternal-Creator-Singularity of the universe.

—"on the Way" or "Enroute," probably the original name of "Judaism," later evolved into ' and ).

' – see geir.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.05.16]

fem. n.hasᵊkâl•âhHaskalah, :

  • BH: prudent, judicious (verbal n. of ).

  • PBH erudition, intelligence.

  • NH: culture, the Enlightenment movement.

masc . n. (Masᵊkil; a luminary, enlightened one, an enlightener), adj. & n.; pl. (Masᵊkil•im).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.07.05]

Yemen Myrrh tree (Commiphora myrrha)

fem. n. Hav•dâ;l•âh; , , havdalah, l'havdil, lehavdilin Biblical (as contrasted with subsequent usage) Hebrew: detachment, removal or separation from; staying or keeping away from (Klein, p. 64).

The liturgy concluding Shab•ât that differentiates between Shab•ât and the profane (ordinary) days of the week.

Hadas (myrtle)Based on wa-Yi•qrâ 10.10; 11.47, et al., the cognate (lᵊ-Hav•dil; to differentiate) often used to differentiate holy discussion from profane matters.

Authentic Tei•mân•im Hav•dâl•âh doesn't make use of a typical Ash•kᵊnazi "Havdalah Set." They do not use a spice box. Instead, they hold a sprig of fresh ha•das in one hand and the Qi•dush cup in the other (switching to the right hand according to which bᵊrâkh•âh is being recited – ). In Tei•mân, they held incense, probably myrrh. – , , - (: - " " '', ")


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Hawaij [Updated: 2007.02.26]

(borrowed from Arabic)

Hawaij

Yemenite spice powder Basic recipe (refine to personal taste over time):

  • 5 Tablespoons ground cumin
  • 2 Tablespoons ground cardamom
  • 5 teaspoons ground black pepper
  • 3 teaspoons ground turmeric
  • 2 teaspoons ground coriander

Mix ingredients. Makes about 1/2 cup


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Ηγησιππος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Æ•gæsip•pos); Anglicized to Hegesippus

(ca. 110—ca.180 C.E.), wrote ca. 174-180 C.E. but is only extant through quotations (redacted) by later Christians, the earliest of whom was Eu•sëbi•os (325-339 C.E.). Contrary to accounts of gentile Roman Christians, centuries later, who knew no Hebrew whatsoever, we can be reasonably sure this Hellenist quoted from the Greek LXX), Ægæsippos may have been an apostate (i.e., Hellenist) Jew (Ægæsippos being a Hellenist Greek, not Judaic name) who converted to the foetal Christian Hellenist Gentile Catholic Church.

"According to Eu•sëbi•os, he was by birth a Jew; and though this is only an induction on the part of Eu•sëbi•os, it may be accepted as true." (jewishencyclopedia.com, 2011.03.29). In any case, he was perhaps the earliest Hellenist Roman Christian chronicler. His works, however, are lost excepting some passages (redacted and) quoted by Eu•sëbi•os and known to Ierōnumos. ("Hegesippus (1)," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," II:875ff.)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.09.29]

masc . n. Hei•khâl; , Heikhalpalace; synonym for (and see also) the middle sanctuary (Ency. Jud. 15.946) of the Beit ha-Miq•dâsh – popularly Hellenized-Anglicized to "Temple."


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.01.30]

Typical Certificate of Kash•rut
(certificate of fitness - dairy only)   -
Typical Certificate of Kash•rut
(certificate of fitness - meat only)   -

masc . n. hë•khᵊsheir; , , hekhsheir, teudat kashrutpopularly pronounced "hëkhsheir"; a certificate, granted by an Orthodox authority, that a business or establishment maintains Orthodox halakhic standards of kash•rut. More than a few unscrupulous business people falsely claim to be "kosher" – or "kosher style" (totally fraudulent) – when they are not. Insist on seeing their hëkhsheir. Legitimate businesses that have a hëkhsheir make sacrifices to obtain and maintain it. Far from being offended, they will proud of their hëkhsheir and glad that you are discerning and share their faithfulness to Ha•lâkh•âh to insist on seeing it. They hang it in plain view of the public and will be proud to show it to you. If not, they're not "kosher"!

(The proper phrase is .)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Hi•leil , , Hileil(he praised, Hellenized to Hillel); lived at end of B.C.E. 1st century and beginning of 1st century C.E.—"the greatest of the sages of the Second Temple period" ("Hillel," Ency. Jud., 8:482). He is calculated to have died in 10 C.E. ("Hillel," Jewish Ency.) – when Ribi Yᵊho•shua, born B.C.E. 7 (The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English), notes 2.0.1, et al.) was 17.

The founding Ribi of the tolerant, reluctant-to-build-fences Pᵊrush•im school of interpreting Oral Law (Ha•lâkh•âh), in contrast to the strict, eager-fence-building Pᵊrush•im school founded by Sham•ai.

Hi•leil was one of the leaders of the Pᵊrush•im contingent in the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol, which, until 20 C.E. was controlled by the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im. During the tenure of the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im the stricter views of Sham•ai prevailed (within the Pᵊrush•im community only; not among the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im). By the time of the destruction in 70 C.E., however, the more lenient views of Hi•leil came to prevail.

Hi•leil is related to Ha•leiland the root of (Ha•lᵊl•u•yâh; praise ‑‑!).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.05.14]

Typical Israeli Orthodox Jewish Wedding Banquet –
Women's Dancing Section
(Notice no bare shoulders)
Israeli Orthodox Jewish Wedding Dancing - Women
Typical Israeli Orthodox Jewish Wedding Banquet –
Men's Dancing Section
Israeli Orthodox Jewish Wedding Dancing - Men

fem. n. (Aramaic) Hi•lul•â , Hilula(Aramaic); wedding praise-festivity banquet; Hebrew ; derives from (see Hi•leil); the transcending of the nëphësh (i.e., death) of a Tza•diq-Khâ•sid viewed as the spiritual marriage of the betrothed (cf. Ho•sheia 2.21) Tza•diq-Khâ•sid with ha-Sheim. See wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 19.24; Sho•phᵊt•im 9.27 and L"g la-Omër.

The term has become so strongly a metonym for death among Qabâlist Jews that its primary meaning—a wedding banquet—has become lost to most Jews, who now see no connection between and a wedding.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Hiph•il; , hiphilCausal transitive / active verb bin•yân.


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Ιππολυτος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

((Ippolutos); Anglicized to Hipploytus)

Beginning of 3rd century C.E. after the gentile Hellenist Christian Church had become firmly established, known only from what Eu•sëbi•os inferred from works that had reached him and mention by Ierōnumos. ("Hippolyus (2) Romanus," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," III:85ff.)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

hit•pa•eil; , hitpaeilhe motivated (someone) to action, he induced someone to act, he activated, he set in motion. Reflexively-causal intransitive passive verb bin•yân of (Ernest Klein, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language For Readers of English, p. 518).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.08]

Hoshana Raba 2006 (Paqid Yirmeyahu in center)
2006 (Pâ•qid Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu in center). Click for video

fem. n. Ho•sha-nâ; , Hoshana Raba"Save, prithee!" refers to the willow branch waved during Suk•ot. This derives from the chanting, while making a circuit around the bimâh, of Tᵊhil•im containing the phrase ).

(Ho•sha-nâ Rab•â; "the Great 'Save, prithee!' "), the seventh day of Suk•ot, when seven circuits carrying the lu•lâv and ët•rog are made around the bim•âh. (Ho•shan•ot are chanted during every circuit.)

(Ho•shan•ot; "save-prithee"s [plural]; specifically, the circuits around the bim•âh chanting Tᵊhil•im containing the phrase ).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ho•sheia; , Hosheia"Save!" (cf. note to bᵊ-Mid•bar 13.16 in the Stone Ta•na"kh); de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Hosea'.


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kheqᵊqa (sing.)khasᵊt
kheqeqakhaset
kheqeqaw
kheqᵊqaw (pl.)

Hover over glyph symbol for explanations"Hyksos"
[Updated: 2018.02.18]

kheq (Gardiner S38, shepherd's crook) q (Gardiner N29, sandy slope) a (Gardiner G1, vulture) nobleman determinant, not pronounced (Gardiner A40) kheq (Gardiner S38, shepherd's crook) q (Gardiner N29, sandy slope) a (Gardiner G1, vulture) ew/u, plural determinate (Gardiner G43, quail chick) ordinary man determinant, not pronounced (Gardiner A1) plural determinant, not pronounced (3 vertical dashes) kha (Gardiner M12, lotus stem with leaf & rhizome) s (Gardiner S29, folded cloth) not pronounced (Gardiner Aa1, undeciphered horizontally-lined disk). The Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary assigns it ''kh''. t (Gardiner X1, bread loaf) Levant determinate, not pronounced (Gardiner N25, 3 stacked [plural] mountains of the Levant)


Khëqᵊqa Khâsᵊt; (sing.) a Levantine nobleman; a nobleman/​ruler indigenous to the hills of the Levant

Khëqᵊqaw Khâsᵊt; (pl.) Levantines; ordinary men indigenous to the hills of the Levant.


The term Khëqᵊqâ(w) Khâsᵊt was Hellenized to Ὑκσώς/​Ὑκουσσώς, then transliterated into Hebrew as and finally Anglicized to "Hyksos".

This ethnonym developed in Egyptian usage sometime during the Egyptian 2nd Intermediate Period (14C c BCE 1761-1572), – "coincidentally" about the time that Yo•seiph was sold in Egypt (c BCE 1709)! "Hyksos" therefore predates the emergence of the term Ă•bi•ru by nearly 4 centuries.

"Hyksos" thus describes what Egyptians increasingly regarded as a problematic eirëv rav – hordes of non-Egyptian geir•im, who fled a prolonged drought in the Sinai and Levant to sojourn in the "International Breadbasket" of the fertile, Nile-irrigated Delta – i.e. Gōshën. Interestingly, this developed from the time of the emergence of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil and the eirëv rav as a distinct "problem" in Egypt leading up to the time of the Yᵊtzi•âh – about the time ("coincidentally" again Roll eyes) that the term Shasu eclipsed both "Hyksos" and Ă•bi•ru!


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Ιγνατιος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

((Ig•nati•os); Anglicized to Ignatius)

(ca. 105 C.E.—117), Syrian or Turk; the second Hellenist "bishop" of Antakya, Turkey (then part of Syria), antedating the first "bishop" in Yᵊru•shâ•layim who ousted and usurped the 15th Pâ•qid of the Nᵊtzâr•im (in 135 C.E.). Ig•nati•os is the first to coin the phrase "Catholic Church," the first to reject "apostolical authority and succession" (i.e., the authority of the Nᵊtzâr•im pᵊqid•im) to equate episcopal (bishop) authority with "Christ the Lord," already denying the Nᵊtzâr•im, sowing the first seeds of misojudaism.

Therefore, Ig•nati•os is both the first proper Roman Catholic Christian and "inventor" of the concept of a Catholic pope (the "papal succession" not existing until later, when retroactively fabricated by Hegesippus in the 3rd century C.E.). These earliest Christians retained their Sun-God-day worship, merely transforming it from worshipping the sun to worshipping the Hellenist man-God patterned after Zeus ("Ignatius (1)," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," III:209ff.)


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' Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.07.14]

Im yi•rᵊtz•ëh ha-Sheim; ', ', Im yirtzeh ha-Sheimlit. "With the Will of ha-Sheim, i.e. with ha-Sheim's favor. This phrase is generally preferred in oral conversation. The abbreviation is " and may occasionally even be abbreviated in English letters: Iy"h. This may be the source from which the Arabic "In shᵊ-Allah" (if Allah wills) derived. More popular is the phrase bᵊ-ë•zᵊr•at ha-Sheim. In written communications, however, the standard Aramaic parallel is invariably used: "


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

I•qᵊsh•im; , Iqshimpl. of adj. (i•qeish, twisted, perverted, obdurate, and intransigent); name of the Qabâlists in Yemen who opposed the Dar•daim.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.08.01]

fem. n. Ir; city
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.12.28]

The Old City; , ha-Ir ha-Atiqahthe Upper City, to the north of Ir Dâ•wid, which included Har ha-Bayit.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.09.31]

Ir Dâ•wid; , Ir David, Ir Dawid[ancient] "City of David," ancient Yᵊru•shâ•layim
Yerushalayim


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Ειρηναιος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

((Ei•ræ•naios); Anglicized to Irenaeus)

(born ca. 135 C.E., d. ca. 202-203 C.E.) in western Turkey, probably a Syrian whose native tongue was Syriac and, being Hellenist (knowledgeable in the Greek poets and philosophers loathed by religious Jews like the Nᵊtzâr•im), his second tongue was the international language of the time: Greek. He was a disciple of Polycarp and became bishop of Lyons in the foetal (64 C.E.—135 C.E.), proto-Christian Hellenist Gentile Catholic Church of the late 2nd century. ("Irenaeus (1)," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," III:253ff.)


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waw (vav; Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew)resh (head; Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew)beit – hard: b/​soft: v (house; Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew)ayin (eye; Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew)
Ă•vᵊr•uHover over letter for xlit & xlatn
(malcontent) emi­grants
Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.03.07]

(•vᵊr•u, corrupted to "Habiru") —Khabiru, Amarna,, , ,they (who) traversed, passed over/​through; derived originally from .

ḫ (kh, Akkadian cuneiform lacked an ayin U1212A tenu) p (Gardiner's List Q3, a block) r (Gardiner's List D21, mouth) u/​w (Gardiner's List G43, quail chick - plurality, faces beginning of glyph) (person determinate, not pronounced) - Gardiner's List A1, kneeling & imploring man, faces beginning of glyph (plural determinate, not pronounced) 3 vertical dashes
a•bi•ruHover over letter for xlit & xlatn
(malcontent) emi­grants
Ă•pᵊr•uHover over glyph symbol for xlit & xlatn(disreputable)
immigrants

(•vᵊr•u) originally developed from Euphrates-crossers – hence Akkadian-Persian cognate Ḫapᵊru, transliterated into Egyptian as Ăpᵊru – emigrating westward out of Mesopotamia. The (m.p.) noun and (fem.) adj. and developed subsequently.

was the great-grandson of Sheim (c BCE 2218), who was the patronym of Semites. By the time of , Semites had already been identifiable as a distinct ethnonym for more than a century. The (i.e. •vᵊr•u) thereafter established themselves as a distinct ethnos within the Semites. Thus, Avᵊrâ•hâm was called an .

ccc
Click to enlargeAmarna Tablets EA285 & EA286, mentioning "Ă•bi•ru" (Akkadian cuneiform)

Contrary to academic bluster, Harvard Ph.D. Brian Doak affirmed that "All lines of argumentation in this regard have been met with opposition, and there is currently no consensus on the spelling or etymology of the term" (emphasis added). Yet, the etymological chain is straightforward and unassailable: the descendants of , the patronymic patriarch of all , were •vᵊr•u – called eber nāri" ("crossers of the Euphrates") by the Assyrians.

Avᵊru: migrating from Ur (in today's southern Iraq) across the Euphrates River to the Levant (via Paddan Aram to Kᵊnaan)
Click to enlargeA•vᵊr•u ('those [Semites] who migrated') — from Ur (in today's southern Iraq) crossing the Euphrates River, around the desert via the northern "Fertile Crescent" route (via Paddan Aram, then south to Kᵊna•an in the Levant.

Even the name Euphrates itself is related, deriving "from Old Persian Ufratu, perhaps from Avestan huperethuua "good to cross over," from hu- "good" + peretu- 'ford' ", cross or traverse. "([F]rom PIE root *per-(2) 'to lead, pass over')… In Akkadian, purattu" (loc. cit., see also Khëqᵊqâw Khâsᵊt (Hyksos) and Shasu). more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

I•yōv , Iyov(corrupted to "Jove," "Jupiter" and "Job"). Neither the etymology nor the meaning are known (though widely, and wildly, hypothesized by many).

In Hebrew, this would be "either passive, meaning [ from Sâ•tân] … or active, meaning []" (Jewish Ency.).

The illusion of a link between ("Job"), which dates from ca. B.C.E. 6th century, and Jove, the Roman god of the bright sky, Iuppiter (gen. Iovis) in classical Latin (corrupted to "Jupiter"), stumbles on chronology. The use of Jove dates back only to 14th century C.E. Europe and traces back etymologically to the older Proto-Indo-European dyeu (to shine) = Zeus (Online Etymology Dictionary).

Iuppiter, via its genitive case Iovis, derived etymologically from *djous patær ("Day-sky father"), in turn derived from the earlier Proto-Indo-European *dyew- (Day, an ancient god of daylight, or "sky") – a cognate of the ancient Greek Zeus.

Similarly, the hypothesis that (based on the illusion above) is a refinement of the name of an ancient idol and a cognate of ‑‑ not only stumbles on chronology, but, additionally, is plainly ignorant to anyone who knows how to spell in Hebrew.


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'Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.02.26]

Jakhnun, ventura-im.comJakh•nun ', Jakhnun(borrowed from Arabic). Yemenite Shab•ât bread Basic recipe (refine over time):

  • 4 ajin
  • 5 eggs in the shell
  • butter

Place 4 ajin in a well-buttered pan. Push one egg between each ajin, plus one more egg in the center

Bake at low heat, 120° C (250° F) all night (6 to 8 hrs).

Remove from the oven and serve at room temperature


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'Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.09.12]

Jalëh; ', Jalehappetizer (borrowed from Arabic)

As in Yemen, at Beit ha-Kᵊnësët they serve nuts, dried fruits and fresh fruits of the season. Here in Israel, this additionally includes at least khumus in pita with beverages accompanied by Tei•mân•i (Zᵊmir•ot; songs of Shab•ât) and Di•vᵊr•ei-Tōr•âh. Often the Jalëh is more elaborate, including jakhnun with khilbâh and sometimes Ma•lawakh garnished with a sauce made of tomato paste, skhug and zaatar.


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Ιερωνυμος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

((Ierōnumos); Anglicized to Jerome)

(ca. 346—420 C.E.) Ëb•i•ō•naῖoi Sophronios Ierōnumos. Born in south-eastern Europe (modern Bosnia and Herzegovina, across the Adriatic Sea, east of Italy) of Hellenist Catholic Christian parents, Ierōnumos was an Italian Hellenist Catholic Christian Church Historian who translated Ta•na"kh into Latin (Vulgate) from Hebrew (rather than from LXX Greek). See also Samuel Krauss, "The Jews in the Works of the Church Fathers," The Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. V, 1893, p. 132-3; Solomon Schechter, "Genizah Specimens," The Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. X, 1898, p. 656-7 and "Atonement Under the Biblical 'New Covenant.'"


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Jerusalem Post [Updated: 2006.04.27]

The Jerusalem Post, Israel's English-language newspaper, is miniscule compared to any of the three major Israeli Hebrew-language newspapers. Aside from the relatively small community of English speaking Israelis, The Jerusalem Post is entirely ignored within Israel. The daily domestic circulation is 11,000, rising to 25,000 for the Day6 (week-end) edition. The Jerusalem Post International Edition has a circulation of 26,000. The Jerusalem Post French weekly has a circulation of 3,000. (Figures as of 2003).


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Ἰώσηπος [Updated: 2018.04.24]

born - , ‎ 37 C.E. – d. Τίτος Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος 100+ C.E.

Son of a Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im father (certainly not of the strict Qum•rân Kha•sid•im Tzᵊdōq•im), and Khash•mo•nâ•im mother, boasting royal lineage, he rose to general in the Tzahal but became a traitor, persuading his officers to commit suicide (pretending he would also) then defecting to the Hellenist Roman occupiers during the Jewish Revolt of 68-70 C.E.

Corroborating his Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdōq•im orientation, Yo•seiph relied on LXX rather than MT. Like Shâ•ul, who, subsequent to his kâ•reit was called exclusively by his Hellenist name (Paul); similarly, Yo•seiph Bën-Ma•tit•yâhu ha-Ko•hein is known almost solely by his Hellenized name: 'Flavius Josephus.'

Josephus authored "Wars of the Jews" ca. 78-79 C.E. and "Antiquities of the Jews" ca. 94 C.E. (in foreward to William Sanford LaSor in William Whiston, Josephus, Grand Rapids, MI, Kregel Publications, 1960, p. ix-x.) and widely acknowledged to have been redacted by No•tzᵊr•im

"Josephus gives the impression that the sects were primarily divided over theological questions… He was concerned to produce an explanation that would make sense to his Greek (and Hellenist Roman) readers [and, perhaps, his own secular nature; ybd]. But the fact that only matters of practice are mentioned in MMT confirms the view that it was not dogma, but law that was apt to produce lasting schisms in Judaism." (Ëlish•â Qim•ron and John Strugnell, Discoveries in the Judaean Desert x, Qumran Cave 4.v, Miqsat Ma'ase ha-Torah, in consultation with Y. Sussmann and with contributions by Y. Sussman and A. Yardeni, Oxford,at the Clarendon Press, 1994, p. 176).


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Judaism/Judaic/Judea/Jew(ess). [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Both "Judaism" and "Jew," derive from (Yᵊhud•i; , YahadutJudean or Jew), plural (Yᵊhud•im; Judeans or Jews), and the related (Yᵊhud•âh, de-Judaized to "Judah" and "Judea"). Jews should properly be called (Yᵊhud•im).

"The term Judaism is first found among the Greek-speaking [i.e. Hellenist] Jews of the first century C.E… Its Hebrew equivalent, [] Ya•had•ut, found only occasionally in medieval literature…, but used frequently in modern times, has parallels neither in the Bible (but see Ës•teir 8.17, [] mit•ya•had•im, "became Jews" [joined the tribe of Yᵊhud•âh specifically?]) nor in the rabbinic literature." (Judaism, EJ 7.383). For the most Biblically authentic ancient name, see Dërëkh ("Way").

(‮) ‬ (Yᵊhud•i(t); masc./fem., respectively) native of Yᵊhud•âh one who is born of a Jewess, or converted to Judaism (see below) according to Ha•lâkh•âh and does not practice another religion. (For exceptions, however, see of Yᵊsha•yâhu 42.1-4)

Originally, this people of the Ta•na"kh were called (Yi•sᵊr•â•eil), designating all twelve tribes of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil.

These terms were applied to the entire people only after the destruction of the Northern Kingdom of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil (B.C.E. 722). "However, while the name 'Jew' became common usage outside the Land of Israel, the Hebrew-speaking Jews within the land were particular to call themselves 'Yi•sᵊr•â•eil' (de-Judaized to "Israelites")…

In the time of the Beit-ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh, Hellenist Romans applied the term "Judaeanism" (in Greek) to "the religion of the Judeans." Judaeanism was contracted to Judaism. Similarly, Judeans was contracted to "Jews."

Like "Sanhedrin," Judaism and Jew were originally external terms applied by Goy•im. Christians early conflated the word 'Judaeus' with the name of the villain of the gospel story, Judas Iscariot, whom they stereotyped as the typical Jew. Judas was linked with the devil (Lu. 22:3), and the result, in Hellenist Greek, was devil-Ιουδας (Ioudas; Judas = Judah = Judea—deriving from a single Hebrew term, [Yᵊhud•âh], differences in the Greek and English terms are artificial)." Further, while Sâ•tân is often transliterated into Greek letters in the Καινής Διαθήκης, it is also translated in other passages into Greek: διαβολος (diabolos, which is frequently translated into English as "devil" and is equivalent to Sâ•tân; see, in this regard, Jn. 8.44.) Thus, via Lu. 22.3, Ioudas = Judas = Judah = Judea was equated to diabolos = Sâ•tân. This relationship established the pejorative meaning of the word 'Jew' in the earliest Christian Church. ("Jew," Encyclopedia Judaica, 10:21-2.)


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"Judaizers" [Updated: 2011.04.07]

Prior to being redacted into ms. C #04 – in the 5th century C.E., Acts 15.24 lacked the phrase in the KJ/V of 1611 C.E. that has been the basis of denigrating "Judaizers": λέγοντες περιτέμνεσθαι καὶ τηρεῖν τὸν νόμον.

To Ribi Yᵊho•shua and the original Nᵊtzâr•im, being circumcised and keeping Tōr•âh had always been a good thing. It wasn't until the 5th century that gentile Hellenist Christians were finally able to reverse that image via this redaction.


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Flavius Iustinus [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Anglicized to Justin {Martyr})

(writings dating to ca. 150-163 C.E.) Iustinus Martyr, who reportedly died at age 30 ca. 163 C.E., was born in Roman-occupied Shᵊkhëm (Hellenist "Nablus"—Flavia Neopolis, named after Roman Emperor Flavius Vespasian) of Hellenist Roman gentile parents, Iustinus, who "has not heard, even, of Moses or of the Prophets, until well on in life" claimed to be a Samaritan Christian—demonstrating that he was as confused about the difference between a gentile and a Samaritan as he was about the difference between a Syrian Arab (Trypho) and a Jew. If Iustinus converted before 135 C.E., as reported, he would have been about two years old.

The Hellenist orientation of the original (post-135 C.E.) Christian Church is typified in Iustinus' listing of the Patriarchs of "the Word of God"—"Socrates, and Heraclitus, Abraham and Elias"—as well as his defense of Christianity: "We alone are hated, even though we hold the same as the Greeks."

The antinomianism and misojudaism of the original (post-135 C.E.) Christian Church is also evidenced by Iustinus, who equates gentile Romans with Christians, declaring that the Romans' enemy—the Jews—"had tortured and slain Christians without pity under Bar-Kokh, and made Jews everywhere the most violent and remorseless of the church's slanderers and persecutors (ch. 108, § 335)." Iustinus believes in "the new Israel, the abandonment of the old Israel, the sons of Abraham, unless they will accept the new covenant." Already in contrast to the , Nᵊtzâr•im keeping of the Judaic festivals, "this the main body of Christians repudiated, so that it was by most treated as a criminal heresy [emphasis added] to keep the Sabbath, and they refused to hold communion with those [Nᵊtzâr•im] who still held to these Jewish customs" (Justinus Martyr, St., A Dictionary of Christian Biography, Smith & Wace, III.560ff).

"It was for you Jews alone that it was necessary; because you forgot Him, He had to decree your Sabbaths; because you fell away to idols, He had to demand of you sacrifices (Dialog. 19, § 236, E). He ordered you a temple, lest you should worship images. All was done to distinguish the Jewish race from the heathen; and this, not on account of the race's virtue, so much as for its proneness to evil… It is foretold all along that the Gentiles are the children of prophecy, the true Israel, the perfect proselytes; it is of them that all the good promises are spoken… We realize in Iustinus the complete Gentilism of the Christianity of 140 [C.E.]. He regards the Law rather as an evidence of peculiar evil… in the Jews; so he even says in scorn that circumcision only serves to mark them out for condemnation, as the accursed who are forbidden to enter Jerusalem." Iustinus regard for Plato as the highest authority is compounded by his own entire ignorance of Hebrew. (Smith & Wace).


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