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Hebrew Glossary: N-Q

The reason this simple page of glossary definitions is ranked so popular with the search engine is because so many people click on our links to these definitions from the content in… the 'Netzarim Quarter' Village web site in Ra•an•anâ(h), Israel at www.netzarim.co.il

The real content is in the 'Netzarim Quarter'! Click on our logo above for an exciting visit to the 'Netzarim Quarter' where you'll learn about Historical Ribi Yehoshua and his original, Jewish, followers before the great Roman-Hellenist apostasy of 135 C.E.—and even more importantly, how you (whether Jew or non-Jew) can follow the historically true, Judaic, Ribi Yehoshua. In Hebrew, his original followers were called the Netzarim (Hellenized to "Nazarenes").

Until Paqid Yirmeyahu researched the Netzarim name and sect and began publishing about it in 1972 in The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) no one in modern times was even aware of the name Netzarim. It stretches credulity that no one in modern times had heard of the Netzarim until Paqid Yirmeyahu published it in 1972… and then, suddenly, everybody figured it out??? Check (and verify) the dates of the earliest works about the Netzarim by the others and you'll see that they are deceiver-plagiarists. Then insist on the person whom ha-Sheim selected to entrust the knowledge, not imposters who falsely call their continuing practice of Displacement Theology "Nazarene Judaism" or directly plagiarize the name "Netzarim."

Because we teach and practice the authentic Judaic teachings of Ribi Yehoshua—not Displacement Theology—we are the only group who have restored the Netzarim to be accepted in the legitimate Jewish community in Israel—genuinely like Ribi Yehoshua and the original Netzarim. Consequently, the 'Netzarim Quarter' is the only web site of legitimate Netzarim / Nazarene Judaism.

Give all the friends you've ever known the chance to know about this exciting site; send them our web site address (www.netzarim.co.il) that opens modern eyes for the first time to the Judaic world that Ribi Yehoshua and his original Netzarim knew, practiced and taught.

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נָעֳמִיPronunciation Table[Updated: 2006.04.27]

Nâ•âmi; נעמי, Naami de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Naomi'.

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Nag Hammadi Codices[Updated: 2012.05.07]

Nag Hammadi codices Nag Hammadi Codex II Nag Hammadi, Egypt
Click to enlarge Click to enlarge Click to enlarge

According to BAS:

"…a 13-volume library of Coptic texts… [found] near the town of Nag Hammadi in upper Egypt, … [describing] Gnostic Christianity, from the Greek word γνωσις. The Nag Hammadi codices are 13 leather-bound volumes dated to the mid-fourth century [CE] that contain an unprecedented collection of more than 50 texts, including some that had been composed [emphasis added] as early as the second century…"

Original composition aside, the version in the Nag Hammadi codices reflect Gnostic Christian redactions – and Hellenization – of the 4th century CE. more

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נַחַלPronunciation Table[Updated: 2006.04.27]

Nakhal Perat aquaduct (not Wadi Qelt) Midbar YehudahNakhal Perat (not Wadi Qelt) Midbar Yehudah

masc . n. nakhal; נחל, nakhal a vale (valley or canyon stream-bed) that typically flash-floods in winter-rains, runs as a stream or brook into spring and routinely dries up during summer and into autumn.

This, NOT the Arabic "wadi," is the correct term for seasonal stream (winter rainy season) and-or dry stream-bed (remainder of year), often found in a valley.

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נַחוּםPronunciation Table[Updated: 2006.04.27]

Na•khūm; נחום, Nakhum [י‑‑ה] has comforted, consoled; seventh of the twelve minor Nᵊviy•im in Ta•na"kh, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Nahum.'

כְּפַר נַחוּם (Kᵊphar Na•khum; Town or village of Na•khum), i.e. Nakhumville; Hellenized to "Capernaum."

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נַפְתָּלִיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.10.26]

Na•phᵊtâli; נפתלי, Naphtali, Naftali my twistings, intertwinings, intrigues; niph•al of פָּתַל (pâ•tal; he twisted, twined); 6th son of Ya•a•qov (mother: Bi•lᵊh•âh, Râ•kheil's maid).

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נָקַבPronunciation Table[Updated: 2013.04.19]

nâ•qav; נקב, naqav to auger-out – used in the Bible as the antonym, the opposite, of בֵּרֵךְ (bei•reikh; to bless).

Klein assigns four connotations to נָקַב:

  1. to bore a hole, perforate, pierce.

  2. to prick off, designate, distinguish (for each of which there are more accurate Hebrew terms) and "to pigeon-hole," which is more consistent with the theme of boring a hole.

  3. to curse or blaspheme (for which there are more accurate Hebrew terms) and to skewer with a hole or riddle with holes, or emasculate (see next entry) is consistent with the theme of boring a hole. Klein's suggests this connotation may be a collateral form of קָבַב (qâ•vav; "to auger," equated to cursing), which Klein notes (p. 559), "for sense development cp. Arab. na•qar•a (= he pierced, hollowed out; he reviled, maligned)" – i.e., "to auger-out"; corroborating נָקַב. Interestingly, this verb is also similar to נָקַר (nâ•qar; he bored, pierced, picked-out, gouged-out – cf. Sho•phᵊt•im 16.21). This appears to parallel today's English "chew someone out," which, if pictured literally, would also leave a bored-out hole. The difference between נָקַב and נָקַר appears to be the difference between augering out (drilling out a hole with a large auger) and gouging or picking out; both taken figuratively as "cursing out."

  4. to put into a feminine form, to feminize, emasculate—the theme being obvious.

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נָשִׂיאPronunciation Table[Updated: 2008.10.29]

masc . n. Nâ•si, נשיא, nasi tribal chieftain; modern: president (in Biblical times, head of the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol); pl. נְשִׁיאִים (nᵊsiy•im). not "prince" (which was sar).

Nâ•si derives from the verb נָשָׂא (nâs•â; to bear or carry [burdens, responsibilities, etc.]).

Nâ•si describes an executive or manager, in ancient times the tribal chief. Subsequent to Har Sinai, the Nâ•si designated the president of the Beit-Din hâ-Jâ•dol and was the only person who could ordain Tōr•âh teachers in Israel during the existence of the Beit-Din hâ-Jâ•dol. (A special title was afforded these Torah-teachers ordained by the Nâ•si in the land of Israel during the existence of the Beit-Din hâ-Jâ•dol: Ribi. The term Ribi is used in no other context.) Thus, the prophesied Nâ•si of the messianic era, the Mâ•shiakh scion of David, will preside over the heavenly Beit-Din hâ-Jâ•dol. Cf. Yᵊkhëz•qeil 38.02.

נָשִׂיא רֹאשׁ (Nâ•si Rosh; Chief Nâ•si, head or chief manager, president or executive).

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נָצְרַתPronunciation Table Hear it![Updated: 2013.07.23]

Natzrat-Megiddo topographical map
Click to enlargeLower Gâ•lil and עֵמֶק יִזְרְעֶאל showing נָצְרַת and הַר מְגִדּוֹ ("Armageddon").

Nâ•tzᵊr•at; נצרת, עמק יזרעאל, הר מגדו, הר מגידו, Natzrat, Eimeq Yiz'r'el, Eimeq Yizer'el, Har Megido, Har Megiddo, Har M'gido, Har M'giddoHellenized (i.e. Christianized) in LXX to Ναζαρεθ.

נָצְרַת, deriving from the verb נָצַר, is the combinative form of an unused noun, נָצְרָה, which would mean "a protective sentry guard" – a cognate of נֵצֶר. Thus, …-נָצְרַת means "a protective sentry guard of…"

Much has been overlooked about נָצְרַת because the only ones with the necessary security perspective are Israeli Jews, the essentials never occurred to goy•im researchers, and Israeli Jews have been little interested in the mainly Christian discussion of נָצְרַת. The meaning of the name, probably a "frontier town" nickname that stuck in place of its original name, נָצְרַת, becomes obvious upon looking at a map (especially a topographical map), relative to הַר מְגִדּוֹ ("Armageddon"). more

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נָבִיאPronunciation Table Hear it![Updated: 2018.05.03]

masc . n. nâ•vi נביא, נביאים, navi, neviyim, neviim, n'viyim, n'viyim– one who brings forth or issues a call, announcement or proclamation; especially of enlightenment, illumination, explanation and understanding; i.e. an explicator or advocate. In Ta•na"kh, Tōr•âh is the understood object unless otherwise specified. Thus, a Biblical נָבִיא is an explicator of Tōr•âh summoning all to make tᵊshuv•âh to Tōr•âh!

Derived from from the verb נִבָּא, the fem. נְבִיאָה, the pl. נְבִיאִים, and the connective pl. נְבִיא-.

In Hebrew, there is no implication of mystic future-telling (magic prohibited by Tōr•âh) as assumed in the English (and Greek) "prophet." The hit•pâ•eil form (hit•na•bei) refers to ecstatically expounding Tōr•âh (a title and capacity that goy•im, who by definition contradict Tōr•âh and invariably can't even read Tōr•âh, can never attribute to themselves). It was among Hellenist Jews that the LXX (and resulting later Christian) mysticism of προφήτης, which is the perception that has trickled down to the modern, Hellenist-derived, western world.

Biblically, a Nâ•vi is an individual who has focused his mind and nature on the developing Tōr•âh to the point where he is able to receive the outpouring of the Ruakh (spirit) of י--ה, and is evidenced by his clarity of understanding Tōr•âh. (See Ramba"m, Hi•lᵊkh•ot Yᵊsod•ei ha-Tor•âh 7.7; Kha•tam So•pheir, Ëvën ha-Ëzër section 40.)

Thus, the earlier prophets —foreseers —were called רוֹאִים (ro•im, seers; e.g. Shᵊmu•eil Âlëph 9.9). These are in contrast to nᵊviy•im who are proclaimers, of Tōr•âh because they were Divinely granted deeper insight, which enabled them to provide spiritual and practical guidance to Israel. But רוֹאִים were not sent to be the leaders of Israel as were the nᵊviy•im. Thus, nᵊviy•im—expositors of Tōr•âh—are embued with greater honor and authority than the earlier רוֹאִים.

In contrast, the term ha-Nâ•vi, which essentially means a preacher (Rash"i, Shᵊm•ot 7.1), was commonly used for Jews who exhorted others to go in the Way of Tōr•âh, and prayed for them in their time of need (Ë•mët lᵊ-Ya•a•qov, bᵊ-Reish•it 20.7). Obviously, they had to be wise and Tza•diq, but such exponents of Tōr•âh weren't, according to the Sages, necessarily Divinely inspired individuals.

Only in later years, when there was a need to send nᵊviy•im to admonish the Jewish people and provide national leadership, did ha-Nâ•vi acquire the general appellation of a prophet. (ArtScroll, Tᵊr•ei •sâr, xix-xx). See also The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 11.9.1.
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נָזָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.07.10]

nâz•âh;נזה,הזה,היזה,hizah,nazah spatter, splash, spurt; often in the hiph•il: הִזָּה.

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נָזִירPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.06.25]

masc . n. nâ•zir; נזיר, Nazir 1. adult male "who vows for a specific period to abstain from partaking of grapes or any of its products whether intoxicating or not, cutting his hair, and touching a corpse" – enabling a lay Jew to officiate like a kō•hein", 2 an unpruned grapevine (the grapevine being the ancient equivalent of the family tree), symbolized by unshorn hair and abstinence from all grape products including wine (i.e. not pruning the grapes, which represent në•phësh•ōt, from the vine); plural nᵊzir•im; de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Nazirite." Cognate: נְזִירוּת (nᵊzir•ut; state of being a nâ•zir; naziriteship).  more

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נֶדֶרPronunciation Table[Updated: 2010.07.18]

masc . n. nëdër; נדרים, כל נדרי, nederim, Kol Nidrei a vow. The plural is nᵊdâr•im (vows); pl. connective ni•dᵊr•ei… (vows of…).

כָּל נִדרֵי (Kōl Ni•dᵊr•ei) "all of the vows of…" a tᵊphil•âh to be released from any and all vows forced upon us by the goy•im:

  • Teimân•im: for any and all nᵊdâr•im vowed [under duress] in the coming year;
  • All other traditions: for any and all nᵊdâr•im vowed during the past year,

recited on ërëv Yom ha-Ki•pur•im. Contrary to popular Jewish opinion, this prayer is a medieval addition unknown to the Kha•khâm•im of Tal•mud or their predecessors (much less Mōsh•ëh at Har Sin•ai), and does not absolve from any voluntary נֶדֶר; nor does Scripture allow the annulment of any נֶדֶר post hoc (except in cases where the נֶדֶר is overridden by the principle of pi•quakh nëphësh).

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נֶגֶבPronunciation Table[Updated: 2006.04.27]

Negev, Midbar Paran (Mark A. Wilson, Wooster.com)
Click to enlargeNegev, Midbar Paran (Mark A. Wilson, Wooster.com)

masc . n. gëv; נגב, Negev the southern portion of Israel; the region south of Bᵊ•eir Shëva.

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נָהָרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.03.21]

masc . n. nâ•hâr; נהר, nahar, nehar, n'har perennial, generally year-round, river; combinative נְהַר (nᵊhar; river of…).

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נֵרPronunciation Table[Updated: 2010.10.01]

neir (oil lamp)

masc . n. neir; נר, neir, ner oil lamp (especially olive-oil), candle (modern); pl. נֵרוֹת (neir•ot).

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נְחֹשֶׁתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.02.11]

fem. n.nᵊkhōshët;נחשת,נחושת,nekhoshet copper.

Although the Scriptural narrative begins with •dâm at the dawn of the Bronze Age (ca. B.C.E. 3300), Hebrew never distinguishes the later refinement of tinned-copper alloy (i.e. bronze) from copper. In the Middle East, true bronze dates back only to the Egyptian 26th Dynasty (ca. B.C.E. 664–525) — after the 10 Northern Tribes had been deracinated by Syria. (אָרָד is MH.)

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נֵסPronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.01.06]

neis (miracle)
נֵס ("Instant" coffee)

masc . n. neis; נס, neis, nesan upright pole or standard, flagpole, ensign or signpost.

The popular connotation of "miracle" is strictly MH. For instance, whereas "coffee" in Hebrew is קָפֶה, to order instant ("miracle") coffee in an Israeli restaurant, one asks for a cup of נֵס. (Origin of the brand " NesCafe"?)

For "sign" in the sense of a symbol, letter, portent, omen or augur, see אוֹת (ōt).

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נְחֶמְיָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Nᵊkhëm•yâh; נחמיה, Nekhemyah, N'khemyah, N'khem'yah "י--ה has comforted." Book of the Kᵊtuv•im of Ta•na"kh (de-Judaized to Nehemiah) de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Nehemiah.'

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נֶפֶשׁPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.10.16]

fem. n. nëphësh; pl. נְפָשׁוֹתנפשות,nephesh,nephashot,n'pashot; the life-force, regarded in Ta•na"kh as common to human beings and animals; the vector of sentience, consciousness, self-awareness, sapience and the psyche; which enables independent auto-locomotion and free will. From the verb נָפַשׁ meaning revitalize, regenerate, rejuvenate; i.e. relax & regroup, unwind, decompress, take a break.

The Hebrew concepts of נפש,‎ רוּחַ and נְשָׁמָה were refinements of the Egyptian amalgamation of the ka, the ba and the akh and other ancient, idolatrous, Middle Eastern belief systems.. In Ta•na"kh, however, all blood-circulating animals, as living beings (in contrast to lower animals and plants), were, by nature of their dependence upon circulating blood, deemed to have a נפש

“because the נפש of the bâ•sâr is in the dâm.”

Whereas in ancient times this was regarded as divinely axiomatic, wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 17.11 implies that the נפש was O2 in the blood! הָעוֹלָם הִשְׁתַּנָּה (mundus mutatus)! more.

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נְּפִלִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.09.24]

Click to enlargeNeanderthal Wilma

A נְּפִלָה? Perplexingly, the European Neanderthals were stockier and light-skinned while it was the dark-​skinned Homo sapiens out of Africa who populated the Middle East (Gan Eidën; see •dâm) and were taller – more likely עֲנָקִים. (Wilma design & photo National Geographic, 1996)

masc . n. (pl.) Nᵊphil•im – originally (bᵊ-Reish•it 6.4), an indistinct designation for the unknown, legendary, forbears, from distant and dim antiquity, perhaps to explain the presence of bigger peoples – עֲנָקִים – of their own day.

נְּפִלִים נפלים, nephalim, n'phalim, nefalim, n'falim are related to "sons of ël•oh•im" – perceived by Medieval European Christians and rabbis (!) as "divine or angelic beings" (EJ, "Nephilim," 12.962) – in bᵊ-Reish•it 6.4; see also bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbar 13.33). The Tar•gum Onᵊqᵊlos translates both נְּפִלִים and הָגִּבֹּרִים with the same Aramaic term: גִּבָּרַיָּא

The association with עֲנָקִים is based on the (much later) only two other citations, both in bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbar 13.33, where the Israeli scouts gave their evil report. The evil – and exaggerated – report of עֲנָקִים by these scouts was denounced as false by Mosh•ëh. Ergo, accepting the connotation of "giant" is unjustified. more

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נְשָׁמָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.07.07]

neshamah: ancient breath = soul

fem. n. nᵊshâm•âh;נשמה,נשימה,neshamah,n'shamah,neshimah,n'shimah breath (and נְשִׁימָה)—which must be distinguished from נֶפֶשׁ and רוּחַ. See especially more

The notion that נשמה means "soul" or "essence," is a modern reform derived entirely from Qa•bâl•âh—which is based in ancient animism. See again  more

In the Bible, by contrast, נשמה always means "breath" — even when used figuratively (e.g., I•yov 27.10 & Tᵊhil•im 150.6). Rabbinic attempts to revive animism based on bᵊ-Reish•it 2.7 to define נשמה as "Divine Essence" collide with the reality of paramedics, nurses and doctors who do the same "miracle."

bᵊ-Reish•it 2.7 uses נשמה to teach that man was created by י‑‑ה, not a literal "breathing of Divine Essence Breath into" as Jewish, Christian and Muslim believers in the "Poof!" theory of creation argue.

In fact, the Hellenist conflation of נשמה as one's "essence," universal among today's Jews, is a relatively recent and shocking reform to Judaism — deriving from "Medieval Jewish Philosophy… [in which] Descriptions of the soul followed Platonic and Aristotelian views [themselves derived from ancient animism], with later Greek thought supplying the models by which man's soul was related to heavenly substances". The Hellenist roots are firmly documented prior to the 4th century C.E. by Hellenist Greek-speakers of the LXX, who conflated נשמה and נֶפֶשׁ, rendering both as ψυχή—which explains the modern blurring of the terms.

Healthy נֶפֶשׁ Perverted Into Jewish Supremacy Racism

An unfortunate by-product of this Hellenist conflation is the interpretation of the "Jewish neshama" as racist exceptionalism: the belief that the "Jewish neshama," makes genetic, DNA, i.e., racially-defined Jews (born of a Jewish mother) a superior – chosen – race. more

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נְטִילָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.08.01]

fem. n.nᵊtil•âh;נטילה,נטילת ידיים,netilat yadayim,n’tilat,n’tiylat.netiylat a loading (up), lading (up), shouldering, yoking (used of loading pack animals with goods or yoking together).

נְטִילַת יָדַיִם – “loading up of hands”; i.e. filling one’s hands (taking responsibility).

Ta•lᵊmud overreaches in clinging perilously from the thread claiming that this phrase (and the resulting bᵊrâkh•âh recited before eating bread) is “hinted” by a totally unrelated passage (וְיָדָיו לֹא-שָׁטַף בַּמָּיִם ). However, נְטִילַת יָדַיִם seems more likely derived from the washing of hands preparatory to נְטִילַת יָדַיִם in the tᵊnūph•âh ceremony.

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נֵצֶרPronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2012.07.06]

Netzarim - Mediterranean Olive (Olea europaea) basal suckers (Ariz St U)
Click to enlargeNᵊtzâr•im - Mediterranean Olive (Olea europaea) basal suckers, scions; like little protective sentries guarding the mother tree (Ariz St Univ.)

masc . n. neitzër, pl. נְצָרִים (Nᵊtzâr•im); נצרים, Netzarim, N'tzarim, Nᵊtzarim, Neitzer basal suckers from the root of a tree, especially from an olive tree—like little sentries standing at the foot guarding the mother tree; derives from the prophecy in Yᵊsha•yâhu 11.1 and 60.21.

Contrast נְצָרִים, often translated "shoot" against חֹטֶר, which is also often translated as "shoot." As is often the case, clarity is found only in the original Hebrew.

Most Christians assume (and Jews simply parrot Christian mythology that is unimportant to them) that the followers of Ribi Yᵊho•shua were originally called "Christians," based on the Hellenist (Greek) Πραξεις Αποστολων 11.19-26. However, the evidence is blatant how the (Greek-speaking) Hellenist Roman Church, compounded by the KJ/V English, used Ναζαρεθ to bury the Hebrew-speaking, Jewish Pharisee (non-Hellenist) rival: the Ναζωραιος – completely burying the even more conspicuous term, Ναζαρηνος. more

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Hebrew Matthew [Updated: 2006.05.10]

Netzarim Hebrew Matthew
Click to enlarge with dates of earliest extant mss.

The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) with date of earliest extant ms.

These are in addition to contextual input from all extant Hebrew and Aramaic literature prior to 399 C.E. (including the Dead Sea Scrolls, Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha, Josephus, Nag Hammadi codices and alternate "gospels," et al. and the LXX and early Christian historians (e.g., Eusebius, Epiphanius, Jerome, Ignatius, Irenaeus Hegesippus, Papias, Origen, et al.):

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נִדָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. nid•âh; נדה, nidah, niddahmenstruant

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Nineveh (Aramaic nuna, nina aka Ishtar) fish in a house cuneiform
Ninᵊweih fish-shaped cuneiform
[Updated: 2019.12.03]

Nineveh. Mishqi Gate, Nineveh, Assyria. Lower parts original, upper reconstructed (Photo Lachicaphoto-Creative)
Click to enlargeGate of (H)adad—mythical Son of Fish-God Dâg•ōn

נִינְוֵה Ninᵊweihנינוה “Fish-House” City; the ancient world’s largest trade center, the New York City, of its day. And, like “the Big Apple”, it was probably fondly referred to as “the Big Fish” (Yōn•âh 1-3), due to the likeness of the city’s shape to its name in cuneiform—which, in turn, likely drew inspiration from the region’s primary deity: fish-god Dâg•ōn.

Ninᵊweih is known from BCE 4th millenium Hurrians, though the city itself predates even the Hurrians, tracing back to the neolithic Hassuna culture ca. BCE 6,000!

By BCE 3000, the Sumerian Ninâ (Aramaic Nuna)—egg-laying—fish-goddess element of the city name seems to have conflated with Inana (Sumerian) /​ Ištar (Akkadian) /​ Mesopotamian-Akkadian goddess Ishtar, [which] is among the most important deities and the most important goddess in the Mesopotamian pantheon… In [its] astral aspect, Inana/ Ištar is the planet Venus, the morning and the evening star.

This largest metropo­lis in the world of its time didn’t take its name because of being a sea-faring population. They were located inland; not on the Mediterranean coast or Persian Gulf, but on the east bank of the Tigris River, outside of modern-day Mosul, Iraq (mostly destroyed in 2014 by Da”ash). A priori, their connections with Fish-God Dâg•ōn suggest that this was the world center of the Fish-God Dâg•ōn theology.

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נִלוָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.07.06]

nil•wâh; נלוה, לוה, nilvah, nilwah, lawah, lavah he was accompanied, escorted; the niph•al of לָוָה (lâ•wâh; he accompanied, escorted—cf. Klein’s Etymological Dictionary of Hebrew, p. 348-9). See geir in Yᵊsha•yâhu 14:1 and Goy•im (Zᵊkhar•yâh 2:15).

The adjective and noun form is נִלוֶה (nil•wëh), plural נִלוִים nil•wim. When used as a noun, a ni•lᵊwëh is an escort or accompanier. As an adjective, the term refers to an escort or accompanier ni•lᵊwëh status.

Another cognate of לָוָה is לֵוִי (Lei•wi), plural Lᵊwiy•im, who escorted the Ko•han•im.

Qa•bâl•ists initiated מְלַוֵּה מַלכָּה (mᵊla•weih ma•lᵊk•âh; the accompanying Queen [Shab•ât]) are songs sung in concluding Shab•ât and סְעֻדַּת מְלַוֵּה מַלכָּה (Sᵊ•ud•at mᵊla•weih mal•kâh) is the concluding (4th) meal of the accompanying Queen (meaning Shab•ât).

Lâ•wâh is likely the inspiration for the concept, advanced by Ribi Yᵊho•shua, of "grafting" the "wild branches"—geir•im—onto the "olive tree," which is Yi•sᵊr•â•eil. Of the five instances of לָוָה in MT that connote accompanying, joining or becoming attached, for which the rendering in LXX reflects the same meaning, three instances (bᵊ-Mid•bar 18.2, 4 & Yᵊsha•yâhu 14.1) are rendered by προστιθημι (prostitheimi; to put or place onto) while the other two instances (Yᵊsha•yâhu 56.3, 6) are rendered by προσκειμαι (proskeimai; to lay or rest [something] on [something]). The NT term, ενκεντριζω (enkentrizo; graft onto) is not found in LXX. The term that defines this concept is clearly לָוָה, from which all three Hellenist (Greek) interpretations derived.

Lâ•wâh implies much more than simple "joining"; and is certainly the antithesis of being integrated, unchanged, into something. Lâ•wâh implies gradual, but active, assimilation into Israel; the abandonment of any elements of one's previous life and culture that conflict with Tōr•âh, complemented by the replacing of the abandoned elements through undertaking the life practice and culture of Tōr•âh and Israel, i.e. properly interfacing with the Jewish people (Israel) faithful to the example of Rut (1.16) —through the Jewish culture: the Hebrew language, Tōr•âh, Jewish music, Jewish chanting of Ta•na"kh, etc.

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נִפעַלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

niph•al; נפעל, niphal, nifal imperfect intransitive / passive verb bin•yân

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נָקוּרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

nâ•qūr; נקור, naqur gouged-out, boring-a-hole, removing veins from meat.

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נִשּׂוּאִין or נִישּׂוּאִיןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.04.14]

masc . n. Ni•sū•in;נישוין, נשואין,nisuin (Aramaic m. pl.), lit. elevatings, holdings-high or carryings-aloft (i.e. holding the woman up before the community, heralding her as his wife); from the same verb, נָשָׂא, as Nâ•sinuptials, marriage, the wedding ceremony (specifically, resulting from Orthodox reforms in recent centuries, the final section).

Women As Owned Property?

Contradictions (stemming from Babylonian, Roman Hellenist and European cultural assimilation and reform of ages past) persist, even between today's Orthodox authorities, regarding the definitions of the three elements that precede the reading of the כתובה in the נשואין ceremony under the חופה.

Today's Orthodox rabbis go to great lengths to explain-away the ancient perception of women as property, first of their fathers and later of their husbands. Modern rabbinic ruses range from obfuscations by reforming – casuistically redefining – the meaning of "acquire" or "take" (a woman), on the one hand, to fusing the first three elements of Tōr•âh נשואין into one or two blurred composite(s), covering over the contradiction.

The pragmatic, realist and originalist approach, by contrast, is to accept the ancient perceptions as ancient perceptions and deal with keeping intact the integrity of the original Principles of Tōr•âh, both regarding property law and regarding marriage, in the reality of הָעוֹלָם הִשְׁתַּנָּה (mundus mutatus). Women today are no longer categorized as property and, therefore, no woman's status, nor נשואין, can be adjudicated according to the metric of property law. One result is that among originalist Orthodox Jews, שדוכין is increasingly swept under a rug, curtailed, ignored and forgotten. While שדוכין can no longer be regarded as a property law negotiation between parents' interests, the necessity of the process of a couple reaching an agreement culminating in ארוסין remains constant in practice.

Ancient Property Law:
During ארוסין‎: Capital Punishment For נאוף

During ארוסין, the penalty for נאוף – capital punishment – applied only to the ארוסה (and her paramour), not to the ארוס.

Like the other aspects of marriage, נאוף, with its accompanying capital punishment, was also based in property law. This stemmed both from women being considered owned human female livestock property and from the unwanted and illegitimate inheritance complications that ensued from children born from illicit relations.

Because נאוף came into effect as an integral element of the ארוסין period, well-intentioned – but wrong-headed – rabbis sought a way to protect the ארוסה from exposure to the death penalty. Consequently, 11th century C.E. European rabbis reformed ארוסין, perverting its purpose by shortening its period of exposure to a mere few minutes under the חופה. They effected this by reforming ארוסין from its historical occurrence and purpose, months before the חופה, into an element in the first section of the ceremony under the חופה (below). The correct legal principle was, and is, to recognize that – הָעוֹלָם הִשְׁתַּנָּה (mundus mutatus) – the personal status of women cannot be adjudicated under property law. Ergo, נאוף has no validity nor application today. Women's personal status must be adjudicated under the same laws as men.

The חופה

ארוסין, (moved into the חופה by 11th century CE rabbinic reform.

The bride circles the groom 7 times, followed by an 8th event: actualization (the wedding ceremony; see also Hi•lūl•â).

The Wedding Ceremony
  1. קדושין The bᵊrâkh•âh over the first, of two, goblets (hence, the plural, qi•dūsh•in) of wine is recited and the couple drink from the goblet. Reciting the appropriate bᵊrâkh•âh, the khâ•tân then places a plain gold ring on the index finger of the right hand of the kal•âh.

  2. Public reading of the כתובה

  3. נשואין – Seven bᵊrâkh•ōt, beginning with the bᵊrâkh•âh over the second goblet of wine. This is concluded by the bride and groom drinking from the wine goblet and concluded by the groom stomping on a special safety glass, wrapped in thick cloth as a further safety measure (to prevent a shard piercing a sock into the ankle or through a thin shoe sole), commemorating the destruction of the two Bât•ei ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh.

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סֵפֶר נִצָּחוֹן יָשָׁןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Seiphër Ni•tzâkh•ōn Yâ•shân; ספר נצחון ישן, Seipher Nitzakhon Yashan, Sepher Nitzakhon Yashan, Seifer Nitzakhon Yashan, Sefer Nitzakhon Yashan Scroll of Old Victory; a polemic work against the NT by an unknown author dating from the 13th-century C.E.

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נִאוּףPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.10.15]

ni•ūphniuph,נאוף,ניאוף,adultery extramarital relations by, or with (i.e. a paramour of), a man's female human livestock property – including an ארוסה! Although this continues in many communities, this element of ancient property law, as a consequence of its dependency upon property law and the refuted view that regarded women as human livestock property of a man, is no longer a valid charge – ever – nor legally enforceable.

"The extramarital intercourse of a married man is not per se a crime in biblical or later Jewish law. This distinction stems from the economic aspect of Israelite marriage: the wife was the husband's possession, and adultery constituted a violation of the husband's exclusive right to her; the wife, as the husband's possession, had no such right to him." Thus נאוף derives from property law, and is not equivalent to the English term adultery!

נאוף was a capital offense under property law.

Even while casuistically denying women are property of men, Orthodox rabbis determinedly cite res judicata and stare decisis to insist that women's servitude under property law (inter alia נאוף and geit) cannot be changed. Modern rabbinic reforms to mitigate the effects of women as property have no legitimacy since Tōr•âh, reflecting its Author, is Immutable! Thus, too, polygynous marriage remains valid even though rabbinic and community PC contradict ("interpret" differently) Tōr•âh.

The principle of הָעוֹלָם הִשְׁתַּנָּה (mundus mutatus) dictates that, since today's world recognizes that women are not property, ergo, neither a woman's status nor her rights can be legally defined under property law. Nor can a woman be punished, nor even legally charged, under property law. Further, since no woman is the property of anyone nor subject to this property law, נאוף is no longer possible! Women and men must be held to the same standard regarding permitted and prohibited sex –that necessarily includes homosexuality.

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נֹחַPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

akh; נח, Noakh Hellenized to "Noah." (See also "Bën-.")

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נֵכָר Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.06.14]

masc . n. nei•khâr; נכרים, בן נכר, neikhar, nekhar, nakhrim, nokhrima foreigner, i.e., gentile (m.n.); combinative □-נֵכַר (nei•khar…; a foreigner, i.e., gentile of…).

נָכרִי m.s. adj. (nâkh•ri; foreign, i.e., gentile [entity]); נָכרִים m.p. adj. (nâkh•rim; foreign, i.e., gentile [entities])

בֶּן נֵכָר (bën-nei•khâr; a foreigner, i.e., gentile – lit. "son of a foreigner, i.e., gentile")

בְּנֵי נֵכָר (bᵊn•ei-nei•khâr; foreigners, i.e., gentiles – lit. "sons of a foreigner, i.e., gentile")

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נֹסַח or נוֹסַח Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

nō•sakh; נסח, נוסח, nosakhversion, draft (noun)

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Χριστιανός / נָצְרִים Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.09.24]

Khris•ti•an•os; נוצרים,Notzrimthe first and original Christian(s)Hellenist followers of the excised Apostate Paul, who morphed their Roman Ζεύς into a Hellenized-rabbi counterfeit: Jesus, thereby defining Christianity's original 7 churches in Hellenist-Roman Anatolia (modern West Coast of Turkey).

Christianity's new, "ιε Ζεύς 2.0" became wildly popular among gentile Roman Hellenists, who quickly "cleansed" their new religion, Christianity (i.e. Hellenism 2.0), of any conflicting Judaic doctrines. As a result, Christianity quickly became almost exclusively Roman-gentiles. The subsequent destruction of 70 C.E. and expulsion of all Jews from Yᵊru•shâ•layim in 135 C.E. afforded them the political opportunity to usurp the last Nᵊtzâr•im Pâ•qid, a Jew whom they (the gentile Roman Hellenists) had expelled, and establish, in its stead, their Hellenized-rabbi counterfeit, Jesus, and their Hellenist "Holy" Roman (gentile) Christian Church.

Consequently, in Hebrew,

Jews distinguished themselves from the displacement mythology Christians (who mingled as ma•lᵊshin•im and mâ•sōr•ōt among them) by designating Christians with a cryptic homonym of נְצָרִים: namely, נֹצְרִים (unvowelled spelling נוצרים) – confinement or containment guards or keepers—guards or keepers who keep something within (from escaping), or safe within (keeping danger out). The singular noun is נוֹצֵר, also spelled נֹצֵר (no•tzeir), meaning a "sentry," and the sing. adj. is נוֹצְרִי (no•tzᵊr•i), from נָצַר (nâ•tzar; to guard as a sentry).

These are still the Hebrew terms—used among Jews—designating "Christian(s)." This homonym meaning "Christian" enabled Tōr•âh Jews, including נְצָרִים, to invoke a cryptic curse on the נֹצְרִים min•im, ma•lᵊshin•im, mᵊshū•mâd•im and mâ•sōr•ōt among them (documented in the Bi•rᵊk•at ha-Min•im) – still undetected by Christians today!

In Biblical times, this verb root contrasted with its synonym שָמַר (shâ•mar; see comparison and contrast of these two synonyms in the Neitzër glossary entry). No•tzeir and its cognates have been reserved for "Christian." more

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Καινής Διαθήκης (i.e. the Christian "New Testament") [Updated: 2018.12.06]

According to the earliest Church historian, Eusebius, the Original 12 Jews (and their peer fellow Jews) who followed the first-century C.E. Ribi Yᵊho•shua – the authentic Nᵊtzâr•imrefused, i.e. never accepted, the post-135 C.E. Greek Roman Hellenist-Christian Καινής Διαθήκης! To the contrary, the Nᵊtzâr•im embraced only (Ta•na"kh, of course, and) their own, Hebrew, account of the life and teachings of the first-century C.E. Ribi Yᵊho•shua recorded by Ma•titᵊyâhu: i.e. The Nᵊtzârim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matitᵊyâhu (NHM).

The earliest extant complete source texts of the Hellenist Καινής Διαθήκης are the Greek codices א and βof the 4th-century CE, centuries after the expulsions of 70 CE and 135 CE!!!

Even according to the most authoritative Christian scholars, e.g., The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, acknowledges:

"A study of 150 Greek MSS of the Gospel of Luke has revealed more than 30,000 different readings… moreIt is safe to say that there is not one sentence in the NT in which the MS tradition is wholly uniform

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Obliterated Names [Updated: 2009.03.08]

Tōr•âh prohibits uttering the names of אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים (Ël•oh•im a•kheir•im; other Ël•oh•im) (Shᵊm•ot 23.13; Dᵊvâr•im 12.3 and Yᵊho•shua 23.7). To comply with this Mitz•wâh, we employ strikethrough font (recent), insert an asterisk at the beginning (phasing out this older method) or use dashes (phasing out this even older method) in such names to remind the reader not to utter them (e.g., Aelia Capitolina, Ashtoret, Esotera, Jupiter, Mithra, Zeus, Isis, Iæsous, Jesus, etc. This includes the days of the week named after, and containing the names of, pagan gods, beginning with the most important gods to the pagans: Sunday, Moonday, Tiwe'sday, Odin'sday, Thor'sday, Freyjaday and Saturnday.

In Judaism, as in the Bible, these are called simply Day-one through Day-six and Shab•ât. One soon realizes how pervasive paganism is in Christianity.

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אֹהֶל מוֹעֵדPronunciation Table אהל מועד,אוהל מועד,Ohel Moed[Updated: 2019.07.24]

Ohel Moeid
Mi•qᵊdâshŌhël Mō•eid /​ Mi•shᵊkân

masc . n. Ōhël Mō•eid; Tent of Convocation—the mobile Prayer Tent in which Mōshëh communed with י‑‑ה; primary component of the Mi•shᵊkân bᵊ-mi•dᵊbar.

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עוֹלָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.02.25]

fem. n. ō•lâh עולה,עולים,oleh,olah,olim,olot(pl. עֹלוֹת, ōl•ōt); verb: she (or fem. it) is ascending; verbal noun: 1. ascending or ascendance; especially the “up [in smoke]” sacrifice, 2. female immigrant ascending to Ërëtz Yi•sᵊr•â•eil.

The masc. counterpart is עוֹלֶה, and the collective pl. עוֹלִים

Another cognate is f.s.n. עֲלִיָּה (pl. עֲלִיּוֹת), used primarily to refer to [a] ascending to read Tōr•âh or [b] immigrating (upward), i.e., ascending, to Israel.

The verb, עָלָה, is also applied to the priming—raising-up (i.e. provision of oil, wicks and lighting)—of oil lamps.

The Ōl•âh Sacrifice—not For Atonement!

This type of sacrifice was “not designated as an atonement offering for any specific transgression… Rather, it is one of the two major types of voluntary offerings, brought as a mark of one’s desire to ‘elevate’ himself spiritually… as well as an obligatory offering to mark various occasions and situations.”

A priori, this fire-class ascendance sacrifice symbolized gratefulness for the accomplishment of a complete elimination of impurity—in the instances of Sha•bât, Rōsh Khōdësh, the Khaj•im and Mō•ad•im, the sᵊmikh•âh of a kō•hein, completion of a nâ•zir vow, recovery of a tzâ•raat, a woman after childbirth or zâv•âh, or completion of a geir (conversion) to Tōr•âh—symbolically ridding oneself of the impurity by sending it up in smoke.

Types of animals specified for the various types of ōl•âh donation or mulct (in the ancient currency of an animal) included a tal•ëh, an ayil, a gᵊdi or a par.

Belief in the efficacy of “ascendance sacrifices” was vividly encapsulated in most being entirely burnt-up—so that the sacrificer never reaped any profit from this types of sacrifice. The sacrificer’s part of every ōl•âh always “went up in smoke”! See qârᵊbân more

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עוֹלָםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.03.04]

masc . n. ō•lâm; עולם, עולמים, olamimera, epoch, a geological age; world-age, world-existence, world-history, (the) world. Pl. עוֹלָמִים (ō•lâm•im; world-ages, world-epochs, world-eras), i.e. current and future afterlife worlds, i.e. physical & spiritual worlds/​domains. more

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עֹמֶר or עוֹמֶר Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.06.17]

Omer (barley or wheat) - Shavuot
Click to enlargeעֹמֶר (barley, wheat or other grain)

masc . n. (ōmër) עומר, omer1. sheaf (of grain). 2. dry measure representing yield from one sheaf of grain; i.e. ≈2.2 liters = an עִשָּׂרֹן of an אֵיפָה. ‭ ‬ 3. the ≈2.2 liters of the first annual sheaf of either of two grains (barley on Khag ha-Matz•ōt or wheat on Khag Shâvū•ōt); brandished/​waved in the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh.

There were no supermarkets in Biblical times. At the beginning of each year, wheat wasn't available in Yi•sᵊr•â•eil until the wheat harvest (celebrated by Khag Shâvū•ōt).

The first grain to be harvested each year was barley (celebrated by Khag ha-Matz•ōt). Consequently, the only לֶ֣חֶם—or matz•âh—between Pësakh and Khag Shâvū•ōt was "poor man's" barley-לֶ֣חֶם (or barley-matz•âh); i.e. לֶ֣חֶם עֹ֑נִי.

The taste of לֶ֣חֶם עֹ֑נִי seems to have been regarded as inferior to wheat-לֶ֣חֶם. Apparently due to dislike of "poor man's bread", beginning the very next day after the special Sha•bât of the 1st annual barley עֹמֶר (i.e. Khag ha-Matz•ōt), first thing everyday, Israel counted-off 7 weeks toward the first day they could eat wheat-לֶ֣חֶם. The next (50th) day marked the celebration of the 1st annual עֹמֶר of wheatKhag Shâvū•ōt.

Several of the Nᵊviy•im (e.g. Yᵊsha•yâhu, Yᵊkhë•zᵊq•eil and Dân•iy•eil) envisioned these two periods, separated by 7 weeks to represent two epochs (the first characterized by לֶ֣חֶם עֹ֑נִי, followed by an improved wheat epoch). The Nᵊviy•im envisioned the first epoch to be ushered in by a Mâ•shiakh Bën-Yo•seiph and the second epoch, "7 weeks of years" later, by a Mâ•shiakh Bën-​Dâ•wid. This, coupled with the historical record of the advent of modern Israel, enabled a straight mathematical ratio computation of the year on our calendar that would begin the second epoch; i.e. "Messianic Era"—which, unlike any other "prediction" in modern history, was proven by publishing, years in advance, the year in which the momentous "70th Week Of Years", encrypted and prophesied by Dân•iy•eil (chapters 9 & 11) would occur:

  1. At the 1290 cryptic prophetic "days" point. (Note: "1290" days equates to 3½ years plus 30 days), which only became calculable after the advent of Israel's resurrection in 1948 defined the "1260 days" lapse: 70 to 1948.)

  2. featuring the infamous unholy bᵊrit

  3. with the person embodying the "abomination of desolation",

  4. which would be broken in the middle of the 7-year period

Though the event went exactly as prophesied by Dân•iy•eil, and despite the anticipated year being published years beforehand, it went blissfully unnoticed by the spiritually misled because no magic genie, surrounded by infinite numbers of "angels", levitated in the sky in sight of the entire planet, transporting Christians to vanish from earth and reappear levitating in the sky!

Accordingly, three matz•ōt were introduced into the ancient Pësakh Seidër; the top matz•âh symbolizing the first, לֶ֣חֶם עֹ֑נִי, epoch, the middle matz•âh symbolizing a Mâ•shiakh duality (the middle matz•âh being broken into a duality during the Seidër, with the second half hidden for a period) and separating the first epoch from the third—"Messianic"—epoch, symbolized by the bottom matz•âh.

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וֹןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.07.05]

ōn ון, on (suffix). Formerly regarded by Hebrew grammarians as a diminutive, this suffix more accurately denotes a nominal adjective (morphing a noun or adjective into a nominal or adjectival abstraction). Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar & gives, for examples,

  • m.n. קֶדֶם‎ abstracted by the וֹן- suffix to the adj./m.n. קַדְמוֹן‎. In this example (Yᵊkhë•zᵊq•eil 47.8), a further suffix, -ָה, is added to form "eastwardly."

  • abstracting adj. אַחֲרוֹן from the adv./prep. אַחַר.

  • abstracting adj. חִיצוׂן from חוּץ

  • abstracting m.n. עִוָּרוֹן from adj. עִוֵּר

  • abstracting m.n. אִישׁוֹן‎ from m.n. אִישׁ‎

  • abstracting שְׁפִיפֹן‎ from שָׁפַף‎

  • abstracting שַׂהֲרוֹן‎ from שַׂהַר, collateral form of סַהַר

  • abstracting צַוָּרוׂן (pl. צַוְּרֹנִים‎) from צַוָּאר‎

  • abstracting חֶבְרוֹן‎ from חָבֵר.

  • abstracting זִכָּרוֹן from זֵכֶר

  • abstracting שַׁבָּתוֹן from שַׁבָּת

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אוֹנְקְלוֹס / אָנְקְלוֹסPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Popularly "Onkelos" אנקלוס, Onqelos – 2nd century C.E. Tan•â who translated the Tar•jum (Aramaic translation of Tōr•âh). Ōnᵊqᵊlōs is often confused with a separate, presumably Hellenist (Tzᵊdoq•i), geir named Aquila, who translated Tōr•âh into Greek.

אוֹנְקְלוֹס / אָנְקְלוֹס, whose native language was clearly Aramaic, likely derives from the Aramaic term, אוֹנְקְלַסְיָא / אָנְקְלַסְיָא (taking property in pledge, pawning, a pawnbroker). This, in turn, likely derives from the context of the Roman occupation and resulting Hellenist Greek term, ἐνεχυρασία.

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עוֹף Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.03.26]

masc . n. ōph;עוף, oph, of poultry, esp. chicken. When ordering at a restaurant or meat market, however, ōph invariably refers to תַּרְנְגוֹל, rather than הוֹדוּ, בַּרְוָז or אֲוָז.

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אוֹר Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. ōr; אור, or light (noun). Prefixing the preposition ל (lᵊ; to / for) forms לְאוֹר (lᵊ-or; to / for a light [of…]). See also ur.

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Ωριγενης [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Ō•ri•genæs; genus of Horus; Anglicized to Origen)

A Hellenist Egyptian gentile (Arab) born in Alexandria, Egypt (ca. 185—254 C.E.); Christian (Catholic) champion of Hellenism and refuter of Gnosticism in the foetal (64 C.E.—135 C.E.), proto-Christian Hellenist Gentile nascent Church; author of "On First Principles" and "Against Celsus." ("Origenes (1)," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," IV:96ff.). The supposition that this Hellenist champion was a Jew glosses over the fact that a Hellenist Jew was an apostate no better than any Hellenist gentile, and that the practice of Hellenism was intractably contradictory to the practice of Judaism.

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Orthodox Jew / JudaismPronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.08.16]

The Jewish Virtual Library defines the concept of Orthodox Judaism as widely accepted among Orthodox Jews:

"Orthodox Judaism is not a unified movement with a single governing body [emphasis added], but many different movements adhering to common principles. All of the Orthodox movements are very similar in their observance and beliefs, differing only in the details that are emphasized. They also differ in their attitudes toward modern culture and the state of Israel. They all share one key feature: a dedication to Torah, both Written and Oral.

"Historically, there was no such thing as Orthodoxy; in fact, you find the particular term is used primarily in North America (elsewhere the distinction is primarily between “more observant” and “less observant”). The specific term “Orthodox Judaism” is of rather recent origin and is used more as a generic term to differentiate the movements following traditional practices from the Liberal Jewish movements."

[Admitting many different opinions as knowledge and technology advance in a dynamic world,] "As practical questions arise, Orthodox authorities apply the Halachic [sic] process (the system of legal reasoning and interpretation described in the Oral Torah [emphasis added]) using the Torah (both Oral and Written) to determine how best to live in accordance with G-d's will. In this way, Orthodoxy evolves to meet the demands of the times. An excellent summary of the core beliefs of Orthodox Judaism may be found in the Rambam's 13 Principles of Faith [which is entirely compatible with the documented historical Nᵊtzâr•im].

"One of the hallmarks of Orthodox Jews is an openness (and encouragement) to question what it is that G-d requires of us, and then to answer those questions within the system that G-d gave us."

Distinction from, and contrast against, "Ultra-Orthodox" (including Kha•reid•im cults and the more positive, modern-Kha•sid•im, Khabad) differentiates the moderate-middle Orthodox Jews from the extremist, fanatical and sometimes cultist fringes. Orthodox Jews are those Jews whose practice defines them within ±2σ of the middle of the Orthodox Jewish community. Beyond the +2σ on the fanatic extreme fringe are the often-cultist Ultra-Orthodox sects while, beyond the -2σ at the opposite extreme lax fringe are the non-Orthodox sects. A priori, Orthodox excludes both fringe extremes alike. Ultra-Orthodox themselves corroborate this differentiation between themselves and Orthodox whom they regard as "lesser," "inferior"—even goy•im and worse—even racist discrimination against rival Ultra-Orthodox (e.g., Ash•kᵊnazim barring Sᵊphâ•râd•im girls from an Ultra-Orthodox girls' school).

The Israeli Ultra-Orthodox, Kha•reid•i, Ra•bân•ut (Rabbinate) Reform of the definition of a Jew is a very recent innovation defying, and claiming to overturn, the definition of Ha•lâkh•âh mi-Har Sin•ai.

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אוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.12.27]

masc . n. ōt, irreg. m.n. taking a fem. ending in the pl.: אוֹתוֹת (ōt•ōt); אות, ot an indicator-sign, signal, symbol, token, letter, portent, omen or augur – that can, but doesn't necessarily, exceed one's understanding of science and, in any case, cannot contradict the Perfect Physical Laws, authored by י‑‑ה, the Engine by which He governs His universe. For MH: "miracle," see נֵס (neis).

In Post-Biblical Hebrew, אוֹת came to mean a letter of the Hebrew âlëph-beit. There seems to be a cause-effect relationship between the connotation of a letter being an indicator-sign and the post-12th century CE Qabâlist idea of equating a perfect incantation of the word or phrase with the creation or appearance of a physical object – deriving from the Dark Ages (Tōr•âh prohibited!) supernatural magic belief that the saying. i.e., spoken word, brings a physical object into existence by its proper incantation, rather than the word merely representing it. This association influences much of the rabbinic view of incanting ("properly reciting," enchanting) "the (rabbinically) correct" prayers and blessings todaymore

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OT [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Calling the Judaic Bible the "Old Testament" begs the question of supersession and, therefore, Displacement Theology. In addition to being logically wrong (the logical fallacy of petitio principii), begging this question is offensive, or should be offensive, to Jews.

In addition to this logical fallacy—falsehood—of petitio principii, this offensive assumption also depends upon another logical fallacy: ad ignorantiam (shifting the burden of proof). No responsible scholar denies that Jews recognized the authority of Tōr•âh from the time of Har Sin•ai. Therefore, the burden of proof is upon anyone who alleges the polar change of rejecting Tor•âh. Such proof has never been offered because it never existed.

The Nᵊtzâr•im never changed their mind about it, maintaining that only the Jewish Ta•na"kh was Scripture and only their own The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) was a legitimate account of the life and teachings of Ribi Yᵊho•shua.

Nᵊtzâr•im haven't changed, and won't change.

Thus, for Jews, including the Nᵊtzâr•im, OT stands not for "Old Testament" but for "Original Torah." (See also Ta•na"kh and NT.)

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עוֹבַדְיָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ō•vad•yâh; עובדיה, Ovadyah "ëvëd of Y-h"; fourth of the twelve minor Nᵊviy•im in Ta•na"kh (Hellenized to 'Obadiah').

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פָּעַלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

pâ•al; פעל, paal action – also the imperfect transitive / active, verb bin•yân; also called קַל qal (simple, light[weight]); the active preterite transitive.

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פָּדָהָPronunciation Table [Updated: 2009.05.26]

pâd•âh; פדה, padah he ransomed, redeemed; modern verb "cash," as to cash (ransom, redeem) a check or coupon.

פּוֹדֶה (pod•ëh; he ransoms or redeems; he is ransomer or redeemer of…) found only in Dᵊvâr•imꞋ  13.6 and Tᵊhil•imꞋ  34.23. See also go•eilꞋ , often mistranslated as redeem or ransom.

See also Pi•dᵊyōn ha-Bein.

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פְתּוּתּPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.05.22]

Phᵊtūt;fetoot,fetut,phetoot,phetut a מְרַק Tei•mân•i; primarily a Pësakh commemoration of wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 2.5-6:

“(5) …it must be matz•âh. (6) פָּתוׂת it to be פִּתִּים, then you shall pour oil on it; it is a Mi•nᵊkh•âh.”

Non-Pësakh versions include bâ•sâr (beef, chicken or any bâ•sâr kâ•sheir) or khâ•lâv. But Pësakh stipulates that only meat that is roasted must be eaten—not boiled or stewed! Thus, for Pësakh (and since roasted bâ•sâr is required to be eaten), only the vegan version is permitted.

Pâ•qid Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu's Vegan פְתּוּתּ lᵊPësakh
In a bowl:
  • פָּתוׂת‎ 6 pieces machine matz•âh into פִּתִּים (crumble into 3-5 cm crumbs)

  • Dress the matz•âh with 2 Tbsp extra virgin olive oil

In a large, separate pot:  more
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Φυλιστῖνοι & Παλαιστῖνη [Updated: 2019.12.18]

Minoan-Mycenean Greek Linear A tablets fm Akrotiri BCE1800-eruption
Click to enlargeMinoan-Mycenean Greek Linear A tablets fm Akrotiri c. BCE 1800-

Πύλος-tine” (Philis-tine/​Pales-tine)פלישתים,פלישתין,פלשת,Pelishtim,Pelishtin,Peleshet,Paleban — the premier Aegean-Mediterranean “Sea People” Thalassocracy; of the ancient era, named their colony after their Hellenic Mycenaean-Greek city of “Πύλος, which morphed, via transliterations (and oc­ca­sion­al reinterpretation) into He­brew and other languages, as “Philistine”, and their Levant colony as “Palestine”.

The Philistines’ Hellenic Mycenaean-Greek pottery has long evi­denc­ed some previously unknown Philistine connection to Minoan-Greeks. Only recently, however, genetic re­search,    com­plemented by humanities-archaeologists’ recent excavations,  has surpassed pottery-based conjectures to clarify the Mycenaean (not Arab) roots of the Philistine’s previously “mysterious” origins.

These scientific findings have been occulted by the unprecedentedly audacious wave of contra-reality political claims of modern Arab-​”Palestinians” (a now-proven oxymoron). more

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Παπιας [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Pa•pias; pope, priest; Anglicized to Papias)

(Syrian Arab or Turk born in western Turkey in the early 2nd century, i.e., around 135 C.E.), a Hellenist Catholic bishop in the newly-born, infant Christian Hellenist Gentile Church in the interior (Phrygia) of northwestern Turkey, Papias is known only as filtered through the pen of Irenaeus (Haer. 5.33.4), "the earliest witness," filtered again through the pen of Eusebius (EH III.xxxix.1), who doubted any connection between Papias and "John" (EH III.xxxix.3-7). His name, deriving from an epithet meaning "Zeus the Savior," betrays his Hellenist Greek heritage and orientation. Yet, despite being intractably contradictory to them and separated from them by an entire generation, typical of the early Christian fabricators, he reportedly (according to Eusebius) fancifully claimed to have been a disciple of some of the original Nᵊtzâr•im. It is according to Papias that Eusebius records the first mention of the original Hebrew Matityahu. Concerning one of the stories of "St. John" (drinking poison unharmed), "it is likely to have been later than Papias, else we should have been apt to hear of it here." This suggests the true origin of the Greek "Gospel of St. John," which derives from that region of Turkey! ("Papias (1)," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," IV:185ff.)

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פָּקִידPronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2019.08.18]

masc . n. Pâ•qid, pl. פְּקִידִים (pᵊqid•im); Derived from פָּקַד.פקיד, פקידים, פדידינו, paqid, peqidim, p'qidim, Peqideinu, P'qideinu BH: one who musters people (for service, inspection, oversight, supervision, review, roll call, discipline, etc.); i.e. an overseer, foreman, auditor, checker, reviewer or monitor; one who revisits, reviews and monitors actions, decisions or incidents; roughly equivalent to a modern COO (chief operating officer). Cf. bᵊ-Reish•it 41.34; Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 25.19; Di•vᵊr•ei ha-Yâm•im Beit 31.13; Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 29.26; et al.

The office was usurped by gentile Roman Christians in 135 C.E., who Hellenized it to Ἐπίσκοπος and subsequently Vulgar-Latinized to ebiscopus (bishop and, retroactively Pope). This was the last time that Nᵊtzâr•im were correctly documented. MH: clerk.

Thus, unlike the title of Rabi (and "rabbeinu"), the title of Pâ•qid traces all the way back through Ta•na"kh to the time of Yo•seiph advising Par•oh to appoint pᵊqid•im; – 137 years before Mosh•ëh was born! The post-Biblical title, "Rabeinu," (our rabbi) is chronologically impossible, never based in the Bible and simply assumed by rabbis today. Rabbis didn't even come into existence until nearly 1½ millennia (1450 years) after Moses died!

Notice that for more than a century after the death of Ribi Yᵊho•shua—until between 142 and 168 C.E.—there were only Ἐπίσκοπος—no "popes" (a term that didn't evolve until the 3rd century C.E. when Hegesippus first Ἐποιησάμην [his retroactive] list of succession" of "popes"!!! more

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פָּרַעPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.10.19]

Pâr•a;פרעות,para,peraot (pa•al) entice or incite to go wild, feral, savage, go rogue; to dishevel, disarrange, make disorderly, incite to disorderliness, muss up. more

נִפְרַע niph•al

הִפְרִיעַ hiph•il

פֶּרַע (n. m.s.)

פְּרָעוׂת (n. f.p.)

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פָּרָה אֲדֻמָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.03.24]

American Red Brangus Grand Champion Heifer, 2012 Houston Livestock Show & Rodeo
Click to enlargePâr•âh Adūm•âh

fem. n. Pâr•âh Adūm•âh (fem. of פַּר); פרה אדמה, פרה אדומה, הפרה האדמה, הפרה האדומה, Parah Adumah red-clay-colored cow, chestnut cow, popularly the "Red Heifer." However, "red" refers to "clay-red," not cartoon red. Vide סמליות הפרה האדומה / 'Red Heifer' Finally Explained.

Before there was paper money, checks, credit cards or banks, a par served as a donation, or payment of a court-imposed fine, equal in today’s currency (2019), to approx. ₪18,000 or U.S. $5,000.

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PR aA, the Great Temple

Ideogram: Temple, Palace, Hall, house; Phonogram: consonants PR Ideogram: unknown, meaning ''great''; Phonogram: consonants aA Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.12.29]

Paroh Khat-shepset Keruv (ca. BCE 1504-1483; ancient-egypt.co.uk, Metropolitan Museum)
Click to enlargePar•ōh Khât-shepset Kᵊruv (ca. BCE 1504-1483; ancient-egypt.co.uk, Metropolitan Museum)

PRaA (Egyptian; Hebraized to פַּרעֹה (Parōh), Angli­cized to Pharaoh; lit. "The Great Temple").

Similar to the "White House" today, the PRaA (Parōh; Great Temple) became a meto­nym for the ruler who occupied the PRaA, the personifica­tion of the PRaA.פרעה, Paroh

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פָּרֹכֶתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.11.15]

Mishkan Qodesh & Qodesh ha-Qadashim diagram)
Click to enlargeMi•shᵊkân diagram, showing Pâ•rōkhët (Descriptions © 2019 Pâ•qid Yirmeyahu Ben-David)

fem. n. Pâ•rōkhët; פרכת, פרוכת, parokhet curtain.

Mishkan Ohel-Moeid (Timna C. Frank Starmer)
Click to enlarge Mi•shᵊkân Ōhël Mō•eid (Timna C. Frank Starmer)

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פָּסוּקPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.11.17]

masc . n. pâ•sūq, פסוקים, פוסקים, פסקים, פיסקא, פסקא, pasuq, pesuqim, p'suqim, pesaqim, p'saqim, poseiq, posqim, pesaqim, p'saqim, pisqa verse, paragraph; pl. פְּסוּקִים (pᵊsūq•im), masc. pl. connective -פְּסוּקֵי (pᵊsūq•ei-…; verses of…;.

פָּסוּק derives from the root verb פָּסַק (pâ•saq; he cleaved, split, divided, apportioned or assigned). This was understood among Hellenist Jews as the verb κρινω or noun κριτης.

Probably consequently, in Medieval Hebrew, this verb refers to making a halakhic ruling.

פּוֹסֵק (pō•seiq; codifying, deciding), plural is פּוֹסְקִים (pō•sᵊq•im) — medieval term for sho•phᵊt•im of a Beit-Din; this pret. pres. masc. sing. form also being used as a verbal noun to refer to the person making the ruling — i.e., MH codifier [he who is codifying]; NH decider [he who is deciding] — Klein's p. 498). This was understood among Greek-speaking Hellenist Jews as an ηγεμων.

פְּסָק (pl. פְּסָקִים) or פְּסָק-דִין, from the Aramaic פִּסְקָא — the ruling(s) handed down by פּוֹסְקִים.

Titles have changed over time, reflecting acculturation and assimilation in various eras and regions of the Diaspora. However, י‑‑ה being Immutable, the underlying Basis and Authority dictating every legitimate and valid halakhic ruling can never change. The actual Authority has always been the Rules of י‑‑ה: applied, mathematically-precise הִגָּיוֹן reflecting the Author(ity) of His universe; reality, not some human-confabulated mortal, political and often secular-conferred pō•seiq!

The Core Authority is the הִגָּיוֹן of י‑‑ה, not the mortal who happens to vocalize it. In today's modern world of scientific technological advances at an exponentially increasing rate, coupled with the internet dispersing knowledge to everyone, הִגָּיוֹן itself, the only Authoritative halakhic Ruler, becomes accessible to every person—heralding the prophesied advent in which teacher-clerics and ruling-clerics are superseded by הִגָּיוֹן itself, and every person can wield Authority solely according to whether (s)he pō•seiq Tōr•âh as interpreted within the constraints of the הִגָּיוֹן of י‑‑ה.

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παθος [Updated: 2011.04.01]

(pathos); Anglicized to pathos.

emotion; defined by Aristotle as argument appealing to emotion (demagoguery or ignoratio elenchi) in contrast to λογος = argument from reason and εθος (ethos) = argument based on morality.

Christians have exaggerated παθος to "passion" and, from there, to πασχω (paskhō; to suffer agony) and, from there, to πασχα (paskha; amplified to the "paskhal–suffering, agony, passion–sacrifice"–displacing the Hebrew פֶּסַח and Aramaic פִּסחָא (Pis•khâ; in Tar•gum Onᵊqᵊlos), meaning skip-over, bypass, pass-over.

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Παῦλος[Updated: 2013.09.27]

b. שָׁאוּל ca. 3 C.E. — d. Παῦλος ca. 67 C.E.

A Hellenist Turk Jew (from Tarsus, modern Turkey), Shâ•ul was, according to his own testimony, raised in the tradition of Beit-Sham•ai (Πραξεις Αποστολων 26.5), which predominated the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol until ca. 20 C.E. It wasn't until the 4th-5th century C.E. that Jerome alleged, probably to create a fictional proximity to Ribi Yᵊho•shua, that Paul's family was originally from the Gâ•lil instead of Turkey.

Considering his rabidly Hellenist career, the 4th century C.E. Hellenist Christian claim (Πραξεις Αποστολων 22.3), that Shâ•ul, a Hellenist Roman citizen from Turkey, studied directly under Nâ•si Ribi Ja•mᵊl•iy•eil (of Beit Hi•leil, not Beit-Sham•ai) suggests yet another 2nd-4th century, impossibly contradictory redaction. The product of the rigid teachings of Beit-Sham•ai is exemplified in the rebel spirit it provoked in Shâ•ul, richly preparing him for his eventual "theophany"; his extreme swing from the rigidness of Beit-Sham•ai to the liberal "vision" of eclectic and inclusive Hellenism (in the tradition of Yᵊho•shua Bën-Shim•on (II) Bën-Tzâ•doq – the original Ko•hein -Rësha cited in the Dead Sea Scrolls). Glossed by the Church, his assimilation into eclectic Hellenist liberalism led inexorably to his kâ•reit from the Nᵊtzâr•im (Eccl. Hist. III.xxvii.4), being "delivered over to the khein of י‑‑ה by the brothers" (Πραξεις Αποστολων 15.38)—after which (translations gloss) he is never again referred to as Jewish שָׁאוּל, thereafter only as Hellenist Παῦλος, the Apostate! more

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פֵּאוֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. pei•ōt; פאה, פאות, peiah, peah, peiyot, peiot edges.

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Πέλλα [Updated: 2011.04.03]


Click to enlargeΠελλα (Pella) – one of the Decapolis, in present-day Jordan, 13km (8mi) SE of בֵּית שְׁאָן (then Scythopolis).

Pella or Phei•khal, now Khirbet Fahil (Phakhil); Hellenist Roman city of the Decapolis ("Ten Cities"; in red on map) with forum, public baths, a nymphaeum, and a small theater (odeum). The archeological site is located about 4 km (2.5 mi.) east of Nᵊhar ha-Yar•dein and 27 km (17 mi.) south of Yâm Ki•nërët.

See also First Century Christian Flight To Pella.

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פֶּרֶקPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. përëq; פרקי אבות, pereq, pirqei avot episode, chapter

פִּרְקֵי אָבוֹת (pl. of אַב): Ma•sëkët Âv•ōt + Ch. 8 (Vilna ed.) of Ma•sëkët Khal•âh — the complete encyclopedia of Tōr•âh source-principles.

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פְּרִיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.09.21]

Tree fruits

irreg. n. (m.s./​f.p.) pᵊri; פרי, פרות, peri, p'ri, peirot fruit (m.s. and m.s. combinative form: fruit of…); pl. פֵּרוֹת (peir•ōt; fruits) and pl. comb. form פֵּרֵי (peir•ei; fruits of…).

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פְּרוּשִׁיPronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2020.05.14]

masc . n. Pᵊrūsh•i, pl. פְּרוּשִׁים‎ —פרושים, פרשה,פרושה, פרשות, parashah, parashot, Perushim, P'rushim, peirushah BH:

  • Transitive: a parser, one who parses (differentiates as distinct; distinguishes; explains or clarifies Ha•vᵊdâl•âh; one who complies with Ha•vᵊdâl•âh; separates out or apart from),

  • Intransitive: someone or something parsed as distinct or distinguished apart or separate; discerned as Ha•vᵊdâl•âh compliant.

MH: a parsed "meaning; explanation, interpretation, gloss, annotation, comment, or commentar­y." In fact, the English "parse" traces back "from Latin pars 'a part, piece'", likely to this Hebrew root!

Not until a longstanding Judaic-Hellenist schism finally exploded in B.C.E. 175, did the "parsers" (Pᵊrush•im) finally "parse themselves apart" from the Hellenist Tzᵊdoq•im. The term "Pᵊrush•im" was subsequently Hellenized in LXX, as Φαρισαῖος, ("Pharisee"). more

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פֶּסַחPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.06.06]

Click to enlargePësakh Seidër Table, Tei•mân•i Style

masc . n. Pësakh; פסח, Pesakh skip-over, bypass, pass-over. Pësakh consists of the Pësakh Seidër (Pësakh liturgy) at dusk, as sunset approaches, on the 14th of Firstmonth (assimilated to Babylonian "Nisan").

Pësakh also refers to the Pësakh sacrifice, which may be either a טָלֶה or a גְּדִי.

Note: Pësakh is one day only! The seven day festival, which begins with and subsumes Pësakh, is Khag ha-Matz•ōt—the Khag of the Firstfruits of Barley harvest.

On the first Pësakh, c B.C.E. , the life of the family’s firstborn male depended on killing the Pësakh טָלֶה or גְּדִי and smearing its dâm on the mᵊzuz•âh, so that the Mi•tzᵊrayim soldiers, carrying out the order of Par•ōh (i.e. that everyone in Mi•tzᵊrayim must kill their firstborn son) would see the blood and assume the firstborn son in that home had been killed. This is how Yi•sᵊr•â•eil was Pësakh in the “Tenth Plague”.

Today, the kâ•sheir shō•kheit readies the meat for the grill. Yi•sᵊr•â•eil commemorates this neis by eating טָלֶה or גְּדִי in the Seidër—which must be roasted/​grilled only. Don’t buy more than can be eaten in one meal, since it must all be finished before midnight. See also qârᵊbân more

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פֶּשַׁעPronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.06.30]

masc . n. pësha; פשעים, פושע, פושעים, peshaim, p'shaim, posheia, poshim willful, deliberate, intentional and felonious transgression against Tōr•âh; pl. פְּשָׁעִים (pᵊshâ•im). Contrast with kheit and â•won.

Cognates: פּוֹשֵׁעַ (pō•sheia; willfully, deliberately, intentionally and feloniously transgressing against Tōr•âh), pl. פּוֹשְׁעִים (pō•shᵊim).

Contrast with the completely unrelated proper verb for "rebel": מָרַד. While a willful transgression is rebellious, there is a difference in meaning; the verbs are neither identical nor always interchangeable.

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פְּשִׁיטָאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.12.29]

Peshiteta (late 5th century, schoyencollection.com)

irreg. n. (Aramaic/​Syriac; f.s./​m.p.) Pᵊshi•tâ, explanation, commentary; פשיטא, Peshita, Peshitta, P'shit'ta(c 300-399 C.E.) version of the Καινής Διαθήκης.

Although Ma•titᵊyâhu was originally written in Hebrew,   analysis of theistic names and other factors demonstrate that the Pᵊshi•tᵊ•tâ was translated from Greek, not an originally Aramaic work.

In the original Hebrew, there are several different titles / names for Ël•oh•im. These are always differentiated in Hebrew and Aramaic when quoting from the Ta•na"kh (or the Tar•jum).

In the Greek, by contrast, these are all expressed by only two terms, corresponding either to θεος or κυριος. Despite Aramaic's richness in paralleling of names and titles, the Pᵊshi•tᵊ•tâ follows the Greek pattern, unlike original Aramaic and Hebrew texts. The richness of the Aramaic has, with certainty, been funneled and filtered through Hellenized limitations of understanding, translating one of the two Greek concepts.

The only reasonable explanation is that the Pᵊshi•tᵊ•tâ was translated from a Greek (or possibly Latin a-3) text. The Pᵊshi•tᵊ•tâ, most certainly, does not reflect a pristine Aramaic text. Being a second-generation product of an earlier Greek text, the Pᵊshi•tᵊ•tâ is even less reliable than the earliest Greek mss. This back-translation is paralleled by both the modern rewrite of the Greek text (Textus Receptus) to corroborate the KJ/V as well as the modern Hebrew translation of the NT, which is the product of some modern evangelist-to-Jews Christian organization (probably hiring an Israeli) translating the KJ/V Roll eyes into Hebrew (by unidentified translators) as the"הַברית הַחדשה"

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פְּשָׁטPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.09.25]

masc . n. pᵊshât; פשט, peshat, p'shat simple, plain meaning; by extension literal, said of plain, literal reading of Scripture. Conversational usage: פָּשׁוּט (pâ•shūt; [it's] simple).

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פְּסִיקְתָּאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. (Aramaic) Pᵊsiqᵊtâ; פסיקתא, פסקתא, pesiqta, p'siqtaapportionment, agreement to pay (especially a dowry). PBH cleaving, halakhic ruling (see pâ•sūq) refers specifically to several Mi•dᵊrâsh•im on Tōr•âh

  • פְּסִיקְתָא דְרַב כַּהֲנָא (Pᵊsiqtâ dᵊ-Rav Ka•hanâ), the oldest—5th century C.E.,

  • פְּסִיקְתָא רַבָּתִי (Pᵊsiqtâ Rab•âti; large cleaving), 9th century C.E. and

  • פְּסִיקְתָא זוֹטַרתִּי (Pᵊsiqtâ Zo•tarti; small cleaving) or פְּסִיקְתָא זוּטַרתָּא (Pᵊsiqtâ Zu•tarti), 11th century C.E.

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פֶּתַחPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.07.21]

masc . n.pëtakh;פתח,petakh opening, doorway, entrance. See also dëlët and shaar.

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פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.03.06]

Click to enlargeTa•lit with Tzitz•it with pᵊtil tᵊkheilët, tied Nō•sakh Tei•mân•i

masc . n. pᵊtil tᵊkheilët; פתיל תכלת, petil tekheilet, petil tekhelet, p'til t'kheilet, p'til t'khelet a string of indigo, required to be included in tzitz•it (bᵊ-Mid•bar 15.38). Bar-Kokh's soldiers, under the mentoring of Rabbi A•qi, used kela ilan—dye from the indigo plant; the original color of Levi jeans ("Tekhelet," EJ, 15:913-14).

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PG [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Patrologia Graeca, Migne

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Φιλων [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Philōn; Anglicized to Philo)

Diaspora Hellenist Jew and philosopher in Alexandria, Egypt (b. ca. B.C.E. 20—50 C.E.). Some hypothesize that Yᵊho•shua Bën-Yo•seiph, while a boy in Egypt becoming learned in Greek and mastering Aristotelian analytics (logic, מִידּוֹת) and dialectics (debate, פִּלְפּוּל), may also have studied under Φιλων; though later he became a tal•mid of Ja•mᵊl•iy•eil).

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כְּנַעַן & Phoenician nunPhoenician ayinPhoenician nunPhoenician kaph [Updated: 2017.09.25]

masc . n. Kᵊna•an; כנען, Kenaan, K'naan, Kᵊnaan Phoenician Hebrew & Modern Hebrew), Hellenized-Anglicized to Canaan

Click to enlargeMap: Israel ca. B.C.E. 1000

Macedonian-Greek—first migration—"Sea People" attempted, with only partial success, to settle in the Egyptian Delta and, with great success, colonized the Mediterranean coast from modern Turkey south through Lebanon. Thus, the Phoenicians, long predating the birth of Yi•shᵊmâ•eil, the first Arab, are probably DNA-related to the ancient Macedonian-Greeks, certainly not Arabs.

DNA sampling suggests that the Phoenicians are roughly synonymous with today's Lebanese.

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פִּדיוֹן הַבֵּןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n.Pid•yōn ha-Bein; פדיון הבן, פידיון הבן, Pidyon ha-Bein, Pidyon ha-Ben, Pidyon haBenransom of the first-born-son (5 silver coins to a kō•hein) — reminiscent of the sparing of the son at the A•qeid•âh.

Aqeidah, sacrifice of the Ayil (ram)
Click to enlargeA•qeid•âh (incognizant surreal finger­painting by Yâ•eil in 1990 – at 4 years old). Hover cursor over figures to dis­play explanations.
Pidyon ha-Ben
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פִעֵלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

pi•eil; פיעל, pieil, piel intensive-causative verb bin•yân; transitive / active.

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פִּלְפּוּלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2009.11.10]

black pepper cornshot chili peppers

masc . n. pil•pūl;פלפול, פילפול, pilpulpeppering (פִּלְפֵּל [pil•peil] is pepper). Used metonymically of clever (wise-ass, gotcha) casuistry and heated, toxic polemics; i.e. peppery argu­mentation.

Notice that the rabbinic meaning – and direction – differs markedly from Aristotelian dialectics and debate; and differs even further from modern mathematically-precise logic—which near-illiterate Ultra-Orthodox Kha•reid•im rabbis smugly and superciliously dismiss as Hellenist (i.e. goy•im) Epikoros.

This error is the first of the two pillars of rabbinic evolution that have caused Ultra-Orthodox Kha•reid•im rabbis to rely on, and become over-skilled in pil•pūl (pillar 1) while simultaneously adamantly refusing education in mathematics and science – thereby becoming bereft of logic and disconnected from the real world (pillar 2). Consequently, European Dark Ages, anti-science Church-like, illiterate-by-choice Ultra-Orthodox Kha•reid•im rabbis have led, and continue to lead, many Jews toward Qa•bâl•âh mythology, far astray – in the opposite direction – from the Omniscient Logic and reality of Tōr•âh.

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פִּקּוּחַ נֶפֶשׁPronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.09.04]

masc . n. pi•qūakh nëphësh; פקוח נפש, פיקוח נפש, piquakh nephesh, piquakh nefesh cognizance (overseeing, supervising) of the psyche, i.e. saving an endangered soul / life from any reasonably perceived threat; i.e., a medical emergency.

There are three categories of violation for which pi•qūakh nëphësh does not apply and one must choose martyrdom rather than commit any of these three categories of violation (Ma•sëkët Sunedrion 74a-b):

  1. a•vod•âh zâr•âh,

  2. illegitimate sexual violations, or

  3. murder (which includes lᵊshon hâ-, murdering someone's reputation).

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פִּתָּהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.08.24]

Pitah Iraqit (haShipudia)
Pitâh I•raq•it (ha-Shipudia Restaurant, Yᵊru•shâ•layim)

fem. n. Pitâh (popularly spelled "pita"), derives from Hellenist Greek πίτα, displacing BH: צַפִּיחִית – flatbread.פיתה, pitah

The most authentic today, both to Har Sin•ai and the 1st century CE, is Pitâh I•raq•it – from the land of Av•râ•hâm; which makes this style an Israeli family recipe virtually identical to the Israeli צַפִּיחִית in Har Sin•ai.

To make your own Pitâh I•raq•itmore

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'Pizza Process' [Updated: 2006.04.27]

A hybrid of the "salami negotiating tactic" combined with the blood-shedding of terrorism.

The "salami tactic" is a well-known negotiating tactic by which one side extracts a slice at a time until they have taken the entire salami.

The 'Palestinian' Arabs call their salami tactic their "plan of phases," by which they intend to take whatever they can get, applying terrorism whenever convenient, slice by slice, until the "holy Islamic middle east" has been "ethnically cleansed" of Jews. Using human bombs, Arabs turn our streets into a grisly pizza of Jewish blood and body parts. Their 'Salami Tactic' is more accurately a grisly 'Pizza Tactic' for acquiring "all of 'Palestine'" (as they call Israel) a grisly pizza-slice at a time through terrorist warfare.

With a wink to Arab terrorists, the world pervertedly calls blowing up Jews a "peace process." 'Palestinians' get the peace —plus land, money, and employment —while Israel and Jews get a war of terror, a grisly 'Pizza Process', and nearly unanimous condemnation by the UN for resisting this wonderful opportunity to go like sheep to our slaughter like we did in the Holocaust.

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𝔓n (or P-n) [Updated: 2012.04.07]

𝔓1, …, 𝔓25, … 𝔓64, …; papyrus fragments.

Though obviously Hellenized, being in Greek, the papyri fragments represent the earliest sources of tiny parts of the NT and The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English). Despite their antiquity, there is little evidence to suggest that papyri should be regarded as authoritative. Their authorship and usage may signify nothing more than the recall of Greek-speaking Roman (pagan) students of apostate Hellenist Jews. Consequently, one might incline toward א and even β in preference to a given papyrus.

Yet, things aren't so simple. We can see that misojudaism antinomian (anti-Tōr•âh; in concert with misojudaic attitudes) increased with the passage of time among those who exercised control over the mss. Consider graphing time on an x-axis and increasing antinomianism on the y-axis. The earlier we can view this text in terms of time (the x-axis), the lower the point at which we can intercept the antinomian curve on the y-axis. This minimizes the antinomian distortion and misojudaism in the text.

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Πολυκαρπος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Po•lukar•pos; Anglicized to Polycarp)

b. ca. 70 C.E., Greek-speaking Hellenist who, ca. 110 C.E., became bishop of an isthmus (Smyrna) jutting into the Aegean Sea from western Turkey during the late-foetal (64 C.E.—135 C.E.), proto-Christian Hellenist Gentile Church and claimed to know one "apostle"—"St. John." Because he held office for such a long tenure and became so venerated, the popular belief arose that he had been "a hearer of St. John" and had received his "episcopate" from "St. John." This, despite his Hellenist and seething misojudaism orientation (denouncing those—predomnantly Jews—who rejected his Hellenist Christian Church as "the firstborn of Sâ•tân" and blaming his martyrdom primarily on "the Jews") while being intractably contradictory to the Nᵊtzâr•im—who recognized only the Pâ•qid and Beit-Din ha-Nᵊtzâr•im in Yᵊru•shâ•layim.

"Our knowledge of the life of Polycarp between the date of his letter and his martyrdom is almost entirely derived from three notices by Irenaeus" "During the later years of his life Gnostic speculation had become very active, and many things unknown to the faith of ordinary Christians were put forth as derived by secret traditions from the apostles." The same must be stated of claims made by other gentiles that their Hellenist traditions were derived from the "apostles." ("Polycarpus (1)," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," IV:423ff.)

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Pseudepigrapha [Updated: 2006.05.26]

The editor of The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (Garden City: Doubleday 1983, Vol. I, p. xxiii), James H. Charlesworth, defines "the Pseudepigrapha as follows: Those writings

  1. that, with the exception of Ahiqar, are Jewish or Christian;
  2. that are often attributed to ideal figures in Israel's past;
  3. that customarily claim to contain [God]'s word or message;
  4. that frequently build upon ideas and narratives present in the Old Testament [sic];
  5. and that almost always were composed either during the period [B.C.E. 200] to [200 C.E.] or, though late, apparently preserve, albeit in an edited form, Jewish traditions that date from that period."

– "…to call the Pseudepigrapha 'non-canonical,' or the biblical books 'canonical,' can be historically inaccurate prior to [100 C.E.] and the period in which most of these documents were written. These terms should be used as an expression of some later 'orthodoxy' about a collection that is well defined regarding what belongs within and what is to be excluded from it. It is potentially misleading to use the terms 'non-canonical,' 'canonical,' 'heresy,' and 'orthodoxy' when describing either Early Judaism or Early Christianity" (Charlesworth, p. xxiv).

However, the above statement is misleading without noting Charlesworth's earlier acknowledgment of the earlier compilation of Ta•na"kh (p. xxiii), "it is becoming obvious that the process of canonization began long before the first century [C.E.], and that perhaps the earliest part of the Bible, the [Torah], had been closed and defined as authoritative well before the second century [B.C.E.], and the Prophets surely by that time. On the other hand, it is clear that after [90 C.E.] there were still debates regarding the canonicity of such writings as the Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, and Esther, but it is not clear what were the full ramifications of these debates. It seems to follow, therefore, both that the early Pseudepigrapha were composed during a period in which the limits of the canon apparently remained fluid at least to some Jews [namely, the Hellenists, who can be dismissed], and that some [i.e., Hellenist] Jews and [Hellenist] Christians inherited and passed on these documents as inspired. They did not necessarily regard them as apocryphal, or outside a canon."

The Dead Sea Scrolls are customarily considered a separate class, and excluded, from the Pseudepigrapha or Apocrypha.

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פֻּעַלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

pu•al; פועל, pual intensive-passive intransitive verb bin•yân.

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Q [Updated: 2009.04.23]

(Quell; source {German}).

Hypothesized source document supposedly used as the basis for later Christians to compose the Christian "gospels."

More accurately, Q represents a synthesis of the earliest (post-135 CE) Hellenized oral accounts—stories and myths—of Hellenist (i.e., Greek-speaking) Jews to the Hellenist, gentile, Roman Christians.

Unsurprisingly, the Hellenist product supports Paul's Hellenist Christianity, leaving precious little authentic Judaic content.

It can be seen from the historical record that the Hebrew Ma•tit•yâhu, documented by Eusebius, in contrast to Q, would have been a thoroughly Judaic description uncontaminated by Hellenism / Christianity. However, pointing to a few, sparse, Judaic elements in the heavily Hellenist-redacted "gospels" as "Q" ignores the many Hellenizing redactions that, when restored to their Judaic original, produces a far fuller and richer account. This can be achieved only by threading back from the NT Greek, matching it to LXX Greek to restore a Tōr•âh-faithful Hebrew Ma•tit•yâhuexactly what The Nᵊtzârim Reconstruction of Matityâhu, alone, has achieved.

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קַבָּלָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2009.01.20]

fem. n. Qa•bâl•âh; קבלה, Qabalah, Qaballah "received," popularly (but incorrectly) spelled 'Kabbalah,' "is the traditional and most commonly used term for the esoteric teachings of Judaism and for Jewish mysticism, especially the forms that it assumed in the Middle Ages since the 12th century" ("Kabbalah," Ency. Jud., 10.489).

"The most famous work of Qa•bâl•âh, the Zohar. was revealed to the Jewish world in the thirteenth century by Moses De Leon ["Shem Tov"; Castile, Spain], who claimed that the book contained the mystical writings of the second-century rabbi [Shim•on Bar Yo•khai (post-135 C.E.)]. Almost all modern Jewish academic scholars believe that De Leon himself authored the Zohar" (Jewish Virtual Library) [emphasis added].

The Ram•ba"m vehemently opposed the irrational superstition and mysticism that his fellow countryman, De Leon, developed, a century later, into Qa•bâl•âh. more

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קָדַשׁPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.02.25]

Qâ•dash; intrans. v.קדש, קידש, qadash, qideish was sanctified/​consecrated as dësh; especially as a sacred, holy sacrifice; thereupon assigned as property of י‑‑ה and, consequently, forbidden to others or for any khōl purpose.

קִדֵּשׁ (qi•deish); pi•eil (trans. v.) — to sanctify/​consecrate as dësh.

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קַדִּישׁPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Qa•dish, pl. קַדִּישִׁים/ן (qa•dish•im/n); קדישים, קדישין, Qadishim, qadishin PBH adj. & n.; holy, sacred (as defined in Tōr•âh); title of liturgical tᵊphil•âh sanctifying י‑‑ה in days of bereavement.

Conventionally anglicized (Hellenized) to "Kaddish." Contrary to more than a few ignorant Jews, the Qa•dish is not, nor has it ever been, a prayer for the dead!

Like most Judaic Tᵊphil•ot, the Qa•dish received its name due to its opening phrase:

יִתְגַּדַּל וְיִתְקַדַּשׁ שְׁמֵיהּ רַבָּא (yit•ga•dal wᵊ-yitqa•dash shᵊm•ei rab•â; may be magnified and may be sanctified His Great Name).

There are four versions of this tᵊphil•âh: Complete Qa•dish, Half Qa•dish, Scholar's Qa•dish and Mourner's Qa•dish. The overriding purpose of each is to sanctify י‑‑ה. The mourners' version (Mourner's Qa•dish) sanctifies י‑‑ה even in the face of great sorrow and mourning. It contains not even a remote hint of any prayer for the dead.

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קָדוֹשׁPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.05.29]

masc . n. (mn & adj.) Qâ•dōsh; pl. קְדֹשִׁיםקדושים, qadosh, ha-Qadosh, haQadosh, qedoshim, q'doshim – consecrated, sanctified, holy

  • (n.) an epitome, manifestation, exemplification or quintessence of holy/​holiness;

  • (adj.) holy;

  • (pl. n. & adj.) קְדוֹשִׁים; perverted, via LXX, sometimes to "saints" ("holy ones") and "holies" ("holy things"). The perversion of this theme by Hellenist syncretism is most conspicuously in the correspondence, via LXX, to αγιος (agios; dedicated to the idol-gods). See also The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 1.18.7.

קָדוֹשׁ distinguishes the primary orientation to י‑‑ה and His incorporeal Realm, lᵊ‑ha•vᵊdil the profane/​material world, variously distinguishing one or more "holy":

  1. nᵊphâsh•ot (beings),

  2. a•vod•âh (efforts, service) or

  3. essential appurtenances

הַקָּדוֹשׁ (ha-Qâ•dosh; the Holy [Being]), i.e., י‑‑ה, invariably followed by the phrase בָּרוּך הוּא (bâ•rūkh ; blessed be He). Referring to any other as "His Holiness" is idolatry.

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קָמַץPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.08]

masc . n. qâmatz; קמץ, qamatz T-shaped "aw" vowel located beneath a consonant.

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קְדֻשָּׁה (alt. קְדוּשָּׁה)Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.10.03]

fem. n. Qᵊdūsh•âh; קדשה, קדושה, qedushah, q'dushah PBH f.n. – holiness, sanctity; title of 3rd tᵊphil•âh of A•mid•âh; MH: title of bᵊrâkh•ōt prefixed before 3rd tᵊphil•âh of A•mid•âh, namely: "Qâ•dōsh, Qâ•dōsh, Qâ•dōsh."

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קְהִלָּה / קָהָלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.05.29]

fem. n. Qᵊhil•âh & Qâ•hâl; קהלה, קהילה, qehilah, q'hilah, qahal community & convocation (summoned-congregation, appointed-assembly, invited-audience), respectively. The connective form of qᵊhil•âh is קְהִלַּת- (qᵊhil•at; community of…). The plural is קְהִלּוֹת (qᵊhil•ot).

Hellenized to εκκλησια (ekkleisia; congress, corrupted to "church").

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קֵץPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.08.20]

masc . n. qeitz; קץ, qeitz, qetz cut-off, termination; a non-routine end. קֵץ derives from the verb קָצַץ (qâtz•atz), meaning "chop off." A synonym, סוֹף (soph), translates more accurately as "end." Another synonym for "end," כָּל (kal, all, finish, end), found in Dân•i•eil, is used as a verb in the sense of "that's all," "finish up" or "end it."

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קְרֵיPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.09.14]

qᵊrei (conj.); קרי, qerei, q'rei"recited" form of a questionable word in Tōr•âh; as contrasted against the kᵊtiv form.

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קִרְיָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.08.01]

fem. n. qi•rᵊyâh; קריה, qiryahtown; combinative form: …קִרְיַת (qi•rᵊyat… -town).

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קֶרֶןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.10.06]

qeren dawn sunrise rays
Dawn qᵊrân•ōt

fem. n. Qërën (irreg. f. n.),קרן,qeren dual קַרְנַים, pl. קְרָנוֹת; a ray or beam that radiates outward; especially, the horn of an animal radiating from its head; also a sun beam or a ray of light.

Mizbeiakh Tel Beer-Sheva, reconstruction. (photo: Dr. Avishai Teicher, Pikiwiki, Israel)
Click to enlarge4-Qᵊrân•ōt Mi•zᵊbeiakh Tël Bᵊeir Shëva – reconstructed from original remnants. Original was probably hollow, housing an oven for a fire and equipped with a copper grate to support the sacrificial meat being grilled. The Mi•zᵊbei­akh of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh was copper-plated (photo: Dr. Avishai Teicher, Pikiwiki, Israel)

A qërën was featured on each corner of the Mi•zᵊbeiakh and, depicted as a cantillation symbol, the qërën also came to modify how a Hebrew letter is pronounc­ed.more

Shophar (ayal-ram)

From the shō•phâr (ram’s horn), the term was extended to musical horns and, more recently, the cornucopia—from which, by extension, qërën accreted the connotation of a financial fund.

Mōsh•ëh’s “Horns”
keraunographic lightning tree fern-leaf feathering
Click to enlargeKeraunographic rays, or beams (arborescent erythema)—radiating from a lightning strike — often temporary (lasting a few days), fern-leaf feathering tree following epidermal blood vessels. (photo NBC)

Radiating rays or beams of light, often particularly prominent at dawn and dusk, could only be depicted by early artists and sculptors as radiating lines, beams, rays or striations—qᵊrân•ōt (e.g., extending from the crown of the modern Statue of Liberty).

Qërën derives from the verb that Ta•na"kh used to describe Mōsh•ëh’s face when he descended from Har Sin•ai — “the skin of his face קָרַן”. This phenomenon was likely the result of being struck by lightning in a storm while on the mountaintop — synonymous with “seeing” the Face of י‑‑ה in one verse seemingly contradicted just a few verses later by seeing the Face of י‑‑ה being declared impossible. When Medieval European painters and sculptors, mystified by the phrase, depicted Mōsh•ëh with the “the skin of his face קָרַן” (“horned”), they echoed their predominant European culture of miso-Judaism—giving him the horns of Hât-Hōr instead of a radiating tree of lightning burns.

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קִדּוּשׁPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.05.02]

masc . n.Qidush cup, pewter (tarnish resist) with easy-clean plastic linerQi•dūshקדושין, Qidushin — verbal m.n.; BH: acknowledging as sacred and holy; consecrating and sanctifying to be used solely for holy and sacred purpose. PBH: the invocation of a bᵊrâkh•âh acknowledging sacredness and holiness; consecration, sanctification, a consecrating or sanctifying; especially the bᵊrâkh•âh over products of the grapevine, including grape wine or grape juice, and typically followed by a festive banquet dinner (or symbolic light brunch). more

masc . n. קִדּוּשִׁין (Aramaic m.p.) – sanctifications; especially, in later usage, of marriage that is in accordance with Tōr•âh.

'קִדּוּשׁ ה — contrasted against lᵊ-hav•dil & khi•lūl ha-Sheim — form counter-balancing pillars, sanctification versus diminution of the Kâ•vōd of ha-Sheim, constituting one of the most significant concepts in Tōr•âh, based on wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 22.31-32.

Two orientations or perspectives apply to each of the aforementioned two counter-balancing pillars: ha-Sheim-originating and mortal-originating e.g., bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbar 20.12; Dᵊvâr•im 32.51; wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 22.32; Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 34.16; •mōs 2.7).

According to rabbinic interpretation, Qi•dūsh ha-Sheim could be consummated in three ways: [1] martyrdom, [2] exemplary ethical and moral conduct and [3] tᵊphil•ōtall of which are limited by mortal fallibility, failing to rise to the capability to make anyone or anything holy.

Two formal tᵊphil•ōt of the si•dūr stand out in this respect: the Qᵊdūsh•âh and the Qa•dish. The Qᵊdūsh•âh is based on Yᵊsha•yâhu 6.1-3. The more esoteric recitation, preceding the Shᵊm•a, refers to the sanctification of י‑‑ה by the ma•lᵊâkh•im, while the recitation in the A•mid•âh is the formal acknowledgment by Yi•sᵊr•â•eil proclaiming the Holiness of ha-Sheim.

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קְלָףPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Teimani mezuzah qlaph

masc . n. Qᵊlaph; קלף, qelaph, q'laph, qelaf, q'lafparchment, especially handwritten parchment for a mᵊzuz•âh.

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קֹדֶשׁ (alt. קוֹדֶשׁ)Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.10.03]

masc . n. m.n. dësh,קדשים, קודש, qodesh, qadashim pl. קָדָשִׁים, from קָדַשׁ; the state of being holy, consecrated or sanctified; the state of holiness, of sanctity, or of sacredness.

  1. a person

  2. an effort (עֲבוֹדָה).

    When referring to an effort or service, this is the subset of עֲבוֹדָה that is (a) appropriate and encouraged at all times and (b) exclusive of, lᵊ‑ha•vᵊdil, מְלָאכָה (which must be done, but is prohibited on Sha•bât and other Ta•na"kh-ordained holy days). I.e., קֹדֶשׁ includes all עֲבוֹדָה that is not מְלָאכָה.

    Instances in which the two mutually exclusive subsets seem to blur defaults to the מְלָאכָה subset; only resolving to the mutually exclusive קֹדֶשׁ subset if and only if the 1st-order goal satisfies the following conditions:

    1. The עֲבוֹדָה is primarily in furtherance of a קֹדֶשׁ, rather than a מְלָאכָה, purpose; or

    2. the עֲבוֹדָה is pi•quakh nëphësh essential as defined by Beit Hi•leil – which transforms the עֲבוֹדָה from מְלָאכָה (i.e., khōl) to קֹדֶשׁ, thereby making it a mi•tzᵊwâh to perform even on Shab•ât; and

    3. the עֲבוֹדָה can neither be reasonably accomplished in advance nor postponed.

    Since עוֹלָם וָעֵד includes our true family: all of His children – namely, those who are Tōr•âh-faithful (refusing frequent contra-Tōr•âh rabbinic overreaches), therefore, building and strengthening these קֹדֶשׁ familial bonds and relationships, making good memories and times, falls within the purview of קֹדֶשׁ.

  3. an essential appurtenance

that is in service pursuant to goals that are primarily oriented to עוֹלָם וָעֵד (popularly Hellenized to "heaven").

The ability to grasp this concept is the sole determinant attribute of a sentient human Homo sapien nëphësh (being) that distinguishes him or her above other animals. (Science has demonstrated that all other distinctions are either not definitive attributes of sentient human beings or are merely a matter of blurring degree: more sophisticated use of tools, language, usually smarter, etc.)

קֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים – Ultimate Holy, Quintessential Holy (Hellenized in English translations to "Holy of Holies").

עֲבוֹדָה‎ = קֹדֶשׁ‎ + מְלָאכָה Ergo, קֹדֶשׁ‎ = עֲבוֹדָה‎ - מְלָאכָה
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רַב יוֹסֵף קָאפַּח ז"ל Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.09.23]

Qapheikh, Rabbi  Mori Yoseiph
Rav Mor′ i Yo·seiph′ ′ pheikh (1918–2000)
Gapheikh, Mori Yikheya
Mori Yi′ khᵊyâ Gâ′ pheikh (Tei•mân•i′  pronunciation) 1853–1932

Rav Yo•seiphpakh קאפח, Qapheikh, Qapakh(popularly "Kapakh"), 1917.11.27 in Tei•mân – 2000.07.21 in Yi•sᵊrâ•eil; the foremost rabbi in the nascent Tei•mân•i – and Dor Daim – community in modern Yi•sᵊrâ•eil.

רַב יוֹסֵף קָאפַּח was the grandson of, and raised from the age of 6 by, רַב יְחִיֶא קָאפַּח ‭ ‬ (1853–1932), the Chief Rabbi of Sana'a and founder of the Dor Daim (rational, anti-Qa•bâl•âh) movement advocating for logical Ha•lâkh•âh, explicitly as formulated in the Mi•shᵊn•ëh Tōr•âh of Ram•ba"m.

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קָרְבָּןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.04.18]

masc . n. Qâ•rᵊb•ân (pl. qâ•rᵊb•ân•ōt)קרבן,qarban,qorban—convergence; deriving from the verb קָרַב. The nouns קֶרֶב and קְרַב demonstrate that mere approaching or coming close doesn't adequately convey this term, which implies an approach that culminates in convergence, contact or communing. Qâ•rᵊb•ân, then, implies the necessary provisions—in Biblical times referring to animal zᵊvâkh•im—enabling (re)convergence with י‑‑ה.

Qâ•rᵊb•ân paralleled the ancient Middle-Eastern de rigueur house-gift of a sacrificial animal, wine or baked good, presented upon approach or convergence by, or with, an important entity; especially when approaching to seek audience, petition or commune.

Referring specifically to animal zᵊvâkh•im, qâ•rᵊb•ân evolved the popular connotation of "victim."

Just as it is the custom to bring a house-warming gift (bottle of wine or the like) when invited to someone's home for a dinner or evening, so the קָרבָּן parallels the custom of bringing an appropriate gift when requesting audience with a King.

Another term deriving from קָרַב is קִירוּב (qi•ruv; outreach – resulting in convergence). more

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קָטָןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.09.17]

qât•ân; קטן, qatan little, small.

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קֹהֶ͏‌ֽלֶת Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Qō•hëlët; קהלת, קוהלת, Qohelet convoker, one who convokes a convocation. This is Shᵊlōmōh ha-Mëlëkh, the one who called the קָהָל (Qâ•hâl; convocation) to assembly (cf. also qᵊhil•âh); fourth of the five Mᵊgil•ot (de-Judaized to Ecclesiastes, "churcher"). Qᵊhil•âh is a cognate of the same root.

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קְטֽׂרֶתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.07.17]

fem. n.Qᵊtōrët;קטרת,קטורת,qetoret smoke (n.), especially from an altar or grill (i.e. kâ•sheir meat or spice incense) producing a רֵיחַ נִיחוֹחַ.

The verb קָטַר is denominated from the noun. Hiph•il הִקְטִיר 


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קוּבָנָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.08.26]

חַלָּה/קוּבָנָה (khallâh/Pitâ)
Qu•bânâh Tei•mân•it (popularly corrupted "Kubaneh"; i.e., Khal•âh Tei•mân•it), with baked egg in shell.

Qū•bânâh קובנה, qubanah (khâ•lâv); prepared before Shab•ât, this khal•âh Tei•mân•it, including one egg (in shell) per person, bakes all night and is served warm (off a hotplate) as khal•âh with the noon Shab•ât Qi•dush (after Sha•khar•it and Mu•sâph), embellished with a bit of skhug. To make Qu•bânâh, … more

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קוּמְרָאןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.10.03]

Topographical map of Israel
Click to enlargeTopographical map of north and central Yi•sᵊr•â•eil, in­cluding northern Nëgëv and northern A•râv•âh.

Qūmᵊr•ân; קומראן, Qumran beltway; probably deriving from Aramaic קַמְרָא and describing the gateway, at the northwest corner of Yâm ha-Mëlakh, to the narrow beltway running south between the cliffs of the Judaean hills and the west shore of Yâm ha-Mëlakh from Yᵊhudâh and Yᵊru•shâ•layim to the iron and copper mines in the A•râv•âh and the seaport city of Ë•tziy•ōn Gëvër (modern Eil•at) enabling shipping trade via the Red Sea with Arabia, India and Africa.

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