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Hebrew Glossary: T

The reason this simple page of glossary definitions is ranked so popular with the search engine is because so many people click on our links to these definitions from the content in… the 'Netzarim Quarter' Village web site in Ra•an•anâ(h), Israel at www.netzarim.co.il

The real content is in the 'Netzarim Quarter'! Click on our logo above for an exciting visit to the 'Netzarim Quarter' where you'll learn about Historical Ribi Yehoshua and his original, Jewish, followers before the great Roman-Hellenist apostasy of 135 C.E.—and even more importantly, how you (whether Jew or non-Jew) can follow the historically true, Judaic, Ribi Yehoshua. In Hebrew, his original followers were called the Netzarim (Hellenized to "Nazarenes").

Until Paqid Yirmeyahu researched the Netzarim name and sect and began publishing about it in 1972 in The Netzarim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matityahu (NHM) no one in modern times was even aware of the name Netzarim. It stretches credulity that no one in modern times had heard of the Netzarim until Paqid Yirmeyahu published it in 1972… and then, suddenly, everybody figured it out??? Check (and verify) the dates of the earliest works about the Netzarim by the others and you'll see that they are deceiver-plagiarists. Then insist on the person whom ha-Sheim selected to entrust the knowledge, not imposters who falsely call their continuing practice of Displacement Theology "Nazarene Judaism" or directly plagiarize the name "Netzarim."

Because we teach and practice the authentic Judaic teachings of Ribi Yehoshua—not Displacement Theology—we are the only group who have restored the Netzarim to be accepted in the legitimate Jewish community in Israel—genuinely like Ribi Yehoshua and the original Netzarim. Consequently, the 'Netzarim Quarter' is the only web site of legitimate Netzarim / Nazarene Judaism.

Give all the friends you've ever known the chance to know about this exciting site; send them our web site address (www.netzarim.co.il) that opens modern eyes for the first time to the Judaic world that Ribi Yehoshua and his original Netzarim knew, practiced and taught.

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טַעַם Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.07.26]

Taamei ha-Miqra ha-Teimanim (''Tastes of the Yemenite Bible reading''; Yemenite cantillation)
Click to enlargeTei•mân•i Accent & Cantillation Marks

masc . n. taam; טעם, טעמי המקרא, taamei ha-miqra taste, flavor. The comb. pl. is …טַעֲמֵי (ta•am•ei…; tastes of…).

טַעֲמֵי הַמִּקְרָא (ta•am•ei ha-mi•qrâ) – cantillation, liturgical chant (lit. tastes, or flavors, of the miqrâ). These marks determine the accents and punctuation according to the Oral Tradition of the community, which dictates the traditional meaning, governing the proper interpretation, of the passage.

Each element of the Jewish community has its own tradition for the liturgical chants. The most pristine is טַעֲמֵי הַמִּקְרָא הַתֵּימָנִים (ta•am•ei ha-miqrâ ha-Tei•mân•im).

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טָהוֹרPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. tâ•hōr; טהור, טהרה, taharah, tahor Free of contamination, pure. The cognate טָהֳרָה (tâ•hâr•âh) means "decontaminating" or purifying. These are derived from the verb, usually expressed in the pi•eil, טִהֵר (ti•heir; he decontaminated—popularly "purified"). All of these are the antonyms of tâ•mei and tum•âh.

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'תַאגPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]


Taj; Taj crown (from Arabic), refers to the oldest Tei•mân•im mss. of the Seiphër Tōr•âh, which date to the 9th century C.E.

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תַּחֲנוּןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.07.20]

masc . n. Ta•khan•un; תחנון, takhanun, takhnun pl. תַּחֲנוּנִים (ta•khan•un•im) – a supplication imploring חֵן (graciousness).

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טָלֶהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.05.20]

taleh - lamb

masc . n.Tâl•ëh;טלה, taleh a lamb. Compare & contrast with këvës, ayil, sëh and tzon.

Before there was paper money, checks, credit cards or banks, a tâl•ëh served as a donation, or payment of a court-imposed fine, equal in today’s currency (2019), to approx. ₪630 or U.S. $175.

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טַלִּיתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.10.04]

Tzitzit with Pëtil Tëkheilët
Click to enlargeTa•lit with Tzitz•it including pëtil tëkheilët, tied No•sakh Tei•mân•i

fem. n. Tal•it; טלית, talit, tallit prayer mantle or shawl, incorporating tzitz•it.

The modern "Jewish" 4-cornered, poncho-like "prayer shawl", appears to conflate the fringed-kaftan worn by Jews in Biblical times with the sun-protection scarf worn in ancient Egypt, and likely throughout the ancient middle-east, that is still evident in today's Arab غُترَة (ghutrah; head scarf) held in place by an عقال‎ (agal; black goat-hair rope) – see also mi•tzᵊnëphët, tō•tëphët and kip•âh.

ghutrah-agal Arab head scarf Trump NBC News 20170520
Arab Ghutrah-agal headdress (Trumps' visit to Saudi-Arabian Palace, NBC News 2017.05.20)

It is exceedingly rare today to find a tal•it having tzitz•it with a pᵊtil tᵊkheilët, as required by Ta•na"kh and, therefore, for Originalist-Orthodox Jews. i.e. Nᵊtzâr•im. Since I've been wearing this in Israel from 1985, it has become rabbinically acceptable for Orthodox Jews. A few have begun wearing this and the trend is growing. For Nᵊtzâr•im, the tzitz•it must also be tied according to the No•sakh Tei•mân•i.

For a visiting non-Jew to wear a tal•it invites an undesirable misidentification on two counts.

  1. The tal•it is the principal sign by which members of the Beit ha-Kᵊnësët distinguish whether a visitor is a Jew or a non-Jew. This is a necessary device since it is customary to call a visiting Jew up to Tōr•âh, but not visitors who are non-Jews.

  2. The tal•it is the principal sign by which unmarried Jewesses of the Beit ha-Kᵊnësët distinguish whether a visitor is a Jew or a non-Jew. This is a necessary device to discourage socializing with non-Jews that might lead to intermarriage.

Tei•mân•im boys begin wearing a child-sized tal•it at the same time as a kip•âh – from the time they're aware enough, and capable, to keep it on. Thus, the earliest practice does not view the tal•it as a device for young maidens to distinguish eligible Jewish bachelors from Jewish married men, as practiced today among Sᵊphârâd•im (and also, I think, Ash•kᵊnazim). This is only one of a number of assimilations through the millennia that need to be restored. more

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תַּלמִידPronunciation Table   Hear it! [Updated: 2021.06.14]

masc . n. tal•mid,תלמיד,תלמוד בבלי, תלמוד ירושלמי,talmid,Talmud pl. תַּלמִידִים (tal•mid•im), connective pl. -תַּלמִידֵי (tal•mid•ei-…); (an indentured apprentice-student in Biblical usage, therefore a student studying under discipline—hence "disciple" rather than merely "student," as in modern Hebrew). The indentured apprentice connotation is corroborated in the LXX Greek translation to μαθητης (matheiteis; one under discipline).

תַּלְמוּד (masc . n. Ta•lᵊmūd, popularly "Talmud"; [the] disciplined-study or learning; apprenticeship, discipleship) sets forth discussions surrounding mi•shᵊpât•im and khuq•im, issuing from the various Bât•ei-Din over the millennia, as they interpreted Tōr•âh in daily applications.

There are two Ta•lᵊmūd•im:

  1. יְרוּשַׁלמִי (Yᵊru•sha•lᵊm•i): The earliest extant Mi•dᵊrâsh is embedded in the Ta•lᵊmūd Yᵊru•sha•lᵊm•i. As this began to be redacted c 400 C.E. in the Gâ•lil, during the Gâl•ut from Yᵊru•shâ•layim it is, more accurately, the Ta•lᵊmūd Yi•sᵊr•â•eil•i.

    The earliest extant ms., i.e. latest European assimilation, of the Ta•lᵊmūd Yᵊrū•sha•lᵊm•i is the "Leiden (Netherlands) ms.", reflecting the interpretations of 1289 CE!

  2. בַּבלִי (Ba•vᵊl•i) Because the Babylonian-assimilated returnees from Babylon carried with them the imprimatur of the Babylonian King, Koresh Jr. "the Great", their Babylonian-assimilated traditions, which they had codified during their Exile in their Babylonian Ta•lᵊmūd, dominated over the more pristine Biblical Israeli ("Jerusalem") Ta•lᵊmūd (even that, like the Babylonian counterpart, reflected Assyrian, and later Hellenist, assimilation). When the returned Babylonian-assimilated Jews declared, by authority of the Babylonian King Koresh, Jr., who ruled over Yᵊhudâh at that time, that their Babylonian-assimilated traditions, which they codified in their Babylonian Ta•lᵊmūd, was the law, it was – literally – the (assimilated) law – Babylonian-​assimilated, not Tōr•âh-correct!

    The earliest extant ms., i.e. latest European assimilation, of the Ta•lᵊmūd Bâ•vᵊl•i is the "Munich (Germany) ms.", reflecting the interpretations of 1382 CE!

    By convention, Ta•lᵊmūd Ba•vᵊl•i is assumed unless otherwise stated.

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תָּםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.05.28]

masc . n. tâm; תם, תמים, תומים, tamim, tammim pl. תַּמִּים (tam•im): whole(some), i.e., unblemished – pa•al of תָּמַם (tâm•am; wholesome, made whole, affirmatively resolved).

תֹּם, adj. & m.n. (tōm; whole, wholeness, made whole, affirmatively resolved, innocent, innocence, artless, guileless, integrity).

תֻּמִּים (tum•im, wholesomenesses or affirmative resolutions) combined with the אוּרִים (ur•im; firelights), pl. of אוּר (ur; firelight), a derivative of אוֹר (ōr; light).

In modern Hebrew, these terms have developed the connotation of naive and unsophisticated.

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טָמֵאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.06.14]

tâ•mei; טמא, טומאה, tamei, tumah contaminate or contaminated (verb or adj.)—which may thereby be transformed into a contaminant (according to Tōr•âh criteria), de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "unclean."

fem. n. טוּמאָה, also טֻמאָה (tum•âh) is the noun, contamination or a contaminant. This was understood among Hellenist Jews, via LXX, as αλισγημα (alisgeima; polluted).

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תָּמִידPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.07]

masc . n. Tâ•mid; תמיד, tamid perpetual, continual.

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תַמְכָאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.06.29]

Maror 2: Tamekha — Wild Carrot Daucus gingidium
Click to enlargeתַמְכָא 

Ta•mᵊkh•â;,tamekha Wild carrot (Daucus gingidium); type of mâ•rōr.

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תַּנָּאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.01.05]

masc . n. Tan•â,תנא,Tana,Tanna (Aramaic; pl. Tan•â•im), one who trains memorization by mi•shᵊn•âhPᵊrush•im teachers during the codification of the Mish•nâh (i.e. Tōr•âh shë-Bᵊal Pëh, c. B.C.E. 25—200 C.E.).

The Tan•â•im succeeded the 5 Συνέδριον Zūgōt; the last pair being Tzᵊdoq•i Nâ•si Sha•mai Sr. (founder of Beit Sha•mai) versus Pᵊrush•i Av Beit Din Hi•leil Sr. "the Babylonian" (founder of Beit Hi•leil).

The Tan•â•im were succeeded by the Âmor•âyim.

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תנ"ךPronunciation Table   Hear it! [Updated: 2006.05.01]

Ta•na"kh; תנ''ך, Tanakh, Tan"kh an acronym for תּוֹרָה (Tor•âh; Instruction, not "law"), נְבִיאִים (Nᵊviy•im) and כְּתוּבִים, (Kᵊtuv•im; "writings")—the Bible.

Old Testament" is offensive because the תנ"ך has not been superseded as Christians insinuate by their use of the phrase. If anything, OT stands for "Original Testament." (See also NT.)

In all Nᵊtzâr•im works, references to Ta•na"kh refer to the original Hebrew and specifically exclude Christian versions, all of which Who Are the Netzarim? (WAN) and The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•tit•yâhu (NHM) document are highly Hellenized (i.e. misojudaicized / Christianized through Christian redaction) and are, therefore, inaccurate, and misleading.

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תּוֹעֶהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.01.18]

masc . n. tō•ëh (participial adj. & n.); תועה,תעה, toeh, toah, taah Biblical term consistently referring to [one who is] straying, back-sliding, mistaking, erring, wandering, rebelling, lost; a strayer or a straying; pl. תּוֹעִים.

fem. n. תּוֹעָה pl. תּוֹעוֹת

Contrast against hitᵊbō•leil, kheit, mū•mâr, mᵊshū•mâd and כְּפִירָה.

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טָרֵףPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.06.24]

tâ•reiph (adj.) —טרף,tareiph,tareif,taref,treif freshly-picked, plucked, torn-off or ripped-off; a positive attribute relative to vegetables—especially leafy vegetables, fruits and herbs; but a negative attribute relative to a slain animal and meat.

By halakhic extension, tâ•reiph includes meat from animals that are halakhically unfit—organically or otherwise, including meat from an animal that hasn't been inspected and slaughtered according to Ha•lâkh•âh.

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תַּרגוּםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Tar•gum; תרגום, Targum translation, implying the Aramaic translations of the (Hebrew) Ta•na"kh or the Aramaic portions of Ta•na"kh. The Tar•jum par excellence is that of Onkelos, and is considered so authoritative that the Tei•mân•im require its reading in parallel with the Hebrew reading of Tōr•âh. Tōr•âh is read first in Hebrew and then a boy responds by reading the Tar•jum. The Tar•jum is, therefore, the primary resource for interpreting enigmatic phrases in the Hebrew Ta•na"kh.

Tar•gum Onkelos (Aquila), Aramaic translation of the תּוֹרָה – The provenance of Tar•gum Onkelos dates to the late 1st – early 2nd century C.E. However, the tradition of the "convert" author of Tar•gum Onkelos seems to be [a] based on a misreading of "Aquila" and [b] erroneously ascribed to an anonymous Aramaic translation – perhaps even that of Ëzᵊr•â (BCE 409-359).

Tar•gum Yo•nâ•tân, Aramaic translation of the Nᵊviy•im – The provenance of Tar•gum Yo•nâ•tân is unclear. Passages of Tar•gum Yo•nâ•tân are quoted in the Ta•lᵊmūd Ba•vᵊl•i. The consensus of historians seem to regard Yo•nâ•tân as a misreading of an abbreviation for Yᵊru•shâ•layim, and a Tar•gum likely developed over a period of time, perhaps originating with Ëzᵊr•â (BCE 409-359).

Both Tar•gum•im were edited, early in the 4th century, by Ba•vᵊl•i Âmor•â and head of a yᵊshiv•âh in Pumbadita, Bâ•vël, Rav Yo•seiph Bar Khiya (d. 333 C.E.).

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תַּשְׁלִיךְPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.10.09]

Ta•shᵊlikh;תשליך,Tashlikh,Tashelikh to fling something; 2nd pers. m.s. hiph•il imper. of שׁלך. (Note: this term is unrelated to שָׁלַח.)

Ta•shᵊlikh is the name of a superfluous, extra-Scriptural, European REFORM ritual of some Ultra-Orthodox Jews. They recite:"May You fling…" — a ritual of emptying one's (already empty) pockets (of pretend a•veir•ōt) and pretending to fling them in the sea, a lake or stream. This is based on commemorating the metaphoric (else anthropomorphic) flinging, by י‑‑ה, of real a•veir•ōt into the sea (Mikh•âh 7.19).

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תַּבְנִיתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.05.07]

fem. n. ta•vᵊn•it; תבנית, tavnit the design of a construction or its structure (as contrasted with the physical construction or structure itself); physical pattern or paradigm – verbal n. of בָּנָה (bân•âh; he built).

The Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh designed by Yᵊkhëz•qeil (43, et al.) was not only never built, but (as Artscroll "Yechezkel" demonstrates is physically and geographically impossible to fit within Israel) was the תַּבְנִית for how the Second Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh was supposed to be, but wasn't, understood—a Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh in the spiritual realm.

According to Yᵊkhëz•qeil's תַּבְנִית, the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh was never intended to come down to physical and geographical Israel. Rather, physical Israel—the kindred living in the land of geographical Israel—was intended to ascend regularly to the spiritual Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh, interceding on behalf of all mankind as the buffer between the י‑‑ה of Israel and the rest of mankind; the prophesied realm of Ko•han•im (Shᵊm•ot 19.5-6).

Additionally, this interpretation, alone, overcomes the endless contradictions deriving from interpretations stuck in a physical domain—the Moslem cemetary immediately in front of the East Gate, prophecies of eternal, invulnerable and inviolable nature, and the like.

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תְּהִלָּה Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.01]

irreg. n.. n. Tᵊhil•âh, pl. תְּהִלִּים (Tᵊhil•im); תהלה, תהילה, תהלים, tehilah, t'hilah, tehilim, t'hilim fames, renowns, laudations, glories. Tᵊhil•im (plural) derives from הִלֵּל (hi•leil; Hellenized to "Hallel"). In the plural, this is the name of the book attributed mostly to Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh (de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Psalms").

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תֵּימָנִיPronunciation Table   Hear it! [Updated: 2020.06.26]

Tei•mân•i, fem. תֵּימָנִית (Tei•mân•it), pl. תֵּימָנִים (Tei•mân•im); תימנים,תימן,Teimanim,Temenim Yemenite Jew.

No•sakh Tei•mân•i is regarded by most scholars as the least contaminated by external factors in the world. (See, for example, A.Z. Idelsohn, Jewish Music (New York: Schocken, 1967), pp. 22-23, 67.)

Hence, No•sakh Tei•mân•i is the most pristine representation on the planet (followed by other Jews of Middle Eastern origin: Iraqi, the closest; then Iranian and other Sᵊpha•rad•im; loc. cit.) of the pristine Judaism of Har Sin•ai that Moshëh knew.

The Nᵊtzâr•im were dormant from 135 C.E. until the 1970s. Until they were ousted by gentile Roman "bishops" that year, the only evidence of dispute between the Nᵊtzâr•im and Pᵊrush•im, other than condemning sanctimony, appears to have been with the Roman-collaborating, Boethusian-Herodian "Pᵊrush•im" loathed by the mainstream Pᵊrush•im.

The Nᵊtzâr•im, lacking our own halakhic tradition since 135 C.E., fill in the lucanae with the most pristine halakhic tradition, least compromised by extra-Judaic influences since Har Sin•ai, on the planet—No•sakh Tei•mân•i. This stands in stark contrast to the Christian tradition of filling in lucanae with post-135 C.E. gentile, Hellenist-Roman mythology and idolatry.

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תֵּלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. teil, תל, teil, tel compound form תֶּל (tël-; ruins-mound of…); man-made hill or mound covering the remains of an ancient settlement.

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תֵּבָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. teiv•âh; תבה, תיבה, teivah box (also, by extension, chest, house, barge, houseboat; Hellenized to "ark").

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תֵּבֵלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.04.17]

fem. n. teiveil; תבל, teiveil, tevel inhabited or civilized world, planet earth.

Note: distinguish from masc . n. תֶּבֶל (tëvël) 1. unnatural contamination or foreign infusion into the natural order. 2. a spice or seasoning – the Aramaic pl., תַּבְלִין, is conventionally preferred instead.

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תְּכֵלֶתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.03.06]

Tzitzit with Petil Tekhelet, tied Nosakh Teimani
Click to enlargeTa•lit with Tzitz•it with pëtil tëkheilët, tied No•sakh Tei•mân•i
Khilazon - Murex trunculus (encyclopedie-universelle.com)
Click to enlargeKhilazon – Murex trunculus (encyclopedie-universelle.com)

fem. n. Tᵊkheilët; תכלת, tekheilet, t'kheilet, techeilet, t'cheilet, teheilet, t'heilet, tekhelet, t'khelet, techelet, t'chelet, tehelet, t'helet a shade of indigo similar to denim or turquoise. While rabbis argue that Ta•ᵊmud / Ha•lâkh•âh stipulates that Tᵊkheilët can only be made from the Murex trunculus snail, this is inaccurate.

What Ta•lᵊmūd condemned was the fraudulent selling of the far cheaper indigo dye made from the indigo plant, which could not be distinguished from the far more expensive dye made from the Murex trunculus, as the latter and at the latter's price. There is not a word in Ta•lᵊmūd against non-wealthy Jews substituting indigo dye – nor, therefore, any justification for the rabbinic subtraction of the requirement of the tᵊkheilët cord from Tōr•âh. Indeed, the only 1st century tzitz•it that archeologists have found – of a soldier of Bar-Kokh under the rabbinic supervision of Rabi A•qi – was dyed with dye made from the indigo plant, not from the Murex trunculus snail!

פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת (pᵊtil tᵊkheilet) is the thread of indigo-color, which Tōr•âh commands must be included in the tzitzit.

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טְחִינָה [Updated: 2007.02.26]

Tekhina (sesame seed paste)

fem. n. Tᵊkhinâh טחינה, tekhinah, techinah, tehinah, t'khinah, t'chinah, t'hinah – a thick sesame seed-based dip. Basic recipe (refine over time):

  • 1 cup pure tᵊkhina (sesame paste)
  • 2 garlic cloves, crushed
  • 1/2 cup water
  • dash of hot red pepper
  • 1 tsp. salt
  • juice from 2 lemons
  • 3 tbs. Israeli extra-virgin olive oil
  • A few coriander or oregano leaves for garnish

Mix tᵊkhina, garlic, water, pepper, salt and lemon juice until you get smooth paste. Add water if tᵊkhina is too thick.

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תְּנוּפָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.08.15]

fem. n.tᵊnūph•âh;תנופה,tenuphah a sacrifice or offering that is swayed, brandished or waved (verbal n. of הֵנִיף, hiph•il of נוּף). Contrast with tᵊrūm•âh (lifted-up, presented).

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תְּפִלָּה Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.01.03]

fem. n. tᵊphil•âh, pl. תְּפִלוֹת (Tᵊphil•ōt); תפלה, תפילה, תפלות, תפילות, tephilah, tephilot, t'philah, t'philot, tefillah, tefillot, t'fillah, t'fillot prayer, from פִּלֵּל, which has 2 meanings:‭‬1. "to judge, arbitrate" or "invoke as a judge" and 2. "to pray."

The verb is always found in the hit•pa•eil: הִתְפַּלֵּל (hit•pa•leil; he prayed).

Klein suggests a possible association of the second meaning, to pray, with the verb נָפַל. However, the first and second meanings can easily be seen as one interrelated theme:

  1. the first (judging or arbitrating) being to determine a verdict and

  2. the second (praying) being to "invoke as a judge" in struggling to reach a determination or verdict; i.e., struggling to understand and ascertain direction from י‑‑ה, from His Tōr•âh – i.e., the revealed רְצוֹן י‑‑ה – as contrasted against asking for something from our own will (our own eyes and our own heart).

This may expose the deeper meaning of hit•pa•eil – and the deeper meaning of serving י‑‑ה.

To pray is the secondary meaning of פִּלֵּל. The primary meaning is to make a determination, to render a verdict, implying consequent to careful deliberation. Accordingly, for תְּפִלָּה to be successful, one must pray compatibly with, after having given careful deliberation to, Tōr•âh and Ha•lâkh•âh (vide Mish•lei Shlomoh 28.9).

However, תְּפִלָּה, at this point, is still unfinished and unproductive. Like a warrior preparing himself or herself before going into battle, תְּפִלָּה is the spiritual warriors' pre-combat, self-preparation ritual. A soldier going through the rituals of pre-battle self-preparation has not yet done any fighting at all. Such a soldier is "all parade and no fight" – a useless pretense of a soldier. As cowboys used to say about their imitators, "all hat and no cattle." The same is true of תְּפִלָּה. The תְּפִלָּה isn't finished until the one making תְּפִלָּה is struggling his or her utmost to make it happen. The old adage is potently true: don't bother to pray for deliverance from the storm (again, Mish•lei Shlomoh 28.9) unless you're rowing for shore. If it's not worth your utmost efforts to make it happen, then you have no right to pray for it. If you're not actively making your utmost efforts to make it happen, then boasting that you are praying, or will pray, for it would be hypocritical.

One who claims to keep Tōr•âh yet makes תְּפִלָּה without doing one's utmost to carry it (which complies with Tōr•âh) out and make it happen contravenes Mish•lei Shlomoh 28.9 – a vain prayer!

Don't be like the Ultra-Orthodox / Kha•reid•i hypocrites – all ceremonial costume-ritual having strayed from Tōr•âh. See The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 21.21.1.

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טֹטָפֹת (modern תְּפִלִּין)Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.09.06]

"…and they shall be לְטֹטָפֹת between your eyes"
Egypt seshed and uræus Tut-Ankh-Amun
Egyptian seshed headband-crown, which featured the uræus pendant centerpiece. The seshed held the khat scarf headdress in place; similar to that found on the mask of Tut-ankh-Amun. See clarifying fabric model.

fem. n. Tō•tâph•ōt (pl.), sing. טוֹטֶפֶתתפלין,תפילין,טוטפת,טוטפות,tephilin,t'philin,tefillin,t'fillin,totaphot,totephet,uraeus — ancient Egyptian royal gold uræus (cobra) centerpiece featured on the Egyptian seshed (gold, diadem-crown head­band), which held the mi•tzᵊnëphët in place in wind, while riding a horse, in a chariot, etc.

Unlike later European sunbeam-radiating pointed crowns of the distant future and alien to Middle East cultures, ancient Middle Eastern royalty wore gold, tiara-like seshed-crowns featuring icon-pendants on the forehead, between the eyes. These icon-pendants represented the Divine Powers of their gods believed to be controlled by the wearer. This royal, gold, Middle-Eastern crown served as a living marquee to display the national religious priestly icon(s).

The purpose of the seshed-crown, aside from holding the scarf headdress in place, was to spotlight the uræus miniature god-idol of Wadjet ("Eye of Hōrus in hieroglyph) on the Par•oh's forehead, auguring its protection and "divine authority" (later claimed by European royalty as well).

irreg. n.. n. תְּפִלִּין – Directly from Har Sin•ai

For the Hebrews leaving Egypt, however, such idolatry was an anathema. Displacing the idolatrous Egyptian uræus, lᵊ‑ha•vᵊdil, a new-design, gold טוֹטֶפֶת was fashioned featuring a Tzitz framing a gold plaque, in which was– instead – engraved (in proto-Sinaitic Hebrew letters) the Name of י‑‑ה, to hold the new mi•tzᵊnëphët of the Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol in place.

The rest of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil, to keep their mi•tzᵊnëphët in place on their head, right from Har Sin•ai fashioned their טוֹטֶפֶת from the same material as the Seiphër Tor•âhkâ•sheir leather. Displacing the idolatrous Egyptian uræus, the Hebrews' version טוֹטֶפֶת featured 4 pouches, 1 pouch for each of the 4 mandated passag­es. These passages contain and spotlight the Protection, Divine Authority and Tōr•âh (Life's "Instruction" Manual) of י‑‑ה. The product? תְּפִלִּין!

Assimilation & Reforms During Babylonian Exile
ghutrah-agal Arab head scarf Trump NBC News 20170520
Ghutrah-agal Arab head scarf (Trump visiting Saudi palace; NBC News 2017.05.20)

These kâ•sheir leather טוֹטֶפֶת, i.e. תְּפִלִּין, were worn by Israelis-Jews as an integral part of every­day attire through BCE 9th-7th centuries when pre-​rabbinic Babylonian "Sages," assimilating to Bab­ylonian cul­ture and idol­atry dur­ing their Exile, reformed Dërëkh י‑‑ה to rele­gate the wearing of תְּפִלִּין only during tᵊphil•âh.

(In an additional, consistent and corroborating assimilation and reform, the Babylonian "Sages" similarly displaced Scripturally-ordained spring-season New Year with the idolatrous Babylonian autumnal New Year, perverting autumn's Scriptural Yōm Tᵊrū•âh to the idolatrous Babylonian New Year (Hebrew: Rōsh ha-Shân•âh).

Vestiges of the ancient Middle-Eastern טוֹטֶפֶת that survive today include the Arabic عقال‎ (agal; black goat-hair rope) to keep their غُترَة (ghutrah; head scarf) in place.

To protect the head from chafing under the טוֹטֶפֶת, a buffering undercap was worn. This undercap has survived the millennia as today's kip•âh and Arabic طاقية‎ (taqiyah; dome). Arabs still wear the undercap where one would expect – under the head scarf (all held in place by the טוֹטֶפֶת). The undercap seems to have simply been left on indoors, like an undergarment for the head. Religious significance continued to reside in the טוֹטֶפֶת, securing the head scarf (today's ta•lit) in place, with the undercap (today's kip•âh) underneath.

irreg. n.. n. תְּפִלִּין – 1st-2nd Centuries CE – Bar-Kōkh

Since the destruction of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh ha-Shein•i, muting the use of the gold טוֹטֶפֶת by the Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl, the term תְּפִלִּין became the more relevant term, rather than טוֹטֶפֶת.

tephilin Qumran actual size
≈Actual Size

Archaeologist יִגָּאֵל יָדִין discovered that the head תְּפִלִּין used by Bar-Kokh's men, of the 1st–2nd centuries C.E., included, in one of its scrolls, the עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים. As a backlash to create greater difference from Christian practice, the rabbis instituted a reform, eliminating this passage of Scripture from the scroll.

Thus, from Har Sin•ai (c. B.C.E. ) to Bar-Kōkh (135 C.E.), there are no historically documented changes in the תְּפִלִּין. Aside from the Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl, תְּפִלִּין was the טוֹטֶפֶת of Am Yi•sᵊr•â•eil, holding their mi•tzᵊnëphët (assimilated and reformed to a ta•lit) in place, with a kip•âh underneath as an undercap.

Click to enlargeMy Har Sin•ai-faithful תְּפִלִּין

(Enlarge fully for actual size)

Because todays Orthodox rabbis rigidly limit sō•phᵊr•im suppliers of scrolls and makers of tᵊphil•in to these larger boxes, Jews today can only obtain:

  1. these larger boxes – an Ultra-Orthodox rabbinic reform (first documented by Ribi Yᵊho•shua) breaking from the original style documented by Bar-Kōkh's men,
  2. 1 box on the weak arm and 1 box containing 4 compartments (rather than the original Biblical 4 boxes – an "Ultra-Orthodox" rabbinic assimilation and reform from the original ancient practice),
  3. strapped atop the fore­head (another "Ultra-Orthodox" rabbinic assimilation and reform from the original practice and explicit Biblical specification: "between your eyes"), and
  4. again unlike the original Biblical practice (another "Ultra-Orthodox" rabbinic assimilation and reform departure from the original Israeli everyday dress code), wearing limited to regular weekday Tᵊhil•ōt Sha•khar•it.

If you believe that Mōsh•ëh and ancient Yi•sᵊr•â•eil have an afterlife, who would you have recognize you in your afterlife: Mōsh•ëh or the modern, Ottoman-ordained Ra•bân•ut? Because they are intractably contradictory on many more issues than these. This is only one of a number of assimilations through the millennia that need to be restored. more

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תְּפוּצָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Tᵊphutz•âh; תפוצה, tephutzah, tephutsah, tefutzah, tefutsah, t'phutzah, t'phutsah, t'futzah, t'futsah the Διασπορα (Diaspora; the dispersion, the dispersed), Jewish communities outside of Ërëtz Yi•sᵊr•â•eil. See also Gâl•ut.

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תְּרָפִיםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.12.03]

teraph Adapa merman fish Dagon ichthus mitre
Click to enlargeTâ•râph of Dâg•ōn or Adapa mer­man (origin of ikhthūs/​pope’s mitre)
Təraph: I*shtar-E*aster g*oddess, ca. BCE 1,000
Tâ•râph: Ishtar (ca. BCE 1,000)

masc . n. Tᵊrâph•im; תרפים, תרף, teraphim, terafim, t'raphim, t'rafim plural of תָּרָף (tâ•râph); household or pagan temple idol-gods used to feel watched or protected, for good luck—as well as for healing and divination and, thus, considered priceless (Sho•phᵊt•im 17.5; 18.17).

Tᵊrâph•im were usually small, portable, figurine idols similar to the figurines of Yësh"u, "angels" and "cherubs" treasured by Christians today (see bᵊ-Reish•it 31.34; but sometimes life-size, see Shᵊmu•eil Âlëph 19.13).

See also Shᵊmu•eil Âlëph 15.23; Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 23.24; Yᵊkhëz•qeil 21.26 and Zᵊkhar•yâh 10.2.

According to Klein, the term Tᵊrâph•im is of uncertain origin—like its probable stem, תֹּֽרֶף, meaning (PBH, deriving from earlier related origins)

  • vagina and breasts; the essence (symbolized by milk שָׁד) of feminine and fertility; and, by extension, profit, success and prosperity, and
  • the essentials of life's decisions, especially regarding the making of contracts (cutting of bᵊrit•ot)—determined by using tᵊrâph•im for divination שֵׁד in much the same way as modern Christians use "speaking in (or interpreting) tongues," astrology, divining rods, ouija boards, tarot cards, crystal balls, etc.

By extension, תֹּֽרֶף refers to the essence and essentials of a contract (i.e., bᵊrit) in contrast to its template—"that part of a document which makes it binding." (Relative to a contract, the שֵׁד is the details.)

It appears likely that תֹּֽרֶף is a cognate of תֳּרֶף, which Klein defines as a poetic variant of תְּרוּפָה, which we know derives from רִפֵּא—for the pagans a function believed to be performed by their tᵊrâph•im.

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תְּקִיעָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Tᵊqiyâh; תקיעה, teqiyah, t'qiyah, tekiyah, t'kiyah a single monotonic fermata yelp, "Attention!" alarm note, of about 3 seconds duration, begun and concluded by a quick, staccato glissando warble. Originally, this alarm was sounded either by voice or blown on the sho•phar; parallels voice calls still used in the wilderness today and bugle calls of the Cavalry in the Old West. 

תְּקִיעָה גְדוֹלָה – an elongated tᵊqiyâh (as long as trumpeter can make it, at least 3x the usual length) "Attack!" call (and final blast in the liturgy).

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תְּרוּעָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Tᵊruâh; תרועה, teruah, t'ruah a 3-glissando warble, tremolo, fermata battle cry of about 2 seconds duration; either by voice (war cry) or blown on the sho•phar, parallels the native American war cries, Confederate rebel yells and bugle calls of the Cavalry in the Old West. 

Among Jews of 4th century C.E. Europe, the authentic ancient sound of tᵊruâh became shrouded in controversy. European Jews thought that tᵊruâh was a glissando warble-initiated, series of 9 monotonic staccato notes sounded urgently (quickly, typically totaling about 4 seconds). Yet, confusion arose because some, correctly, held that tᵊruâh was the original 3-glissando warble tremolo blast. Thus, tᵊruâh evolved, and was subsequently redefined in Europe, to 9 monotonic staccato notes in quick succession – while the original tᵊruâh is today called shᵊvâr•im. As a result of this well-documented controversy, both versions were adopted, to be sounded in unbroken succession (the mislabeled, correct sound, first), whereas in ancient Biblical Israel, only what is today called shᵊvâr•im was heard–and was known as tᵊruâh.

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תְּרוּמָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.12.13]

fem. n. tᵊrūm•âh תרומה,תרומות,terumah,t'rumah,Terumot,T'rumot(presented/​presentation sacrifice-offering; lit. "lifted-up"); pl. תְּרוּמוֹת. Contrast with tᵊnūph•âh (brandished or waved).

Since the destruction of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh -Rish•on – because of the departure of the Shᵊkhin•âh, which never returned (rendering acceptable sacrifices forever impossible), with the accompanying losses of the Mi•zᵊbeiakh and Har ha-Bayit, tᵊrūm•âh, a priori, typically refers today specifically to the tᵊrūm•ât khal•âh set aside for kō•han•immore

The name of the 6th Tractate of the Order זְרָעִים, in the Mi•shᵊn•âh, To•sëphᵊtâ, and Ta•lᵊmūd Yᵊrū•sha•lᵊm•i (lacking in Ta•lᵊmūd Bâ•vᵊl•i) detailing the laws of tᵊrūm•âh to be given to the kō•hein in accordance with Tōr•âh..

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תְּשׁוּבָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.05.13]


fem. n. tᵊshuv•âh; תשובה,teshuvah,t'shuvah answer, reply, response—pop. but inaccurately "repentance." Derived, along with its cognate שׁוּבָה (shuv•âh; a return, a coming back), from שׁוּב (shuv; to return, he returned). To make tᵊshuv•âh is to respond with a return to Tōr•âh. This was distorted, via LXX, among Roman Hellenists (the original, post-135 C.E.,Paul-Christians) to ἐπιστρέφουσιν.

Contrary to popular notions among goy•im, י--ה does not confer ki•pur unconditionally; He requires a demonstrated change in one's life practice—(re)turning to Tōr•âh—as a prerequisite. As stipulated in the Shᵊm•a, one is required to keep all of the mi•tzᵊw•ot Tōr•âh to one's utmost—viz., "with all one's heart, nëphësh and might [lit. "very"]"—"for the purpose of extending your days and the days of your children… like the days of the heavens above the earth" (i.e., eternal life).

Scripture stipulates two "substages" of tᵊshuv•âh (Ency. Jud., 14.73):

  1. Negative: ceasing a•veir•ot of Tōr•âh (Yᵊsha•yâhu 33.15; Tᵊhil•im 15; 24.4)

  2. Positive: proactively practicing the positive mi•tzᵊw•ot (Yᵊsha•yâhu 1.17; 58.5ff; Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 7.3; 26.13; •mos 5.14-15; Tᵊhil•im 34.15-16; 37.27)—and wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 5.20-26: י‑‑ה requires making restitution, plus 20%, not merely for damages to sacred property or the mi•tzᵊwōt, but also including making restitution, plus 20%, to any wronged human beings or their property! י‑‑ה doesn’t provide ki•pūr for transgressions or damages against people unless this restitution, plus 20%, has been made to the injured persons!

Tᵊshuv•âh is a matter of free choice. Not everyone chooses tᵊshuv•âh (and י--ה never overrides one's free will that He bestowed). Thus, only a "remnant" will make tᵊshuv•âh. "In the teaching of both [Ho•sheia] and [Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu], on the other hand, the call to turn back is never abandoned. When [Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu] despairs of man's capability of self-renewal, he postulates that [Ël•oh•im] will provide "a new heart" that will overcome [a•veir•âh] and merit eternal [ki•pur] (31.32-33; 32.39-40; cf. [Dᵊvâr•im] 30.6; [Yᵊkhëz•qeil] 36.26.27)" (Ency. Jud., 14.74).

The traditional phrase חָזַר בִּתשׁוּבָה (khâ•zar bi-tᵊshuv•âh) means "return (to Tōr•âh-observance) in response."

In recent decades, in which 90+% of Jews have become estranged from rabbinic views and serious and sincere questions have gone unanswered by the rabbis, the retort from modern questioning Jews has become חָזַר בִּשְׁאֵלָה (khâ•zar bi-shᵊ•eil•âh; return in question).

One who returns to Tōr•âh-observance is called a baal tᵊshuv•âh.

Tᵊshuv•âh, the "return" to Tōr•âh-observance, is only possible for one who previously kept Tōr•âh; i.e. a Jew (or geir), who is from a Tōr•âh-observant environment and, so, is "returning." (Non-Jews must make ni•lᵊwëh; cf. The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•tit•yâhu (NHM) 4.17.1 note.)

It's as non-sensical for Goy•im to speak of a "return" to the Tōr•âh they've never known as it is for a gentile to speak of being "born again"—implying, in Judaic literature, "as a Jew." As in the 1st century, Goy•im can interface in the Jewish community only by

  1. conversion recognized by legitimate rabbis and the State of Israel (being born a spiritual Jew a first time), or

  2. recognition by a Beit-Din as a non-Jewish geir ("Yᵊrei-ha-Sheim)—grafted on, not "born again" like one already born a Jew)

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טְבִילָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

miqweh, Har Noph, Yerushalayim
Click to enlargeמִקְוֶה

fem. n. tᵊvil•âh;טבילה, tevilah, t'vilah immersion according to halakhic criteria in a miq•wëh.

In the first century C.E., one who practiced and advocated טְבִילָה (tᵊvil•âh), including one who supervised, witnessed and attested to the validity of tᵊvil•âh, was called "ha-Mat•bil" (the מַטבִּיל [Mat•bil]). (The immersant cannot be touching anything, even clothes or jewelry. The Judaic practice has always been grossly different from the Christian misunderstanding and subsequent perversion of it.)

Today, Jewish men aren't required to have a supervising witness and the woman who supervises tᵊvil•âh for Jewish women has an entirely unrelated title. Thus, the term Mat•bil has no accurate and correct parallel today.

Archeology has confirmed the halakhic requirements of the miq•wëh.

For tᵊvil•âh to be valid, the Mat•bil checked (and today's women's attendant checks), inter alia, that nothing—not even a ring, hairpin, dirt under fingernails, or the like—is touching the body (much less another person) during immersion, as well as to ensure that the entire body, including all hair, is completely enveloped in water. This means that tᵊvil•âh can only be performed entirely nude. Modesty, of course, must also be maintained.

To ensure all halakhic requirements are satisfied so that a tᵊvil•âh is valid, the מַטבִּיל (and today's women's attendant), who only instructs, inspects and witnesses, must be thoroughly familiar with halakhic requirements.

For numerous reasons, no "baptism" performed by Christians, depicted in their movies, etc.—and a public event in front of an audience—qualifies as tᵊvil•âh.

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TR [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Textus Receptus; "Received Text" (1624 C.E.). The Greek text rendered from the earlier English—'King James Version'—of 1611 C.E. by the Anglican Church of England.

TR occasionally diverges from all early source mss. TR is also known as the Elzevir text.

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תִּכּלַאלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.03.31]


Ti•klal; תכלאל, Tiklal "everything in it." The name of the si•dur Tei•mân•i.

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תִּ?ון עוֹלָםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.10.26]

Ti•?on O•lâm תכון עולם, Tikon Olam, Tikkon Olam, Tikun Olam, Tikkun Olam, Tikon Teivel, Tikon Tevel, Tiqon Olam, Tiqun Olam, Tiqon Teivel (? of [the] o•lâm).

Scriptural, Echoed in the Tei•mân•i Si•dur:

תִּכּוֹן תֵּבֵל (Ti•kon Teiveil; may the civilized-world be measured out, meted out, apportioned, calculated, weighed out)—relative to Hav•dâl•âh; i.e., to adjudicate-mi•shᵊpât differentiating sheep from sheep, rams and billygoats" (NHM 25.32). The meaning of regulate, arrange or fix is Modern Hebrew according to Klein.

This phrase, echoed in the Tei•mân•i si•dur (Yom Tov Mu•sâph), derives from the ordained order (first all of hâ-Ârëtz, "then" the Goy•im) set forth in Tᵊhil•im 93.1; 96.10 & Di•vᵊr•ei ha-Yâm•im Âlëph 16.30:

"Tremble before Him all hâ-Ârëtz,
אַף-תִּכּוֹן תֵּבֵל בַּל תִּמּוֹט

  • The modern meaning of this verbal noun of the pi•eil is planning and designing.
  • The Biblical meaning of the pi•eil was "he apportioned." (See I•yov 28.25; Tᵊhil•im 75.4 & Yᵊsha•yâhu 40.12 & 13.) Thus, the phrase employing the verbal noun meant, "apportioning the world." The implication is that we prepare the world for the messianic era by marshalling not only our abilities but by apportioning "the world"—our property and material resources—to Him, i.e., to His service. י‑‑ה apportioned the world to mankind. Now each person is expected, in this way, portion by portion, to reciprocate; apportioning the world back to Him (i.e., His service), returning the world to its Creator.

Tei•mân•i Si•dur (•leinu):

לְתַכֶּן עוֹלָם (lᵊ-ta•kën O•lâm; to measure out, mete out, apportion, calculate, weigh out [or "for measuring out, meting out, apportioning, calculating, weighing out"] an o•lâm),

"…to quickly see the Opulence of Your Strength, causing idols to pass away from hâ-Ârëtz and the faux-g*ods to be absolutely excised—לְתַכֶּן עוֹלָם in the Kingdom of Shad•ai…"

Doh!Here, Ash•kᵊnazim sidurim read: לְתַקֵּן עוֹלָם (lᵊ-ta•qein o•lâm; to repair an o•lâm), popularly understood as "repairing [or reforming] the world!!!

Ash•kᵊnazi, Sᵊphâr•âd•i, Qabâl•âh and non-Orthodox:

תִּקּוּן עוֹלָם (ti•qun O•lâm; repairing the world), popularly understood as human (Jewish Kabbalist or Humanist-Reform) efforts to "reform" the world—which contradicts Tᵊhil•im 3.9; et al. & 118.8-9!!!

The closest Scriptural mention is Qo•hëlët 7.13: "Who can לְתַקֵּן (lᵊ-ta•qein; repair) what He has twisted?"

Pivotal to One's Orientation vis-à-vis the Messianic Era!!!

Are humans reforming the world or are Tōr•âh-keepers, with their nᵊphâsh•ot, establishing the stones of a spiritual Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh ha-Shelishit in the heavens? Do we look in this world or in hâ-o•lâm ha-bâ? Surprisingly, many look to peace and all of the fulfillments in this physical world when all of the prophecies describe the spiritual hâ-o•lâm ha-bâ in which ha-Sheim dwells.

European לְתַקֵּן? Or Biblical (Tei•mân•i and Nᵊtzâr•im) לְתַכֶּן?

The Biblically-compatible phrase is תִּכּוּן עוֹלָם (ti•kun o•lâm; apportioning the world—i.e., separating the sheep from the goats).

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"Times of the Gentiles" [Updated: 2006.04.27]

A Gentile & NT concept; (Lk. 21.20-28 & Rev. 11.1-2). Though not recognized by Nᵊtzâr•im and other Orthodox Jews as authoritative, these passages derive from Dâ•ni•eil 7.25-27.

The "Times of the Gentiles" began with the banishment of Jews—and usurpation of the Nᵊtzâr•im Pâ•qid—from Yᵊru•shâ•layim in 135 C.E. and ended with the re-establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 (and of the Nᵊtzâr•im Pâ•qid in 1985). The celestial sign "in the stars" of Lk. 21.25 was fulfilled in 1994 by the collision of the bride-like comet, Shoemaker-Levy 9 , with the Mâ•shiakh-"star" (Tzëdëq). For further information, reference Atonement In the Biblical 'New Covenant' (ABNC).

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תִנֻחָמוּ מִן הַשָּׁמַיִםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2009.10.11]

Ti•nu•khâm•u min ha-Shâ•mâyim; תנחמו, תינוחמו, tinukhamu min ha-shamayim May you be comforted from the Heavens (viz., י‑‑ה); condolence.

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תִּקְוָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.12.22]

fem. n. Tiqᵊwâh תקוה, tiqwah, tiqweh, tiqveh, tiqvah, tikwah, tikweh, tikveh, tikvah (Biblical pronunciation, Israelis pronounce this Tiqᵊvâh), from קוה – to twist, stretch or strain; by extension, to await tensely or expectantly, to hope under stress or strain; i.e., to hope under stress or strain. Such hope always implies having done all that the individual can. Thus, this is hope based on, and deriving from, action; yet, which surpasses one's own ability or control.more info

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טִיּוּלPronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.04.17]

masc . n. Ti•yul; טיול, tiyul, tiul a tour or hike.

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תּוֹדָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.04.09]

tōd•âh;תודה,todah confessing-thankfulness, thankfully-confessing; popularly "Thanks!" Verbal noun formed from the hiph•il of ידה (to confess-thanks, to thankfully-confess); also the associated animal sacrifice offering.

הִתְוֵדָּה, he thankfully-confessed.

While the constructs distinguish certain applications, there is no separate and distinct Hebrew term distinguishing "thank" from "confess". It was a single, combined theme.

See also cognate Yᵊhūdâh and synonyms bᵊrâkh•âh and qârᵊbân more

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תּוֹעֵבָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. tō•eiv•âh, תועבה, תועבות, toeivah, toeivot pl. תּוֹעֵבוֹת (to•eiv•ōt); an abomination and abhorrence unspeakably disgusting and revolting. more info

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תּוֹלְדֹתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.11.01]

fem. n. (pl.) tō•lᵊd•ōt; תולדת, תולדות, toldot, toledot, tol'dot "1 history, chronology. 2 generations. 3 annals, chronicles. 4 consequences, outcome." (A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language For Readers of English; p. 694). In Biblical times, this was synonymous with yo•khas•in (the public genealogical registers – the genealogical "Tree of Life") – cf. also Atonement In the Biblical 'New Covenant' Live-Link (ABNC Live-Link)).

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תּוֹרָהPronunciation Table    Hear it! [Updated: 2020.07.15]

Seipher Torah Teimani
Tei•mân•i Seiphër Tōr•âh

fem. n. תּוֹרָה (Tōr•âh);תורה שבכתב, תורה שבעל פה,תורה שבעל-פה,תורה שבכתב,Torah she-bikhtav,Torah she-bikh'tav,Torah she-bichtav,Torah she-bich'tav,Torah she-beal peh,Torah she-b'al peh,Torah she-baal peh,moreh,mori,Torah she-bikhtav,Torah she-bikh'tav,Torah she-bichtav,Torah she-bich'tav,Torah she-beal peh,Torah she-b'al peh,Torah she-baal peh,Torah she-beal peih,Torah she-b'al peih,Torah she-baal peih The "Instructing", is the hiph•il verbal noun of הוֹרָה, a cognate of מוֹרֶה.

The Christian miso-Judaic (de-Judaizing) assumption of an "Old" or "Testament" implies Displacement Theology and is deeply offensive to any knowledgeable, self-respecting Jew.

Dᵊvâr•im 17.10-11, echoed by Ribi Yᵊhō•shūa (The Nᵊtzârim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matitᵊyâhu 23.1-8) and further corroborated by Dead Sea Scroll 4Q MMT, have always demonstrated conclusively that Tōr•âh has ALWAYS consisted of two elements:

  1. תּוֹרָה שֶׁבִּכְתָב; the first five books of Ta•na"kh, and

  2. תּוֹרָה שֶׁבְּעַל-פֶּה; instituted no later than the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh -Rish•ōn, from which the Shᵊkhin•âh departed, never again to reappear in a physical placeBiblical (i.e. pre-rabbinic) Ha•lâkh•âh.


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תּוֹסֶפתָּאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.01.25]

fem. n. Tō•sëph,תוספתא,תספתא,tosephta,tosefta additional, supplementary, complementary — the subset of Proto-Mi•shᵊn•âh Bâ•ra•yᵊt•ōt that corresponds to the 6 Sei•dër•im/​60 Ma•sëkhōt of the Mi•shᵊn•âh Pᵊrush•im.

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תּוֹשָׁבPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.08]

masc . n. Tō•shâv; תושב, toshav settler, resident, inhabitant.

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צַדִּיקPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.07.09]

masc . n. Tza•diq (adj. & m.n.), pl. צַדִּיקִים (Tza•diq•im); הצדיקים, צדיקות, Tzadiq, tzadiqut, Tsadiq, tzaddik, tsaddik one who exhibits the quality of צַדִּיקוּת (below). Tza•diq•im are Hellenized by Christian translators to "saint" idols.

When used with the specifier as a title, הַצַדִּיק ( ha-Tza•diq; "the just") identifies a person as the leader of a branch of pre-Dark Ages Kha•sid•im. The honorific title of Ya•a•qov "ha-Tza•diq" (Hellenized to "James the Just") Bën-Dâ•wid, first Nᵊtzâr•im Pâ•qid and brother of Ribi Yᵊho•shua Bën-Dâ•wid, is well documented.

fem. n.צַדִּיקוּת (tza•diq•ūt) – just, as defined by computational-logic based parsing — that rejects logical fallacies and confirms proper logic by computer, free of human bias, producing proper Ha•lâkh•âh/​Tōr•âh shë-bᵊ-al-pëh of Tōr•âh shë-bi-khᵊtâv; i.e. truth-based, logic-parsed justness — justice.

Contrast this with "the law" (as a product of lawyers and rabbis) and their legal definition of "justice" they equate to conformance with "the law" – even when the result contradicts truth. Many legal precedents were based on scientific misunderstandings. Yet, the legal principle of stare decisis requires that those often glaringly ignorant precedents be promulgated ad nauseam and the resulting legal compass reset permanently off-course in a futile effort to justify the initial error.

In those limited instances in which legal process diverges from truth and logic, then everything deriving from that erroneous premise, as fruit from the poisonous tree, is ex falso quodlibet! But rabbis cower at the prospect of turning their backs on Dark Ages traditions to face reality, despite the long string of successes, of a myriad of nations, over many millennia, in direct proportion to their basing their legal system on logic-driven (rather than greed/​arrogance-driven) application of various parts of Tōr•âh shë-bi-khᵊtâv! Dark Ages ignorance, excess and arrogance are the problems. Logic is the solution to rein-in arrogance and excess.

Truth – parsed by computational logic (no longer the traditional philosophical pseudo-logic) – must displace the consequent cascade of increasingly divergent strayings. Instances in which precedents were based on error are relatively limited. The bulk of law and Ha•lâkh•âh/​Tōr•âh shë-bᵊ-al-pëh are unaffected. Ergo, this will not throw the entire corpus of the law – nor the entirety of Ha•lâkh•âh/​Tōr•âh shë-bᵊ-al-pëh – into turmoil. Indeed, it will confirm the reasoning of Mōsh•ëh, the Nᵊviy•im and the wisest historical rabbis while eliminating cancerous error — and this reveals the True Tōr•âh shë-bi-khᵊtâv. But all legal process must be open to questioning even the original mortal premise for validity as defined by the latest knowledge of science and logic – the Laws of י‑‑ה. We must not become prisoners of the Dark Ages mindset!

Secular law among a myriad of nations has long revered logical reasoning and would, accordingly, suffer only relatively minor tremors. In the religious sphere where a Dark Ages mindset, arrogance, xenophobia, racism and casuistry have determined interpretations and ever widening fences, however, there is another side-benefit: tolerance. Computational logic imposes its own limits, clearly restricting itself to well-defined limits. This amounts to a significant retracting of fanatically and cultishly overextended rabbinic claws where, for example, today's Ultra-Orthodox wildly overstate multiple fences and extreme opinions that, in fact, have no basis in the logical application of Tōr•âh. Where logic refuses to support interpretations, Authority refuses to apply. Humility and recognition of one's own fallibility, imposed by that logical limitation, then ensures that tolerance of other views that may be correct fills that space.

Tragically, under present legal process, only if technical differences can be cited, the impact of the so-called precedent may be slightly blunted. Even then, the original error isn't acknowledged and set right. Thus, over time, errors in the law grow ever more numerous, ever more onerous, ever more malignant and ever more ensconced in an ever more historically distant, scientifically ignorant, mortal origin. Consequently, truth and justice are routinely sacrificed on the altar of stare decisis and, everyday in the rumor, speculation & smear media that now passes for "news", the vitriol borne of multiplying injustices seethes around us! Elitists are above the law!

צַדִּיקוּת, in contrast to rabbinic and "lawyer" casuistries of "the law", is a concept that can never be corrupted nor changed.

Thus, "the law", whether umbilically tied to "secular" stare decisis-driven or "religious" tradition-driven false premises, is in dire need of a legal concept of הָעוֹלָם הִשְׁתַּנָּה (mundus mutatus) to accelerate the process of acknowledging, correcting and displacing legal precedents that have since proven logically incoherent relative to the current logical understanding of science.

See also cognates tzᵊdâq•âh, Tzᵊdōq•im and Tzëdëq.

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צָנוּעַPronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.12.21]

tzâ•nua; צנוע, tzanua, tsanua meek, mild; i.e., moderate, prudent, judicious, circumspect.

Originally the antonym of a haughty man, this term has been distorted by Ultra-Orthodox rabbis, to deflect away from their own arrogant and abusive treatment of "lesser Jews" (even including צָנוּעַ Orthodox, whom Medievalist-Europeanist Ultra-Orthodox periodically, and often publicly, dismiss as goy•im) and other humans. The Ultra-Orthodox rabbis redirected the term to mean "modest" dress for women – as they apply it narrowly, rigorously and boastfully (opposite of צָנוּעַ), thereby deflecting the term to no longer indict them for their haughtiness.

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צָרַעַתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.04.04]

fem. n. tzâ•ra•at צרעת, tzaraat, tzara'at, tsaraat, tsara'at – "For hundreds of years, the popular translation of צָרַעַת has been 'leprosy.' " This is understated. צָרַעַת was rendered as λεπρα in LXX, perhaps three centuries before the destruction of the Beit-ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh ha-Shein•i.

"R' Hirsch demonstrates at length and conclusively that '[equating צָרַעַת to leprosy is] completely erroneous. Very briefly, he shows that the symptoms of צָרַעַת, as outlined in [this week's portion ], are far different than those of leprosy" ("Vayikra [sic]," Artscroll, ibid.).

This is corroborated in the Encarta '95 Encyclopedia. "In both the Old [sic] and New [sic] Testaments the name leprosy is given to a number of physical conditions unrelated to leprosy. This Hebrew term was later translated as lepros, from which came the word leprosy.

"The earliest symptom is often anesthesia (loss of sensation) in a patch of skin. Because of damage to the nerves, muscles may become paralyzed. The loss of sensation that accompanies the destruction of nerves may result in unnoticed injuries. These may result in secondary infections, the replacement of healthy tissue with scar tissue, and the destruction or absorption of bone.

"The classic disfigurements of leprosy, such as loss of extremities from bone damage or the so-called leonine facies, a lionlike appearance with thick nodulous skin, are signs of advanced disease, now preventable with early treatment" (Microsoft (R) Encarta Copyright (c) 1994 Microsoft Corporation. Copyright ( c ) 1994 Funk & Wagnall's Corporation).

QuackerySome have fancied—dangling castles from a string contrary to all evidence—that מְּצֹרָע is a contraction of מוֹצִיא רַע. However, this clearly wasn't the original connotation because the מְּצֹרָע was well-recognized as having a physical—and natural, not miraculous—malady called צָרַעַת. But if צָרַעַת wasn't leprosy, we must investigate what it was. Then we will have defined the מְּצֹרָע, the person who had צָרַעַת.

By modern scientific standards, the descriptions of צָרַעַת indicate more than one type of affliction. Another of the descriptions, strangely afflicting both skin and walls alike, appears to describe a seasonal fungal, flaky-skin rash that peaks primarily during early spring and late autumn, corresponding with the waxing and waning of dark-gray fungus outbreaks on the inner surface of exterior walls of buildings and other damp spots; thriving during the cooler, wet winters and drying up during the dry heat of the summer months. The same diagnosis and treatment, for both infected walls and skin, demonstrate that the ancients assumed the same infection for both; apparently associating its exchange from walls to skin with the apparent disappearance of the dark-gray fungus from the walls corresponding with the appearance of the skin rash, and vice-versa.


צָרַעַת derives from the verb צֹרַע, which, in turn, parallels the Arabic "sara'a, (= he threw to the ground, threw down), sar` (= epilepsy), [and Old South Arabic] צרע (= to throw down, humiliate)" (Klein's, p.557). This malady periodically threw the victim to the ground, was often triggered by flickering light – as from a fire – and, if not rescued quickly from the fire, resulted in burn injuries that can resemble the symptoms of leprosy, yet from an entirely unrelated cause. Photos are too gruesome to include here, but readers who wish can Google photos of leprosy and burn victims.

What malady throws its victim to the ground, can be triggered by the flickering of a fire and, consequently, often resulted in the victim falling into a fire and receiving burn injuries that can be confused with leprosy? Moreover, notice that "the laws of this צָרַעַת are identical to those of burns in wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 13.24-28" (Artscroll 'Vayikra', ibid.).

Yam Kinneret

What malady is triggered by the reflection of the sun on ripples of water, and throws the victim into the water? What malady can, by throwing the victim to the ground, inflict broken limbs, resulting in lameness, and paralysis? Virtually all of the symptoms of leprosy can be imitated by epilepsy. From this, צָרַעַת very clearly seems to include epilepsy. Probably, leprosy and epilepsy were considered different stages, or variations of, the same illness.

Translators and commentators unfamiliar with the Middle East and similar climates could not grasp how to interpret הַבָּשָׂר הַחַי as צָרַעַת in wa-Yi•qᵊrâ 13.15. "Living flesh" or "healthy flesh" is neither contaminated nor a contaminant.

However, there is a parallel phrase in Hebrew, מַיִם חַיִּים, and we know that this means "moving water" in contrast to still water. Thus, all other meanings having been debunked, it seems, a priori, that הַבָּשָׂר הַחַי refers to "the moving flesh." Maturing larvae deposited by a biting fly can cause movement under the skin. We find "moving flesh"—that is contaminated—when a biting fly deposits an egg under the flesh and it begins to mature and move under the flesh, causing "moving flesh."

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צָבָאPronunciation Table [Updated: 2020.08.06]

Tzahal soldiers praying
IDF soldiers praying

masc . n. Tzâ•vâ;צבא,tzava,tsava,tzevaot,ts'vaot, force; especially an armed military force, army. Klein also includes in its definition the terms war and warfare. The connective form (same Hebrew spelling) is pronounced tzᵊvâ-… (army of…). The plural is צְבָאוֹת (tzᵊvâ•ot). The plural connective (same Hebrew spelling as the plural) is pronounced tzi•vᵊ•ōt-… (armies of…).

Contrast this with, and distinguish it from חַיִל, a cognate of חַיָּל.

These terms are all popularly distorted in Christian Bibles as "host" (pl. "hosts") when, PC aside, they mean, and should be understood, not as supernatural "angels," but as an armed force of warriors, i.e. an army.

צה"ל (Tzahal) is the acronym for the צְבָא הֲגַנָּה לְיִשׂרָאֵל (Tzᵊva Haganah Lᵊ-Yi•sᵊr•â•eil; Army of Defense for Israel), i.e. the Israel Defense Forces—the IDF.

Ha•gan•âh derives from the same root verb as mâ•gein in Mâ•gein Dâ•wid—shield and, by extension, defense (popularly mistranslated as "star") of Dâ•wid.

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צְדָקָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.07.04]

fem. n. tzᵊdâq•âh;צדקה, tzedaqah, tsedaqah, tz'daqah, ts'daqah, tzedakah, tsedakah, tz'dakah, ts'dakah an act of justness/​justice as defined by Tōr•âh. Compare and contrast to (also f.n.) tza•diq•ūt.

This cannot be rendered "righteousness" because Christians assume righteousness to be equivalent to right-ness in the sense of "what is right in their own eyes" or according to their Καινής Διαθήκης, rather than as defined by Tōr•âh.

According to Tōr•âh, charity is required; ergo, the poor are due such assistance. Therefore, it is not accurately charity, but justice. Thus, the meaning of צְדָקָה has eroded from its Biblical meaning, in a case of selective 'tunnel vision,' to charity.

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צֶדֶקPronunciation Table [Updated: 2018.07.09]

masc . n. Tzëdëq (m.n.); – צדק, tzedeq, tsedeq, tzeddeq, tseddeq, tzedek, tsedek, tzeddek, tseddekone who embodies tza•diq•ūt; also the fifth planet from the sun (known among gentiles as Jupiter). Christianized to "righteousness."

Tzëdëq has been known from antiquity as a metonym for the Mâ•shiakh. The "star" (as it was then thought to be) that has represented the Mâ•shiakh since ancient astronomy has always, for this reason, been called Tzëdëq – the Mâ•shiakh-"star" – in Hebrew.

Tzëdëq was also the planet impacted by the "heavenly-angelic-bride" (symbolic of the Bride of ha-SheimAm Yi•sᵊr•â•eil); the 1994 string of comets that was the greatest phenomenon in the recorded history of the solar system — even surpassing the phenomena that signaled the birth of Ribi Yᵊho•shua (cf. The Nᵊtzârim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matitᵊyâhu). How could this far more stupendous celestial phenomena, then, not herald the dawn of the Messianic Era? (Cf. also link Malki-Tzëdëq and our note "Shoemaker-Levy" in our newsletter archives.)

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צְדוֹקִיםPronunciation Table   Hear it! [Updated: 2018.08.27]

masc . n. Tzᵊdōq•im, צדוקים,Sadduces,Tzedoqim,Tsedoqim,Tz'doqim,Ts'doqim,Tzedokim,Tsedokim,Tz'dokim,Ts'dokim,Tzedokkim,Tsedokkim,Tz'dokkim,Ts'dokkim,Tzadoqim,Zadoqites,Tzadok,Zaddok ((pl. of צְדוֹקִי); one of the three major 1st century Judean sects. In extra-Judaic texts, this is routinely Hellenized to Σαδδουκαῖος. English translations further sanitize some instances of the already-Hellenized term, gentilizing it, instead, to "saints" in order to make specific passages sound like they were originally written to gentile (originally Roman/​Italian ethnicity) Hellenist Christians instead of Jews.

"According to most scholars" this term originally referred to Bᵊn-Tzâ•dōq — a son of Tzâ•dōq, Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl during the reign of Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh.

During the reign of Hellenist Syrian King Antiochus Epiphanes (BCE 165), Hellenized

These were primarily the Hellenist Ko•han•im and the wealthy aristocratic class of Hellenist Jews – both of whom collaborated with the Hellenist Roman occupiers. more info

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צֶמַחPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.02.05]

masc . n. Tzëmakh, צמח,Tzemakh,Tsemakh,Tzemach,Tsemach pl. צְמָחִים (tzᵊmâkh•im); a scion, sprout or seedling. The verb stem, צָמַח, has evolved in MH: to mean "plant" generally (n. & v.). In BH:, it was sometimes used in the sense of, and in concert with, complementary synonyms expressing רוֹמֵם or הֵקִים by י‑‑ה — and in this sense the rabbinic Sages have long recognized this as a metonym for the Mâ•shiakh.

There are twelve instances of צֶמַח in Ta•na"kh.

Sprouts & Metonyms Other Than The Mâ•shiakh
Yam ha-Melakh, S'dom, Tzoar, Khevron
Click to enlargeYâm ha-Mëlakh, Sᵊdōm, Tzōar, Khë•vᵊr•on
Sedom-Amorah (Bab edh-Dhra) destroyed ca BCE2350 Todd Bolen-BiblePlaces.com
Click to enlargeSᵊdōm-Amōrâh (Bab edh-Dhra) destroyed ca BCE 2350 (Todd Bolen-BiblePlaces.com)
Har Sedom looking NW to Nakhal Tzohar
Click to enlargeHar Sᵊdōm looking NW to Nakhal Tzō•har
  1. bᵊ-Reish•it 19.24, 28 – [י‑‑ה] overturned these cities [Sᵊdōm and Aōmōrōâh], with all of הכִּכָּר and with all of the residents of the cities, וְצֶמַח הָאֲדָמָה.

    These cities were located on the southern shore of Yâm ha-Mëlakh. Despite a number of severe earthquakes, oft-heralded "climatic changes" date from eons before relatively recent (geologically and climatically) Biblical times. Probably only sparse and isolated wild herbs grew there. Even with some primitive irrigation, collecting waters from nearby mountain run-offs, of the seven species, perhaps, the residents may have cultivated small plots of barley and wheat. Accordingly, צֶמַח in this verse likely means wild herbs and grasses (i.e., barley and wheat).

  2. Yᵊkhëz•qeil 16.7 – To increase כְּצֶמַח of the field…

    This clearly refers to wild herbs and grasses (grains).

  3. Yᵊkhëz•qeil 17.9 – (referring, metaphorically, to Tzid•qi•yâhu, mëlëkh Yᵊhud•âh, as הַגֶּפֶן; pâ•suq 7) Will י‑‑ה not cut off … all of the freshly-plucked leaves of צִמְחָהּ she shall wither-up…

  4. Yᵊkhëz•qeil 17.10 – (referring, metaphorically, to Tzid•qi•yâhu, mëlëkh Yᵊhud•âh, as הַגֶּפֶן; pâ•suq 7) upon the garden-beds of צִמְחָהּ she shall wither-up…

  5. Ho•sheia 8.7 – צֶמַח that doesn't make flour

  6. Tᵊhil•im 65.11 – … צִמְחָהּ You bless

"The Tzëmakh", Metonym For The Mâ•shiakh
  1. Yᵊsha•yâhu 4.2 – On that day there shall be a צֶמַח י‑‑ה. (נְטַע שַׁעֲשׁוּעָיו, in Yᵊsha•yâhu 5.7, refers back to his use of צֶמַח as the Mâ•shiakh in 4.2.)

  2. Yᵊsha•yâhu 61.11 – For like the ârëtz puts forth צִמְחָהּ, and like a garden תַצְמִיחַ her seeds, so A•don•âi ha-Sheim יַצְמִיחַ tzᵊdâq•âh and praise נֶגֶד all of ha-goy•im.

  3. Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 23.5 – Behold, the days are coming, declares י‑‑ה, when I will set up for Dâ•wid a צֶמַח Tza•diq; then a king shall reign, act judiciously and make mi•shᵊpât and tzᵊdâq•âh in the ârëtz.

  4. Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 33.15 – In those days and in that hour, אַצְמִיחַ for Dâ•wid a צֶמַח tzᵊdâq•âh; then he shall make mi•shᵊpât and tzᵊdâq•âh in the ârëtz.

  5. Zᵊkhar•yâh 3.8 – Shᵊm•a prithee, Yᵊho•shua ha-Ko•hein Gâ•dol – [both] you and your companions who are sitting before you – because they are men of מוֹפֵת, for behold, I am bringing My servant, the צֶמַח.

  6. Zᵊkhar•yâh 6.12 – Say to [Yᵊho•shua Bën-Yᵊhōtzâdâq ha-Kō•hein Gâ•dōl (pâ•sūq 11)], Thus said י‑‑ה of armies saying, Behold, a man whose name is צֶמַח; ūmitakhᵊtâv he יִצְמָח and construct the Hei•khâl י‑‑ה.

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צְנִיעוּתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2021.08.10]

fem. n. Tzᵊniy•ūt; צניעות,tzeniyut,tseniyut,tz'niyut,ts'niyut,tzeniut,tseniut,tzniut,tsniut Biblical meaning in Ta•na"kh: moderate, restrained, benevolent (i.e. charitable, inclusive, a pleasant disposition, friendly and welcoming); level-headed, cool-headed, prudent. צְנִיעוּת in Ta•na"kh applied primarily to one's disposition; not to assimilated European Puritan prudery in women's dress as corrupted (and misdirected, evading responsibility) by many contemporary Ultra-Orthodox rabbis; see also Sons of Light vs Sons of the Dark Age (2013.01.20)

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צְפַנְיָהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Tzᵊphan•yâh; צפניה, Zephaniah, Tzephanyah, Tsephanyah, Tz'phanyah, Ts'phanyah, Tzefanyah, Tsefanyah, Tz'fanyah, Ts'fanyah, Tzephaniah, Tsephaniah, Tz'phaniah, Ts'phaniah, Tzefaniah, Tsefaniah, Tz'faniah, Ts'faniah י--ה has cached, squirreled-away, encrypted; de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Zephaniah.'

Tzᵊphan•yâh is the ninth book of the twelve minor Nᵊviy•im of Ta•na"kh.

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צִיץPronunciation Table [Updated: 2019.01.24]

Click to enlargeTō•tëphët with Tzitz of Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol in which was mounted the gold plaque engraved – in Proto-Sinaitic, not modern, Hebrew:

"Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew ה‑‑Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew יProto-Sinaitic Hebrew ל Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew שProto-Sinaitic Hebrew דProto-Sinaitic Hebrew ק"

(קֹדֶשׁ לַי‑‑ה).

masc . n. Tzitz; ציץ, Tzitz "blossom" – the blossom in which was mounted the gold plaque engraved in Proto-Sinaitic, not modern, Hebrew (much less English):

"Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew ה‑‑Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew יProto-Sinaitic Hebrew ל Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew שProto-Sinaitic Hebrew דProto-Sinaitic Hebrew ק"

(קֹדֶשׁ לַי‑‑ה)

Displacing the idolatrous neshed & uræus of Egypt, this was the centerpiece of the Tō•tëph­ët of the Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol, which held his mi•tzᵊnëphët in place (Shᵊm•ōt 28.36-38; 39.30-31).

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צִיצִיתPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.10.19]

cBCE841 Yeihu (Jehu) Shalmaneser III Black Obelisk
Click to enlargeObelisk relief c BCE 841Yeihu Bën-Yᵊhō•shâ•phât, Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•­eil, offers trib­ute to Assyrian King Shalmaneser III. Earliest extant witness of ancient Israeli attire (with fringes), grooming (hair and beard length/​style) – and royal mi•tzᵊnëphët or mi•gᵊba•at.

fem. n. Tzitz•it; ציצית, ציציות, tzitzit, tsitsit, zizit tassel, blossom, bloom and, by extension, nipple (by extension, teat or breast); Hellenized to "fringe" (plural tzitz•i•ōt).

A wall relief in the palace of Assyrian King Shalmaneser III, c BCE 841, is the earliest depiction of pre-Exilic, i.e. mostly pre-assimilated and the most pristine depiction known, Yᵊhud•im. This wall relief shows two Yᵊhud•im, on the right, behind Yeihu Bën-Yᵊhō•shâ•phât, Mëlëkh Yi•sᵊr•â•­eil (kneeling before King Shalmaneser III, offering a gift with his request for a treaty of alliance with Ma•rᵊdukh-ian Syria). So far as known today, his two fellow delegates wear proper Sciptural fringed garments and headdress (see kip•âh) with tᵊphil•in wound around their upper left forearms (box at the elbow).

Tzitzit with Petil Tekhelet, tied Nosakh Teimani
Click to enlargeTa•lit with Tzitz•it with pëtil tëkheilët, tied Nō•sakh Tei•mân•i

Today, tzitz•it is also used to denote, more generally, the Arbâ Kᵊnâph•ōt – either the usual four-cornered garment Arbâ Kᵊnâph•ot proper, which is worn all during the day, or to the tal•it. The Arbâ Kᵊnâph•ot is generally worn under a shirt, although the more zealous wear a woolen outer version (especially in colder weather). According to bᵊ-Mid•bar 15:37-38, one doesn't fulfill the Mitz•wâh unless the tzitz•i•ot includes a פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת (pᵊtil tᵊkheilët).

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צִיּוֹןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Har Tziyon (Hellenized to Mt. Zion)
Har Tzi•yon (Hellenized to Mt. Zion)
Old City
Ir Dâ•wid

masc . n. Tzi•yon; ציון, Tziyon, Tzion, Zion notable, noteworthy, remarkable, demarcated by a Mitz•wâh; de-Judaized (Hellenized and Anglicized) to 'Zion.' Har Tzi•yon ("Mt. Zion") is located south of the "Old City" (bottom of the map, slightly west of center).

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צוֹםPronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.12.19]


masc . n. Tzōm; צום, צם, tzom, tsom fasting, a fast.

Not-so-observant Jews often wish "Tzōm kal" (an easy fast). However, this is incompatible with Yᵊsha•yâhu 58.1-12. The Tōr•âh-compatible greeting is, rather, "צוֹם מוֹעִיל!" See also Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 31.13 and Zᵊkhar•yâh 8.19.

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צֹאןPronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.05.20]

שֶׂה = a kâ•sheir Bovidae
eiz - goat Nubian buck kidAyil - ramparah adumah - Red Heifer (American Brangus, 2012 Grand Champion, Houston)

masc . n. Tzōn; צאן, tzon, tson a flock or herd of sëh (kâ•sheir Bovidae livestock; viz., sheep, goats or cattle). Compare & contrast with ayil, tal•ëh, këvës, eiz and pâr•âh.

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הַצּוֹפֶהPronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. ha-Tzoph•ëh; הצופה, הצפה, Tzopheh, Tsopheh, Tzofeh, Tsofeh the observer, spectator. This is the newspaper of מפד"ל (Maph•da"l) an acronym for מִפלָגָה דָתִית לְאֻמִית (mi•phᵊlâg•âh dât•it lᵊ•um•it; party of religious national; i.e., the National Religious Party or NRP). The NRP doesn't publish their circulation.

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