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Hebrew Glossary: A-D

The reason this simple page of glossary definitions is ranked so popular with the search engine is because so many people click on our links to these definitions from the content in… the 'Netzarim Quarter' Village web site in Ra•an•anꞋã(h), Israel at www.netzarim.co.il

The real content is in the 'Netzarim Quarter'! Click on our logo above for an exciting visit to the 'Netzarim Quarter' where you'll learn about Historical Ribi Yehoshua and his original, Jewish, followers before the great Roman-Hellenist apostasy of 135 C.E.—and even more importantly, how you (whether Jew or non-Jew) can follow the historically true, Judaic, Ribi Yehoshua. In Hebrew, his original followers were called the Netzarim (Hellenized to "Nazarenes").

Until Paqid Yirmeyahu researched the Netzarim name and sect and began publishing about it in 1972 in The Netzarim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matityahu (NHM) no one in modern times was even aware of the name Netzarim. It stretches credulity that no one in modern times had heard of the Netzarim until Paqid Yirmeyahu published it in 1972… and then, suddenly, everybody figured it out??? Check (and verify) the dates of the earliest works about the Netzarim by the others and you'll see that they are deceiver-plagiarists. Then insist on the person whom ha-Sheim selected to entrust the knowledge, not imposters who falsely call their continuing practice of displacement mythology "Nazarene Judaism" or directly plagiarize the name "Netzarim."

Because we teach and practice the authentic Judaic teachings of Ribi Yehoshua—not displacement mythology—we are the only group who have restored the Netzarim to be accepted in the legitimate Jewish community in Israel—genuinely like Ribi Yehoshua and the original Netzarim. Consequently, the 'Netzarim Quarter' is the only web site of legitimate Netzarim / Nazarene Judaism.

Give all the friends you've ever known the chance to know about this exciting site; send them our web site address (www.netzarim.co.il) that opens modern eyes for the first time to the Judaic world that Ribi Yehoshua and his original Netzarim knew, practiced and taught.

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שִׁבְעִ֣יםPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2021.02.16]


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a-3 [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


Latin ms. a-3 (ca. 300-399 C.E.) translated from earlier Greek mss. of the Christian NT.


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אָדָםPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2019.09.23]

Qesem Cave
Click to enlargeOut of Israel, Not Africa
c BCE 400,000!
QësꞋëm Cave, near Rōsh ha-AiꞋyin. Earli­est human remains discovered to date; fashioned knives and other tools, cooked meat (photo: Ron Barkai, TAU)

masc . n. ã•dãmꞋ / ã•dãmꞋ; אדם, האדם, אדמה, אדומה, Adam, ha-adam, adamah, adumah man (collectively), (hu)mankind. (Capitalizations in English – e.g. "Man" or "Adam" – are nonexistent in Hebrew and, therefore, artificially superimposed by translators). Usage in Shᵊm•ōtꞋ 30.32 implies that, without an explicit specifier, ã•dãmꞋ implies a layman in contrast to a kō•heinꞋ.

Use of the specifier prefix, □ה, differentiates אָדָם ("man") from הָאָדָם ("the person, human individual"). Contrast with ish

Cognates include אֲדָמָה (a•dãm•ãhꞋ; soil, dirt, earth) and the masc. adjective אָדֹם (ã•domꞋ; red, lit. "clay-red" or chestnut) and its feminine counterpart, אֲדֻמָּה (a•dum•ãhꞋ; red, lit. "clay-red" or chestnut), as in "Red Heiffer".

Hundreds Of Millennia Of Oral Lore Preceded Recorded History

Oral lore transitioned to recorded history long after the "Big Nᵊti•yãhꞋ", long after the emergence of several variants of humans migrating out of Israel and subsequently mutating to adapt to different regions, and only after the development of written language in Mesopotamia ca. B.C.E. 3200 – enabling, for the first time, the recording of unfolding history.


Tigris & Euphrates rivers
Click to enlargeMesopotamia (in yellow, between Tigris and Euphrates rivers, top center) in the context of the modern Middle East
From Genetic Adam and Eve c BCE ????
To Av•rã•hãmꞋ c BCE 1879
From Prehistory Ancient Lore To Recorded History

Before language and writing, ancient lore around campfires was all the history there was; the only explanation of how everything had come to be as it was when writing, and written (recorded) history, began – ca. B.C.E. 3200. Crystallization of recorded history emerged over the next millennium, including the family tree of Av•rã•hãmꞋ ca. B.C.E. 2187.

The advent of recording unfolding history required that what was known of ancient lore be molded into the then-existing present to fill in the blanks of how things had come to be as they were. Thus, the highlight names known to the Biblical tribal-historians — Middle East Gan EiꞋdën — ancestors and antiquity were strung together to the best of their knowledge. The rabbinic collapsing of the time from the Big NãtꞋãh to Av•rã•hãmꞋ into three millennia, to conclude the earth is less than 6,000 years old and dinosaurs never existed, has been an epic error of assumption.

Recent (2019) research by of the Pan-African Evolution Research Group at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History “argues that our evolutionary past must be understood as the outcome of dynamic changes in connectivity, or gene flow, between early humans scattered across Africa. Viewing past human populations as a succession of discrete branches on an evolutionary tree may be misleading, they said, because it reduces the human story to a series of "splitting times" which may be illusory.”

Thus, humans had, before the era of written language and recorded history, variegated from a bronze-skinned Israeli Semite so newly discovered scientists haven't yet named him (see update), to tall, dark-skinned Kalahari Africans, to Asian Denisovans and stockier pale-skinned European Neanderthals. A priori, when Gan EiꞋdën Semites referred to Nᵊphil•imꞋ and עֲנָקִים, they likely described immigrant bands from Africa.

Scientific research updates more

See also Khaw•ãhꞋ ("mitochondrial Eve").


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אָדוֹןPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


masc . n. ã•donꞋ; אדון, אדוני, Adonai, Adoni Lord / lord, sir, the gentleman.

Only in post-Biblical times, with the Hellenization of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ -Rish•onꞋ (perhaps as an ecumenical gesture of inclusivity to the polytheist Hellenists), did the possessive plural, אֲדוֹנָי, come to be reserved to refer exclusively to י‑‑ה (variously abbreviated יי, ‭ ‬ ‎ה' or י--ה). Thus, אֲדוֹנָי is regarded as too qã•doshꞋ to pronounce in profane (i.e., ordinary) conversation; and is pronounced only in tᵊphil•otꞋ. In ordinary—profane—discourse, one instead says "ha-SheimꞋ", abbreviated ה'.)

In Biblical times, the possessive simply referred to nobility among human beings: אֲדוֹנִי or pl. אֲדוֹנָי.

Note, however, that there are no upper and lower case and, thus, no distinctions based on capitalization, in Hebrew. Further, ignoring vowels, early Hellenist Christians, translating into Greek, found it particularly easy to pervert the singular, referring to a human nobleman, into the plural, implying divinity.

When spelled without vowels, the helpful ו is often added (אדוני).

ã•donꞋ was Hellenized, via LXX, to the Greek κύριος (kurios; sir, lord). See also MorꞋi, rabbꞋi and The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu (NHM, in English) note 6.24.1.


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agunah (anchored woman - husband refuses to grant get)

עֲגוּנָהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2015.10.12]


fem. n. a•gūn•ãhꞋ (from עָגַן); עגונה, עגונות, agunah, agunot pl. a•gūn•ōtꞋ; popularly a "chained woman"; a woman anchored in a marriage (and, therefore, unable to remarry) by a husband who is missing and not proven dead, or who may be abusive, may have deserted her or may even have remarried without giving the previous wife a geit—rendering her unmarriable (because she is still deemed married) according to Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ.


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אַהֲרֹןPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


A•har•ōnꞋאהרון, Aharon

Hellenized / de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Aaron."


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אַהֲבַת עוֹלָםPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


A•hav•atꞋ O•lãmꞋ; אהבת עולם, Ahavat Olam 'Love of the Age'

This is the prayer—which likely dates back to Har Sin•aiꞋ (in contrast with some parts of the Si•durꞋ which date from the Middle Ages)—introducing the recitation of the Shᵊma.


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Ahmose[Glos A-D, updated: 2018.03.14]

See Yah-moses.Ahmose


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אַגָּדָהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2007.07.09]


fem. n. A•jãd•ãhꞋ : אגדה, Agadah, Aggadah, Ajadah "PBH 1 legend, tale, story, myth. 2 'Aggadah'—homiletic section in Rabbinic literature. [A secondary form of הַגָּדָה…]" referring to that portion of rabbinic teachings which is not Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ; consisting of didactic illustrative extrapolations—legends, tales and myths arising out of 'hermeneutic licence'—"comparable to metaphors of poems…"  The A•jãd•ãhꞋ is a set of "moral and ethical teachings dealing with the problems of faith and the art of living."  "The rabbis themselves stated that certain statements in the Mish•nãhꞋ and Bã•ra•yᵊtãꞋ giving descriptive details of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ, were mere 'hyperbole.' "  "The A•jãd•ãhꞋ is first and foremost the creation of Israeli Jewry, from the time of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ to the end of the Tal•mudꞋic period." 


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עַגִ'יןPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2007.02.26]


Ajin
Click to enlargeAjin

A•jinꞋ עג'ן, Ajin (Borrowed from Arabic.) Bread dough from which several types of Tei•mãn•iꞋ breads are made. Basic recipe (refine over time)—חָלָב (khã•lãvꞋ, or substitute margarine for butter): more


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אַחֲרוֹנִיםPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2010.08.09]


masc . adj. (pl.) A•khar•on•imꞋאחרונים, Akharonim

Revered rabbis from the 16th century C.E. to the present; in contrast to the Ri•shon•imꞋ.


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עָלֵינוּPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


fem. n. ãl•eiꞋnu; עלינו, Aleinu [it is] upon us [to…].

This is the penultimate prayer in morning liturgy of the Tei•mãn•iꞋ prayer book (differing only in a few words from other traditions):

"עָלֵינוּ to praise ã•donꞋ of everything, … more


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עַלְמָהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2010.10.28]


fem. n. a•lᵊmâhꞋ, עלמה, בתולה, almah, betulah, b'tulah maiden, young unmarried woman.

Contrast maiden with bᵊtul•ãhꞋ (בְּתוּלָה, virgin).

A maiden was expected, and assumed, to be virgin until she had relations with her husband. Thus, the argument of some that עַלְמָה implies "not virgin" is, to put it kindly, non sequitur.


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עַםPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2020.03.19]

masc . n. am;עם הארץ,עמים,עם ישראל,Am Yisraeil,am haaretz,am ha-aretz,amim,am ekhad kinfolk, kindred, clan; originally Levantine ranchers & nomadic-herdsmen; (pl. עַמִּים). See contrast of עַם אֶחָד v עַם-הָאָרֶץ.  more


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אַמָּהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2019.01.13]

am•ãhꞋ;אמה,אמות,cubit pl. אַמּוׂת (am•ōtꞋ); forearm, middle finger or penis. Distance from forearm joint (i.e. elbow) to tip of middle finger. Hellenized to πῆχυς in LXX; Latinized & Anglicized by 14th century C.E. to "cubit."

This measurement depended upon whose forearm. So this was not a fixed measurement like we're accustomed to today. Most people couldn't distinguish with the naked eye if a 5-story building is off by a fraction of an inch. Hence, we're content to accept a mid-range value in order to provide readers with a practical insight into the size and scope of whatever is being described in am•ōtꞋ – leaving the futile quest for finer precision to humanzees, who know how many angels dance on the head of a pin. The am•ãhꞋ varied between the approximate bounds of 45.75–53.34 cm.; i.e. est. μ≈50 cm /​ half a meter (18–21 in.; i.e. est μ≈20 in). Ergo, for all intents and purposes, an am•ãhꞋ was half a meter (i.e. 50 cm or 20").


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עֲמָלֵקPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2012.12.25]


Amaleiq
Click to enlargeMap: Israel ca. B.C.E. 1000

A•mã•leiqꞋ; עמלק, Amaleiq, Amaleq the archenemy of Israel and personification of Sã•tãnꞋ (Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 25.17ff); grandson of "qovꞋ / Yi•sᵊrã•eilꞋ.

Grandson of Av•rã•hãmꞋ and chronologically preceding the Tribe of Yᵊhud•ãhꞋ, Ei•sauꞋ was technically a proto-Jew – an even higher precedent!

','#dfefff', 260)"; onMouseout="hideddrivetip()">born Jew" Ei•sauꞋ (patriarch of the Ëd•om•imꞋ).

Ei•sauꞋ-Ëd•omꞋ – culminating in his grandson, A•mã•leiqꞋ – was the precedent "born-Jew" excised from the family for rejecting the family religion and laws (the archetype that would continue developing into Twelve Tribal laws and culminate, at Har Sin•aiꞋ, in Tōr•ãhꞋ). Thus, A•mã•leiqꞋ (Ei•sauꞋ-Ëd•omꞋ) is the prototype of atheist and secular "born Jews" who have relinquished Tōr•ãhꞋ (and refuse to make tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ).

A•mã•leiqꞋ became clan-patriarch of the ancient archenemy of Israel, pervading Ëd•omꞋ and located in what is today's Israeli NëgꞋëv and west-central Jordan, south of Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh, in the regions of Bᵊn•eiꞋ-A•mã•leiqꞋ ("Amalekites") and "Ëd•omꞋ" (see map).

Contrary to English translations and… more


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אָמַרPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


ã•marꞋ; אמר, amar he said, said (he, so-and-so), he told. The plural participle is אֹמְרִים (o•mᵊr•imꞋ; saying or telling)

One of the most frequently used verbs in the Scriptures is וַיֹאמֶר (yoꞋmër; and he said or told, and [so-and-so] said or told). This is the fu. tense with a conversive ו, transforming it into past perf..

See also Dã•vãrꞋ


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אָמֵןPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2020.10.27]

ã•meinꞋ; אמן,amein,amen pi•eilꞋ imper. m.s. is conspicuous from the emphatic response of any qᵊhil•ãtꞋ Tei•mân•iꞋ; not the wishy-washy adverb. I.e. Foster, train-up or coach—to faithful competence, reliability and trustworthiness!

From אָמַן (ã•manꞋ; he/​it/​who fostered, trained-up or coached to competence, reliability, trustworthiness). See also the cognates אֱמוּנָה and נֶאֱמָן.


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IDF soldiers praying toward Yerushalayim

עֲמִידָהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


fem. n. A•mid•ãhꞋ; עמידה, Amidah "standing" especially the section of prayers which are recited while standing, derives from עָמַד (ã•madꞋ; he was standing).


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Amaleiq
Click to enlargeMap: Israel ca. B.C.E. 1000

עַמוֹןPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


A•mōnꞋ; עמון, Amon ancient nation-people east of the northern half of Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh.


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אֲמוֹרָא, pl. אֲמוֹרָאִיםPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2021.01.05]

masc . n. A•mōr•ãꞋ — a human loudspeaker (an Aramaic term, pl. A•mōr•inꞋ), originally in Babylon, for one of the Pair of Complement Sages of the current Zūg; later adopted as a Hebrew duality: A•mōr•ãyꞋim, pair(s) of expounders.אמוראים,Amoraim

During the time of the Tan•ã•imꞋ, long before public address sound systems, the A•mōr•inꞋ simply functioned as a loudspeaker Complement (hence the Hebrew duality, mimicking the ZūgꞋōt) to the Tan•ãꞋ; repeating, verbatim, in a loud voice for the convocation audience what the Tan•ãꞋ had said in his normal conversational voice.

In the post-Tannaitic period, these former Complements of the Tan•ã•imꞋ became their Expounders, from the period of the completion of the Mish•nãhꞋ (ca. 220 C.E.) until the completion of both the Ba•vᵊl•iꞋ and Yᵊru•shã•layꞋim versions of Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ (ca. 470 C.E.).


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עֲמֹרָהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2021.10.10]

Yam ha-Melakh, S'dom, Tzoar, Khevron
Click to enlargeYãm ha-MëlꞋakh, A•mōr•ãhꞋ (modern Numeira, Jordan), Sᵊdōm, TzōꞋar, Khë•vᵊr•onꞋ

A•mōr•ãhꞋעמרה,עמורה,Gomorrah,Gomorrha — probably f.n. derived from עֹמֶר, implying farm­lands; Hellenized to Γόμορρα, hence English Gomorrah.

Admitting great uncertainty, archeologists have tended to associate A•mōr•ãhꞋ with mod­ern Numeira, (among others) on the eastern (Jordanian) shore of the southern Ki•kãrꞋ Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh. I'm more inclined to think it was near modern Safi, Jordan (see accompanying map).

See also Sᵊdōm more


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עַמְרָםPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2017.12.21]


AmᵊrãmꞋ; עמרם, Amram father of Mōsh•ëhꞋ; probably a contraction of עם-רם (a tall kindred) or, less likely, Aramaic עֲמַר-ם (he bound them in sheaves, enslaved them).


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עַמוֹסPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


ã•mōsꞋ; עמוס, Amos load, burden; third of twelve minor Nᵊviy•imꞋ in Ta•na"khꞋ (de-Judaized to "Amos").


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עָנָהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2010.02.21]


ãn•ãhꞋ.ענה, anah

There are, according to Ernest Klein, MH four distinct themes in Hebrew whereas, according to Marcus Jastrow, there are two principle themes in Aramaic. In order of their primary meanings, these are:

Hebrew (Klein)Aramaic (Jastrow)
  1. To answer, reply or respond;

  2. To be occupied, busy oneself;

  3. To chant in answer, response or chorus (popularly – and misleadingly – reduced to "sing"); and

  4. To be bowed down or afflicted.

  1. To answer, reply or respond, chant in answer, response or chorus (popularly reduced to "sing");

  2. To detain or postpone. However, Jastrow (p. 1093) defines the pu•alꞋ pass. part., מְעוּנֶּה (mᵊun•ëhꞋ), as "fasting," as on Yom ha-Ki•purꞋ.

Each of these are further modified by the bin•yãnꞋ instantiated. Scholars are often divided concerning a number of passages in which the bin•yãnꞋ is ambiguous. This is particularly true of the verb describing how one is to "answer-afflict" oneself on Yom Ki•purꞋ—and, therefore, the same verb (rendered "afflicted") in Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 53.4 & 7. more


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עָנָןPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2020.02.23]

ãn•ãnꞋ;ענן,anan cloud, fog, haze, smog (e.g. incense-haze), pall; also MH: (computing) data-cloud. Distinct from smoke from a fire, which is עָשָׁן.


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Ανανιας [Glos A-D, updated: 2011.03.29]


WIth the exception of Beit-Dã•widꞋ (who became persecuted, hunted and killed by Romans and their Hellenist informers beginning in 62 C.E.), going by one's Greek name demonstrated one's Hellenist assimilation and collaboration with the Roman occupiers. His original name was חֲנַנְיָה (Khan•an•yãhꞋ; Gracious is Y-h), shortened to חָנָן (Khãn•ãnꞋ)


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עֲנָקִ֖יםPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2021.04.07]

wesekh pectoral necklace (mankhet counterbalance inset)
Click to enlargeAncient world's ultimate Man!!! bling — Egyptian wesekh pectoral broad-collar necklace with mankhet counterbalance that hangs down back (inset shows attaching ring) — antecedent of the Ei•phōdꞋ.

Note WadꞋjet (left) & Nekhbet (right, holding the rope-circle eternity symbol, encircling the sun).

The people who descended from עֲנָ֖ק;Anaqim identified as from הַנְּפִילִ֛ים!

The verb עֲנָק means "to place around the neck". Even as a m.n., עֲנָק is defined as a "necklace"—for a female and even for a camel.

Being from the Nᵊphil•imꞋ, this was a descendent of Kᵊna•anꞋ. Recognizing that עֲנָק is either the name of a man or his descriptive title as "Wearer of the Pectoral" unlocks a multi-millennia enigma in Yᵊhō•shūꞋa 15.13-14: עֲנָק was a man; there were never "fallen-angels" nor other "non-human giants" in Ta•na"khꞋ.

First, אַרְבַּ֛ע is recorded to be the father of עֲנָק; then we see that עֲנָק was the father of his 3 sons in Khë•vᵊr•ōnꞋ, whom Yᵊhō•shūꞋa Bin-Nun chased out. The only remaining question is whether this man was named עֲנָק or was עֲנָק a descriptive monicker of a descendant of Kᵊna•anꞋ (see Nᵊphil•imꞋ) who had either taken a notable pectoral in battle and wore it himself or otherwise earned a pectoral as a distinction and was known thereafter for that distinction and whose descendants were then known as An•ãq•imꞋ—rather like Ya•a•qōvꞋ became known as Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ, patriarch of the Yi•sᵊr•ã•eil•imꞋ.


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anthropomorphismPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2017.06.06]


(adj. anthropomorphic). The representation of objects (especially a god) as having human form or traits; a form of idolatry. Whenever a Bën-Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ in the Bible references the "Arm," "Hand," "Finger," etc. of י‑‑ה or ël•oh•imꞋ it is, necessarily, figurative; referring to a mortal, human ma•lãkhꞋ.


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αντινομος [Glos A-D, updated: 2011.03.29]


antinomian, lit. "anti-law"; Hellenist term meaning anti-Tōr•ãhꞋ.


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Ἀντίοχος ἘπιφανήςPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2021.07.18]

An•tiꞋ•ökh•ös  ö Ëp•i•phan•æsꞋ — "Antioch Man(ifest)";Antiochus,Antiochos,Antiokhos (see Dãn•iy•eilꞋ 11-12).


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ἐπὶ κῶμονPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2020.05.05]

Epi Kōmon (Hellenist Greek): afikomen,afiqomen,aphikomen,aphiqomen,afikoman,afiqoman,aphikoman,aphiqoman,afikomon,afiqomon,aphikomon,aphiqomon"for orgiastic partying"
by which the Greek-speaking Hellenist Romans (and Hellenist Jews) explicitly referred to the climactic banquet finale of their spring Dionysian/​Bacchanalian: the orgiastic-partying, risqué-parade co-celebrating Ishtar; i.e. Easter, which rivaled PësꞋakh.

The ἐπὶ κῶμον enticed so many Jews to the idolatrous Hellenist Roman spring Dionysian/​Bacchanalian—instead of PësꞋakh—that the early rabbis introduced a reform: syncretizing a sanitized version of ἐπὶ κῶμον into the PësꞋakh SeiꞋdër Ha•gãd•ãhꞋ as "dessert" by merely transliterating it into Hebrew letters as אֲפִיקוֹמָן!

This was no different than Jews today who put up a "KhaꞋnūkh•âh Bush" decorated with lights and exchange gifts during Kha•nūkh•âhꞋ in order to compete with the more popular Xmas—or the acculturation of Roman memes from synagogue to Sanhedrin and ka•rᵊpasꞋ to "aphꞋi•qōmꞋãn" and reclining while eating. This is only one of a number of assimilations through the millennia that need to be restored. more


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Αποκρυφα [Glos A-D, updated: 2011.03.29]


(Apokrupha); Anglicized to Apocrypha.

"Those [things] having been hidden away," anglicized to Apocrypha, the set of Hellenist Greek books (preserved only in Greek) of similar age to, and exhibiting a Hellenist interpretation of, the books in Ta•na"khꞋ but which the Jewish Sages never considered reliable or sacred and have never been part of Ta•na"khꞋ. Millennia later—"not before the late fourth century [C.E.] and long after Constantine the Great established Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire" (James H. Charlesworth, editor, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, Garden City: Doubleday 1983, Vol. I, p. xxiii)—the Christian Church canonized the Apocrypha (declared it part of their Christian Bible). However, a few centuries later, the Protestant Reformation rejected their canonicity. The book of Revelation wasn't canonized in the Greek Church until the 10th century C.E. and the Syrians today regard their PᵊshitᵊtãꞋ as the canon. See also Pseudepigrapha.


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עֲקֵידָהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2012.03.13]


Aqeidah, sacrifice of the Ayil (ram)
Hover over regions for hintsClick to enlargeA•qeid•ãhꞋ (incognizant surreal fingerpainting by Yã•eilꞋ in 1990 – at 4 years old).

fem. n. A•qeid•ãhꞋ; עקידה, Aqeidah binding hands and feet (usually refers to עֲקֵידַת יִצְחַק אָבִינוּ the binding of Yitz•khãqꞋ ãv•iꞋnu, bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 22.1-19), from עָקַד (â•qadꞋ; he bound hands and feet, hog-tied).

Tōr•ãhꞋ documents that in Av•rã•hãmꞋ's era, when everything seemed lost, the politically correct, last-ditch, desperate method believed to enable one to prevail on his god was to demonstrate his absolute sincerity and unreserved belief in, and dedication to, his god by sacrificing his firstborn son (Mᵊlãkh•imꞋ Beit 3.26-27; See also MikhꞋãh 6.7-8).

This episode records how Av•rã•hãmꞋ weaned himself, and his posterity, from this practice. more


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עֲרָבָהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.07.19]


ha-Aravah (the plain), with mountains of Ëd•omꞋ  in distancearavah (willow) in Gan Uri Gordon, Raanana

fem. n. a•rãv•ãhꞋ; ערבה, ערבות, aravah, aravot an arid, treeless or desert plain; also a willow; pl. עֲרָבוֹת (a•rãv•ōtꞋ).

The A•rãv•ãhꞋ refers to the rift-plain between Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh south to the Gulf of Eil•atꞋ.


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עֲרָבִיPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


masc . adj. & n. A•rãv•iꞋ; ערבים, Aravim Arab. pl. עֲרָבִים (A•rãv•imꞋ; Arabs).


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אַרְבֶּהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2020.04.07]

arᵊb•ëhꞋ;ארבה kã•sheirꞋ locust.

Arbeh, pink
Arᵊb•ëhꞋ, pink (Cairo, 2004.11).

Arbeh, yellow
Arᵊb•ëhꞋ, mature yellow.


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אַרבָּע כְּנָפוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


ArꞋba kᵊnãph•otꞋ; ארבע כנפות, arba kenaphot, arba k'naphot, arba kenafot, arba k'nafot four corners. An undershawl, worn under the shirt, to which tzitz•itꞋ are attached.


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עָרֵלPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2019.10.31]

masc . n.ã•reilꞋערלים,areilim pl. עֲרֵלִים (adj.) — uncircumcised, gentile. (Contrast with goy•imꞋ.)

The racist Hellenist term for "gentile" is documented from the סֹרֶג warning stone in the then-international Greek, barring any ἈΛΛΟΓΕΝΉΣ from approaching any closer to the Beit-ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ ha-Shein•iꞋ. ἀλλογενής, mentioned only once in the entire NT, where it refers to an "almost-Jew" (a Samaritan, Lu. 17:18). Later English translators injected "gentiles" and "Greeks" into the NT as part of their Displacement Theology, where even the Hellenist Romans didn't (see ἕλλην and ἔθνος).


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אֶרֶץPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2007.07.25]


fem. n. ËꞋrëtz; ארץ, הארץ, aretz, ha-aretz, haaretz, eretz land, soil, dirt, earth.

When not otherwise specified, הָאָרֶץ (hã-ãꞋrëtz; the land) and בָאָרֶץ (bã-ãꞋrëtz; in the land) by convention refers to Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ except when otherwise specified.

חוּץ לָאָרֶץ (khutz lã-ãꞋrëtz; outside of the land) means abroad (relative to Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ; i.e., outside of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ).

Liberal-left and elitist with a circulation of only about 65,000, hã-ãꞋrëtz is the smallest of Israel's "major three" independent Hebrew newspapers.

hã-ãꞋrëtz has an English on-line site where you can—and I implore you to—post your views at www.haaretz.com


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עֲרִיכַת הַשׁוּלחָןPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2007.03.16]


Setting of the Table
Click to enlargeעֲרִיכַת הַשׁוּלחָן

A•rikh•atꞋ ha-Shul•khãnꞋ; עריכת שולחן, Arikhat ha-Shulkhan, Arikhat haShulkhan"setting of the table"; refers to the Kha•sid•imꞋ fellowship meal table of the Tza•diqꞋ—their rebbe or, in the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ case, Pã•qidꞋ; especially of the ËrꞋëv Shab•ãtꞋ and ËrꞋëv Khag meal tables.

The model for the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ virtual counterpart is the Kha•sid•imꞋ custom of attendance by all tal•mid•imꞋ Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ at the meal table, led by the Tza•diqꞋ (Pã•qidꞋ or, among more modern, European Kha•sid•imꞋ, their rëbbe), who distributes food and drink to those sharing the meal. This is similar in many respects to the holy meal shared by the Essenes.

In the spiritual counterpart, … more


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עָרְלָהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2007.09.02]


fem. n. ãrᵊl•ãhꞋ; ערלה, arlahfirst 3 years foliage of a fruit tree, including its fruit, required to be pruned and discarded; foreskin of the penis (fem. n.), pl. עֲרָלוֹת (ã•rᵊl•otꞋ).

Adj. (masc.) עָרֵל (ã•reilꞋ), pl. עֲרֵלִים (a•reil•imꞋ), uncircumcised.


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אָרוֹןPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2019.11.17]

masc . n. ã•ronꞋ; ארון, ארון הברית, ארון ברית ה', ארון ברית האלהים, ארון העדות, ארון הקודש, ארון הקדש, Aron ha-Berit, Aron haBerit, Aron ha-B'rit, Aron haB'rit, Aron ha-Brit, Aron haBrit, Aron Berit, Aron B'rit, Aron Brit, Aron ha-Elohim, Aron haElohim, Aron ha-Eidut, Aron haEidut, Aron ha-Qodesh, Aron haQodeshchest (popularly 'ark').

"Ark of the Pact / Testimony"

What happened to the אֲרוֹן הָעֵדוּת? Where is it? See Ka•pōrꞋët


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עַרְבִיתPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


fem. n. Arᵊv•itꞋ; ערבית, arvit, arevit, ar'vitevening (related to ërꞋëv) and, by extension, evening Tᵊphil•otꞋ, paralleling the liturgy in the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ.


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עָשָׂהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.12.21]


ãs•ãhꞋ; עשה, asahto make or do (lit. "he made" or "he did"). Present tense (same Hebrew spelling, vowellized differently): ōsëh


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עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִיםPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2017.07.25]


Biblical A•sërꞋët ha-Dᵊvãr•imꞋ, עשרת הדברים, Aseret ha-Devarim, Aseret haDevarim, Aseret ha-D'varim, Aseret ha-D'varim(rabbinic עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת (fem. form of דְּבָרִים).


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אָשָׁםPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2020.04.09]

masc . n. ã•shãmꞋ; אשם, ashamculpable for court-conviction of a violation of a Tōr•ãhꞋ-defined mi•tzᵊwãhꞋ, i.e. guilt or guilty; also, the corresponding sacrifice to alleviate guilt in cases of uncertainty concerning whether, in a known situation, one has, or has not, violated a mi•tzᵊwãhꞋ Tōr•ãhꞋ. Examples: more


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אַשְׁכְּנַזִּיPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


masc . n. (pl.) Ash•kᵊ•nazꞋi: אשכנזים, Ashkenazimdescendant of Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ who fled in 70 C.E. or 135 C.E. to Germany & Eastern (as opposed to Spanish, Sᵊphã•rãd•imꞋ) European Roman Empire; pl. אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים (Ash•kᵊ•nazꞋim); one of the two European (Hellenist Roman Empire) traditions of Jewry. (The anti-Hellenist (ergo, anti-Roman Empire) Pᵊrush•imꞋ, by contrast, fled the incompatible Hellenism of the Roman Empire entirely, settling in other parts of the Middle East and Africa. The most pristinely preserved Pᵊrush•imꞋ, uninfluenced by the Hellenism of the Roman Empire, are the Tei•mãn•imꞋ, who fled to Yemen in 70 & 135 C.E.)

According to a 2013.10 paper by Prof. Martin Richards, of the Archaeogenetics Research Group at the University of Huddersfield (England), after sequencing the full 16,568 bases of the whole mitochondrial genomes, "in the vast majority of cases, Ashkenazi lineages are most closely related to southern and western European lineages – and that these lineages have been present in Europe for many thousands of years."

"This means that, even though Jewish men may indeed have migrated into Europe from [Judea] around 2000 years ago, they brought few or no wives with them. They seem to have married with European women, firstly along the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, and later (but probably to a lesser extent) in western and central Europe. This suggests that, in the early years of the Diaspora, Judaism took in many converts from amongst the European population, but they were mainly recruited from amongst women. Thus, on the female line of descent, the Ashkenazim primarily trace their ancestry neither to [Judea] nor to Khazaria, but to southern and western Europe."


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אַשּׁוּרPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2015.10.29]


Ashur (fortune of arrow) natl deity
Click to enlarge Ashur, fortune (where an arrow strikes or misses) national archer-warrior deity of fortune of ancient Assyria (Syria)

masc . n. A•shūrꞋ אשור, אשרה, אשרי, Ashur, asheir, ashrah, ashrei(and cognates), the Assyrian archer-warrior god of fortune or validation (symbolized by whether an arrow strikes or spares) – also the name of the country (translated "Assyria," modern Syria) as well as the people (Assyrians-Syrians).

masc . n. אָשֵׁר (ã•sheirꞋ); favored by A•shurꞋ, the God of fortune and validation; fortunate, validated – name of Ya•a•qovꞋ's 8th son (mother: Zi•lᵊp•ãhꞋ, LeiꞋãh's maid).

fem. n. אַשְׁרָה (a•shᵊr•âhꞋ); Astarte/​Easter, date-palm grove dedicated to Astarte/​Easter. Never before published evidence: more

אַשׁרֵי (a•sh•r•eiꞋ); may the fortunes and validations of A•shurꞋ, the fortune-god, be with (you, him, her, etc.); i.e., feel fortunate, validated, happy.


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אָסוּרPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


ã•sūrꞋ (adj.); אסור, asurbound, prohibited, forbidden


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עַתּוּדPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2010.09.01]


masc . n. Ä•tūdꞋ; עתודים, atudimbilly-goat (i.e., male), pl. עַתּוּדִים, (â•tud•imꞋ), billy-goats


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עָצַרPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


ã•tzarꞋ; עצרת, atzar, atzeret otzerconstrained, restrained, detained, apprehended, stopped

fem. n. עֲצֶרֶת (a•tzërꞋët; constrainment, restrainment, detention, apprehension, stoppage)

masc . n. עֹצֶר (o•tzërꞋ; oppression in the form of constrainment, restrainment, detention, apprehension or stoppage; also curfew).


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Augustinus [Glos A-D, updated: 2011.03.29]


(Latin – Anglicized to Augustine)

(354—430 C.E.) Aurelius Augustinus. North African, born in what is now Algeria, Augustine was a Manichean (viewing the universe as polarized between G*o*d and Sã•tãnꞋ and their respective followers) who converted to the Hellenist Catholic Christian Church, became bishop in Hippo (in modern Algeria) and whose Manichean influence, despite the Catholic Church declaring it an apostasy, pervades the Catholic Church.


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אָב בֵּית דִּיןPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2021.02.16]

ãv Beit Din;Av Beit Din,—Father of the Court(house); i.e. Shō•pheitꞋ of a Beit Din. The authority of the Av Beit Din varied depending on the level of the Beit Dinmore


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אַבַדּוֹןPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


masc . n. A•vad•ōnꞋ; אבדון, Avadonstate of being lost, in utter ruin (cf. Tᵊhil•imꞋ 88.12; Mi•shᵊl•eiꞋ Shᵊlom•ohꞋ (Hellenized to "Prov.") 15.11; 27.20; I•yovꞋ (Hellenized to "Job") 26.5; 28.22. This state is known to Christians from The Unveiling (Christian "Revelation" or Apocalypse) 9.11 (from The Unveiling, chap. 9).


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עֲבֵרָהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2010.07.13]


fem. n. A•veir•ãhꞋ; עברה, עברות, aveirah, aveirota stepping across some physical point or legal threshold, an overstep of a boundary, a transgression of a boundary or a trespass of a boundary; viz., Tōr•ãhꞋ unless otherwise indicated by the context.

Plural is עֲבֵרוֹת (a•veir•ōtꞋ).

עֲבַרְיָן (a•var•yânꞋ) is an overstepper, transgressor or trespasser of a boundary; viz., Tōr•ãhꞋ unless otherwise indicated by the context. Pl. is עֲבַרְיָנִים (a•var•yân•imꞋ). Compare and contrast with the adjective פְּלִילִי (pᵊlil•iyꞋ; criminal).


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אָבִיבPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2017.06.02]


masc . n. ã•vivꞋ; אביב, avivear of cereal (barley, wheat, etc.). "Spring" is a later connotation, based on the season in which barley matured into an ã•vivꞋ. Ergo, Tël ã•vivꞋ means "Ruins-mound of barley-ear (season, = spring).


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עֲבוֹדָהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2017.09.06]


fem. n. A•vōd•ãhꞋ: עבודה, עבדים, avodah, avadimthe set of all work (energy or effort expended in producing some change, whether physical or abstract.) = subset קֹדֶשׁ (effort expended in pursuit of a goal primarily in the incorporeal eternal Realm of עוֹלָם וָעֵד goals, which are appropriate and encouraged at all times, including Sha•bãtꞋ) + (lᵊ‑ha•vᵊdilꞋ) subset מְלָאכָה (effort expended in pursuit of a goal primarily corporeal, worldly = profane, goals that are prohibited on Sha•bãtꞋ).more

עֲבוֹדָה‎ = קֹדֶשׁ‎ + מְלָאכָה

Related cognates include:

  • masc . n. עֶבֶד (ëvꞋëd; employee, worker, servant or slave); pl. עֲבָדִים (a•vãd•imꞋ; employees, workers, servants or slaves)

  • עַבְדִּי (a•vᵊd•iꞋ; my employee, worker, servant or slave)


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עֲבוֹדָה זָרָהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2008.05.14]


A•vōd•ãhꞋ zãr•ãhꞋעבודה זרה, avodah zarah strange a•vōd•ãhꞋ. Every form of religion or worship outside of the bᵊritTōr•ãhꞋ—is A•vōd•ãhꞋ Zãr•ãhꞋ. Placing A•vōd•ãhꞋ Zãr•ãhꞋ before the accepted form of service to ha-SheimꞋTōr•ãhꞋ—violates the first of the A•sërꞋët ha-Di•bᵊr•ōtꞋ. Thus, A•vod•ãhꞋ Zãr•ãhꞋ is idolatry.


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עָוֶלPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.05.17]


masc . n. ãꞋwël; עול, awel, avelwrong, wrong-doing; from i•weilꞋ; to do wrong, act wrongfully.


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אָוֶןPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.05.17]


masc . n. ãꞋwën; און, אוון, awen, avenevil, iniquity.


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עָווֹן or עָוֹןPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


masc . n. ã•wonꞋ; עון, עוון, awon, avonconscious (deliberate) transgression, a misdemeanor, against Tōr•ãhꞋ. See also kheit (misstep, a petty offense, against Tōr•ãhꞋ) and pëshꞋa (rebellious transgression, a felony, against Tōr•ãhꞋ)


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אָבPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2020.02.08]

masc . n. ãv (irreg. pl. fem. ending אָבוֹת; ãv•ōtꞋ);אבא,av,abba,avot father; אַבָּא (abꞋã; dad or daddy).


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אַבְרָהָםPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


Map Middle East Kharan Tarsus Tzur Tzidon Nineveh Babylon Ur seas
Click to enlargeUr, in the south of modern Iraq not far from the Persian Gulf

Avᵊrã•hãmꞋ אברהם, Avraham– the name he was given as an extraordinarily successful adult, after building a powerful ranch community, becoming a wealthy land baron, regional authority and Nã•siꞋ (bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 23.6). The name was later Hellenized (into Greek by Christian goy•imꞋ) from the original Hebrew Scripture, then Arabized from the Hellenist Greek (by Arab goy•imꞋ) to 'Ibrahim' and Anglicized from the Hellenist Greek (again by Christian goy•imꞋ) to 'Abraham'.

Born in Ur, Mesopotamia, his birth name was אַבְרָם (AvᵊrâmꞋ; a compound formed from אַב‎ + רָם).

As AvᵊrâmꞋ accumulated wealth (herds of cattle, goats, sheep, horses and camels as well as gold and silver in Egypt), he eventually employed a veritable empire of workers, including cowboys, goat herders, shepherds, other ranch hands, household staff and security forces – a formidable battalion-size, battle-proven ("blooded") military force who had already vanquished the ruling power of the east (the forces of the king of Elam, modern southwestern Iran; bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 14.14).

Concomitant to his wealth and military power, surrounding peoples recognized – and justifiably respected – his power and consequent authority. From their perspective, his neighboring Kᵊna•an•imꞋ equated AvᵊrâmꞋ to the man-gods of their era: their own BaꞋal and the Egyptian Horus, predecessors of the later Hellenists' Ζεύς – describing AvᵊrâmꞋ as נְשִׂיא אֱלֹהִים (bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 23.6).

Accordingly, AvᵊrâmꞋ became popularly called אַבְרָהָם (Avᵊrã•hãmꞋ; retaining the same first element of his birth name, אַב‎ + a fusion of the last element of his original name: interjecting the first element of הַמוֹן – namely (ה(מ – into רָם, to produce the portmanteau of the final element: רָהָם, producing the meaning "exalted father of tumultuous-multitudes; bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 17.5).

The patriarch is often designated as ãv•iꞋnu (our father, patriarch).


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אַ͏‌ֽיִלPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2020.04.18]

Ayil (ram)
Click to enlargeAꞋyil

masc . n. aꞋyilאיל,ayil (compound אֵיל); ram, adult male sheep. Compare & contrast with tal•ëhꞋ, këvꞋës, eiz, tzon and sëh.

Before there was paper money, checks, credit cards or banks, an aꞋyil served as a donation, or payment of a court-imposed fine, equal in today’s currency (2019), to approx. ₪900 or U.S. $250.


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עַ͏‌ֽיִןPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2021.06.03]

fem. n. aiꞋyin;עין,עינים,ayin,einayim eye – including, inter alia, metaphors:

  • an “eye” of water (i.e. a spring, fountain or whirlpool)

  • the eye of (or window into) a gem is its "table-facet"

  • the reflection area of an ancient polished copper or bronze mirror

  • the reflection from any ancient polished metal utensil, coin, etc.

עֵינַיִם (ein•aꞋyim); dual/​plural form: a pair, or pairs, of eyes.

Combinative □עֵין (ein□; eye of…), frequently suffixed by a pronominal.


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עֲזָאזֵלPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


masc . n. Az•ã•zeilꞋ; עזאזל, Azazela (scape)goat of our fathers of blessed memory. Scholars are uncertain as to the meaning of the term. Klein promulgates the most popular guess: עֵז אָזַל (eiz ã•zalꞋ, the (scape)goat was used-up, went away). This seems linguistically unreasonably awkward and primitive.

I suggest another view: עֵז אז"ל (eiz az"l; the (scape)goat of az"l"). az"l is an acronym for אֲבוֹתֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה (av•ot•einꞋnu zi•khᵊr•on•ãmꞋ li-vᵊrãkh•ãhꞋ; our fathers of blessed memory). Thus, עֲזָאזֵל would mean "the (scape)goat of our fathers, [the fathers] of blessed memory," aluding to the delegation as a qor•bãnꞋ and subsequent release of the a•qeid•ãhꞋ.

Thus, the popular expletive – "לַעֲזָאזֵל!"


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בְּPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2016.11.27]


bᵊ- prefix; lit. "in…" (sometimes translated "by" and similar for smoothness in English).

Contraction of בְּ and ה (ha-, the); form depending on subsequent letter:

  • בַּba- prefix; lit. "in the…"
  • בָּ- prefix; lit. "in the…"

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Beil (Akkadian-Babylonian cuneiform)
Beil
בַּעַל / בֵּלPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2020.07.15]

masc . n. BaꞋal, master, lord, husband; combinative form בְּעַל (bᵊal-□; master, lord or husband of…); pl, bᵊal•imꞋ.בעל,בל,baal,beil,bel Adapted from Akkadian-Babylonian: Beil, as in בֵּלְ-שַאצַּר (corrupted to "Belshazzar"), originally applied to Babylonian idol Ma•rᵊdukh.

BaꞋal ha-BayꞋit (master of the house) is the husband and father. BaꞋal tᵊru•ãhꞋ (master blaster) is the one who blows the sho•pharꞋ. BaꞋal tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ (master responder), probably the most respected of all, is one who makes tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ.


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בַּדPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2020.01.28]

bad (rhymes with odd);בד,bad fabric, cloth, material. (See also synonyms būtz and sheish.)


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בֲּלַדִי, also spelled בֲּלַאדִיPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


Ba•lad•iꞋ; בלדי, בלאדי, Baladia transliteration of Arabic meaning indigenous, native or local (i.e. Tei•mãnꞋ). Ba•lad•iꞋ is the most pristine Tei•mãn•iꞋ Jewish tradition—dating back to Har Sin•aiꞋ. Ba•lad•iꞋ contrasts with the more recent ShamꞋi ("Syrian") Qa•bãl•ãhꞋ-ist Reform. The Ba•lad•iꞋ liturgy gets its name because it is the original—native—prayer book of Tei•mãn•iꞋ Jews. (The many Yemenite synagogues of Rehovot," Assaf Patrick, hã-ãꞋrëtz, 2004.06.18).

The original and pristine faithful, rejecting a surge of Reform ShamꞋi espousing Zo•harꞋ and Qa•bãl•ãhꞋ in the 1600s, took the name Ba•lad•iꞋ—the "native" Tōr•ãhꞋ tradition of the Tei•mãn•iꞋ.

נֹסַח בֲלַאדִי (No•sakhꞋ Ba•lad•iꞋ; native version, lit. native taste).


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בָּלָגָןPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2009.09.17]


masc . n. bã•lãg•ãnꞋ; בלגן, balaganmess, disorder, chaos.


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בָּלָה or Aramaic בְּלָאPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2008.08.09]


Bãl•ãhꞋ (Aramaic bᵊlã); בלה, בלא, balah letzad, balah l'tzad, bela, b'la, לצדexhaust, deplete, wear out; cf. Dã•ni•eilꞋ 7.25.

"And he shall make words לְצַד (lᵊ-tzad; [as though] beside) the Most High…" I.e., the beast would allege that his own words issued from his place "beside the Most High." "And the holy ones of the Most High יְבַלֵּא (yᵊvalei; he shall exhaust—from בָּלָה); and he shall suppose to change זִמְנִים וְדָת; and they shall be given into his hand for a season and seasons and half a season" (see The 1993 Covenant).

The "Times of the Gentiles" (cf. The 1993 Covenant) began in this time window defined by the destruction of Yᵊru•shã•layꞋim and the בְּלָא of the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ in 135 C.E.

The conclusion of this window, marked by the re-emergence of Israel as a nation, the recovery of Yᵊru•shã•layꞋim and the re-emergence of the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ, permits the calculation of the 3½ units used by Dã•ni•eilꞋ. This equals 1948 (or 1967 or 1985, depending on one's interpretation) minus 135 (C.E.), yielding a difference of 1813, 1832, or 1850 years, respectively.

Dividing each of these by 3½ produces 518, 523, or 529 years, each, respectively, equalling 1 "Dã•ni•eilꞋ's year."

From this, one can easily calculate Dã•ni•eilꞋ months, weeks, and days. Plugging these values back into the prophecies of Dã•ni•eilꞋ yields interesting results.

Christians who are false prophets by the criteria of Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 13:2-6, most of whom can't even read Hebrew much less follow the Aramic of Dã•ni•eilꞋ, point to Dã•ni•eilꞋ2:34-35 & 44 and Rev. 16:19. However, Dã•ni•eilꞋ7.25 and the NT book of Rev. 11:2, which describe (or comments on, in the case of Rev.) the same prophecy, are far more illuminating—"and think to change זִמְנִים וְדָת."

Dã•ni•eilꞋ encoded, and so it was fulfilled, that this period would be closed by 1993 (cf. The 1993 Covenant for a discussion of the Nᵊviy•imꞋ concerning our times,


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בַּרPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2016.10.30]


masc . n. (Aramaic) Bar; בר, barAramaic combinative form counterpart of bën-: a product (especially a son, a grain or a grain field) of…; also used figuratively as "a member of…".


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שִׁמְעוֹן בַּר יוֹחַאיPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2013.09.27]


Shim•onꞋ Bar Yo•khaiꞋ שמעון בר יוחאי, Shimon Bar-Yokhai(Rashb"i); 2nd century C.E. Tan•ãꞋ, active 135 C.E. – 170 C.E.

Rab•ãnꞋ Shim•onꞋ Bar Yo•khaiꞋ, one of the most eminent tal•mid•imꞋ of Tan•ãꞋ RabꞋi A•qiꞋ (ca. 40 C.E. – ca. 137 C.E.), is well-known in Ta•lᵊmudꞋ for insisting on getting to the rational and core reason underlying any given point of Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ as prerequisite for properly understanding and applying it.

Contrary to the fraudulent claim of Moses "Sheim Tov" de León (France, ca. 1250 C.E. – 1305 C.E.), however, Rab•ãnꞋ Shim•onꞋ Bar Yo•khaiꞋ had no connection – whatsoever – to the irrationalist (anti-Ram•ba"mꞋ) 14th century C.E. French fiction of European Qa•bãl•ãhꞋ, "Sheim Tov": the 14th century C.E. ZoꞋhar.

While the most pristine tradition of the Tei•mân•imꞋ (בֲּלַאדִי) celebrate Rab•ãnꞋ Shim•onꞋ Bar Yo•khaiꞋ, chanting a poem about him in chorus in Beit KᵊnësꞋët on holidays, they rejected the ZoꞋhar as illegitimate.


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בָּרַיְתָאPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2021.01.24]

fem. n. Bã•raꞋyᵊtãבריתא,Baraita (Aramaic), external, foreign, not belonging, extra-…, (pl. בָּרַיְתוֹת), an abbreviation of מַתְנִיתָא בָּרַיְתָא, Hebrew מִשְׁנָה חִיצוֹנָה; i.e. Extra-Mi•shᵊn•ãhꞋ — an excerpt from a Proto-Mi•shᵊn•ãhꞋ proceeding of the Συνέδριον during the period of the ZūgꞋōt documenting opposing—Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ—arguments that were excluded from the compilation of the Pᵊrush•iꞋ Mi•shᵊn•ãhꞋ by the Pᵊrūsh•iꞋ Ta•nãꞋ, YᵊhūdꞋãh ha-Nã•siꞋ, scion of Beit-Dã•widꞋmore


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Βαρνάβας [Glos A-D, updated: 2011.04.01]


(Bar•nabꞋas; Anglicized to Barnabas)

Seems to have been an Ëb•i•ō•naῖꞋoi disciple of StephꞋan•os (as deduced from the "Epistle of Barnabas" in the Codex Sinaiticus): Bar•nabꞋas held that "Judaism, in its outward and fleshly form, had never been commended by the Almighty to man, had never been the expression of God's covenant…" (Smith & Wace, A Dictionary of Christian Biography, I.264).

Bar•nabꞋas was born Yo•seiphꞋ Bar-Nã•viꞋ ha-Leiw•iꞋ in the Hellenist, Greek-speaking Diaspora of Cyprus, of Greek-speaking, Hellenist parents. Yet, the text soon reveals that Paul was too extreme-Hellenist even for Bar•nabꞋas and the Ëb•i•ō•naῖꞋoi.


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בס"דPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


Ba•sa"dꞋ; בס''דacronym for בְסִיַעתָּא דִשׁמַיָּא (bᵊ-si•ya•tãꞋ di-shᵊma•yãꞋ; by (lit. "in") the help of the heavens—Aramaic)


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בָּשָׂרPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2008.03.26]

masc . n. bã•sãrꞋ, בשר,בקר, basar,baqarflesh, meat, excluding fish—esp. of livestock; unless types of other kã•sheirꞋ livestock (goats, sheep) are specified, בָּקָר is assumed. Whether bã•sãrꞋ includes ōph depends upon the context. Contrasted with a rock, a plant, fish or khã•lãvꞋ, bã•sãrꞋ includes ōph (of all kã•sheirꞋ kinds). If one is ordering dinner, however, and differentiating between beef, lamb, chicken and duck, then additional explanation is needed: בָּשָׂר בָּקָר, בָּשָׂר טָלֶה, עוֹף or בַּרְוָז.


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בַּתPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


fem. n. Bat-; בת קול"daughter of…,"; fem. of Plural בָּנוֹת (bãn•ōtꞋ; daughters [of…]).

בַּת קוֹלBat Qōl; "daughter of a voice," a Hebrew idiom meaning "a voice out of the heavens."


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בָּבֶלPronunciation Table 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠  [Glos A-D, updated: 2021.09.06]

Bavel Ishtar (8th) Gate BCE575 (Pergamon Museum Berlin)
Click to enlargeBabylon (Iraq) — Ishtar (8th) Gate (BCE 575; Pergamon Museum, Berlin)

Ka•an••ki (Sumerian/​Babylonian cuneiform) — Gate of , God of earth. The first symbol is a Sumerogram for BāꞋbū•ūm.

Bã•vëlꞋ (Hebrew); בבלי, Bavel, BavliBabylon, "babble" city; capital of ancient southern Mesopotamia (i.e. central Iraq). Adjective: בַּבְלִי (Ba•vᵊl•iꞋ; Babylonian)


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בַּיִתPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. BayꞋit; בית,בתים,Beit,Beit-,bayitbox, house; sing. connective □-בֵּית, pl. בָּתִּים, pl. conn. □-בָּתֵּי

See also Beit Dã•widꞋ more

See also Beit Din more
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B.C.E. [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]

Before the Common (or Christian) Era. The designation B.C. ("before christ") begs the question that "christ" has come in the Christian image, which is a miso-Judaic comment intractably contradictory to Tōr•ãhꞋ and offensive to Jews. The Hebrew couterpart is לִפְנֵי הַסְפִירָה


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בְּדִיקָהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2019.10.02]

fem. n. bᵊdiq•ãhꞋ; בדיקה,בדיקת חמץ,bediqah,b'diqah,bediqat,b’diqatinspection, by a bō•deiqꞋ (inspector); combinative form …-בְּדִיקת

Popular phrases
  1. בְּדִיקת-חָמֵץ — the first element of Bei•ūrꞋ Khâ•meitzꞋ is conducted after dusk of the evening before PësꞋakhmore

  2. בְּדִיקת-דָּם (as in an annual physical)


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בְּאֵרPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2021.10.30]

fem. n. bᵊær (pl. בְּאֵרוֹת)‎;בארות,beirot,b'eirot,be'erot BH: an excavation or dig; i.e. a mine or well. Derived from בְּאֵר


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בְּעֶזרַת הַשֵׁם יִתבָּרַךְPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2007.03.08]


bᵊ-ëz•ratꞋ ha-SheimꞋ yit•bã•rakhꞋ; בעזרת השם יתברך"with the help of ha-SheimꞋ, may He be blessed." This is the most popular phrase to replace responses and statements like "I'll be there," "I'll do [this or that]," "I'm going [somewhere or to do something]," etc.


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בָּמָה, בָּמוֹת, בִּימָהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2012.02.05]


Bamah at Har Megido
Click to enlarge
בָּמָה
Kᵊna•an•itꞋ at Har MᵊgidꞋo (approx. 26 ft. diam. x 5 ft. high)במה, בימה, במות, bamah, bamot, bimah
fem. n.
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בִּנְיָןPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2010.02.21]


masc . n. bin•yãnꞋ; בנין, binyanconstruct (verb), building; plural בִּנְיָנִים (bin•yãn•imꞋ).

With few exceptions, verbs are all found in one of seven bin•yãn•imꞋ:

Bin•yãn•imꞋ
© 1982 by Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu Bën-Dã•widꞋ
TransitiveIntransitive
ActivePassiveReflexive
Simplepa•alꞋniph•alꞋ
Causativehiph•ilꞋhuph•alꞋ
Intensivepi•eilꞋpu•alꞋhit•pã•eilꞋ

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בִּכּוּרPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2019.06.06]

masc . n. bi•kurꞋ; בכורים, בכורה, bikurim, bekhorim, b'khorim, bekhorah, b'khorahfirst fruit; pl. בִּכּוּרִים (bi•kur•imꞋ)

fem. n. בִּכּוּרָה (bi•kur•ãhꞋ; early fruit, esp. fig)

masc . n. בְּכוֹר (bᵊkhōrꞋ), pl. בְּכוֹרִים (bᵊkhōr•imꞋ) — male firstborn (human, cattle, sheep or goat); also the sacrifice of a male firstborn of a cow, ewe or nanny goat. (Human male firstborns were redeemed by Pi•dᵊyōnꞋ ha-Bein, for 5 silver shᵊqal•imꞋ.) See also qârᵊbãnꞋ more

fem. n. בְּכוֹרָה (bᵊkhōr•ãhꞋ; double-portion birthright of the firstborn male or firstborn daughter).


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בְּלִיַּעַלPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2010.06.04]


masc . n. Bᵊli•yaꞋal; בליעל, beliyal, b'liyal the embodiment of Sã•tãnꞋ, is a compound of בְּלִי (bᵊli; without) and יַעַל (yaꞋal; utility, usefulness, effectiveness, purpose—a cognate of the name יָעֵל (Yã•eilꞋ; ibex epitomizing graceful utility). Thus, בְּלִיַּעַל is the antonym of graceful utility, i.e., useless, worthless, ineffective, without purpose, loser.


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בְּמִדבַּרPronunciation Table Hear it! [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


Midbar-north wadi kelt (k-etzion.co.il)

masc . n. bᵊ-Mid•barꞋ; במדבר, beMidbar, b'Midbar"in the arid-wilderness", Hellenized to "Numbers."


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-בֶּןPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2019.09.27]

masc . n. Bën-; בן-אדם,בן-נח,בן-דוד,בני ישראל,בנימין,בני-היצהר,בני-יצהר,Ben-Adam,Ben-Noakh,Ben-David,Ben-Dawid,Benei-Yisraeil,B'bei Yisraeil,Binyamin,Benei-Yitzhar,Benei-ha-Yitzhar,B'nei-Yitzhar,B'nei-ha-Yitzharson of… (connective form of the noun בֵּן, bein, a son), compound form □בֵן (□vein; …son), derived from the verb בָּנָה (bãn•ãhꞋ), he built; popularly, "to build," especially masonry (and masons), with אֶבֶן. By extension, a "member [of…]", pl. -בְּנֵי (bᵊn•eiꞋ-; sons of…). The masc. pl. noun is בָּנִים (bãn•imꞋ; sons—used collectively as “children” or "descendants"). The fem. sing. (noun and conn. form) is -בַּת (bat-; daughter of…) and the fem. pl. conn. is בְּנוֹת- (bᵊn•ōtꞋ-; daughters or women of…). The fem. pl. noun is בָּנוֹת (bãn•otꞋ; daughters or women).

The Aramaic parallel is בַּר (Bar, son [of…]).

  • בֶּן-אָדָםPronunciation Table

    bën-ã•dãmꞋ; person. While this phrase literally means "a son of ã•dãmꞋ," it is a Hebrew idiom very similar to בֶּן-נֹחַ (Bën-NoꞋakh; a son of "Noah," colloquially a gentile). בֶּן-אָדָם means "a (mortal) person"—the exact antithesis of the preposterous divine connotations to which Christians ascribe it. See also ish.

  • בֶּן-דָוִדPronunciation Table

    1. Bën-Dã•widꞋ; son of Dã•widꞋ (Hellenized to "David")

    2. Bën dod; cousin, lit. "son of an uncle," referring to our uncle יִשְׁמָעֵאל (Yish•mã•eilꞋ, Hellenized to "Ishmael") or our uncle עֵשָׂו (Ei•sauꞋ; corrupted to "Esau"). The plural is בְּנֵי-דוֹד (bᵊn•eiꞋ-dod•imꞋ; sons of [the] uncle)—A•rãv•imꞋ).

  • בֶּן-נֹחַPronunciation Table

    Bën-NoꞋakh, see Bᵊn•eiꞋ-NoꞋakh

  • בְּנֵי-יִשְׂרָאֵלPronunciation Table

    Bᵊn•eiꞋ-Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ; sons (by extension, children) of Israel.

  • בִּנְיָמִיןPronunciation Table

    Binᵊyã•minꞋ; son [at my] right [hand] – as we find names today like Robinson or Williamson, this would be "Rightson" (the direction – only the English meaning in contrast to left, not as contrasted with wrong); 12th son of Ya•a•qovꞋ (mother: Rã•kheilꞋ).

  • בְּנֵי-הַיִצְהָרPronunciation Table

    Bᵊn•eiꞋ-ha•Yi•tzᵊhârꞋ; the sons of bright-clarity; i.e., the two Tōr•ãhꞋ-centric mortals anointed with extra-virgin olive-oil to the perpetual Tōr•ãhꞋ-centric offices of Kō•heinꞋ ha-Jâ•dōlꞋ and mëlꞋëkh Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ.


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בְּתוּלָהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2018.08.08]

fem. n. bᵊtul•ãhꞋ;בתולה, betulah virgin.

Contrast with a•lᵊm•âhꞋ (maiden).


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בְּרָכָהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2020.07.02]

fem. n. bᵊrãkh•ãhꞋ; ברכה,ברכות,ברך,ברוך,berakhah,b'rakhah,berakhot,b'rakhot,barukhblessing, pl. בְּרָכוֹת (bᵊrãkh•otꞋ), connective sing. בִּרְכַּת (bi•rᵊk•atꞋ…; blessing of…).

The passive present verb is בָּרוּךְ, from the trans. pi•eilꞋ בֵּרַךְ, which is, in turn, from the root בָּרַךְ. Thus, Bã•rukhꞋ ha-SheimꞋ means "Blessed is 'the Name'." See also שַׁח (bow down, prostrate).

Bᵊrãkh•otꞋ are overt (not secretive or apologetic) confessions of thanksgiving and praise. Accordingly, they are recited aloud, as praise to י--ה, and should be so routinely practiced, every day, that they become committed to, and recited from, memory; routine observations punctuating everyday conversation. (Such memorization is also a good brain exercise.) This is a core practice of Tōr•ãhꞋ. Yᵊhud•ãhꞋ means "he who shall confess-thanks."

A bᵊrãkh•ãhꞋ is in order for every first or special event perceived by any of the five senses, and may be organized accordingly. more


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בְּרֵאשִׁיתPronunciation Table Hear it! [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


fem. n. bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ; בראשית, ראשון, rishon, be-Reishit, beReishit, b'Reishit "at the start, at first," (lit. "in the first"); the first of the five books of Tōr•ãhꞋ shë-bikh•tãvꞋ, Hellenized / de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Genesis."

masc . n. Cognate רִאשׁוֹן (rish•onꞋ); first, from Rosh.


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בָּרוּךְ הַבָּאPronunciation Table Hear it! [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


Welcome! (lit. May the man-coming be blessed); fem. בָּרוּךְ הַבָּאָה pl. בְּרוּכִים הַבָּאִיםברוך הבאה, ברוכים הבאים, Barukh ha-baah, Berukhim ha-baim, b'rukhim ha-baim


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בְּרִיתPronunciation Table Hear it! [Glos A-D, updated: 2018.07.03]

fem. n. Bᵊrit; ברית, berit, b'ritpl. בְּרִיתוֹת (bᵊrit•ōtꞋ); a bilateral formal pact, treaty or alliance—a form of חוֹזֶה, not a unilateral הֶסְכֵּם.

bell tuning
How is the בְּרִית מִילָה mathematically equivalent to tuning the bell (BBC vid)"? (click BBC link & adjacent "more" icon)

"Bᵊrit", when not otherwise specified, refers to the בְּרִית מִילָה — the core, "circum­cision alliance" that is the mne­monic, bell-tuning meme, com­manded as the Tōr•ãhꞋ definition of Am Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ / "Who is a Jew?" (bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 17.10-​14)more

The theme of a contract between mortals and the Meta-world that we read relative to Av•rã•hãmꞋ, Yi•tzᵊkhãqꞋ, Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ, Mosh•ëhꞋ and Dã•widꞋ ha-MëlꞋëkh is intrinsic to, and typical of, many, perhaps virtually all, ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian religions. A negotiated contract with the Meta-world was the rule, not the exception (though other religions were subject to continual renegotiations, including sacrifice of firstborn males, whenever things went desperately wrong).

What separated the religion of Av•rã•hãmꞋ, Yi•tzᵊkhãqꞋ and Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ was the incorporation of the Meta-Party as the Singularity Creator, abandoning the idolatry of the pantheon of all other peoples (the גּוֹיִם).

The theme of a negotiated pact evolved from Egyptian and Mesopotamian mythology into Hellenist Roman mythology as pax deorummore


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בִּרְכּוֹןPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2011.10.21]


Birkon Teimani (Yemenite), p. 2, Birkat ha-Mazon

masc . n. Birk•onꞋ; ברכון, birkonbᵊrãkh•otꞋ-after-meals (pocket-guide or table booklet), Tei•mãn•iꞋ Ba•lad•iꞋ. (The German-assimilated—Yiddish—term used by the Ash•kᵊnazꞋim, "benshn," derives from the latin "benediction" via Old French. See also the after-meal bᵊrãkh•otꞋ.)

The Birᵊk•ōnꞋ includes:


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בֵּעוּר חָמֵץPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2019.10.03]

Bei•ūrꞋ Khâ•meitzꞋ; the complete burning-up of Khâ•meitzꞋ

SeiꞋdër Bei•ūrꞋ Khâ•meitzꞋ (Nō•sakhꞋ Tei•mãnꞋmore
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בֵּיתּ-וֹסִיםPronunciation Table / Ήρωδιανοί [Glos A-D, updated: 2014.11.16]

BöꞋæћ•ös-ians (deliberate rabbinic corruption of "House of Essenes"—the 3rd major party of BCE 2nd century–1st century CE Yᵊhūd•imꞋ) = Herodians;Boethus "[Kō•han•imꞋ] party under the reign of Ë•dōm•iꞋ King Herod and his successors; whom the Rabbis called by corrupting their Hellenist name (as they did the names of idols, e.g. Yësh"u): 'BöꞋæћ•ös-ians,' as adherents of BöꞋæћ•ös". Thus, the 3 parties were

  1. Beit Sha•maiꞋ,

  2. Beit Hi•leilꞋ, and

  3. BöꞋæћ-Ös(in)

The Hellenist Jewish traitor, Ιώσηπος (Josephus), recounts how the Ëd•om•iꞋ 'King of the Jews,' Herod the Great, became enamored with Mariamne, the daughter of one Σίμων, a citizen of Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim who was the son of Βόηθος (BöꞋæћ•ös) of Tzid•onꞋ (B.C.E. 75-10), an Aristotelian Stoic priest – perhaps a Hellenist priest and not a ko•heinꞋ at all (as this was a period when anyone could buy ko•heinꞋ status from the Hellenist Romans – noted by Φίλων in Alexandria, Egypt. It is probably due to Φίλων's reference that BöꞋæћ•ös is popularly assumed, therefore, to have been from Alexandria (ignoring the fact that Φίλων was at the center of the greatest library and university in the history of the ancient world).

King Herod the Great considered Σίμων too inferior to become related by marriage, yet too well respected to simply rape his daughter, Mariamne. Ergo, King Herod the Great removed the serving Ko•heinꞋ ha-Jâ•dolꞋ, displacing him with Σίμων son of BöꞋæћ•ös. Thereafter, the Hellenist "BöꞋæћ•ösian priests", perhaps not genealogically ko•han•imꞋ at all – became inextricably linked to the Herod family – Ήρωδιανοί. Since the serving BöꞋæћ•ösian (Herodian) High Priest became synonymous with the Ko•heinꞋ -RëshꞋa, it seems likely that the Hellenist genealogical ko•han•imꞋ Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ as well as the Pᵊrush•imꞋ both regarded them as illegitimate. This would both explain why they are sometimes assumed to be Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ at odds with the Pᵊrush•imꞋ while, in other instances, they are (genealogically) differentiated from the Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ and, therefore, a priori, assumed to be a min of Pᵊrush•imꞋ ("Herodian Pharisees") – yet, in conflict also with the main body of Pᵊrush•imꞋ (including RibꞋi Yᵊho•shuꞋa). The BöꞋæћ•ösians were also documented to hire false witnesses (To•sëphꞋᵊtã, Ma•sëkꞋët Rosh ha-Shãn•ãhꞋ 1.15; Bâ•vᵊl•iꞋ ibid. 22b; Yᵊru•sha•lᵊm•iꞋ ibid. 57d).

The Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ about BöꞋæћ•ös being a disciple of Antigonus of Soko (near Khë•vᵊr•onꞋ) is considered non-historical and cannot demonstrate that BöꞋæћ•ös was a legitimate Ko•heinꞋ.

(King Herod the Great and Mariamne had one son: Herod (II) BöꞋæћ•ös, who married his own niece, Herodias, by whom they gave birth to a daughter – Salome.)


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בּוּץPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2020.01.28]

būtz;בוץ,butz linen. (See also synonyms bad and sheish.)


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CD (Cairo Damascus) [Glos A-D, updated: 2011.10.25]


CD (Cairo Damascus) BCE 1st century
Fragments of CD

The Damascus Document (published by Charles as "Fragments of A Zadokite Work"; ca. B.C.E. 125—B.C.E. 100)

Also inaccurately called the Damascus Covenant (written from a dungeon in Damascus, but not a covenant) and formerly known as "Fragments of a Zadoqite Document." CD was probably written about 25-30 years after MMT, as a follow-up, by the same author, Yᵊkhon•yãhꞋ Bën-Shim•onꞋ II Bën-Tzã•doqꞋ (the last true Ko•heinꞋ ha-Jã•dolꞋ, who became known as the MorꞋeih TzëꞋdëq and to the same recipient—his rabidly apostatizing Hellenist brother, Yᵊho•shuꞋa Bën-Shim•onꞋ II Bën-Tzã•doqꞋ, the first Hellenist Ko•heinꞋ -RëshꞋa (and his successors). (More details in our Kha•nukh•ãhꞋ page.)

CD developed under the names Zadokite Fragments, Damascus Covenant and Damascus Document. R. Solomon Schechter discovered the document in 1896 in the gᵊniz•ãhꞋ of the ËꞋzᵊr•ã Synagogue in Old Cairo, Egypt, where it was subsequently designated Cairo Damascus (CD).

Schechter published CD under the title Solomon Fragments of a Zadokite Work (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1910). The title was influenced by the frequent mention of the "sons of Tzã•doqꞋ" within the document.

In 1947, the Community Rule (1QS) manuscript was discovered in cave one at Qumran. Scholars noticed a similarity between it and CD and much discussion was generated about its ancient link to the Qumran community. At Qumran, Cave six proved to validate this hypothesis when an actual fragment of CD was found.


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C.E. [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


Common Era. The designation A.D. ("anno dominum"; Latin meaning "year of the lord") begs the question that the "lord" has come in the Christian image (and implying that the previous, Judaic, era wasn't "of the Lord"), which is patently offensive to Jews. The Hebrew translation is הַסְּפִירָה (ha-sᵊphir•ãhꞋ; of the count).


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ca. [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


circa; approximately, referring to a date or time.


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דָּםPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2021.05.14]

masc . n. dãmדם, dam — blood; shōrꞋësh of אָדַם, in turn the shōrꞋësh of אָדָם and אֲדָמָה, demonstrating how intimately these were all regarded as (nëphꞋësh-spiritually) connected; that the דָּם of אָדָם must be returned to its ultimate origin: אֲדָמָה.

To understand the key role of דָּם in the tectonic magnitude of Avᵊrã•hãmꞋ's "religious" change, weaning himself from idolatry, one must first understand how the change differed from how דָּם had always been perceived before Avᵊrã•hãmꞋmore

(See also qâ•rᵊb•ãnꞋ.)


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דַרְדַּעִיםPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2013.10.09]


Plural (indicating "members of…") of a portmanteau of דוֹר דֵעָה, forming the name of one of the four ancient sages, דַרְדַּע (Mᵊlãkh•imꞋ ãlꞋëph 5.11), indicative of the ultimate generation of wisdom – the generation that basked in the wisdom of ShᵊlomꞋoh ha-MëꞋlëkh.דור דעה, דרדעים, Dor Deiah, Dardeiak Dardaim, Dardayim

דַרְדַּעִים refers specifically to the 19th century C.E. restoration movement of the Tei•mân•imꞋ No•sakhꞋ בֲּלַאדִי, inspired by Rav יִחְיָּיא קָאפֵח ‭ ‬ (1853-1932 C.E.), to restore a דַרְדַּע-like generation – peeling off the foreign scales of Ash•kᵊnazꞋim-imposed European (Christian) Gnosticism – Qa•bãl•ãhꞋ – in order to reorient to the ultimate Generation of Knowledge – the generation of ShᵊlomꞋoh ha-MëꞋlëkh ("Kafah," Ency. Jud., 10.670). more


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דָתPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2020.03.20]

fem. n.dãt (n.); דתים,datimrational, scientific—i.e. logical—inquiry of theology as opposed to mystical, shamanist theosophy.

דָת, the scientific inquiry of their era to relate to the Creator of the universe, is what distinguished Avᵊrã•hãmꞋ, our patriarchs and their legitimate descendants ever since from the goy•imꞋ.

The dãt of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ is Ta•na"khꞋ-centric, monotheistic-jurisprudence as a theology. (“Religion” and “faith” are not the same as a theology. Like the teachings of priests and muftis, 19th century C.E. and Post-Enlightenment “Orthodox” is a theosophy that was fixed in the Dark Ages and fails the criteria of a rational theology.)

דָתִי (dãt•iꞋ) m. adj.; one who is conscientious regarding his or her theology (in contrast to ritually “devoutly religious” in theosophy). When describing Jews this refers to one who aspires to practice the theology of Ta•na"khꞋ-centric monotheistic-jurisprudence. Only in MH: dat•iꞋ is ignorantly and sanctimoniously assumed to describe Orthodox Judaism exclusively.

“Tradition”, by contrast, is מָסֹרֶת.


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דָבַרPronunciation Table Hear it! [Glos A-D, updated: 2019.11.16]

Dã•vãrꞋ דברים, דברות, דברי הימים, davar, Devarim, D'varim, Dibrot, Divrei ha-Yamimhe spoke. The speaking of a word was equated to the act or thing pronounced, based on the Biblical description of creation (He spoke and it was). Consequently, by extension dã•vãrꞋ connotes דָבָר (dã•vãrꞋ; a matter or thing).

  • masc . n. (pl.) דְבָרִים (Dᵊvãr•imꞋ; speakings, matters, things) is the fifth book of Tōr•ãhꞋ shë-bikh•tãvꞋ), Hellenized / de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Deuteronomy." The masc. combinative pl. is -דִברֵי (di•vᵊr•eiꞋ-…; [Oral] Speakings [of…]).

  • masc. n. (combin.) …דְבַר (dᵊvar; the matter of…, the affair of…, a talk about…). This combinative sing. form is often coupled with דְבַר תּוֹרָה, a short "talk" (speaking) on the pã•rãsh•atꞋ shã•vuꞋa, which is de rigueur at every get-together of Jews (or גֵּרִים).

  • דִברֵי הַיָּמִים (Di•vᵊr•eiꞋ-ha-Yãm•imꞋ; Speakings of the Days) are two books of Ta•na"khꞋ, ãꞋlëph (first) and Beit (second) Hellenized / de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Chronicles," the last two books in the Bible.

  • fem. n. (pl.) דִבְּרוֹת (di•bᵊr•otꞋ; speakings, matters, things). The fem. sing., דִּבְרָה, in MH connotes "word" (as in "My word is my bond"). The fem. pl., is best known in the phrase עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת (A•sërꞋët ha-Di•bᵊr•otꞋ; the Ten Speakings), Hellenized to "commandments."

    Dã•vãrꞋ and the plural participle, דְבָרִים (Dᵊvãr•imꞋ, speakings, things or matters) are synonyms of אָמַר (ã•marꞋ; say, tell) and its cognate participles. Both refer to the spoken word. To keep these two straight, we try to be consistent in rendering the first and its cognates as speak or speakings and the latter as say, tell, sayings or tellings.

    Both of the above contrast with the verb כָּתַב (kã•tavꞋ; to write) and its cognates, כָּתוּב (kã•tuvꞋ; written), כְּתֻבָּה (kᵊtub•ãhꞋ; a writing, especially a marriage contract) and בִּכְתָב (bi-khᵊtav; in writing, usually rendered "written"; as in Tōr•ãhꞋ shë-bikh•tãvꞋ, written Tōr•ãhꞋ). The generic term for "word," which carries no implication of whether spoken or written, is מִלָּה (mil•ãhꞋ; "word").




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דָּוִדPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2021.02.20]

Dã•widꞋ דוד,David,Dawid  more


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דַּוְקָאPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2009.04.27]


DavꞋqã, דוקא, דווקא, davqacolloquial: Just to be ornery, despite everything; just to be cantankerous, just to be contrary, just to be difficult, just to be vexing, just to be rebellious or defiant; just for spite; for the hell of it; $&#%# (ideal vanilla expletive; e.g. "Then, davqã, he did it anyway.")


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דֶּלֶתPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2019.07.21]

fem. n.dëlꞋët;דלת door. (See also pëtꞋakh and shaꞋar.)


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דְרָשׁPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.04.27]


masc . n. Dᵊrãsh; דרש, דרשה, מדרש, דרישה, דרישת, derash, d'rash, drishah, d'rishah, drishat, d'rishat, Midrashexegesis, homiletical exposition or interpretation, from the verb דָרַש (dã•rashꞋ; he inquired, investigated, scrutinized, claimed, required, demanded).

דְרָשָׁה (dᵊrãsh•ãhꞋ) is a discourse or sermon (synonym שִׁעוּר (shi•urꞋ; lesson).

Another cognate from this verb is מִדרָשׁ.

"Regards/​greetings to…" is …דְרִישַׁת שָׁלוֹם לְ (dᵊrish•atꞋ shã•lomꞋ lᵊ…; lit. "inquiry into the peace/​welfare of…").


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דְּבַשׁPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2017.05.07]


masc . n. dᵊvash; דבש, dᵊvash, d'vashsyrup (Biblical, referring to date-syrup except when otherwise specified as bee honey-syrup); not specifically the traditional translation of bee honey (to which modern usage evolved). Oases of the land flourished, and still flourish, with groves of date palms. The land has never been known to be buzzing with bees nor supporting disproportionately large communities of bee-keepers. To the contrary, the occasional find of bee honey merited special note (e.g., Shi•mᵊsh•onꞋ).


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דֶרֶךְPronunciation Table Hear it! [Glos A-D, updated: 2006.06.18]


fem. n. DërꞋëkh;דרך, ע"ד, ע''ד, derekh "way, via, route." The plural is דְרָכִים (dᵊ•rãkh•imꞋ; ways, routes) and the connective pl. is -דַרכֵי (darᵊkh•eiꞋ-…; ways of…).

The only two north-south caravan routes through the Levant were:

  1. דֶרֶךְ הַיָם – along the Mediterranean coast, and

  2. דֶרֶךְ הַמֶלֶךְ – along the east bank of Nᵊhar Ya•rᵊd•einꞋ (present-day Jordan).

Scholars suggest that before the religion of the Patriarchs was known as Judaism, it was simply called "the Way," or DërꞋëkh י--ה. They base this on the phrase in Shᵊm•otꞋ 18:20: "…הַדֶּרֶךְ יֵלְכוּ בָהּ" (…ha-dërꞋëkh, yei•lᵊkh•uꞋ bãh; …the Way—they shall walk in it).

Abudraham also remarks that the letter ע (ayꞋin) of the word שְׁמַע (Shᵊma!; hearken!) and the letter ד (dalꞋët) of the word אֶחָד (ë•khad; one) are traditionally written larger than the other letters in the SeiꞋphër Tōr•ãhꞋ so as to form the word עֵד (eid; witness). In testifying to the Singularity of ha-Sheim when he recites the 'Shᵊma!' the Jew becomes ha-Sheim's Eid•ãhꞋ. ("Shema, Reading of," Ency. Jud., 14.1370-73).

Evidence for their supposition, however, is sparse. Yet, this is quite close to a title that seems to be encrypted in the SeiphꞋër Tōr•ãhꞋ, in the Shᵊm•aꞋ. In the SeiphꞋër Tōr•ãhꞋ, the Shᵊm•aꞋ begins with a strange enlargement of one letter in the first and last word: שְׁמַע… אֶחָד. The most likely encoding seems to be an acronym, ע"ד; and the acronym most closely suggested by the context is עַל דֶּרֶךְ—"on the Way" or "Enroute," which may be the source of a corruption to "the Way" as well as the source of the view of Tōr•ãhꞋ as a journey through life: "Enroute." Thus, it may be more historically pristine to refer to ע"ד rather than the Hellenist appelation of "Judaism." עֵד (eid; witness) is, then, an encrypted secondary meaning.

Because the term "Judaism" is widely perverted in the modern era (Reform, Conservative, Christian, etc.), we urge a more accurate return to the original, Biblical, phrase(s).


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דְבֵקוּתPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2008.05.14]


fem. n. dᵊveiq•utꞋ; דבקות, deveiqut, d'veiqutadherence, attachment


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דְּבִירPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2020.03.09]

Egyptian ''god'' emerging from false door in bedrock of ''Holy Mountain,'' Giza
False door in rock, into inner (3rd) sanctum, with god emerging from "holy" mountain, Mastaba (Tomb) of Idu, Giza

masc . n. Dᵊvir; דביר, devir, d'virTransliterated into Hebrew from the Egyptian term for “shrine”; the point from which gods were believed to emerge from a mountain believed to be holy, via a false stone door, enclosed in the hindmost room of Egyptian temples, and later temples patterned after them; the innermost room (inner sanctum, sanctum sanctorum) abutting the rock wall of a mountain in which gods were believed to reside.

Transitioning to the Mi•shᵊkãnꞋ and Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ, the innermost room became the QōꞋdësh ha-Qãdãsh•imꞋ in which the A•rōnꞋ -Eid•ūtꞋ resided; in the latter, atop the Dᵊvir: a flat section of bedrock on the summit of a holy mountain (Har ha-BaꞋyit).



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דִּיןPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2021.01.19]

masc . n. din;בית דין,בתי דין,דינה,דניאל,יום הדין,מדינה,דינים,דיון,דיונים,beit din,batei din,Dinah,Daniyeil,Yom ha-Din,Medinah,Dayanim,diyunim adjudication, verdict, jurisprudence, jurisprudent deliberation & interpretation, law.

fem. n. דִּינָה – the name of Ya•a•qovꞋ's daughter by LeiꞋãh. (Prefixing דִּינָה with מְ produces מְדִינָה.)

masc . n. דָּן is the verbal root of din; also the name of Ya•a•qovꞋ's 5th son (mother: Bi•lᵊh•ãhꞋ, Rã•kheilꞋ's maid) and Tribe of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ.

masc . n. דָּנִיֵּאל, Hellenized to "Daniel," is included in the Kᵊtuv•imꞋ books of Ta•na"khꞋ rather than among the Nᵊviy•imꞋ, as one should expect. Note the inaccuracy of the popular translation of דָּנִיֵּאל, "My Judge is Eil" (which is properly שְׁפַטִיֵּאל). The difficulties of distinguishing דַּיָּן from shō•pheitꞋ are vexing and contrasted in Ta•na"khꞋ only in Shᵊmu•eilꞋ ãlꞋëph 24.16; where the phrase "לְדַיָּן וְשָׁפַט" is translated in Tar•gumꞋ Yō•nã•tãnꞋ (Aramaic) as "לְדַיָין וְעָבֵיד דִין." Whereas the modern term-phrase for attorney or lawyer is an עוֹרֵךְ דִּין, in Biblical times דַּיָּן more likely referred to a legal advocate or consultant; i.e. a lawyer or attorney. Example: A da•yãnꞋ dãn di•yunꞋ concerning a din.

See also Beit Din more

See also Yōm ha-Din more


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Displacement Mythology [Glos A-D, updated: 2012.08.31]


Any theology that represents that any of its doctrines have superseded or displaced the doctrines of a predecessor religion.

As long as Christianity holds that their intractably Tōr•ãhꞋ-contradicting Καινής Διαθήκης supersedes or trumps Tōr•ãhꞋ, then it is a displacement mythology.

Some Christian movements try to redefine "Replacement Theology" in such a narrow sense that they can deny that they are a Replacement / displacement mythology. However, the fact is that every doctrine that makes Christianity unique from Tōr•ãhꞋ necessarily [a] contradicts Tōr•ãhꞋ (obviously, or it wouldn't be uniquely Christian) and [b] obviously defines Christianity distinctly from Tōr•ãhꞋ.

Further, every uniquely Christian doctrine is exclusively dependent upon the Christian-believed superior authority of their Καινής Διαθήκης, no uniquely Christian doctrine stands up to Tōr•ãhꞋ. The "bottom line" is that, aside from a rare saying here or there, their Καινής Διαθήκης (NT) did not exist until the 4st century C.E. (א & β) and, Eusebius documented, the original Jewish followers rejected the Καινής Διαθήκης (NT) as a gentile and Hellenist apostasy.

displacement mythology, is more accurate than Replacement Theology, further implying the usurpation of the earlier religion. (Eusebius documented that the Hellenist Romans usurped the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ in 135 C.E. and 333 C.E.

Christianity is a displacement mythology that inherently dangles from the premise that Christ's "grace" has displaced Tōr•ãhꞋ, that Christians have displaced 'natural Jews' to become the 'true, spiritual Jews' of 'true, spiritual Israel'; i.e. thereby displacing historical Israel and the Jews as the Biblically-recognized servants of י--ה. Christian displacement mythology includes ALL doctrines that hold that "salvation" has been redirected to Christians or that Tōr•ãhꞋ-observant Jews without J*esus are lost.

displacement mythology is recognized by historians and other scholars as a cornerstone of misojudaism and the earliest, i.e. original, Christian faith and Church of 135 C.E.

Islam is a second-order displacement mythology, inherently dangling even more tenuously—from the second displacement thread, which still dangles from the first displacement thread—claiming to displace both Christian AND Tōr•ãhꞋ doctrines.

Think about it. Displacement theology is the purest, most pristine and most fundamental expression of idolatry!


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دیوان; (Arabic) [Glos A-D, updated: 2021.07.06]

Di•wanꞋדיואן, דיוואן, Diwan transliterated to דִּיוָאן; anthology, repertoire of Teimãn•iꞋ liturgical poems


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דוּכֵּהPronunciation Table [Glos A-D, updated: 2020.04.14]

dukeih
Dūkeih

dūkꞋeih; דוכה, dukeihTei•mãn•iꞋ mixture of ground nuts, fruits, spices and wine used in the PësꞋakh SeidꞋërmore

(The Ash•kᵊnazꞋi counterpart is חֲרֹסֶת (kha•rōꞋsët)).


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Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ… Authentic