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Hebrew Glossary: A-D

The reason this simple page of glossary definitions is ranked so popular with the search engine is because so many people click on our links to these definitions from the content in… the 'Netzarim Quarter' Village web site in Ra•an•anâ(h), Israel at www.netzarim.co.il

The real content is in the 'Netzarim Quarter'! Click on our logo above for an exciting visit to the 'Netzarim Quarter' where you'll learn about Historical Ribi Yehoshua and his original, Jewish, followers before the great Roman-Hellenist apostasy of 135 C.E.—and even more importantly, how you (whether Jew or non-Jew) can follow the historically true, Judaic, Ribi Yehoshua. In Hebrew, his original followers were called the Netzarim (Hellenized to "Nazarenes").

Until Paqid Yirmeyahu researched the Netzarim name and sect and began publishing about it in 1972 in The Netzarim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matityahu (NHM) no one in modern times was even aware of the name Netzarim. It stretches credulity that no one in modern times had heard of the Netzarim until Paqid Yirmeyahu published it in 1972… and then, suddenly, everybody figured it out??? Check (and verify) the dates of the earliest works about the Netzarim by the others and you'll see that they are deceiver-plagiarists. Then insist on the person whom ha-Sheim selected to entrust the knowledge, not imposters who falsely call their continuing practice of displacement mythology "Nazarene Judaism" or directly plagiarize the name "Netzarim."

Because we teach and practice the authentic Judaic teachings of Ribi Yehoshua—not displacement mythology—we are the only group who have restored the Netzarim to be accepted in the legitimate Jewish community in Israel—genuinely like Ribi Yehoshua and the original Netzarim. Consequently, the 'Netzarim Quarter' is the only web site of legitimate Netzarim / Nazarene Judaism.

Give all the friends you've ever known the chance to know about this exciting site; send them our web site address (www.netzarim.co.il) that opens modern eyes for the first time to the Judaic world that Ribi Yehoshua and his original Netzarim knew, practiced and taught.

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70 more

See also Biblical Math (Numerology) more


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a-3 [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Latin ms. a-3 (ca. 300-399 C.E.) translated from earlier Greek mss. of the Christian NT.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.10.27]

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Click to enlarge"Out of Israel", B.C.E. 400,000!Qësëm Cave, near Rōsh ha-Aiyin – 8½ km (5¼ mi) SE of Ra•a•nanâ(h): Earliest human remains discovered to date; manufactured knives and other tools, cooked meat (Photo: Ron Barkai, TAU)

•dâm / â•dâm; man, mankind. (Capitalizations in English – e.g. "Man" or "Adam" – are nonexistent in Hebrew and, therefore, artificially superimposed by interpretation). Use of the specifier prefix, - (-; the…), generally differentiates (â•dâm; "a man") from (hâ-â•dâm; "the man").

Cognates include (a•dâm•âh; soil, dirt, earth) and the masc. adjective (â•dom; red, lit. "clay-red" or chestnut) and its feminine counterpart, (a•dum•âh; red, lit. "clay-red" or chestnut), as in "Red Heiffer".

Oral lore transitioned to recorded history long after the Big Nâtâh, long after the emergence of several variants of humans migrating out of Israel and subsequently mutating to adapt to different regions, and only after the development of written language in Mesopotamia ca. B.C.E. 3200 – enabling, for the first time, the recording of unfolding history.


Tigris & Euphrates rivers
Click to enlargeMesopotamia (in yellow, between Tigris and Euphrates rivers, top center) in the context of the modern Middle East
From Prehistory Ancient Lore
To Recorded History
From Genetic Adam and Eve To Av•râ•hâm ca. B.C.E. 2187

Before language and writing, ancient lore around campfires was all the history there was; the only explanation of how everything had come to be as it was when writing, and written (recorded) history, began – ca. B.C.E. 3200. Crystallization of recorded history emerged over the next millennium, including the family tree of Av•râ•hâm ca. B.C.E. 2187.

The advent of recording unfolding history required that what was known of ancient lore be molded into the then-existing present to fill in the blanks of how things had come to be as they were. Thus, the highlight names known to the Biblical tribal-historians — Middle East Gan Eidën — ancestors and antiquity were strung together to the best of their knowledge. The rabbinic collapsing of the time from the Big Nâtâh to Av•râ•hâm into three millennia, to conclude the earth is less than 6,000 years old and dinosaurs never existed, has been an epic error of assumption.

Thus, humans had, before the era of written language and recorded history, variegated from a bronze-skinned Israeli Semite so newly discovered scientists haven't yet named him (see update), to tall, dark-skinned Kalahari Africans, to Asians and to stockier pale-skinned European Neanderthals. A priori, when Gan Eidën Semites referred to Nᵊphil•im and , they likely described immigrant bands from Africa.

Scientific Update 2017.05.22 – Out of Israel, Not Africa

"The common lineage of great apes and humans split several hundred thousand [years] earlier than hitherto assumed, according to an international research team headed by Professor Madelaine Böhme from the Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment at the University of Tübingen and Professor Nikolai Spassov from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The researchers investigated two fossils of Graecopithecus freybergi with state-of-the-art methods and came to the conclusion that they belong to pre-humans. Their findings, published today in two papers in the journal PLOS ONE, further indicate that the split of the human lineage occurred in the Eastern Mediterranean and not – as customarily assumed – in Africa."

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Scientific Update: 2015.06.20 — 400,000 Year-Old Human Teeth
Mankind Out of Israel, Not Out of Africa!!!
Scientists Haven't Yet Named New Line: Father of Both Homo Sapiens And Neandertal Homo ??? Rewrites Origin Of Man!!!
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Click to enlargePhoto: TAU Prof Israel Hershkowitz

"Researchers found four teeth in the Qesem Cave near Rosh HaAyin (not far from Tel Aviv), and they were astonished at test results that conclude the fossils to be some 400 thousand-years-old. The significance of this is that it's possible that the origin of prehistoric man is in Israel, and not in East Africa. And an additional surprise is that prehistoric man was mainly vegetarian and not carnivorous…" (ynetnews.com, accessed 2015.06.20)


Scientific Update: 2014.07.08 — Neandertal-Human Skull
Raises New Questions About Human Evolution

"Re-examination of a circa 100,000-year-old archaic early human skull found 35 years ago in Northern China has revealed the surprising presence of an inner-ear formation long thought to occur only in Neandertals.

"The discovery places into question a whole suite of scenarios of later Pleistocene human population dispersals and interconnections based on tracing isolated anatomical or genetic features in fragmentary fossils," said study co-author Erik Trinkaus, PhD, a physical anthropology professor at Washington University in St. Louis.

"It suggests, instead, that the later phases of human evolution were more of a labyrinth of biology and peoples than simple lines on maps would suggest." more

See also Khaw•âh ("mitochondrial Eve").


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

•don; Lord / lord, sir, the gentleman.

Only in post-Biblical times, with the Hellenization of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh -Rish•on (perhaps as an ecumenical gesture of inclusivity to the polytheist Hellenists), did the possessive plural, , come to be reserved to refer exclusively to ‑‑ (variously abbreviated , ‭ ‬ ‎' or --). Thus, is regarded as too qâ•dosh to pronounce in profane (i.e., ordinary) conversation; and is pronounced only in tᵊphil•ot. In ordinary—profane—discourse, one instead says "ha-Sheim", abbreviated '.)

In Biblical times, the possessive simply referred to nobility among human beings: or pl. .

Note, however, that there are no upper and lower case and, thus, no distinctions based on capitalization, in Hebrew. Further, ignoring vowels, early Hellenist Christians, translating into Greek, found it particularly easy to pervert the singular, referring to a human nobleman, into the plural, implying divinity.

When spelled without vowels, the helpful is often added ().

•don was Hellenized, via LXX, to the Greek κυριος (kurios; sir, lord). See also Mori, rabbi and The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 6.24.1.


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agunah (anchored woman - husband refuses to grant get)

Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.10.12]

Masc. (â•gan; he anchored, it is anchored), however, primarily used in the fem. of a woman: a•gun•âh; pl. a•gun•ot; anchored, popularly a "chained woman"; a woman anchored in a marriage (and, therefore, unable to remarry) by a husband who is missing and not proven dead, or who may be abusive, may have deserted her or may even have remarried without giving the previous wife a geit—rendering her unmarriable (because she is still deemed married) according to Ha•lâkh•âh.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

A•har•on

Hellenized / de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Aaron."


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

A•hav•at O•lâm; 'Love of the Age,'

This is the prayer—which likely dates back to Har Sin•ai (in contrast with some parts of the Si•dur which date from the Middle Ages)—introducing the recitation of the Shᵊma.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.07.09]

A•jâd•âh: "f.n. PBH 1 legend, tale, story, myth. 2 'Aggadah'—homiletic section in Rabbinic literature. [A secondary form of " (Klein's Etymological Dictionary, p. 5), referring to that portion of rabbinic teachings which is not Ha•lâkh•âh; consisting of didactic illustrative extrapolations—legends, tales and myths arising out of 'hermeneutic licence'—"comparable to metaphors of poems…" The A•jâd•âh is a set of "moral and ethical teachings dealing with the problems of faith and the art of living." ["Aggadah," Ency. Jud. 2.355] "The rabbis themselves stated that certain statements in the Mish•nâh and Bâ•ra•yᵊtâ giving descriptive details of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh, were mere 'hyperbole.' " (EJ 354). The A•jâd•âh is first and foremost the creation of Israeli Jewry, from the time of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh to the end of the Tal•mudic period.


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'Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.02.26]

Ajin
Click to enlargeAjin

A•jin (Borrowed from Arabic.) Bread dough from which several types of Tei•mân•i breads are made. Basic recipe (refine over time)— (khâ•lâv, or substitute margarine for butter): more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.08.09]

A•khar•on•im

Revered rabbis from the 16th century C.E. to the present; in contrast to the Ri•shon•im.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Âl•einu; [it is] upon us [to…].

This is the penultimate prayer in morning liturgy of the Tei•mân•i prayer book (differing only in a few words from other traditions):

" to praise •don of everything, … more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.10.28]

a•lᵊmâh, maiden.

Contrast this term against (bᵊtul•âh; virgin).

A maiden was expected, and assumed, to be virgin until she had relations with her husband. Thus, the argument of some that implies "not virgin" is, to put it kindly, non sequitur.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

am; kinfolk, kindred, clan; pl. (am•im).

This contrasts with [modern spelling ] (goy•im), peoples.

-, by contrast, is an idiom that referred, Biblically, to the "simple people" residing (or occupying) . By extension, the idiom is applied to "Jews" who assimilate, becoming or behaving like them. Thus, the phrase - is a pejorative idiom meaning a boor, particularly in contrast to - (am-Yi•sᵊr•â•eil; kindred of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil) and includes both and unlearned and apostate Jews like them, who assimilate into them.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.12.25]

Amaleiq
Click to enlargeMap: Israel ca. B.C.E. 1000

A•mâ•leiq; the archenemy of Israel and personification of Sâ•tân (Dᵊvâr•im 25.17ff); grandson of "qov / Yi•sᵊrâ•eil.

Grandson of Av•râ•hâm and chronologically preceding the Tribe of Yᵊhud•âh, Ei•sau was technically a proto-Jew – an even higher precedent!

','#dfefff', 260)"; onMouseout="hideddrivetip()">born Jew" Ei•sau (patriarch of the Εd•om•im).

Ei•sau-Εd•om – culminating in his grandson, A•mâ•leiq – was the precedent "born-Jew" excised from the family for rejecting the family religion and laws (the archetype that would continue developing into Twelve Tribal laws and culminate, at Har Sin•ai, in Tor•âh). Thus, A•mâ•leiq (Ei•sau-Εd•om) is the prototype of atheist and secular "born Jews" who have relinquished Tor•âh (and refuse to make tᵊshuv•âh).

A•mâ•leiq became clan-patriarch of the ancient archenemy of Israel, pervading Εd•om and located in what is today's Israeli Nëgëv and west-central Jordan, south of Yâm ha-Mëlakh, in the regions of Bᵊn•ei-A•mâ•leiq ("Amalekites") and "Εd•om" (see map).

Contrary to English translations and… more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

â•mar; he said, said (he, so-and-so), he told. The plural participle is (o•mᵊr•im; saying or telling)

One of the most frequently used verbs in the Scriptures is (yomër; and he said or told, and [so-and-so] said or told). This is the fu. tense with a conversive , transforming it into past perf..

See also Dâ•vâr


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.05.09]

â•mein; adverb meaning be coached [in it] faithfully, competently, reliably, trustworthily!

From (â•man; he / it trained / coached to competence, reliability, trustworthiness). See also the cognate .


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IDF soldiers praying toward Yerushalayim

Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

A•mid•âh; "standing" especially the section of prayers which are recited while standing, derives from (â•mad; he was standing).


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Amaleiq
Click to enlargeMap: Israel ca. B.C.E. 1000

Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

A•mon; nation east of the northern half of Yâm ha-Mëlakh.


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, pl. Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

•mor•â, pl. •mor•âyim ("spokesman"); designation of post-Tannaitic teachers in Babyon who were active from the period of the completion of the Mish•nâh (ca. 220 C.E.) until the completion of both the Ba•vᵊl•i and Yᵊru•shâ•layim versions of Tal•mud (ca. 470 C.E.—Ency. Jud., 2.865).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

•mos; load, burden; third of twelve minor Nᵊviy•im in Ta•na"kh (de-Judaized to "Amos").


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.02.21]

ân•âh.

There are, according to Ernest Klein (A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language For Readers of English, p. 476-7), four distinct themes in Hebrew whereas, according to Marcus Jastrow (Dictionary of the Targumim, Talmud Bavli, Talmud Yerushalmi and Midrashic Literature, p. 1093), there are two principle themes in Aramaic. In order of their primary meanings, these are:

Hebrew (Klein)Aramaic (Jastrow)
  1. To answer, reply or respond;

  2. To be occupied, busy oneself;

  3. To chant in answer, response or chorus (popularly – and misleadingly – reduced to "sing"); and

  4. To be bowed down or afflicted.

  1. To answer, reply or respond, chant in answer, response or chorus (popularly reduced to "sing");

  2. To detain or postpone. However, Jastrow (p. 1093) defines the pu•al pass. part., (mᵊun•ëh), as "fasting," as on Yom ha-Ki•pur.

Each of these are further modified by the bin•yân instantiated. Scholars are often divided concerning a number of passages in which the bin•yân is ambiguous. This is particularly true of the verb describing how one is to "answer-afflict" oneself on Yom Ki•pur—and, therefore, the same verb (rendered "afflicted") in Yᵊsha•yâhu 53.4 & 7. more


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Ανανιας [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Ananias)

WIth the exception of Beit-Dâ•wid (who became persecuted, hunted and killed by Romans and their Hellenist informers beginning in 62 C.E.), going by one's Greek name demonstrated one's Hellenist assimilation and collaboration with the Roman occupiers. His original name was (Khan•an•yâh; Gracious is Y-h), shortened to (Khân•ân)


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anthropomorphismPronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.06.06]

(adj. anthropomorphic). The representation of objects (especially a god) as having human form or traits; a form of idolatry. Whenever a Bën-Yi•sᵊr•â•eil in the Bible references the "Arm," "Hand," "Finger," etc. of ‑‑ or ël•oh•im it is, necessarily, figurative; referring to a mortal, human ma•lâkh.


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αντινομος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(antinomos); Anglicized to antinomian.

antinomian, lit. "anti-law"; Hellenist term meaning anti-Tor•âh.


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Αποκρυφα [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Apokrupha); Anglicized to Apocrypha.

"Those [things] having been hidden away," anglicized to Apocrypha, the set of Hellenist Greek books (preserved only in Greek) of similar age to, and exhibiting a Hellenist interpretation of, the books in Ta•na"kh but which the Jewish Sages never considered reliable or sacred and have never been part of Ta•na"kh. Millennia later—"not before the late fourth century [C.E.] and long after Constantine the Great established Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire" (James H. Charlesworth, editor, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, Garden City: Doubleday 1983, Vol. I, p. xxiii)—the Christian Church canonized the Apocrypha (declared it part of their Christian Bible). However, a few centuries later, the Protestant Reformation rejected their canonicity. The book of Revelation wasn't canonized in the Greek Church until the 10th century C.E. and the Syrians today regard their Pᵊshitᵊtâ as the canon. See also Pseudepigrapha.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.03.13]

Aqeidah, sacrifice of the Ayil (ram)
Hover over regions for hintsClick to enlargeA•qeid•âh (incognizant surreal fingerpainting by Yâ•eil in 1990 – at 4 years old).

A•qeid•âh; binding hands and feet (usually refers to the binding of Yitz•khâq Âv•inu, bᵊ-Reish•it 22.1-19), from (â•qad; he bound hands and feet, hog-tied).

Tor•âh documents that in Av•râ•hâm's era, when everything seemed lost, the politically correct, last-ditch, desperate method believed to enable one to prevail on his god was to demonstrate his absolute sincerity and unreserved belief in, and dedication to, his god by sacrificing his firstborn son (Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 3.26-27; See also Mikhâh 6.7-8).

This episode records how Av•râ•hâm weaned himself, and his posterity, from this practice. more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.07.19]

ha-Aravah (the plain), with mountains of Εd•omꞋ  in distancearavah (willow) in Gan Uri Gordon, Raanana

A•râv•âh; an arid, treeless or desert plain, also a willow; pl. (A•râv•ot).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

A•râv•i; Arab. pl. (A•râv•im; Arabs).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Arba kᵊnâph•ot; four corners. An undershawl, worn under the shirt, to which tzitz•it are attached.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.07.25]

Ërëtz; land, soil, dirt, earth.

When not otherwise specified, (hâ-Ârëtz; the land) and (bâ-Ârëtz; in the land) by convention refers to Yi•sᵊr•â•eil except when otherwise specified.

(khutz lâ-ârëtz; outside of the land) means abroad (relative to Yi•sᵊr•â•eil; i.e., outside of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil).

Liberal-left and elitist with a circulation of only about 65,000, hâ-Ârëtz is the smallest of Israel's "major three" independent Hebrew newspapers.

hâ-Ârëtz has an English on-line site where you can—and I implore you to—post your views at www.haaretz.com


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.16]

Setting of the Table
Click to enlarge

A•rikh•at ha-Shul•khân; "setting of the table"; refers to the Kha•sid•im fellowship meal table of the Tza•diq—their rebbe or, in the Nᵊtzâr•im case, Pâ•qid; especially of the Ërëv Shab•ât and Ërëv Khag meal tables.

The model for the Nᵊtzâr•im virtual counterpart is the Kha•sid•im custom of attendance by all tal•mid•im Nᵊtzâr•im at the meal table, led by the Tza•diq (Pâ•qid or, among more modern, European Kha•sid•im, their rëbbe), who distributes food and drink to those sharing the meal. This is similar in many respects to the holy meal shared by the Essenes.

In the spiritual counterpart, … more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.09.02]

ârᵊl•âh; first 3 years foliage of a fruit tree, including its fruit, required to be pruned and discarded; foreskin of the penis (fem. n.), pl. (â•rᵊl•ot).

Adj. (masc.) (â•reil), pl. (a•reil•im), uncircumcised.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.01.27]

•ron; chest (popularly 'ark').

"Ark of the Covenant / Testimony"

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Arv•it; evening (related to ërëv) and, by extension, evening Tᵊphil•ot, paralleling the liturgy in the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.12.21]

Âs•âh; to make or do (lit. "he made" or "he did"). Present tense (same Hebrew spelling, vowellized differently): osëh


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.07.25]

Biblical A•sërët ha-Dᵊvâr•im, (rabbinic (fem. form of ).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

•shâm; guilt.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ash•kᵊ•nazi: descendant of Tzᵊdoq•im who fled in 70 C.E. or 135 C.E. to Germany & Eastern (as opposed to Spanish, Sᵊphâ•râd•im) European Roman Empire; pl. (Ash•kᵊ•nazim); one of the two European (Hellenist Roman Empire) traditions of Jewry. (The anti-Hellenist (ergo, anti-Roman Empire) Pᵊrush•im, by contrast, fled the incompatible Hellenism of the Roman Empire entirely, settling in other parts of the Middle East and Africa. The most pristinely preserved Pᵊrush•im, uninfluenced by the Hellenism of the Roman Empire, are the Tei•mân•im, who fled to Yemen in 70 & 135 C.E.)

According to a 2013.10 paper by Prof. Martin Richards, of the Archaeogenetics Research Group at the University of Huddersfield (England), after sequencing the full 16,568 bases of the whole mitochondrial genomes, "in the vast majority of cases, Ashkenazi lineages are most closely related to southern and western European lineages – and that these lineages have been present in Europe for many thousands of years."

"This means that, even though Jewish men may indeed have migrated into Europe from [Judea] around 2000 years ago, they brought few or no wives with them. They seem to have married with European women, firstly along the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, and later (but probably to a lesser extent) in western and central Europe. This suggests that, in the early years of the Diaspora, Judaism took in many converts from amongst the European population, but they were mainly recruited from amongst women. Thus, on the female line of descent, the Ashkenazim primarily trace their ancestry neither to [Judea] nor to Khazaria, but to southern and western Europe."


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.10.29]

Ashur (fortune of arrow) natl deity
Click to enlarge Ashur, fortune (where an arrow strikes or misses) national archer-warrior deity of fortune of ancient Assyria (Syria)

A•shur (and cognates), the Assyrian archer-warrior god of fortune or validation (symbolized by whether an arrow strikes or spares) – also the name of the country (translated "Assyria," modern Syria) as well as the people (Assyrians-Syrians).

(•sheir); favored by A•shur, the God of fortune and validation; fortunate, validated – name of Ya•a•qov's 8th son (mother: Zi•lᵊp•âh, Leiâh's maid).

(a•shᵊr•âh) –Never before published evidence more

(a•sh•r•ei); may the fortunes and validations of A•shur, the fortune-god, be with (you, him, her, etc.); i.e., feel fortunate, validated, happy.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

•sur; bound, prohibited, forbidden


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.09.01]

Ä•tud; billy-goat (i.e., male), pl. , (â•tud•im), billy-goats


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

•tzar; constrained, restrained, detained, apprehended, stopped

(a•tzërët; constrainment, restrainment, detention, apprehension, stoppage)

(o•tzër; oppression in the form of constrainment, restrainment, detention, apprehension or stoppage; also, in modern Hebew, curfew).


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Augustinus [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Latin – Anglicized to Augustine)

(354—430 C.E.) Aurelius Augustinus. North African, born in what is now Algeria, Augustine was a Manichean (viewing the universe as polarized between G*o*d and Sâ•tân and their respective followers) who converted to the Hellenist Catholic Christian Church, became bishop in Hippo (in modern Algeria) and whose Manichean influence, despite the Catholic Church declaring it an apostasy, pervades the Catholic Church.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

A•vad•on; state of being lost, in utter ruin (cf. Tᵊhil•im 88.12; Mi•shᵊl•ei Shᵊlom•oh (Hellenized to "Prov.") 15.11; 27.20; I•yov (Hellenized to "Job") 26.5; 28.22. This state is known to Christians from The Unveiling (Christian "Revelation" or Apocalypse) 9.11 (from The Unveiling, chap. 9).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.07.13]

A•veir•âh; a stepping across some physical point or legal threshold, an overstep of a boundary, a transgression of a boundary or a trespass of a boundary; viz., Tor•âh unless otherwise indicated by the context.

Plural is (a•veir•ot).

(a•var•yân) is an overstepper, transgressor or trespasser of a boundary; viz., Tor•âh unless otherwise indicated by the context. Pl. is (a•var•yân•im). Compare and contrast with the adjective (pᵊlil•iy; criminal).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.06.02]

â•viv; ear of cereal (barley, wheat, etc.). "Spring" is a later connotation, based on the season in which barley matured into an â•viv. Ergo, Tël •viv means "Ruins-mound of barley-ear (season, = spring).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.09.06]

A•vōd•âh: the set of all work (energy or effort expended in producing some change, whether physical or abstract.) = subset (effort expended in pursuit of a goal primarily in the incorporeal eternal Realm of goals, which are appropriate and encouraged at all times, including Sha•bât) + (lᵊ‑ha•vᵊdil) subset (effort expended in pursuit of a goal primarily corporeal, worldly = profane, goals that are prohibited on Sha•bât).more

‎ = ‎ +

Related cognates include:

  • (ëvëd; employee, worker, servant or slave); pl. (a•vâd•im; employees, workers, servants or slaves)

  • (a•vᵊd•i; my employee, worker, servant or slave)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.05.14]

A•vod•âh zâr•âh—strange a•vod•âh. Every form of religion or worship outside of the bᵊritTor•âh—is A•vod•âh Zâr•âh. Placing A•vod•âh Zâr•âh before the accepted form of service to ha-SheimTor•âh—violates the first of the A•sërët ha-Di•bᵊr•ot. Thus, A•vod•âh Zâr•âh is idolatry.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.17]

Âwël; wrong, wrong-doing; from i•weil; to do wrong, act wrongfully.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.17]

Âwën; evil, iniquity.


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or Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

•won; conscious (deliberate) transgression, a misdemeanor, against Tor•âh. See also kheit (misstep, a petty offense, against Tor•âh) and pësha (rebellious transgression, a felony, against Tor•âh)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

ccc
Click to enlargeUr, in the south of modern Iraq not far from the Persian Gulf

Avᵊrâ•hâm – the name he was given as an extraordinarily successful adult, after building a powerful ranch community, becoming a wealthy land baron, regional authority and Nâ•si (bᵊ-Reish•it 23.6). The name was later Hellenized (into Greek by Christian goy•im) from the original Hebrew Scripture, then Arabized from the Hellenist Greek (by Arab goy•im) to 'Ibrahim' and Anglicized from the Hellenist Greek (again by Christian goy•im) to 'Abraham'.

Born in Ur, Mesopotamia, his birth name was (Avᵊrâm; a compound formed from ‎ + ).

As Avᵊrâm accumulated wealth (herds of cattle, goats, sheep, horses and camels as well as gold and silver in Egypt), he eventually employed a veritable empire of workers, including cowboys, goat herders, shepherds, other ranch hands, household staff and security forces – a formidable battalion-size, battle-proven ("blooded") military force who had already vanquished the ruling power of the east (the forces of the king of Elam, modern southwestern Iran; bᵊ-Reish•it 14.14).

Concomitant to his wealth and military power, surrounding peoples recognized – and justifiably respected – his power and consequent authority. From their perspective, his neighboring Kᵊna•an•im equated Avᵊrâm to the man-gods of their era: their own Baal and the Egyptian Horus, predecessors of the later Hellenists' Ζεύς – describing Avᵊrâm as (bᵊ-Reish•it 23.6).

Accordingly, Avᵊrâm became popularly called (Avᵊrâ•hâm; retaining the same first element of his birth name, ‎ + a fusion of the last element of his original name: interjecting the first element of – namely (( – into , to produce the portmanteau of the final element: , producing the meaning "exalted father of tumultuous-multitudes; bᵊ-Reish•it 17.5).

The patriarch is often designated as Âv•inu (our father, patriarch).


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Ayil (ram)

Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.05.20]

ayil; ram, adult male sheep. Compare & contrast with tal•ëh, këvës, eiz, tzon and sëh.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Az•â•zeil; a (scape)goat of our fathers of blessed memory. Scholars are uncertain as to the meaning of the term. Klein promulgates the most popular guess: (eiz â•zal, the (scape)goat was used-up, went away). This seems linguistically unreasonably awkward and primitive.

I suggest another view: " (eiz az"l; the (scape)goat of az"l"). az"l is an acronym for (av•ot•einnu zi•khᵊr•on•âm li-vᵊrâkh•âh; our fathers of blessed memory). Thus, would mean "the (scape)goat of our fathers, [the fathers] of blessed memory," aluding to the delegation as a qor•bân and subsequent release of the a•qeid•âh.

Thus, the popular expletive – "!"


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.11.27]

bᵊ- prefix; lit. "in…" (sometimes translated "by" and similar for smoothness in English).

Contraction of and (ha-, the); form depending on subsequent letter:

  • ba- prefix; lit. "in the…"
  • - prefix; lit. "in the…"

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Beil (Akkadian-Babylonian Cunieform)
Beil

/ Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.08.05]


Baal (Akkadian-Babylonian: Beil); master (lord), husband. Also applied to Babylonian idol Marduk. Plural bᵊal•im

Baal ha-Bayit (master of the house) is the husband and father. Baal tᵊru•âh (master blaster) is the one who blows the sho•phar. Baal tᵊshuv•âh (master responder), probably the most respected of all, is one who makes tᵊshuv•âh.


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, also spelled Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ba•lad•i; a transliteration of Arabic meaning indigenous, native or local (i.e. Tei•mân). Ba•lad•i is the most pristine Tei•mân•i Jewish tradition—dating back to Har Sin•ai. Ba•lad•i contrasts with the more recent Shami ("Syrian") Qa•bâl•âh-ist Reform. The Ba•lad•i liturgy gets its name because it is the original—native—prayer book of Tei•mân•i Jews. (The many Yemenite synagogues of Rehovot," Assaf Patrick, hâ-Ârëtz, 2004.06.18).

The original and pristine faithful, rejecting a surge of Reform Shami espousing Zo•har and Qa•bâl•âh in the 1600s, took the name Ba•lad•i—the "native" Tor•âh tradition of the Tei•mân•i.

(No•sakh Ba•lad•i; native version, lit. native taste).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2009.09.17]

bâ•lâg•ân; mess, disorder, chaos.


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or Aramaic Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.08.09]

Bâl•âh (Aramaic bᵊlâ); exhaust, deplete, wear out; cf. Dâ•ni•eil 7.25.

"And he shall make words (lᵊ-tzad; [as though] beside) the Most High…" I.e., the beast would allege that his own words issued from his place "beside the Most High." "And the holy ones of the Most High (yᵊvalei; he shall exhaust—from ); and he shall suppose to change ; and they shall be given into his hand for a season and seasons and half a season" (see The 1993 Covenant).

The "Times of the Gentiles" (cf. The 1993 Covenant) began in this time window defined by the destruction of Yᵊru•shâ•layim and the of the Nᵊtzâr•im in 135 C.E.

The conclusion of this window, marked by the re-emergence of Israel as a nation, the recovery of Yᵊru•shâ•layim and the re-emergence of the Nᵊtzâr•im, permits the calculation of the 3½ units used by Dâ•ni•eil. This equals 1948 (or 1967 or 1985, depending on one's interpretation) minus 135 (C.E.), yielding a difference of 1813, 1832, or 1850 years, respectively.

Dividing each of these by 3½ produces 518, 523, or 529 years, each, respectively, equalling 1 "Dâ•ni•eil's year."

From this, one can easily calculate Dâ•ni•eil months, weeks, and days. Plugging these values back into the prophecies of Dâ•ni•eil yields interesting results.

Christians who are false prophets by the criteria of Dᵊvâr•im 13:2-6, most of whom can't even read Hebrew much less follow the Aramic of Dâ•ni•eil, point to Dâ•ni•eil2:34-35 & 44 and Rev. 16:19. However, Dâ•ni•eil7.25 and the NT book of Rev. 11:2, which describe (or comments on, in the case of Rev.) the same prophecy, are far more illuminating—"and think to change ."

Dâ•ni•eil encoded, and so it was fulfilled, that this period would be closed by 1993 (cf. The 1993 Covenant for a discussion of the Nᵊviy•im concerning our times,


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.10.30]

Bar; Aramaic combinative form counterpart of bën-: a product (especially a son, a grain or a grain field) of…; also used figuratively as "a member of…".


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.09.27]

Shim•on Bar Yo•khai (Rashb"i); 2nd century C.E. Tan•â, active 135 C.E. 170 C.E.

Rab•ân Shim•on Bar Yo•khai, one of the most eminent tal•mid•im of Tan•â Rabi A•qi (ca. 40 C.E. – ca. 137 C.E.), is well-known in Ta•lᵊmud for insisting on getting to the rational and core reason underlying any given point of Ha•lâkh•âh as prerequisite for properly understanding and applying it.

Contrary to the fraudulent claim of Moses "Sheim Tov" de León (France, ca. 1250 C.E. – 1305 C.E.), however, Rab•ân Shim•on Bar Yo•khai had no connection – whatsoever – to the irrationalist (anti-Ram•ba"m) 14th century C.E. French fiction of European Qa•bâl•âh, "Sheim Tov": the 14th century C.E. Zohar.

While the most pristine tradition of the Tei•mân•im () celebrate Rab•ân Shim•on Bar Yo•khai, chanting a poem about him in chorus in Beit Kᵊnësët on holidays, they rejected the Zohar as illegitimate.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Bâ•ra•yᵊtâ (Aramaic); "external," a teaching of the Ta•nâ•im, which is outside of the Mish•nâh.


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Βαρναβας [Updated: 2011.04.01]

(Bar•nabas; Anglicized to Barnabas)

Seems to have been an Ëb•i•ō•naῖoi disciple of Stephan•os (as deduced from the "Epistle of Barnabas" in the Codex Sinaiticus): Bar•nabas held that "Judaism, in its outward and fleshly form, had never been commended by the Almighty to man, had never been the expression of God's covenant…" (Smith & Wace, A Dictionary of Christian Biography, I.264).

Bar•nabas was born Yo•seiph Bar-Nâ•vi ha-Leiw•i in the Hellenist, Greek-speaking Diaspora of Cyprus, of Greek-speaking, Hellenist parents. Yet, the text soon reveals that Paul was too extreme-Hellenist even for Bar•nabas and the Ëb•i•ō•naῖoi.


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"Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Ba•sa"d; acronym for (bᵊ-si•ya•tâ di-shᵊma•yâ; by (lit. "in") the help of the heavens—Aramaic)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.03.26]

bâ•sâr, masc. n.; flesh, meat, excluding fish—esp. of livestock and, more especially, beef. Whether bâ•sâr includes oph depends upon the context. Contrasted with a rock, a plant, fish or khâ•lâv, bâ•sâr—flesh / meat includes oph (of all kâ•sheir kinds). If one is ordering dinner, however, and differentiating between beef, lamb, chicken and duck, then additional explanation is needed: , , or .


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Bat-; "daughter of…,"; fem. of Plural (bân•ot; daughters [of…]).

Bat Qol; "daughter of a voice," a Hebrew idiom meaning "a voice out of the heavens."


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Bavel (Babylon), Iraq (Andre Sinou, 2003)

Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Bâ•vël; Babylon, "babble" city. Adjective: (Ba•vᵊl•i; Babylonian)


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Bayit; box, house; sing. connective - (beit-; house of…), pl. (bât•im; boxes, houses), pl. conn. - (bât•ei-; houses of…).


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B.C.E. [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Before the Common Era. The designation B.C. ("before christ") begs the question that "christ" has come in the Christian image, which is patently offensive to Jews. The Hebrew translation is (li-phᵊn•ei ha-sᵊphir•âh; before the count).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.07]

Bᵊdiq•âh; inspection, by a bo•deiq (inspector).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.08.02]

bᵊeir; a well, wellspring or fountain.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.08]

bᵊ-ëz•rat ha-Sheim yit•bâ•rakh; "with the help of ha-Sheim, may He be blessed." This is the most popular phrase to replace responses and statements like "I'll be there," "I'll do [this or that]," "I'm going [somewhere or to do something]," etc.


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, , Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.02.05]

Bamah at Har Megido
Click to enlarge
Kᵊna•an•it at Har Mᵊgido (approx. 26 ft. diam. x 5 ft. high)

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.02.21]

bin•yân; construct (verb), building; plural (bin•yân•im).

With few exceptions, verbs are all found in one of seven bin•yân•im:

Bin•yân•im
© 1982 by Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu Bën-Dâ•wid
TransitiveIntransitive
ActivePassiveReflexive
Simplepa•alniph•al
Causativehiph•ilhuph•al
Intensivepi•eilpu•alhit•pâ•eil

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.05.08]

bi•kur; first fruit; pl. (bi•kur•im)

(bi•kur•âh; early fruit (esp. fig)

(bᵊ•khor) male firstborn (human or animal); pl. (bᵊ•khor•im)

(bᵊ•khor•âh; double-portion birthright of the firstborn male or firstborn daughter).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.06.04]

Bᵊli•yaal; the embodiment of Sâ•tân, is a compound of (bᵊli; without) and (yaal; utility, usefulness, effectiveness, purpose—a cognate of the name (Yâ•eil; ibex epitomizing graceful utility). Thus, is the antonym of graceful utility, i.e., useless, worthless, ineffective, without purpose, loser.


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Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Midbar-north wadi kelt (k-etzion.co.il)

bᵊ-Mid•bar; "in the arid-wilderness", Hellenized to "Numbers."


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-Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.05.16]

Bën-; son of… (conn. form of the noun , bein, a son), compound form □ (□vein; …son), derived from the verb (bân•âh), he built; popularly, "to build," especially masonry (and masons), with . By extension, a "member [of…], pl. - (bᵊn•ei-; sons of…). The masc. pl. noun is (bân•im; sons). The fem. sing. (noun and conn. form) is - (bat-; daughter of…) and the fem. pl. conn. is - (bᵊn•ot-; daughters of…). The fem. pl. noun is (bân•ot; daughters).

The Aramaic parallel is (Bar).

  • -Pronunciation Table

    bën-â•dâm; person. While this phrase literally means "a son of â•dâm," it is a Hebrew idiom very similar to - (Bën-Noakh; a son of "Noah," colloquially a gentile), and means "a mortal person"—the exact antithesis of the preposterous divine connotations which Christians would ascribe to it.

  • -Pronunciation Table

    1. Bën-Dâ•wid; son of Dâ•wid (Hellenized to "David")

    2. Bën dod; cousin, lit. "son of an uncle," referring to our uncle (Yish•mâ•eil, Hellenized to "Ishmael") or our uncle (Ei•sau; corrupted to "Esau"). The plural is - (bᵊn•ei-dod•im; sons of [the] uncle)—A•râv•im).

  • -Pronunciation Table

    Bën-Noakh, see Bᵊn•ei-Noakh

  • -Pronunciation Table

    Bᵊn•ei-Yi•sᵊr•â•eil; sons (by extension, children) of Israel.

  • Pronunciation Table

    Binᵊyâ•min; son [at my] right [hand] – as we find names today like Robinson or Williamson, this would be "Rightson" (the direction – only the English meaning in contrast to left, not as contrasted with wrong); 12th son of Ya•a•qov (mother: Râ•kheil).

  • -Pronunciation Table

    Bᵊn•ei-Yi•tzᵊhâr; sons (by extension, members) of pure [referring to olive-oil]; i.e., men anointed with pure olive-oil.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.10.30]

Bën-Za•kai; [son of Zakai], (Yokhâ•nân) – 1st century C.E. Tan•â; the youngest and most distinguished disciple of Ribi Hi•leil. He has been called the 'father of wisdom and the father of generations (of scholars)' because he ensured the transfer and continuation of Jewish scholarship from Yᵊru•shâ•layim to Yavᵊn•ëh after Yᵊru•shâ•layim fell to Rome in 70 C.E… considered in talmudic tradition the leading sage at the end of the Second Temple period and the years immediately following the destruction of the Temple." (Jewish Virtual LIbrary).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.10.21]

Bᵊrâkh•âh; blessing, pl. (bᵊrâkh•ot), connective sing. (bi•rᵊk•at…; blessing of…).

The passive present verb is , from the trans. pi•eil , which is, in turn, from the root . Thus, Bâ•rukh ha-Sheim means "Blessed is 'the Name'." See also (bow down, prostrate).

Bᵊrâkh•ot are overt (not secretive or apologetic) confessions of thanksgiving and praise. Accordingly, they are recited aloud, as praise to --, and should be so routinely practiced, every day, that they become committed to, and recited from, memory; routine observations punctuating everyday conversation. (Such memorization is also a good brain exercise.) This is a core practice of Tor•âh. Yᵊhud•âh means "he who shall confess-thanks."

A bᵊrâkh•âh is in order for every first or special event perceived by any of the five senses, and may be organized accordingly. more


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Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2006.04.27]

bᵊ-Reish•it; "at the start, at first," (lit. "in the first"); the first of the five books of Tor•âh shë-bikh•tâv, Hellenized / de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Genesis."

Cognate (rish•on); first, from Rosh.


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Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Welcome! (lit. May the man-coming be blessed); fem. pl.


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Pronunciation TableHear it! [Updated: 2008.10.17]

Bᵊrit; pl. (bᵊrit•ot – , this is an irreg. masc. noun taking the fem. pl. ending), a formal pact, treaty or alliance—a form of , not a unilateral

The theme of a contract between mortals and the Meta-world that we read relative to Av•râ•hâm, Yi•tzᵊkhâq, Yi•sᵊr•â•eil, Mosh•ëh and Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh is intrinsic to, and typical of, many, perhaps virtually all, ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian religions. A negotiated contract with the Meta-world was the rule, not the exception (though other religions were subject to continual renegotiations, including sacrifice of firstborn males, whenever things went desperately wrong).

What separated the religion of Av•râ•hâm, Yi•tzᵊkhâq and Yi•sᵊr•â•eil was the incorporation of the Meta-Party as the Singularity Creator, abandoning the idolatry of the pantheon of all other peoples (the ).

The theme of a negotiated pact evolved from Egyptian and Mesopotamian mythology into Hellenist Roman mythology as pax deorummore


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.10.21]

Birkon Teimani (Yemenite), p. 2, Birkat ha-Mazon

Birk•on; bᵊrâkh•ot-after-meals (pocket-guide or table booklet), Tei•mân•i Ba•lad•i. (The German-assimilated—Yiddish—term used by the Ash•kᵊnazim, "benshn," derives from the latin "benediction" via Old French. See also the after-meal bᵊrâkh•ot.)

The Birk•on includes:


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Pronunciation Table / Ήρωδιανοί  [Updated: 2014.11.16]

Boethusians = Herodians; "Priestly party under the reign of King Herod and his successors; called by the Rabbis 'Boethusians,' as adherents of the family of Boethus."

The Hellenist Jewish traitor, Ιώσηπος (Josephus), recounts how the Εd•om•i 'King of the Jews,' Herod the Great, became enamored with Mariamne, the daughter of one Σίμων, a citizen of Yᵊru•shâ•layim who was the son of Βόηθος (Boethus) of Tzid•on (B.C.E. 75-10), an Aristotelian Stoic priest – perhaps a Hellenist priest and not a ko•hein at all (as this was a period when anyone could buy ko•hein status from the Hellenist Romans – noted by Φίλων in Alexandria, Egypt. It is probably due to Φίλων's reference that Boethus is popularly assumed, therefore, to have been from Alexandria (ignoring the fact that Φίλων was at the center of the greatest library and university in the history of the ancient world).

King Herod the Great considered Σίμων too inferior to become related by marriage, yet too well respected to simply rape his daughter, Mariamne. Ergo, King Herod the Great removed the serving Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol, displacing him with Σίμων son of Boethus. Thereafter, the Hellenist "Boethusian priests", perhaps not genealogically ko•han•im at all – became inextricably linked to the Herod family – Ήρωδιανοί . Since the serving Boethusian (Herodian) High Priest became synonymous with the Ko•hein -Rësha, it seems likely that the Hellenist genealogical ko•han•im Tzᵊdoq•im as well as the Pᵊrush•im both regarded them as illegitimate. This would both explain why they are sometimes assumed to be Tzᵊdoq•im at odds with the Pᵊrush•im while, in other instances, they are (genealogically) differentiated from the Tzᵊdoq•im and, therefore, a priori, assumed to be a min of Pᵊrush•im ("Herodian Pharisees") – yet, in conflict also with the main body of Pᵊrush•im (including Ribi Yᵊho•shua). The Boethusians were also documented to hire false witnesses (To•sëphᵊtâ, Ma•sëkët Rosh ha-Shân•âh 1.15; Bâ•vᵊl•i ibid. 22b; Yᵊru•sha•lᵊm•i ibid. 57d).

The Mi•dᵊrâsh about Boethus being a disciple of Antigonus of Soko (near Khë•vᵊr•on) is considered non-historical and cannot demonstrate that Boethus was a legitimate Ko•hein.

(King Herod the Great and Mariamne had one son: Herod (II) Boethus, who married his own niece, Herodias, by whom they gave birth to a daughter – Salome.)


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CD (Cairo Damascus) [Updated: 2011.10.25]

CD (Cairo Damascus) BCE 1st century
Fragments of CD

The Damascus Document (published by Charles as "Fragments of A Zadokite Work"; ca. B.C.E. 125—B.C.E. 100)

Also inaccurately called the Damascus Covenant (written from a dungeon in Damascus, but not a covenant) and formerly known as "Fragments of a Zadoqite Document." CD was probably written about 25-30 years after MMT, as a follow-up, by the same author, Yᵊkhon•yâh Bën-Shim•on II Bën-Tzâ•doq (the last true Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol, who became known as the Moreih Tzëdëq and to the same recipient—his rabidly apostatizing Hellenist brother, Yᵊho•shua Bën-Shim•on II Bën-Tzâ•doq, the first Hellenist Ko•hein -Rësha (and his successors). (More details in our Kha•nukh•âh page.)

CD developed under the names Zadokite Fragments, Damascus Covenant and Damascus Document. R. Solomon Schechter discovered the document in 1896 in the gᵊniz•âh of the Ëzᵊr•â Synagogue in Old Cairo, Egypt, where it was subsequently designated Cairo Damascus (CD).

Schechter published CD under the title Solomon Fragments of a Zadokite Work (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1910). The title was influenced by the frequent mention of the "sons of Tzâ•doq" within the document.

In 1947, the Community Rule (1QS) manuscript was discovered in cave one at Qumran. Scholars noticed a similarity between it and CD and much discussion was generated about its ancient link to the Qumran community. At Qumran, Cave six proved to validate this hypothesis when an actual fragment of CD was found.


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C.E. [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Common Era. The designation A.D. ("anno dominum"; Latin meaning "year of the lord") begs the question that the "lord" has come in the Christian image (and implying that the previous, Judaic, era wasn't "of the Lord"), which is patently offensive to Jews. The Hebrew translation is (ha-sᵊphir•âh; of the count).


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ca. [Updated: 2006.04.27]

circa; approximately, referring to a date or time.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.07.12]

Dâm, masc. n.; blood.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.10.09]

Plural (indicating "members of…") of a portmanteau of , forming the name of one of the four ancient sages, (Mᵊlâkh•im Âlëph 5.11), indicative of the ultimate generation of wisdom – the generation that basked in the wisdom of Shᵊlomoh ha-Mëlëkh.

refers specifically to the 19th century C.E. restoration movement of the Tei•mân•im No•sakh , inspired by Rav ‭ ‬ (1853-1932 C.E.), to restore a -like generation – peeling off the foreign scales of Ash•kᵊnazim-imposed European (Christian) Gnosticism – Qa•bâl•âh – in order to reorient to the ultimate Generation of Knowledge – the generation of Shᵊlomoh ha-Mëlëkh ("Kafah," Ency. Jud., 10.670). more


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Dât•i; customary, traditional; by extension, religious. This adjective is formed from the noun (dât; custom, tradition). Dat•i always implies Orthodox Judaism (excluding Conservative, Reform, etc.)


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Pronunciation TableHear it! [Updated: 2006.07.06]

Dâ•vâr he spoke. The speaking of a word was equated to the act or thing pronounced, based on the Biblical description of creation (He spoke and it was). Consequently, by extension Dâ•vâr connotes (dâ•vâr; matter or thing).

  • (Dᵊvâr•im; speakings, matters, things) is the masc. pl.—and the fifth book of Tor•âh shë-bikh•tâv), Hellenized / de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Deuteronomy." The masc. combinative pl. is - (di•vᵊr•ei-…; [Oral] Speakings [of…]).

  • (dᵊvar; the matter of…, the affair of…, a talk about…). This combinative sing. form is often coupled with , a short "talk" (speaking) on the pâ•râsh•at shâ•vua, which is de rigueur at every get-together of Jews (or ).

  • (Di•vᵊr•ei-ha-Yâm•im; Speakings of the Days) are two books of Ta•na"kh, Âlëph (first) and Beit (second) Hellenized / de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Chronicles," the last two books in the Bible.

  • (Di•bᵊr•ot; fem. speakings, matters, things), the fem. pl., is most frequently found in the phrase (A•sërët ha-Di•bᵊr•ot; the Ten Speakings), Hellenized to "commandments."

    Dâ•vâr and the plural participle, (Dᵊvâr•im, speakings, things or matters) are synonyms of (â•mar; say, tell) and its cognate participles. Both refer to the spoken word. To keep these two straight, we try to be consistent in rendering the first and its cognates as speak or speakings and the latter as say, tell, sayings or tellings.

    Both of the above contrast with the verb (kâ•tav; to write) and its cognates, (kâ•tuv; written), (kᵊtub•âh; a writing, especially a marriage contract) and (bi-khᵊtav; in writing, usually rendered "written"; as in Tor•âh shë-bikh•tâv, written Tor•âh). The generic term for "word," which carries no implication of whether spoken or written, is (mil•âh; "word").




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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.07.06]

Beit Dâ•wid; House of Dâ•wid (also spelled ; corrupted to "David"), variant of the cognate (Dod) meaning "uncle," close friend or bosom-buddy. They are related to (yâ•did; friend, companion), often inaccurately exaggerated to "beloved." Even the fem., (yᵊdid•âh), at least in Biblical usage, is more accurately rendered "girlfriend."

"Beloved," a cognate of "love," by comparison, more properly reflects (â•huv; beloved-man) or the fem. (a•huv•âh; beloved-woman), from the verb (â•hav; he loved).

Thus, (dod•i), in (Lᵊkh•a Dod•i; Let's go, my bosom-buddy—not "come, my beloved"), means "my bosom buddy"—where both the verb and noun are masc. sing. Thus, Lᵊkh•a Dod•i negates the conventional Qa•bâl•âh explanation of going forth to greet the (feminine) Shab•ât. Rather, it corroborates the Biblical theme of Israel, the wife, going forth to greet her Husband, --, on Shab•ât.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2009.04.27]

Dav, colloquial: Just to be ornery, despite everything; just to be contankerous, just to be contrary, just to be difficult, just to be vexing, just to be rebellious or defiant; just for spite; for the hell of it; $&#%# (ideal vanilla expletive; e.g. "Then, davqâ, he did it anyway.")


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Dᵊrâsh; exegesis, homiletical exposition or interpretation, from the verb (; he inquired, investigated, scrutinized, claimed, required, demanded).

(dᵊrâsh•âh) is a discourse or sermon (synonym (shi•ur; lesson).

Another cognate from this verb is .

"Regards (or greetings) to…" is (dᵊrish•at shâ•lom lᵊ…).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.05.07]

Dᵊvash; syrup (Biblical, referring to date-syrup except when otherwise specified as bee honey-syrup); not specifically the traditional translation of bee honey (to which modern usage evolved). Oases of the land flourished, and still flourish, with groves of date palms. The land has never been known to be buzzing with bees nor supporting disproportionately large communities of bee-keepers. To the contrary, the occasional find of bee honey merited special note (e.g., Shi•mᵊsh•on).


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Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2006.06.18]

Dërëkh; "way, via, route." The plural is (dᵊ•râkh•im; ways, routes) and the connective pl. is - (darᵊkh•ei-…; ways of…).

Scholars suggest that before the religion of the Patriarchs was known as Judaism, it was simply called "the Way," or Dërëkh --. They base this on the phrase in Shᵊm•ot 18:20: "… " (…ha-dërëkh, yei•lᵊkh•u bâh; …the Way—they shall walk in it).

Abudraham also remarks that the letter (ayin) of the word (Shᵊma!; hearken!) and the letter (dalët) of the word (ë•khad; one) are traditionally written larger than the other letters in the Seiphër Tor•âh so as to form the word (eid; witness). In testifying to the Singularity of ha-Sheim when he recites the 'Shᵊma!' the Jew becomes ha-Sheim's Eid•âh. ("Shema, Reading of," Ency. Jud., 14.1370-73).

Evidence for their supposition, however, is sparse. Yet, this is quite close to a title that seems to be encrypted in the Seiphër Tor•âh, in the Shᵊm•a. In the Seiphër Tor•âh, the Shᵊm•a begins with a strange enlargement of one letter in the first and last word: . The most likely encoding seems to be an acronym, "; and the acronym most closely suggested by the context is —"on the Way" or "Enroute," which may be the source of a corruption to "the Way" as well as the source of the view of Tor•âh as a journey through life: "Enroute." Thus, it may be more historically pristine to refer to " rather than the Hellenist appelation of "Judaism." (eid; witness) is, then, an encrypted secondary meaning.

Because the term "Judaism" is widely perverted in the modern era (Reform, Conservative, Christian, etc.), we urge a more accurate return to the original, Biblical, phrase(s).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.05.14]

dᵊveiq•ut; adherence, attachment


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.09.08]

Egyptian ''god'' emerging from false door in bedrock of ''Holy Mountain,'' Giza
False door in rock, into inner (3rd) sanctum, with god emerging from "holy" mountain, Mastaba (Tomb) of Idu, Giza

Dᵊvir; the hindmost room of Egyptian temples and those patterned after them; the innermost room abutting the rock wall of a mountain from which gods were thought to emerge.



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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2017.02.15]

Din; jurisprudence, jurisprudent deliberation and interpretation, as in beit din = court (following section). Fem. – the name of Ya•a•qov's daughter by Leiâh. Prefixing with produces .

(popularly "Judgment Day") – specified scores of times in Tor•âh and corroborated by Ribi Yᵊho•shua (The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) 12.17-21, quoting Yᵊsha•yâhu 42.1-4 and NHM 25.31-34 quoting Tzᵊphan•yâh 3.8b and Yᵊkhëz•qeil 34.1-2, 12 & 17) as the adjudication of mi•shᵊpât (documented in Atonement In the Biblical 'New Covenant' (ABNC)) by the beit din beyond the heavens.

is the verbal root of din; also the name of Ya•a•qov's 5th son (mother: Bi•lᵊh•âh, Râ•kheil's maid). A da•yân dân di•yun concerning a din.

, Hellenized to "Daniel," is included in the Kᵊtuv•im books of Ta•na"kh rather than among the Nᵊviy•im, as one should expect. Note that the popular translation of , "My Judge is Eil," would be (Shᵊphat•iy•Eil) is inaccurate; see shō•pheit. The difficulties of distinguishing from shō•pheit are vexing and contrasted in Ta•na"kh only in Shᵊmu•eil Âlëph 24.16; where the phrase " " is translated in Tar•gum Yō•nâ•tân (Aramaic) as " ."

Pronunciation TableHear it!
/ "Συνεδριον / Συνοδος

House of Deliberation (i.e., court of law); pl. . In modern Israeli parlance, Beit Din refers exclusively to an Ultra-Orthodox, not any Israeli secular, court (which is called a beit mi•shᵊpât).

On the other hand, is the ruling or verdict in either court and a is the sentence (announcement of punishment) in either court.

The Beit Din is the Biblical court, which traces back in an unbroken chain to Mosh•ëh at Har Sin•ai (Shᵊm•ot 18:19-26; and Dᵊvâr•im 16:18; 17:9-13). See also The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 27.1.2. more


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Displacement Mythology [Updated: 2012.08.31]

Any theology that represents that any of its doctrines have superseded or displaced the doctrines of a predecessor religion.

As long as Christianity holds that their intractably Tor•âh-contradicting Διαθηκη Καινη ("New Testament") supersedes or trumps Tor•âh, then it is a displacement mythology.

Some Christian movements try to redefine "Replacement Theology" in such a narrow sense that they can deny that they are a Replacement / displacement mythology. However, the fact is that every doctrine that makes Christianity unique from Tor•âh necessarily [a] contradicts Tor•âh (obviously, or it wouldn't be uniquely Christian) and [b] obviously defines Christianity distinctly from Tor•âh.

Further, every uniquely Christian doctrine is exclusively dependent upon the Christian-believed superior authority of their Διαθηκη Καινη (NT). Without their Διαθηκη Καινη (NT), no uniquely Christian doctrine stands up to Tor•âh. The "bottom line" is that, aside from a saying here and there, their Διαθηκη Καινη (NT) did not exist until around the 4st century C.E. and, Eusebius documented, the original Jewish followers rejected the Διαθηκη Καινη (NT) as a gentile and Hellenist apostasy.

displacement mythology, is more accurate than Replacement Theology, further implying the usurpation of the earlier religion. (Eusebius documented that the Hellenist Romans usurped the Nᵊtzâr•im in 135 C.E. and 333 C.E.

Christianity is a displacement mythology that inherently dangles from the premise that Christ's "grace" has displaced Tor•âh, that Christians have displaced 'natural Jews' to become the 'true, spiritual Jews' of 'true, spiritual Israel'; i.e. thereby displacing historical Israel and the Jews as the Biblically-recognized servants of --. Christian displacement mythology includes ALL doctrines that hold that "salvation" has been redirected to Christians or that Tor•âh-observant Jews without J*esus are lost.

displacement mythology is recognized by historians and other scholars as a cornerstone of misojudaism and the earliest, i.e. original, Christian faith and Church of 135 C.E.

Islam is a second-order displacement mythology, inherently dangling even more tenuously—from the second displacement thread, which still dangles from the first displacement thread—claiming to displace both Christian AND Tor•âh doctrines.

Think about it. Displacement theology is the purest, most pristine and most fundamental expression of idolatry!


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.08.11]

di•wan (Arabic دیوان); anthology, repertoire of Teimân•i liturgical poems


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Dukeih

Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2009.04.03]

dukeih; The Tei•mân•i mixture of ground nuts, fruits, spices and wine used in the Pësakh Seidër. (The Ash•kᵊnazi counterpart is called (kha•rosët)). For dukeih recipe, see The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) 26 notes.


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