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Hebrew Glossary: N-Q

The reason this simple page of glossary definitions is ranked so popular with the search engine is because so many people click on our links to these definitions from the content in… the 'Netzarim Quarter' Village web site in Ra•an•anꞋã(h), Israel at www.netzarim.co.il

In Hebrew, the original followers of Riyb"y were called the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ (Hellenized-Anglicized to "Nazarenes"). The real content is in the main body of the 'Netzarim Quarter'! Click on the Netzarim logo (at top) for an exciting visit to the 'Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Quarter' where you'll learn about Historical Riyb"y and his original, Jewish, followers—before the excision of The Apostate Paul, c. 49 CE, that resulted in his Great Jesus-Christianity Apostasy, founded (7 churches) in Anatolia (now modern Turkey). Just as importantly, learn how you (whether Jew or non-Jew) can follow the historically Ta•na״khꞋ-coherent Riyb"y, according to the bᵊrit with יְהוָׂה—which is what genuinely can make you a Jew; regardless of any pronouncement(s) by mortals! (Walking in the bᵊrit must be among Jews in order to be witnessed by Jews; but their, or any mortals', endorsement is of no spiritual relevance whatsoever.)

Until Paqid Yirmeyahu researched the Netzarim name and sect and began publishing about it in 1972 in The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu (NHM, in English) no one in modern times was even aware of the name Netzarim. It stretches credulity that no one in modern times had heard of the Netzarim until Paqid Yirmeyahu published it in 1972… and then, suddenly, everybody figured it out??? Check (and verify) the dates of the earliest works about the Netzarim by the others and you'll see that they are deceiver-plagiarists. Then insist on the person whom ha-Sheim selected to entrust the knowledge, not imposters who falsely call their continuing practice of Displacement Theology "Nazarene Judaism" or directly plagiarize the name "Netzarim."

Because we teach and practice the authentic Judaic teachings of Ribi Yehoshua—not Displacement Theology—we are the only group who have restored the Netzarim to be accepted in the legitimate Jewish community in Israel—genuinely like Ribi Yehoshua and the original Netzarim. Consequently, the 'Netzarim Quarter' is the only web site of legitimate Netzarim / Nazarene Judaism.

Give all the friends you've ever known the chance to know about this exciting site; send them our web site address (www.netzarim.co.il) that opens modern eyes for the first time to the Judaic world that Ribi Yehoshua and his original Netzarim knew, practiced and taught.

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נָעֳמִיPronunciation Table[Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

Nã•ãmꞋi; נעמי, Naami de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Naomi'.

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waw (Qumran-Nabatean Aramaic-Hebrew)teit (Qumran-Nabatean Aramaic-Hebrew)beit (Qumran-Nabatean Aramaic-Hebrew)nun (Qumran-Nabatean Aramaic-Hebrew) Pronunciation Table [Glos_N-Q, updated: 2022.07.03]

Post-135 CE Nabatean Confederation of mixed Arab Tribes (original map by MartinCollin,; edited 2022.06.30 by Yirmeyahu Ben-David to show the Roman-era Nabatean region—roughly the Hajaz area of modern Saudi-Arabia)

Akkadian 𒈾𒁀𒌅 (Nabatean), in PEMRH: ãlꞋëphbeit: נָבַּטוּ; in PEMRH: נַבָּטִיםNabateans,Nabatean Kingdom,Palestinians — A mingled-confederation (eiꞋrëv rav) of Aramaic-Arab tribes who populated the eastern coast of the Red Sea (modern western Saudi-Arabia) during the Roman Era, migrating northward along the east shore of Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh absorbing—co-mingling, assimilating—the Õmōn•imꞋ) in what is today modern Jordan.  more

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Nag Hammadi Codices[Glos N-Q, updated: 2012.05.07]

Nag Hammadi codices Nag Hammadi Codex II Nag Hammadi, Egypt
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According to BAS:

"…a 13-volume library of Coptic texts… [found] near the town of Nag Hammadi in upper Egypt, … [describing] Gnostic Christianity, from the Greek word γνωσις. The Nag Hammadi codices are 13 leather-bound volumes dated to the mid-fourth century [CE] that contain an unprecedented collection of more than 50 texts, including some that had been composed [emphasis added] as early as the second century…"

Original composition aside, the version in the Nag Hammadi codices reflect Gnostic Christian redactions — and Hellenization — of the 4th century CE. more

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נָגִיד Pronunciation Table [Glos_N-Q, updated: 2023.05.29]

masc . n. nã•gidꞋ (m.n.);nagid lit. a "higher-up"; i.e. a noble, member of the nobility (class).

While this sometimes referred to a tribal chief, not all נְגִידִים were tribal chiefs; to a prince, but not all נְגִידִים were princes; and to a ruler, but not all נְגִידִים were rulers. Conversely, while some have translated נָגִיד as a wealthy man, not all wealthy men were נְגִידִים, etc.

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נַחַלPronunciation Table[Glos N-Q, updated: 2023.04.16]

Nakhal Perat aquaduct (not Wadi Qelt) Midbar YehudahNakhal Perat (not Wadi Qelt) Midbar Yehudah

masc . n. naꞋkhal; נחל, nakhal an ephemeral stream (a vale, valley or canyon stream-bed that typically flash-floods in winter-rains, runs as a stream or brook into spring and routinely dries up during summer and into autumn.

This, NOT the Arabic "wadi," is the correct term for a seasonal, ephemeral stream (during the winter rainy season) and-or dry stream-bed (remainder of year), often found in a valley.

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נַחוּםPronunciation Table[Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

Na•khūmꞋ; נחום, Nakhum [י‑‑ה] has comforted, consoled; seventh of the twelve minor Nᵊviy•imꞋ in Ta•na״khꞋ, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Nahum.'

כְּפַר נַחוּם (Kᵊphar Na•khumꞋ; Town or village of Na•khumꞋ), i.e. Nakhumville; Hellenized to "Capernaum."

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נַפְתָּלִיPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2015.10.26]

Na•phᵊtãlꞋi; נפתלי, Naphtali, Naftali my twistings, intertwinings, intrigues; niph•alꞋ of פָּתַל (pã•talꞋ; he twisted, twined); 6th son of Ya•a•qovꞋ (mother: Bi•lᵊh•ãhꞋ, Rã•kheilꞋ's maid).

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נָקַבPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2013.04.19]

nã•qavꞋ; נקב, naqav to auger-out — used in the Bible as the antonym, the opposite, of בֵּרֵךְ (bei•reikhꞋ; to bless).

Klein assigns four connotations to נָקַב:

  1. to bore a hole, perforate, pierce.

  2. to prick off, designate, distinguish (for each of which there are more accurate Hebrew terms) and "to pigeon-hole," which is more consistent with the theme of boring a hole.

  3. to curse or blaspheme (for which there are more accurate Hebrew terms) and to skewer with a hole or riddle with holes, or emasculate (see next entry) is consistent with the theme of boring a hole. Klein's suggests this connotation may be a collateral form of קָבַב (qã•vavꞋ; "to auger," equated to cursing), which Klein notes (p. 559), "for sense development cp. Arab. na•qar•aꞋ (= he pierced, hollowed out; he reviled, maligned)" — i.e., "to auger-out"; corroborating נָקַב. Interestingly, this verb is also similar to נָקַר (nã•qarꞋ; he bored, pierced, picked-out, gouged-out — cf. Sho•phᵊt•imꞋ 16.21). This appears to parallel today's English "chew someone out," which, if pictured literally, would also leave a bored-out hole. The difference between נָקַב and נָקַר appears to be the difference between augering out (drilling out a hole with a large auger) and gouging or picking out; both taken figuratively as "cursing out."

  4. to put into a feminine form, to feminize, emasculate—the theme being obvious.

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נָשִׂיאPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2022.12.05]

masc . n.Nã•siꞋ a person of importance who is carried in a litter-chair. PEMRH: president; pl. נְשִׁיאִיםנשיא,nasi—derives from the verb נָשָׂא; not to be confused with שַׂר—nor נָסִיךְ, nor Nã•gidꞋ.

masc . n. שָׁוְא—Of particular interest, Klein noticed  instances of some pass. part. cognates of נָשָׂא that are spelled with the added ו:

  • נָשׂוּא (niph•alꞋ 3ʳᵈ pers. m.s.) of שָׁוְא!

  • masc . n. נְשׂוּאי‎ & fem. n. נְשׂוּאִית

  • fem. n. נְשׂוּאָה!

These are the niph•alꞋ (from the shorꞋësh נָשָׁא), "perhaps related to שָׁוְא". In fact, it's practically certain that the difference amounts to no more than altering a vowel—vowels weren't standardized and canonized until the 10th century CE Masoretes (and that only for the Ash•kᵊnazꞋim)—to provide a "different term" only because none of the Masorete interpreters could tie-in the underlying theme to נָשָׂא (esp. Tᵊhil•imꞋ 89.11). That unifying theme is: billowing or ballooning [of waves]. This form is an intensified connotation of נָשָׂא. Thus, connotations of the shorꞋësh prove to be universal through all occurrences of the term in Ta•na״khꞋ! I find Klein's suspicion to be correct.

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נָסִיךְ Pronunciation Table [Glos_N-Q, updated: 2024.01.05]

Nã•sikhꞋ;Nasikh prince (not to be confused with Nã•siꞋ).

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נָצְרַתPronunciation Table Hear it! [Glos N-Q, updated: 2013.07.23]

Natzrat-Megiddo topographical map
Click to enlargeLower Gã•lilꞋ and עֵמֶק יִזְרְעֶאל showing נָצְרַת and הַר מְגִדּוֹ ("Armageddon").

Nã•tzᵊr•atꞋ; נצרת, עמק יזרעאל, הר מגדו, הר מגידו, Natzrat, Eimeq Yiz'r'el, Eimeq Yizer'el, Har Megido, Har Megiddo, Har M'gido, Har M'giddoHellenized (i.e. Christianized) in LXX to Ναζαρεθ.

נָצְרַת, deriving from the verb נָצַר, is the combinative form of an unused noun, נָצְרָה, which would mean "a protective sentry guard" — a cognate of נֵצֶר. Thus, …-נָצְרַת means "a protective sentry guard of…"

Much has been overlooked about נָצְרַת because the only ones with the necessary security perspective are Israeli Jews, the essentials never occurred to goy•imꞋ researchers, and Israeli Jews have been little interested in the mainly Christian discussion of נָצְרַת. The meaning of the name, probably a "frontier town" nickname that stuck in place of its original name, נָצְרַת, becomes obvious upon looking at a map (especially a topographical map), relative to הַר מְגִדּוֹ ("Armageddon"). more

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נָבִיאPronunciation Table Hear it![Glos N-Q, updated: 2018.05.03]

masc . n. nã•viꞋ נביא, נביאים, navi, neviyim, neviim, n'viyim, n'viyim— one who brings forth or issues a call, announcement or proclamation; especially of enlightenment, illumination, explanation and understanding; i.e. an enlightener, oracle, explicator or advocate (see also related origin in NãꞋbū). In Ta•na״khꞋ, Tōr•ãhꞋ is the understood object unless otherwise specified. Thus, a Biblical נָבִיא is an explicator of Tōr•ãhꞋ summoning all to make tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ to Tōr•ãhꞋ!

Derived from from the verb נִבָּא, the fem. נְבִיאָה, the pl. נְבִיאִים, and the connective pl. נְבִיא-.

In Hebrew, there is no implication of mystic future-telling (magic prohibited by Tōr•ãhꞋ) as assumed in the English (and Greek) "prophet." The hit•pã•eilꞋ form (hit•na•beiꞋ) refers to ecstatically expounding Tōr•ãhꞋ (a title and capacity that goy•imꞋ, who by definition contradict Tōr•ãhꞋ and invariably can't even read Tōr•ãhꞋ, can never attribute to themselves). It was among Hellenist Jews that the LXX (and resulting later Christian) mysticism of προφήτης, which is the perception that has trickled down to the modern, Hellenist-derived, western world.

Biblically, a Nã•viꞋ is an individual who has focused his mind and nature on the developing Tōr•ãhꞋ to the point where he is able to receive the outpouring of the RuꞋakh (spirit) of י--ה, and is evidenced by his clarity of understanding Tōr•ãhꞋ. (See RamꞋba״m, Hi•lᵊkh•otꞋ Yᵊsod•eiꞋ ha-Tor•ãhꞋ 7.7; Kha•tamꞋ So•pheirꞋ, ËvꞋën ha-ËzꞋër section 40.)

Thus, the earlier prophets —foreseers —were called רוֹאִים (ro•imꞋ, seers; e.g. Shᵊmu•eilꞋ ÂlꞋëph 9.9). These are in contrast to nᵊviy•imꞋ who are proclaimers, of Tōr•ãhꞋ because they were Divinely granted deeper insight, which enabled them to provide spiritual and practical guidance to Israel. But רוֹאִים were not sent to be the leaders of Israel as were the nᵊviy•imꞋ. Thus, nᵊviy•imꞋ—expositors of Tōr•ãhꞋ—are embued with greater honor and authority than the earlier רוֹאִים.

In contrast, the term ha-Nã•viꞋ, which essentially means a preacher (RashꞋ״i, Shᵊm•otꞋ 7.1), was commonly used for Jews who exhorted others to go in the Way of Tōr•ãhꞋ, and prayed for them in their time of need (Ë•mëtꞋ lᵊ-Ya•a•qovꞋ, bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 20.7). Obviously, they had to be wise and Tza•diqꞋ, but such exponents of Tōr•ãhꞋ weren't, according to the Sages, necessarily Divinely inspired individuals.

Only in later years, when there was a need to send nᵊviy•imꞋ to admonish the Jewish people and provide national leadership, did ha-Nã•viꞋ acquire the general appellation of a prophet. (ArtScroll, Tᵊr•eiꞋ •sãrꞋ, xix-xx). See also The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu (NHM, in English) note 11.9.1.
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נָזָהPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2019.07.10]

nãz•ãhꞋ;נזה,הזה,היזה,hizah,nazah spatter, splash, spurt; often in the hiph•ilꞋ: הִזָּה.

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נָזִירPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2018.06.25]

masc . n. nã•zirꞋ; נזיר, Nazir 1. adult male "who vows for a specific period to abstain from partaking of grapes or any of its products whether intoxicating or not, cutting his hair, and touching a corpse" — enabling a lay Jew to officiate like a kō•heinꞋ", 2 an unpruned grapevine (the grapevine being the ancient equivalent of the family tree), symbolized by unshorn hair and abstinence from all grape products including wine (i.e. not pruning the grapes, which represent në•phësh•ōtꞋ, from the vine); plural nᵊzir•imꞋ; de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Nazirite." Cognate: נְזִירוּת (nᵊzir•utꞋ; state of being a nã•zirꞋ; naziriteship).  more

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𒀭𒀝𒋻𒌶𒌓𒀫  [Glos_N-Q, updated: 2024.03.18]

NãꞋbū-kūd•ūri•ūt•zūrꞋ;Nebuchadnezzar "Divine-NãꞋbū, watchguard over my [camp-firelight | (capital city of) Ūr" ("Nebuchadnezzar" Jr., "the Great"), Shãr of Neo-Bã•vëlꞋ (BCE 605.08–562.10.07).

This was transliterated into the similar Hebrew נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר, Hellenized to Ναβουχοδονόσορ, Latinized and then Anglicized to "Nebuchadnezzar" Jr.

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נֶאֱמָןPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2020.10.27]

në•ë•mãnꞋ;נאמן,neeman participle of niph•alꞋ past 3ʳᵈ pers. m.s. of אָמֵן— properly fostered, trained-up, coached; i.e. competent, reliable, trustworthy, steadfast, firm, sure, faithful.

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נֶדֶרPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2010.07.18]

masc . n. nëdꞋër; נדרים, כל נדרי, nederim, Kol Nidrei a vow. The plural is nᵊdãr•imꞋ (vows); pl. connective ni•dᵊr•eiꞋ… (vows of…).

כָּל נִדרֵי (Kōl Ni•dᵊr•eiꞋ) "all of the vows of…" a tᵊphil•ãhꞋ to be released from any and all vows forced upon us by the goy•imꞋ:

  • Teimãn•imꞋ: for any and all nᵊdãr•imꞋ vowed [under duress] in the coming year;
  • All other traditions: for any and all nᵊdãr•imꞋ vowed during the past year,

recited on ërꞋëv Yom ha-Ki•pur•imꞋ. Contrary to popular Jewish opinion, this prayer is a medieval addition unknown to the Kha•khãm•imꞋ of Tal•mudꞋ or their predecessors (much less Mōsh•ëhꞋ at Har Sin•aiꞋ), and does not absolve from any voluntary נֶדֶר; nor does Scripture allow the annulment of any נֶדֶר post hoc (except in cases where the נֶדֶר is overridden by the principle of pi•quꞋakh nëphꞋësh).

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נֶגֶבPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

Negev, Midbar Paran (Mark A. Wilson, Wooster.com)
Click to enlargeNegev, Midbar Paran (Mark A. Wilson, Wooster.com)

masc . n. NëꞋgëv; נגב, Negev the southern portion of Israel; the region south of Bᵊ•eir ShëvꞋa.

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נָהָרPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2016.03.21]

masc . n. nã•hãrꞋ; נהר, nahar, nehar, n'har perennial, generally year-round, river; combinative נְהַר (nᵊhar; river of…).

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נֵרPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2010.10.01]

neir (oil lamp)

masc . n. neir; נר, neir, ner oil lamp (especially olive-oil), candle (modern); pl. נֵרוֹת (neir•otꞋ).

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נְחֹשֶׁתPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2020.02.11]

fem. n.nᵊkhōshꞋët;נחשת,נחושת,nekhoshet copper.

Although the Scriptural narrative begins with ã•dãmꞋ at the dawn of the Bronze Age (ca. B.C.E. 3300), Hebrew never distinguishes the later refinement of tinned-copper alloy (i.e. bronze) from copper. In the Middle East, true bronze dates back only to the Egyptian 26th Dynasty (ca. B.C.E. 664—525) — after the 10 Northern Tribes had been deracinated by Syria. (אָרָד is PEMRH: )

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נֵסPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2013.01.06]

neis (miracle)
נֵס ("Instant" coffee)

masc . n. neis; נס, neis, nesan upright pole or standard, flagpole, ensign or signpost.

The popular connotation of "miracle" is strictly PEMRH: For instance, whereas "coffee" in Hebrew is קָפֶה, to order instant ("miracle") coffee in an Israeli restaurant, one asks for a cup of נֵס. (Origin of the brand " NesCafe"?)

For "sign" in the sense of a symbol, letter, portent, omen or augur, see אוֹת (ōt).

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נְחֶמְיָהPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

Nᵊkhëm•yãhꞋ; נחמיה, Nekhemyah, N'khemyah, N'khem'yah "י--ה has comforted." Book of the Kᵊtuv•imꞋ of Ta•na״khꞋ (de-Judaized to Nehemiah) de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Nehemiah.'

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נֶפֶשׁPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2019.10.16]

fem. n. nëphꞋësh; pl. נְפָשׁוֹתנפשות,nephesh,nephashot,n'pashot; the life-force, regarded in Ta•na״khꞋ as common to human beings and animals; the vector of sentience, consciousness, self-awareness, sapience and the psyche; which enables independent auto-locomotion and free will. From the verb נָפַשׁ meaning revitalize, regenerate, rejuvenate; i.e. relax & regroup, unwind, decompress, take a break.

The interwoven physicomorphic Hebrew component terms of נֶפֶשׁ,‎ רוּחַ and נְשָׁמָה were refinements representing initial baby-steps of weaning from physicomorphisn (e.g., laboriously rubbing a wood-spirit to glow-angry, breathing or puffing a נְשָׁמָה-אֵשׁ-spirit ember, appeased in surrounding tinder, into a flame). These beliefs evolved in parallel with the Egyptian amalgamation of the ka, the ba and the akh and other ancient, idolatrous, Middle Eastern belief systems. In Ta•na״khꞋ, however, all blood-circulating animals (in contrast to lower animals and plants), as living beings, were by nature of their dependence upon circulating blood, deemed to have a נֶפֶשׁ

“because the נֶפֶשׁ of the bã•sãrꞋ is in the dãm.”

Whereas in ancient times this was a physicomorphism, modern understanding of wa-Yi•qᵊr•ãꞋ 17.11 demonstrates that the נֶפֶשׁ was O2 in the blood! הָעוֹלָם הִשְׁתַּנָּה (mundus mutatus)! more

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נְּפִילִ֛יםPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2023.11.11]

Neanderthal Wilma
Click to enlargeNeanderthal WilmaA נְּפִלָה giant? Perplexingly, it was the European Neanderthals who were "stockier" while the Homo sapi­ens, out of Africa (see •dãmꞋ), were taller. (Wilma design & photo National Geographic, 1996)

masc . n.הַנְּפִילִ֛יםנפילים,Nephilim,N'philim,Naphil,Nefilim,N'filim,Nafil (pl. of נָפִיל (nã•philꞋ, singular); derived from נָפַל (nã•phalꞋ, become separate by falling away or apart from) — are first mentioned in retrospect, by the scribe(s) of bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 6.1-4 as having originated from בְּנֵ֤י־הָֽאֱלֹהִים֙, an indistinct designation for the unknown, legendary, forbears, from distant and dim antiquity—personified in אָדָ֔ם & Khau•ãhꞋ. Their male descendants married בְּנ֣וֹת־הָֽאָדָ֔ם, who gave birth to אַנְשֵׁ֥י הַשֵּֽׁם, who were הַגִּבֹּרִ֛ים from the prehistoric era down to the time of NōꞋakh.

The נְּפִילִ֛ים are descendants (tribes) of cursed (fallen-away) Kᵊna•anꞋ; focused particularly on the line through the eponymous עֲנָ֖ק (i.e. the בְּנֵ֥י־עֲנָ֖ק, aka עֲנָקִ֖ים), via the eponymous אַרְבַּ֔ע (of Qi•rᵊy•atꞋ ArᵊbaꞋ; original name of Khë•vᵊr•ōnꞋ), to חֵ֖ת, eponymous patriarch of the בְּנֵי־חֵ֖ת, inhabitants of Khë•vᵊr•ōnꞋ in the time of Avᵊrã•hãmꞋ.more

See also related Aramaic ni•phᵊlãꞋ.

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נְקֵבָה Pronunciation Table [Glos_N-Q, updated: 2023.11.14]

nᵊqeiv•âhꞋ; female.

See related:

  1. anᵊdᵊrō•gyn•iyꞋ

  2. ayᵊlōn•itꞋ

  3. ish

  4. ish•ãhꞋ

  5. sâ•risꞋ

  6. tūmᵊtūmꞋ

  7. zâ•khârꞋ

  8. Further details in my article in Israel Jews News: The Bathroom Wars

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𒌷𒉌𒅆𒇷  Pronunciation Table [Glos_N-Q, updated: 2024.03.16]

Nësi (Linear A cuneiform) (NëꞋsha City, NëꞋshan language);Neshan,Nesili indigenous (cBCE 3000) principle administrative city of the ᴷH•ãrꞋrians and ᴷH•ãrꞋrian Empire of Anatolia (modern city of Kültepe in the heart of Turkey).

Original Maritime Superpower Of The Mediterranean Basin

All recent scientific-archaeological evidence confirms that the original Maritime Superpower Of The Mediterranean Basin were the Anatolian (modern Turkey) Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshans, the first recorded speakers of the NëꞋshan language. more

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נְשָׁמָהPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2020.10.23]

neshamah: ancient breath = soul

fem. n. nᵊshãm•ãhꞋ;נשמה,נשימה,neshamah,n'shamah,neshimah,n'shimah breath (and נְשִׁימָה)—which must be distinguished from נֶפֶשׁ and רוּחַ. See especially more

The notion that נשמה means "soul" or "essence," is a modern reform derived entirely from Qa•bãl•ãhꞋ—which is based in the ancient Egyptian afterlife Book of Breathing and ancient animism. See again  more

In the Bible, by contrast, נשמה always means "breath" — even when used figuratively (e.g., I•yovꞋ 27.10 & Tᵊhil•imꞋ 150.6). Rabbinic attempts to revive animism based on bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 2.7 to define נשמה as "Divine Essence" collide with the reality of paramedics, nurses and doctors who do the same "miracle."

bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 2.7 uses נשמה to teach that man was created by י‑‑ה, not a literal "breathing of Divine Essence Breath into" as Jewish, Christian and Muslim believers in the "Poof!" theory of creation argue.

In fact, the Hellenist conflation of נשמה as one's "essence," universal among today's Jews, is a relatively recent and shocking reform to Judaism — deriving from "Medieval Jewish Philosophy… [in which] Descriptions of the soul followed Platonic and Aristotelian views [themselves derived from ancient animism], with later Greek thought supplying the models by which man's soul was related to heavenly substances". The Hellenist roots are firmly documented prior to the 4th century C.E. by Hellenist Greek-speakers of the LXX, who conflated נשמה and נֶפֶשׁ, rendering both as ψυχή—which explains the modern blurring of the terms.

Healthy נֶפֶשׁ Perverted Into Jewish Supremacy Racism

An unfortunate by-product of this Hellenist conflation is the interpretation of the "Jewish neshama" as racist exceptionalism: the belief that the "Jewish neshama," makes genetic, DNA, i.e., racially-defined Jews (born of a Jewish mother) a superior — chosen — race. more

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נְטִילָהPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2020.11.29]

fem. n.nᵊtil•ãhꞋ;נטילה,נטילת ידיים,netilat yadayim,n’tilat,n’tiylat.netiylat verbal n. from נָטַל; a loading (up), lading (up), shouldering; moving of transferring something by picking or lifting it up and setting it down upon [something else]; including yoking animals (used of loading pack animals with goods or yoking together).

Ta•lᵊmudꞋ overreaches in logic-challenged rabbis clinging perilously from a flimsy thread claiming that this phrase (and the resulting bᵊrãkh•ãhꞋ recited before eating bread) is “hinted” Roll eyes by a totally unrelated passage having to do with someone who came in contact with a person having some discharge of bodily fluid (and not even using a term derived from נָטַל)‎: וְיָדָיו לֹא-שָׁטַף בַּמָּיִם .

נְטִילַת יָדַיִם — “loading up of hands”; i.e. filling one’s hands (e.g., with a tool; i.e. getting to work on something, taking responsibility for something). In other words, this bᵊrãkh•ãhꞋ is a reminder that the meal is merely a pit stop to refuel in order to get back to "filling your hands" with whatever work יהוה has commissioned you.

The connection to hand-washing derives, tenuously, from Shᵊm•ōtꞋ 30.17-21—where the verb is רָחַץ (rã•khatzꞋ, wash), not נְטִילָה (and also includes washing feet).

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נֵצֶרPronunciation Table Hear it! [Glos N-Q, updated: 2012.07.06]

Netzarim - Mediterranean Olive (Olea europaea) basal suckers (Ariz St U)
Click to enlargeNᵊtzãr•imꞋ - Mediterranean Olive (Olea europaea) basal suckers, scions; like little protective sentries guarding the mother tree (Ariz St Univ.)

masc . n. neiꞋtzër, pl. נְצָרִים (Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ); נצרים, Netzarim, N'tzarim, Nᵊtzarim, Neitzer basal suckers from the root of a tree, especially from an olive tree—like little sentries standing at the foot guarding the mother tree; derives from the prophecy in Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 11.1 and 60.21.

Contrast נְצָרִים, often translated "shoot" against חֹטֶר, which is also often translated as "shoot." As is often the case, clarity is found only in the original Hebrew.

Most Christians assume (and Jews simply parrot Christian mythology that is unimportant to them) that the followers of RibꞋi Yᵊho•shuꞋa were originally called "Christians," based on the Hellenist (Greek) Πραξεις Αποστολων 11.19-26. However, the evidence is blatant how the (Greek-speaking) Hellenist Roman Church, compounded by the KJ/V English, used Ναζαρεθ to bury the Hebrew-speaking, Jewish Pharisee (non-Hellenist) rival: the Ναζωραιος — completely burying the even more conspicuous term, Ναζαρηνος. more

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Hebrew Matthew [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.05.10]

Netzarim Hebrew Matthew
Click to enlarge with dates of earliest extant mss.

The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu (NHM, in English) with date of earliest extant ms.

These are in addition to contextual input from all extant Hebrew and Aramaic literature prior to 399 C.E. (including the Dead Sea Scrolls, Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha, Josephus, Nag Hammadi codices and alternate "gospels," et al. and the LXX and early Christian historians (e.g., Eusebius, Epiphanius, Jerome, Ignatius, Irenaeus Hegesippus, Papias, Origen, et al.):

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נִדָּהPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. nid•ãhꞋ; נדה, nidah, niddahmenstruant

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Nineveh (Aramaic nuna, nina aka Ishtar) fish in a house cuneiform
NinꞋᵊweih fish-shaped cuneiform
[Glos N-Q, updated: 2019.12.03]

Nineveh. Mishqi Gate, Nineveh, Assyria. Lower parts original, upper reconstructed (Photo Lachicaphoto-Creative)
Click to enlargeGate of (H)adad—mythical Son of Fish-God Dãg•ōnꞋ

נִינְוֵה NinꞋᵊweihנינוה “Fish-House” City; the ancient world’s largest trade center, the New York City, of its day. And, like “the Big Apple”, it was probably fondly referred to as “the Big Fish” (Yōn•ãhꞋ 1-3), due to the likeness of the city’s shape to its name in cuneiform—which, in turn, likely drew inspiration from the region’s primary deity: fish-god Dãg•ōnꞋ.

NinꞋᵊweih is known from BCE 4th millenium Hurrians, though the city itself predates even the Hurrians, tracing back to the neolithic Hassuna culture ca. BCE 6,000!

By BCE 3000, the Sumerian Ninã (Aramaic Nuna)—egg-laying—fish-goddess element of the city name seems to have conflated with Inana (Sumerian) /​ Ištar (Akkadian) /​ Mesopotamian-Akkadian goddess Ishtar, [which] is among the most important deities and the most important goddess in the Mesopotamian pantheon… In [its] astral aspect, Inana/ Ištar is the planet Venus, the morning and the evening star.

This largest metropo­lis in the world of its time didn’t take its name because of being a sea-faring population. They were located inland; not on the Mediterranean coast or Persian Gulf, but on the east bank of the Tigris River, outside of modern-day Mosul, Iraq (mostly destroyed in 2014 by Da”ash). A priori, their connections with Fish-God Dãg•ōnꞋ suggest that this was the world center of the Fish-God Dãg•ōnꞋ theology.

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נִלוָהPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.07.06]

nil•wãhꞋ; נלוה, לוה, nilvah, nilwah, lawah, lavah he was accompanied, escorted; the niph•alꞋ of לָוָה (lã•wãhꞋ; he accompanied, escorted—cf. Klein’s Ety­mo­log­ical Dictionary of Hebrew, p. 348-9). See geir in Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 14:1 and Goy•imꞋ (Zᵊkhar•yãhꞋ 2:15).

The adjective and noun form is נִלוֶה (nil•wëhꞋ), plural נִלוִים nil•wimꞋ. When used as a noun, a ni•lᵊwëhꞋ is an escort or accompanier. As an adjective, the term refers to an escort or accompanier ni•lᵊwëhꞋ status.

Another cognate of לָוָה is לֵוִי (Lei•wiꞋ), plural Lᵊwiy•imꞋ, who escorted the Ko•han•imꞋ.

Qa•bãl•istsꞋ initiated מְלַוֵּה מַלכָּה (mᵊla•weihꞋ ma•lᵊk•ãhꞋ; the accompanying Queen [Shab•ãtꞋ]) are songs sung in concluding Shab•ãtꞋ and סְעֻדַּת מְלַוֵּה מַלכָּה (Sᵊ•ud•atꞋ mᵊla•weihꞋ mal•kãhꞋ) is the concluding (4th) meal of the accompanying Queen (meaning Shab•ãtꞋ).

Lã•wãhꞋ is likely the inspiration for the concept, advanced by RibꞋi Yᵊho•shuꞋa, of "grafting" the "wild branches"—geir•imꞋ—onto the "olive tree," which is Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ. Of the five instances of לָוָה in MT that connote accompanying, joining or becoming attached, for which the rendering in LXX reflects the same meaning, three instances (bᵊ-Mid•barꞋ 18.2, 4 & Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 14.1) are rendered by προστιθημι (prostitheimi; to put or place onto) while the other two instances (Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 56.3, 6) are rendered by προσκειμαι (proskeimai; to lay or rest [something] on [something]). The NT term, ενκεντριζω (enkentrizo; graft onto) is not found in LXX. The term that defines this concept is clearly לָוָה, from which all three Hellenist (Greek) interpretations derived.

Lã•wãhꞋ implies much more than simple "joining"; and is certainly the antithesis of being integrated, unchanged, into something. Lã•wãhꞋ implies gradual, but active, assimilation into Israel; the abandonment of any elements of one's previous life and culture that conflict with Tōr•ãhꞋ, complemented by the replacing of the abandoned elements through undertaking the life practice and culture of Tōr•ãhꞋ and Israel, i.e. properly interfacing with the Jewish people (Israel) faithful to the example of Rut (1.16) —through the Jewish culture: the Hebrew language, Tōr•ãhꞋ, Jewish music, Jewish chanting of Ta•na״khꞋ, etc.

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נִפעַלPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

niph•alꞋ; נפעל, niphal, nifal imperfect intransitive / passive verb bin•yãnꞋ

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נִפְלָא Pronunciation Table [Glos_N-Q, updated: 2023.11.10]

ni•phᵊlãꞋ (participle of פִּלֵּא);niphla,nifla,niphela,nifela esoteric, cryptic; i.e. a meaning or epiphany "falling out" from the heavens, stars, astrology-astronomy; i.e. esoteric or cryptic signs (e.g., in gi•maꞋtri•yãh, an incantation, a riddle, spell, chant, writing, drawing, any kind of divination, etc.); wonderful or marvelous strictly in the esoteric and cryptic, not conventional, sense of "wonder" and "marvel".

פִּלֵּא (pi•læꞋ {pi•ælꞋ construct}), he/​it causes [e.g., an oath or vow] to "fall out [e.g., of an oral septenary repetition]. 

Aramaic (above) related to Hebrew (below)

נִפְלֶה (ni•phᵊlëhꞋ), caused to be fallen out; i.e. discriminated, differentiated), niph•alꞋ of פָּלָה

פָּלָה (pãl•ãhꞋ , he/​it was caused to become separated by falling out—especially delousing with a lice comb ; see also related Nᵊphil•imꞋ (the fallen)

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נָקוּרPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

nã•qūrꞋ; נקור, naqur gouged-out, boring-a-hole, removing veins from meat.

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נִשּׂוּאִין or נִישּׂוּאִיןPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2019.04.14]

masc . n. Ni•sū•inꞋ;נישוין, נשואין,nisuin (Aramaic m. pl.), lit. elevatings, holdings-high or carryings-aloft (i.e. holding the woman up before the community, heralding her as his wife); from the same verb, נָשָׂא, as Nã•siꞋnuptials, marriage, the wedding ceremony (specifically, resulting from Orthodox reforms in recent centuries, the final section).

Women As Owned Property?

Contradictions (stemming from Babylonian, Roman Hellenist and European cultural assimilation and reform of ages past) persist, even between today's Orthodox authorities, regarding the definitions of the three elements that precede the reading of the כתובה in the נשואין ceremony under the חופה.

Today's Orthodox rabbis go to great lengths to explain-away the ancient perception of women as property, first of their fathers and later of their husbands. Modern rabbinic ruses range from obfuscations by reforming — casuistically redefining — the meaning of "acquire" or "take" (a woman), on the one hand, to fusing the first three elements of Tōr•ãhꞋ נשואין into one or two blurred composite(s), covering over the contradiction.

The pragmatic, realist and originalist approach, by contrast, is to accept the ancient perceptions as ancient perceptions and deal with keeping intact the integrity of the original Principles of Tōr•ãhꞋ, both regarding property law and regarding marriage, in the reality of הָעוֹלָם הִשְׁתַּנָּה (mundus mutatus). Women today are no longer categorized as property and, therefore, no woman's status, nor נשואין, can be adjudicated according to the metric of property law. One result is that among originalist Orthodox Jews, שדוכין is increasingly swept under a rug, curtailed, ignored and forgotten. While שדוכין can no longer be regarded as a property law negotiation between parents' interests, the necessity of the process of a couple reaching an agreement culminating in ארוסין remains constant in practice.

Ancient Property Law:
During ארוסין‎: Capital Punishment For נאוף

During ארוסין, the penalty for נאוף — capital punishment — applied only to the ארוסה (and her paramour), not to the ארוס.

Like the other aspects of marriage, נאוף, with its accompanying capital punishment, was also based in property law. This stemmed both from women being considered owned human female livestock property and from the unwanted and illegitimate inheritance complications that ensued from children born from illicit relations.

Because נאוף came into effect as an integral element of the ארוסין period, well-intentioned — but wrong-headed — rabbis sought a way to protect the ארוסה from exposure to the death penalty. Consequently, 11th century C.E. European rabbis reformed ארוסין, perverting its purpose by shortening its period of exposure to a mere few minutes under the חופה. They effected this by reforming ארוסין from its historical occurrence and purpose, months before the חופה, into an element in the first section of the ceremony under the חופה (below). The correct legal principle was, and is, to recognize that — הָעוֹלָם הִשְׁתַּנָּה (mundus mutatus) — the personal status of women cannot be adjudicated under property law. Ergo, נאוף has no validity nor application today. Women's personal status must be adjudicated under the same laws as men.

The חופה

ארוסין, (moved into the חופה by 11th century CE rabbinic reform.

The bride circles the groom 7 times, followed by an 8th event: actualization (the wedding ceremony; see also Hi•lūl•ãꞋ).

The Wedding Ceremony
  1. קדושין The bᵊrãkh•ãhꞋ over the first, of two, goblets (hence, the plural, qi•dūsh•inꞋ) of wine is recited and the couple drink from the goblet. Reciting the appropriate bᵊrãkh•ãhꞋ, the khã•tãnꞋ then places a plain gold ring on the index finger of the right hand of the kal•ãhꞋ.

  2. Public reading of the כתובה

  3. נשואין — Seven bᵊrãkh•ōtꞋ, beginning with the bᵊrãkh•ãhꞋ over the second goblet of wine. This is concluded by the bride and groom drinking from the wine goblet and concluded by the groom stomping on a special safety glass, wrapped in thick cloth as a further safety measure (to prevent a shard piercing a sock into the ankle or through a thin shoe sole), commemorating the destruction of the two Bãt•eiꞋ ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ.

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סֵפֶר נִצָּחוֹן יָשָׁןPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

SeiꞋphër Ni•tzãkh•ōnꞋ Yã•shãnꞋ; ספר נצחון ישן, Seipher Nitzakhon Yashan, Sepher Nitzakhon Yashan, Seifer Nitzakhon Yashan, Sefer Nitzakhon Yashan Scroll of Old Victory; a polemic work against the NT by an unknown author dating from the 13th-century C.E.

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נִאוּףPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2018.10.15]

ni•ūphꞋniuph,נאוף,ניאוף,adultery extramarital relations by, or with (i.e. a paramour of), a man's female human livestock property — including an ארוסה! Although this continues in many communities, this element of ancient property law, as a consequence of its dependency upon property law and the refuted view that regarded women as human livestock property of a man, is no longer a valid charge — ever — nor legally enforceable.

"The extramarital intercourse of a married man is not per se a crime in biblical or later Jewish law. This distinction stems from the economic aspect of Israelite marriage: the wife was the husband's possession, and adultery constituted a violation of the husband's exclusive right to her; the wife, as the husband's possession, had no such right to him." Thus נאוף derives from property law, and is not equivalent to the English term adultery!

נאוף was a capital offense under property law.

Even while casuistically denying women are property of men, Orthodox rabbis determinedly cite res judicata and stare decisis to insist that women's servitude under property law (inter alia נאוף and geit) cannot be changed. Modern rabbinic reforms to mitigate the effects of women as property have no legitimacy since Tōr•ãhꞋ, reflecting its Author, is Immutable! Thus, too, polygynous marriage remains valid even though rabbinic and community PC contradict ("interpret" differently) Tōr•ãhꞋ.

The principle of הָעוֹלָם הִשְׁתַּנָּה (mundus mutatus) dictates that, since today's world recognizes that women are not property, ergo, neither a woman's status nor her rights can be legally defined under property law. Nor can a woman be punished, nor even legally charged, under property law. Further, since no woman is the property of anyone nor subject to this property law, נאוף is no longer possible! Women and men must be held to the same standard regarding permitted and prohibited sex —that necessarily includes homosexuality.

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נֹחַPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

NōꞋakh; נח, Noakh Hellenized to "Noah." (See also "Bën-.")

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נֵכָר Pronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2012.06.14]

masc . n. nei•khãrꞋ; נכרים,בן נכר,neikhar,nekhar,nakhrim,nokhrima foreigner, i.e., gentile (m.n.); combinative □-נֵכַר (nei•kharꞋ…; a foreigner, i.e., gentile of…).

נָכרִי m.s. adj. (nãkh•riꞋ; foreign, i.e., gentile [entity]); נָכרִים m.p. adj. (nãkh•rimꞋ; foreign, i.e., gentile [entities])

בֶּן נֵכָר (bën-nei•khãrꞋ; a foreigner, i.e., gentile — lit. "son of a foreigner, i.e., gentile")

בְּנֵי נֵכָר (bᵊn•eiꞋ-nei•khãrꞋ; foreigners, i.e., gentiles — lit. "sons of a foreigner, i.e., gentile")

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נֹסַח or נוֹסַח Pronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

nō•sakhꞋ; נסח, נוסח, nosakhversion, draft (noun)

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Χριστιανός / נָצְרִים Pronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2019.09.24]

Khris•ti•an•osꞋ; נוצרים,Notzrimthe first and original Christian(s)Hellenist followers of the excised Apostate Paul, who morphed their Roman Ζεύς into a Hellenized-rabbi counterfeit: Jesus, thereby defining Christianity's original 7 churches in Hellenist-Roman Anatolia (modern West Coast of Turkey).

Christianity's new, "ιε Ζεύς 2.0" became wildly popular among gentile Roman Hellenists, who quickly "cleansed" their new religion, Christianity (i.e. Hellenism 2.0), of any conflicting Judaic doctrines. As a result, Christianity quickly became almost exclusively Roman-gentiles. The subsequent destruction of 70 C.E. and expulsion of all Jews from Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim in 135 C.E. afforded them the political opportunity to usurp the last Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Pã•qidꞋ, a Jew whom they (the gentile Roman Hellenists) had expelled, and establish, in its stead, their Hellenized-rabbi counterfeit, Jesus, and their Hellenist "Holy" Roman (gentile) Christian Church.

Consequently, in Hebrew,

Jews distinguished themselves from the displacement mythology Christians (who mingled as ma•lᵊshin•imꞋ and mã•sōr•ōtꞋ among them) by designating Christians with a cryptic homonym of נְצָרִים: namely, נֹצְרִים (unvowelled spelling נוצרים) — confinement or containment guards or keepers—guards or keepers who keep something within (from escaping), or safe within (keeping danger out). The singular noun is נוֹצֵר, also spelled נֹצֵר (no•tzeirꞋ), meaning a "sentry," and the sing. adj. is נוֹצְרִי (no•tzᵊr•iꞋ), from נָצַר (nã•tzarꞋ; to guard as a sentry).

These are still the Hebrew terms—used among Jews—designating "Christian(s)." This homonym meaning "Christian" enabled Tōr•ãhꞋ Jews, including נְצָרִים, to invoke a cryptic curse on the נֹצְרִים min•imꞋ, ma•lᵊshin•imꞋ, mᵊshū•mãd•imꞋ and mã•sōr•ōtꞋ among them (documented in the Bi•rᵊk•atꞋ ha-Min•imꞋ) — still undetected by Christians today!

In Biblical times, this verb root contrasted with its synonym שָמַר (shã•marꞋ; see comparison and contrast of these two synonyms in the NeiꞋtzër glossary entry). No•tzeirꞋ and its cognates have been reserved for "Christian." more

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Καινής Διαθήκης (i.e. the Christian "New Testament") [Glos N-Q, updated: 2018.12.06]

According to the earliest Church historian, Eusebius, the Original 12 Jews (and their peer fellow Jews) who followed the first-century C.E. RibꞋi Yᵊho•shuꞋa — the authentic Nᵊtzãr•imꞋrefused, i.e. never accepted, the post-135 C.E. Greek Roman Hellenist-Christian Καινής Διαθήκης! To the contrary, the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ embraced only (Ta•na״khꞋ, of course, and) their own, Hebrew, account of the life and teachings of the first-century C.E. RibꞋi Yᵊho•shuꞋa recorded by Ma•titᵊyãhꞋu: i.e. The Nᵊtzãrim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matitᵊyãhu (NHM).

The earliest extant complete source texts of the Hellenist Καινής Διαθήκης are the Greek codices א and βof the 4th-century CE, centuries after the expulsions of 70 CE and 135 CE!!!

Even according to the most authoritative Christian scholars, e.g., The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, acknowledges:

"A study of 150 Greek MSS of the Gospel of Luke has revealed more than 30,000 different readings… moreIt is safe to say that there is not one sentence in the NT in which the MS tradition is wholly uniform

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Obliterated Names [Glos N-Q, updated: 2009.03.08]

Tōr•ãhꞋ prohibits uttering the names of אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים (Ël•oh•imꞋ a•kheir•imꞋ; other Ël•oh•imꞋ) (Shᵊm•otꞋ 23.13; Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 12.3 and Yᵊho•shuꞋa 23.7). To comply with this Mitz•wãhꞋ, we employ strikethrough font (recent), insert an asterisk at the beginning (phasing out this older method) or use dashes (phasing out this even older method) in such names to remind the reader not to utter them (e.g., Aelia Capitolina, Ashtoret, Esotera, Jupiter, Mithra, Zeus, Isis, Iæsous, Jesus, etc. This includes the days of the week named after, and containing the names of, pagan gods, beginning with the most important gods to the pagans: Sunday, Moonday, Tiwe'sday, Odin'sday, Thor'sday, Freiaday and Saturnday.

In Judaism, as in the Bible, these are called simply Day-one through Day-six and Shab•ãtꞋ. One soon realizes how pervasive paganism is in Christianity.

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אֹהֶל מוֹעֵדPronunciation Table אהל מועד,אוהל מועד,Ohel Moed[Glos N-Q, updated: 2019.07.24]

Ohel Moeid
Mi•qᵊdãshꞋŌꞋhël Mō•ædꞋ/​Mi•shᵊkãnꞋ

masc . n. ōꞋhël Mō•eidꞋ; Tent of Convocation—the mobile Prayer Tent in which MōshꞋëh communed with י‑‑ה; primary component of the Mi•shᵊkãnꞋ bᵊ-mi•dᵊbarꞋ.

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עוֹלָהPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2020.09.06]

fem. n. ō•lãhꞋ עולה,עולים,עליון,oleh,olah,olim,olot,elyon(pl. עֹלוֹת, ōl•ōtꞋ); verb: she (or fem. it) is ascending; verbal noun: 1. ascending or ascendance; especially the “up [in smoke]” sacrifice—symbolically returning to its Creator, in gratefulness for sustaining food, the life taken from the animal. (Associating "sins" or "atonement" to the smoke going up would constitute Stone Age mentality physicomorphism.) 2. female immigrant ascending to ËrꞋëtz Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ.

The masc. counterpart is עוֹלֶה, and the collective pl. עוֹלִים

עֶלְיוֹן (adj.) refers to the uppermost, highest, top. Another cognate is f.s.n. עֲלִיָּה (pl. עֲלִיּוֹת), used primarily to refer to [a] ascending to read Tōr•ãhꞋ or [b] immigrating (upward), i.e., ascending, to Israel.

The verb, עָלָה, is also applied to the priming—raising-up (i.e. provision of oil, wicks and lighting)—of oil lamps.

The ōl•ãhꞋ Sacrifice—not For Atonement!

This type of sacrifice was “not designated as an atonement offering for any specific transgression… Rather, it is one of the two major types of voluntary offerings, brought as a mark of one’s desire to ‘elevate’ himself spiritually… as well as an obligatory offering to mark various occasions and situations.”

A priori, this fire-class ascendance sacrifice symbolized gratefulness for the accomplishment of a complete elimination of impurity—in the instances of Sha•bãtꞋ, Rōsh KhōꞋdësh, the Khaj•imꞋ and Mō•ad•imꞋ, the sᵊmikh•ãhꞋ of a kō•heinꞋ, completion of a nã•zirꞋ vow, recovery of a tzã•raꞋat, a woman after childbirth or zãv•ãhꞋ, or completion of a geir (conversion) to Tōr•ãhꞋ—symbolically ridding oneself of the impurity by sending it up in smoke.

Types of animals specified for the various types of ōl•ãhꞋ donation or mulct (in the ancient currency of an animal) included a tal•ëhꞋ, an aꞋyil, a gᵊdi or a par.

Belief in the efficacy of “ascendance sacrifices” was vividly encapsulated in most being entirely burnt-up—so that the sacrificer never reaped any profit from this types of sacrifice. The sacrificer’s part of every ōl•ãhꞋ always “went up in smoke”! See qãrᵊbãnꞋ more

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עוֹלָםPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2024.01.22]

masc . n. ō•lãmꞋ; עולם,עולמים,olamim from the root עׂלָם

BH: vigorous youth, the world of vigorous youth. Until Hi•lælꞋ obtained the position of ha-Nã•siꞋ, controlling the Sanhedrin for the first time (cBCE 28), that the debate over the existence of an eternal realm and post-mortal life was presented as a question requiring resolution. Thus, the eternal realm was seen as a world of eternal vigorous youthfulness, which morphed into the modern, planet-wide, understanding.

HH era, epoch, a geological age; world-age, world-existence, world-history, (the) world. Pl. עוֹלָמִים (ō•lãm•imꞋ; world-ages, world-epochs, world-eras), i.e. current and future afterlife worlds, i.e. physical & spiritual worlds/​domains. more

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עֹמֶר or עוֹמֶר Pronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2022.10.11]

Omer (barley or wheat) - Shavuot
Click to enlargeעֹמֶר (barley, wheat or other grain)

masc . n. (ōꞋmër) עומר, omer1. sheaf (of grain). 2. dry measure representing yield from one sheaf of grain; i.e. ≈2.2 liters = an עִשָּׂרֹן of an אֵיפָה. ‭ ‬ 3. the ≈2.2 liters of the first annual sheaf of either of two grains (barley on Khag ha-Matz•ōtꞋ or wheat on Khag Shãvū•ōtꞋ); brandished/​waved in the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ.

There were no supermarkets in Biblical times. At the beginning of each year, wheat wasn't available in Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ until the wheat harvest (celebrated by Khag Shãvū•ōtꞋ).

The first grain to be harvested each year was barley (celebrated by Khag ha-Matz•ōtꞋ). Consequently, the only לֶ֣חֶם—or matz•ãhꞋ—between PësꞋakh and Khag Shãvū•ōtꞋ was "poor man's" barley-לֶ֣חֶם (or barley-matz•ãhꞋ); i.e. לֶ֣חֶם עֹ֑נִי.

The taste of לֶ֣חֶם עֹ֑נִי seems to have been regarded as inferior to wheat-לֶ֣חֶם. Apparently due to dislike of "poor man's bread", beginning the very next day after the special Sha•bãtꞋ of the 1st annual barley עֹמֶר (i.e. Khag ha-Matz•ōtꞋ), first thing everyday, Israel recites the Sëphi•ratꞋ -ŌꞋmër of the 49-days/​7 weeks toward the first day they could eat wheat-לֶ֣חֶם. The next (50th) day marked the celebration of the 1st annual עֹמֶר of wheatKhag Shãvū•ōtꞋ.

Several of the Nᵊviy•imꞋ (e.g. Yᵊsha•yãhꞋū, Yᵊkhë•zᵊq•eilꞋ and Dãn•iy•eilꞋ) envisioned these two periods, separated by 7 weeks to represent two epochs (the first characterized by לֶ֣חֶם עֹ֑נִי, followed by an improved wheat epoch). The Nᵊviy•imꞋ envisioned the first epoch to be ushered in by a Mã•shiꞋakh Bën-Yō•seiphꞋ and the second epoch, "7 weeks of years" later, by a Mã•shiꞋakh Bën-​Dã•widꞋ. This, coupled with the historical record of the advent of modern Israel, enabled a straight mathematical ratio computation of the year on our calendar that would begin the second epoch; i.e. "Messianic Era"—which, unlike any other "prediction" in modern history, was proven by publishing, years in advance, the year in which the momentous "70th Week Of Years", encrypted and prophesied by Dãn•iy•eilꞋ (chapters 9 & 11) would occur:

  1. At the 1290 cryptic prophetic "days" point. (Note: "1290" days equates to 3½ years plus 30 days), which only became calculable after the advent of Israel's resurrection in 1948 defined the "1260 days" lapse: 70 to 1948.)

  2. featuring the infamous unholy bᵊrit

  3. with the person embodying the "abomination of desolation",

  4. which would be broken in the middle of the 7-year period

Though the event went exactly as prophesied by Dãn•iy•eilꞋ, and despite the anticipated year being published years beforehand, it went blissfully unnoticed by the spiritually misled because no magic genie, surrounded by infinite numbers of "angels", levitated in the sky in sight of the entire planet, transporting Christians to vanish from earth and reappear levitating in the sky!

Accordingly, three matz•ōtꞋ were introduced into the ancient PësꞋakh SæꞋdër; the top matz•ãhꞋ symbolizing the first, לֶ֣חֶם עֹ֑נִי, epoch, the middle matz•ãhꞋ symbolizing a Mã•shiꞋakh duality (the middle matz•ãhꞋ being broken into a duality during the SæꞋdër, with the second half hidden for a period) and separating the first epoch from the third—"Messianic"—epoch, symbolized by the bottom matz•ãhꞋ.

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וֹןPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2017.07.05]

ōn ון, on (suffix). Formerly regarded by Hebrew grammarians as a diminutive, this suffix more accurately denotes a nominal adjective (morphing a noun or adjective into a nominal or adjectival abstraction). Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar & gives, for examples,

  • m.n. קֶדֶם‎ abstracted by the וֹן- suffix to the adj./m.n. קַדְמוֹן‎. In this example (Yᵊkhë•zᵊq•eilꞋ 47.8), a further suffix, -ָה, is added to form "eastwardly."

  • abstracting adj. אַחֲרוֹן from the adv./prep. אַחַר.

  • abstracting adj. חִיצוׂן from חוּץ

  • abstracting m.n. עִוָּרוֹן from adj. עִוֵּר

  • abstracting m.n. אִישׁוֹן‎ from m.n. אִישׁ‎

  • abstracting שְׁפִיפֹן‎ from שָׁפַף‎

  • abstracting שַׂהֲרוֹן‎ from שַׂהַר, collateral form of סַהַר

  • abstracting צַוָּרוׂן (pl. צַוְּרֹנִים‎) from צַוָּאר‎

  • abstracting חֶבְרוֹן‎ from חָבֵר.

  • abstracting זִכָּרוֹן from זֵכֶר

  • abstracting שַׁבָּתוֹן from שַׁבָּת

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עֹֽנֶנPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2020.09.25]

ōꞋnëg;עונג,oneg an exquisite delight.

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אוֹנְקְלוֹס / אָנְקְלוֹסPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

Popularly "Onkelos" אנקלוס, Onqelos – 2nd century C.E. Tan•ãꞋ who translated the Tar•jumꞋ (Aramaic translation of Tōr•ãhꞋ). ōnꞋᵊqᵊlōs is often confused with a separate, presumably Hellenist (Tzᵊdoq•iꞋ), geir named Aquila, who translated Tōr•ãhꞋ into Greek.

אוֹנְקְלוֹס / אָנְקְלוֹס, whose native language was clearly Aramaic, likely derives from the Aramaic term, אוֹנְקְלַסְיָא / אָנְקְלַסְיָא (taking property in pledge, pawning, a pawnbroker). This, in turn, likely derives from the context of the Roman occupation and resulting Hellenist Greek term, ἐνεχυρασία.

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עוֹף Pronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2008.03.26]

masc . n. ōph;עוף, oph, of poultry, esp. chicken. When ordering at a restaurant or meat market, however, ōph invariably refers to תַּרְנְגוֹל, rather than הוֹדוּ, בַּרְוָז or אֲוָז.

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אוֹפַןPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2021.06.03]

ō•phanꞋ;אופן,אופנים,אפן,ophen,ophan,ophanaim,ophanayim wheel (pl. אוֹפַנַּיִם)

masc . n. אֹֽפֶן (ōꞋphën) — one of innumerable points (e.g., aspects, manners, modes or techniques) on a circle, a wheel or in a cycle.

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אוֹר Pronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. ōr; אור, or light (noun). Prefixing the preposition ל (lᵊ; to / for) forms לְאוֹר (lᵊ-or; to / for a light [of…]). See also ur.

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Ὠριγένης [Glos N-Q, updated: 2011.03.29]

Ō•ri•gënꞋæs; genus of Horus; Anglicized to Origen)

A Hellenist Egyptian gentile (Arab) born in Alexandria, Egypt (ca. 185—254 C.E.); Christian (Catholic) champion of Hellenism and refuter of Gnosticism in the foetal (64 C.E.—135 C.E.), proto-Christian Hellenist Gentile nascent Church; author of "On First Principles" and "Against Celsus." ("Origenes (1)," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," IV:96ff.). The supposition that this Hellenist champion was a Jew glosses over the fact that a Hellenist Jew was an apostate no better than any Hellenist gentile, and that the practice of Hellenism was intractably contradictory to the practice of Judaism.

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Orthodox Jew / JudaismPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2016.08.16]

The Jewish Virtual Library defines the concept of Orthodox Judaism as widely accepted among Orthodox Jews:

"Orthodox Judaism is not a unified movement with a single governing body [emphasis added], but many different movements adhering to common principles. All of the Orthodox movements are very similar in their observance and beliefs, differing only in the details that are emphasized. They also differ in their attitudes toward modern culture and the state of Israel. They all share one key feature: a dedication to Torah, both Written and Oral.

"Historically, there was no such thing as Orthodoxy; in fact, you find the particular term is used primarily in North America (elsewhere the distinction is primarily between “more observant” and “less observant”). The specific term “Orthodox Judaism” is of rather recent origin and is used more as a generic term to differentiate the movements following traditional practices from the Liberal Jewish movements."

[Admitting many different opinions as knowledge and technology advance in a dynamic world,] "As practical questions arise, Orthodox authorities apply the Halachic [sic] process (the system of legal reasoning and interpretation described in the Oral Torah [emphasis added]) using the Torah (both Oral and Written) to determine how best to live in accordance with G-d's will. In this way, Orthodoxy evolves to meet the demands of the times. An excellent summary of the core beliefs of Orthodox Judaism may be found in the Rambam's 13 Principles of Faith [which is entirely compatible with the documented historical Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ].

"One of the hallmarks of Orthodox Jews is an openness (and encouragement) to question what it is that G-d requires of us, and then to answer those questions within the system that G-d gave us."

Distinction from, and contrast against, "Ultra-Orthodox" (including Kha•reid•imꞋ cults and the more positive, modern-Kha•sid•imꞋ, Khabad) differentiates the moderate-middle Orthodox Jews from the extremist, fanatical and sometimes cultist fringes. Orthodox Jews are those Jews whose practice defines them within ±2σ of the middle of the Orthodox Jewish community. Beyond the +2σ on the fanatic extreme fringe are the often-cultist Ultra-Orthodox sects while, beyond the -2σ at the opposite extreme lax fringe are the non-Orthodox sects. A priori, Orthodox excludes both fringe extremes alike. Ultra-Orthodox themselves corroborate this differentiation between themselves and Orthodox whom they regard as "lesser," "inferior"—even goy•imꞋ and worse—even racist discrimination against rival Ultra-Orthodox (e.g., Ash•kᵊnazꞋim barring Sᵊphã•rãd•imꞋ girls from an Ultra-Orthodox girls' school).

The Israeli Ultra-Orthodox, Kha•reid•iꞋ, Ra•bãn•utꞋ (Rabbinate) Reform of the definition of a Jew is a very recent innovation defying, and claiming to overturn, the definition of Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ mi-Har Sin•aiꞋ.

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אוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2017.12.27]

masc . n. ōt, irreg. m.n. taking a fem. ending in the pl.: אוֹתוֹת (ōt•ōtꞋ); אות, ot an indicator-sign, signal, symbol, token, letter, portent, omen or augur — that can, but doesn't necessarily, exceed one's understanding of science and, in any case, cannot contradict the Perfect Physical Laws, authored by י‑‑ה, the Engine by which He governs His universe. For PEMRH: "miracle," see נֵס (neis).

In Post-Biblical Hebrew, אוֹת came to mean a letter of the Hebrew ãlꞋëph-beit. There seems to be a cause-effect relationship between the connotation of a letter being an indicator-sign and the post-12th century CE Qabãlist idea of equating a perfect incantation of the word or phrase with the creation or appearance of a physical object — deriving from the Dark Ages (Tōr•ãhꞋ prohibited!) supernatural magic belief that the saying. i.e., spoken word, brings a physical object into existence by its proper incantation, rather than the word merely representing it. This association influences much of the rabbinic view of incanting ("properly reciting," enchanting) "the (rabbinically) correct" prayers and blessings todaymore

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OT [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

Calling the Judaic Bible the "Old Testament" begs the question of supersession and, therefore, Displacement Theology. In addition to being logically wrong (the logical fallacy of petitio principii), begging this question is offensive, or should be offensive, to Jews.

In addition to this logical fallacy—falsehood—of petitio principii, this offensive assumption also depends upon another logical fallacy: ad ignorantiam (shifting the burden of proof). No responsible scholar denies that Jews recognized the authority of Tōr•ãhꞋ from the time of Har Sin•aiꞋ. Therefore, the burden of proof is upon anyone who alleges the polar change of rejecting Tor•ãhꞋ. Such proof has never been offered because it never existed.

The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ never changed their mind about it, maintaining that only the Jewish Ta•na״khꞋ was Scripture and only their own The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu (NHM, in English) was a legitimate account of the life and teachings of RibꞋi Yᵊho•shuꞋa.

Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ haven't changed, and won't change.

Thus, for Jews, including the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ, OT stands not for "Old Testament" but for "Original Torah." (See also Ta•na״khꞋ and NT.)

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עוֹבַדְיָהPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

ō•vad•yãhꞋ; עובדיה, Ovadyah "ëvꞋëd of Y-h"; fourth of the twelve minor Nᵊviy•imꞋ in Ta•na״khꞋ (Hellenized to 'Obadiah').

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פָּעַלPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

pã•alꞋ; פעל, paal action — also the imperfect transitive / active, verb bin•yãnꞋ; also called קַל qal (simple, light[weight]); the active preterite transitive.

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פָּדָהָPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2009.05.26]

pãd•ãhꞋ; פדה, padah he ransomed, redeemed; modern verb "cash," as to cash (ransom, redeem) a check or coupon.

פּוֹדֶה (pod•ëhꞋ; he ransoms or redeems; he is ransomer or redeemer of…) found only in Dᵊvãr•imꞋ  13.6 and Tᵊhil•imꞋ  34.23. See also go•eilꞋ , often mistranslated as redeem or ransom.

See also Pi•dᵊyōnꞋ ha-Bein.

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פְתּוּתּPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2020.05.22]

Phᵊtūt;fetoot,fetut,phetoot,phetut a מְרַק Tei•mãn•iꞋ; primarily a PësꞋakh commemoration of wa-Yi•qᵊr•ãꞋ 2.5-6:

“(5) …it must be matz•ãhꞋ. (6) פָּתוׂת it to be פִּתִּים, then you shall pour oil on it; it is a Mi•nᵊkh•ãhꞋ.”

Non-PësꞋakh versions include bã•sãrꞋ (beef, chicken or any bã•sãrꞋ kã•sheirꞋ) or khã•lãvꞋ. But PësꞋakh stipulates that only meat that is roasted must be eaten—not boiled or stewed! Thus, for PësꞋakh (and since roasted bã•sãrꞋ is required to be eaten), only the vegan version is permitted.

Pã•qidꞋ Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu's Vegan פְתּוּתּ lᵊPësꞋakh
In a bowl:
  • פָּתוׂת‎ 6 pieces machine matz•ãhꞋ into פִּתִּים (crumble into 3-5 cm crumbs)

  • Dress the matz•ãhꞋ with 2 Tbsp extra virgin olive oil

In a large, separate pot:  more
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עֵרֶבִי(ם) Pronunciation Table [Glos_N-Q, updated: 2023.07.26]

EiꞋrab(s);ArabsEirab(s), an English (transliteration) portmanteau, coined and defined here, of עֵרֶב רַב and עֲרָבִי(ם); a tribe, or mixture, of Semitic-ish peoples—i.e. Arab(s), in contrast to Eurasian (proto-Hellenist) peoples. See the Nabateans and Pūlossians ("Philistines"/​"Palestinians").

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Mat (country of …) PLST (Pᵊli•shᵊt•u/i; Rawlinson squeeze of lost Nimrud Slab Line 12, rightmost word.     [Glos N-Q, updated: 2023.07.25]

Philistine captives Ramses3 BCE1177 feathered headdress wall relief Medinet Habu Thebes
Click to enlargeMinoan-Philistines with feath­ered Phoenix (Tzurian-Tzidonian (Phoenician)) Firebird headdress; captives of Egyptian Par•ōhꞋ Ramses-3, BCE1177 (wall relief, Medinet Habu, Thebes, Egypt)

Much later, Hellenized to Πυλοσιάν / Πυλοσιανοί (Pulossian[s])פלישתים,פלישתין,פלשת,Pelistu,Palastu,Palestine,Palestinians,Pelishtim,Pelishtin,Peleshet,Paleban—Anglicized to "Philistines".

Originally from Πύλος, Pelopónnesia, Cimmerian Terranes (cousin to Anatolia, Crete & Cyprus—not Eur-Asian Greece), the Pūlossians were most identifiable by their feathered-headdress symbolizing the Phoenix (Tzurian-Tzidonian (Phoenician)) Firebird (see link). They developed into the conglomeration of sea-farers whom modern arts-degreed archaeologists have confused as "Minoans" and "Sea Peoples", who colonized (consequently at times causing friction with) many of the main coastal ports all around the Mediterranean Rim.

Mat (country of …) PLST (Pᵊli•shᵊt•u/i; Rawlinson squeeze of lost Nimrud Slab Line 12, rightmost word. seems to have been the original name; then transliterated into 𐤀𐤓𐤌𐤉𐤀 (Aramean) phonetically as פְּלִשְׁתָּאָה  This form was likely then pluralized according to Aramaic & Hebrew grammar producing פְּלִשְׁתִּין (masc. pl. n.; the sing. being פְּלִשְׁתִּי), implying adoption of a new root verb, פָּלַשׁ, derived from פְּלֶשֶׁת, forming the Hebrew pl. פְּלִשְׁתִּים.

Παλαιστίνη, Φιλισταίος & Φιλισταία are corresponding (Romanized) Koine Greek terms also transliterated into Hebrew as פְּלִשְׁתִּי—and Anglicized to "Philistine". more

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Παπίας [Glos N-Q, updated: 2011.03.29]

Pa•piꞋas; pope, priest; Anglicized to Papias)

(Syrian Arab or Turk born in western Turkey in the early 2nd century, i.e., around 135 C.E.), a Hellenist Catholic bishop in the newly-born, infant Christian Hellenist Gentile Church in the interior (Phrygia) of northwestern Turkey, Papias is known only as filtered through the pen of Irenaeus (Haer. 5.33.4), "the earliest witness," filtered again through the pen of Eusebius (EH III.xxxix.1), who doubted any connection between Papias and "John" (EH III.xxxix.3-7). His name, deriving from an epithet meaning "Zeus the Savior," betrays his Hellenist Greek heritage and orientation. Yet, despite being intractably contradictory to them and separated from them by an entire generation, typical of the early Christian fabricators, he reportedly (according to Eusebius) fancifully claimed to have been a disciple of some of the original Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ. It is according to Papias that Eusebius records the first mention of the original Hebrew Matityahu. Concerning one of the stories of "St. John" (drinking poison unharmed), "it is likely to have been later than Papias, else we should have been apt to hear of it here." This suggests the true origin of the Greek "Gospel of St. John," which derives from that region of Turkey! ("Papias (1)," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," IV:185ff.)

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פָּקִידPronunciation Table Hear it! [Glos N-Q, updated: 2022.04.20]

masc . n. Pã•qidꞋ, pl. פְּקִידִים (pᵊqid•imꞋ); Derived from פָּקַד.פקיד, פקידים, פדידינו, paqid, peqidim, p'qidim, Peqideinu, P'qideinu BH: one authorized to commission and muster people (for service, inspection, oversight, supervision, review, roll call, discipline, etc.); i.e. an overseer, foreman, auditor, checker, reviewer or monitor; one who revisits, reviews and monitors actions, decisions or incidents; roughly equivalent to a modern COO (chief operating officer). Cf. bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 41.34; Mᵊlãkh•imꞋ Beit 25.19; Di•vᵊr•eiꞋ ha-Yãm•imꞋ Beit 31.13; Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu 29.26; et al.

The office was usurped by gentile Roman Christians in 135 C.E., who Hellenized it to Ἐπίσκοπος and subsequently Vulgar-Latinized to ebiscopus (bishop and, retroactively Pope). This was the last time that Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ were correctly documented. PEMRH: clerk.

Thus, unlike the title of RabꞋi (and "rabbeinu"), the title of Pã•qidꞋ traces all the way back through Ta•na״khꞋ to the time of Yo•seiphꞋ advising Par•ohꞋ to appoint pᵊqid•imꞋ; — 137 years before Mosh•ëhꞋ was born! The post-Biblical title, "Rabeinu," (our rabbi) is chronologically impossible, never based in the Bible and simply assumed by rabbis today. Rabbis didn't even come into existence until nearly 1½ millennia (1450 years) after Moses died!

Notice that for more than a century after the death of RibꞋi Yᵊho•shuꞋa—until between 142 and 168 C.E.—there were only Ἐπίσκοπος—no "popes" (a term that didn't evolve until the 3ʳᵈ century C.E. when Hegesippus first Ἐποιησάμην [his retroactive] list of succession" of "popes"!!! more

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פָּרַעPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2019.10.19]

Pãr•aꞋ;פרעות,para,peraot (pa•alꞋ) entice or incite to go wild, feral, savage, go rogue; to dishevel, disarrange, make disorderly, incite to disorderliness, muss up. more

נִפְרַע niph•alꞋ

הִפְרִיעַ hiph•ilꞋ

פֶּרַע (n. m.s.)

פְּרָעוׂת (n. f.p.)

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פָּרָה אֲדֻמָּהPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2019.03.24]

American Red Brangus Grand Champion Heifer, 2012 Houston Livestock Show & Rodeo
Click to enlargePãr•ãhꞋ Adūm•ãhꞋ

fem. n. Pãr•ãhꞋ Adūm•ãhꞋ (fem. of פַּר); פרה אדמה, פרה אדומה, הפרה האדמה, הפרה האדומה, Parah Adumah red-clay-colored cow, chestnut cow, popularly the "Red Heifer." However, "red" refers to "clay-red," not cartoon red. Vide סמליות הפרה האדומה / 'Red Heifer' Finally Explained.

Before there was paper money, checks, credit cards or banks, a par served as a donation, or payment of a court-imposed fine, equal in today’s currency (2019), to approx. ₪18,000 or U.S. $5,000.

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PR aA, the Great Temple

Ideogram: Temple, Palace, Hall, house; Phonogram: consonants PR Ideogram: unknown, meaning ''great''; Phonogram: consonants aA Pronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2017.12.29]

Paroh Khat-shepset Keruv (ca. BCE 1504-1483; ancient-egypt.co.uk, Metropolitan Museum)
Click to enlargePar•=ōhꞋ Khãt-shëpꞋsët KᵊruvꞋ (ca. BCE 1504-1483; ancient-egypt.co.uk, Metropolitan Museum)

PRaA (Egyptian; Hebraized to פַּרעֹה (ParꞋōh), Angli­cized to Pharaoh; lit. "The Great Temple").

Similar to the "White House" today, the PRaA (ParꞋōh; Great Temple) became a meto­nym for the ruler who occupied the PRaA, the personifica­tion of the PRaA.פרעה, Paroh

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פָּרֹכֶתPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2019.11.15]

Mishkan Qodesh & Qodesh ha-Qadashim diagram)
Click to enlargeMi•shᵊkãnꞋ diagram, showing Pã•rōkhꞋët (Descriptions © 2019 Pã•qidꞋ Yirmeyahu Ben-David)

fem. n. Pã•rōkhꞋët; פרכת, פרוכת, parokhet curtain.

Mishkan Ohel-Moeid (Timna C. Frank Starmer)
Click to enlarge Mi•shᵊkãnꞋ ŌꞋhël Mō•ædꞋ (Timna C. Frank Starmer)

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פָּסוּקPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2017.11.17]

masc . n. pã•sūqꞋ, פסוקים, פוסקים, פסקים, פיסקא, פסקא, pasuq, pesuqim, p'suqim, pesaqim, p'saqim, poseiq, posqim, pesaqim, p'saqim, pisqa verse, paragraph; pl. פְּסוּקִים (pᵊsūq•imꞋ), masc. pl. connective -פְּסוּקֵי (pᵊsūq•eiꞋ-…; verses of…;.

פָּסוּק derives from the root verb פָּסַק (pã•saqꞋ; he cleaved, split, divided, apportioned or assigned). This was understood among Hellenist Jews as the verb κρινω or noun κριτης.

Probably consequently, in Medieval Hebrew, this verb refers to making a halakhic ruling.

פּוֹסֵק (pō•seiqꞋ; codifying, deciding), plural is פּוֹסְקִים (pō•sᵊq•imꞋ) — medieval term for sho•phᵊt•imꞋ of a Beit-Din; this pret. pres. masc. sing. form also being used as a verbal noun to refer to the person making the ruling — i.e., PEMRH: codifier [he who is codifying]; NH decider [he who is deciding] — Klein's p. 498). This was understood among Greek-speaking Hellenist Jews as an ηγεμων.

פְּסָק (pl. פְּסָקִים) or פְּסָק-דִין, from the Aramaic פִּסְקָא — the ruling(s) handed down by פּוֹסְקִים.

Titles have changed over time, reflecting acculturation and assimilation in various eras and regions of the Diaspora. However, י‑‑ה being Immutable, the underlying Basis and Authority dictating every legitimate and valid halakhic ruling can never change. The actual Authority has always been the Rules of י‑‑ה: applied, mathematically-precise הִגָּיוֹן reflecting the Author(ity) of His universe; reality, not some human-confabulated mortal, political and often secular-conferred pō•seiqꞋ!

The Core Authority is the הִגָּיוֹן of י‑‑ה, not the mortal who happens to vocalize it. In today's modern world of scientific technological advances at an exponentially increasing rate, coupled with the internet dispersing knowledge to everyone, הִגָּיוֹן itself, the only Authoritative halakhic Ruler, becomes accessible to every person—heralding the prophesied advent in which teacher-clerics and ruling-clerics are superseded by הִגָּיוֹן itself, and every person can wield Authority solely according to whether (s)he pō•seiqꞋ Tōr•ãhꞋ as interpreted within the constraints of the הִגָּיוֹן of י‑‑ה.

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πάθος [Glos N-Q, updated: 2011.04.01]

pathꞋös, Anglicized to pathos; emotion; defined by Aristotle as argument appealing to emotion (demagoguery or ignoratio elenchi) in contrast to λογος (lögꞋös) = argument from reason and εθος (ëthꞋös) = argument based on morality.

Christians have exaggerated παθος to "passion" and, from there, to πασχω (pas•khō; to suffer agony) and, from there, to πασχα (pas•kha; amplified to the "paskhal"—suffering, agony, passion—sacrifice"—displacing the completely unrelated Hebrew פֶּסַח and Aramaic פִּסחָא (Pis•khãꞋ; in Tar•gumꞋ OnꞋᵊqᵊlos), meaning skip-over, bypass, pass-over.

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[Glos N-Q, updated: 2021.12.09]
שָׁאוּל (b. ≈3 CE) – Παῦλος (d. ≈67 CE)Pronunciation TablePaulos,Saul,Shaul,Apostle,Apostate,Kareit,Excision

Hellenist Turkish, Roman-Citizen, Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ Jew Of Beit Sha•maiꞋ; Radicalized Into The קַנָּאִים

Tarsus, Turkey
Click to enlargeTarsus, Turkey

Jewish Encyclopedia 1906!: Σαῦλος, "SAUL OF TARSUS… The actual founder of the Christian Church as opposed to Judaism."

Σαῦλος The Roman-Authorized (i.e. Hellenist Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ) Shō•pheitꞋ

First mentioned in Πράξεις των Αποστόλων 7.58, Σαῦλος was the Hellenist, Roman-citizen, Turkish Jew ordained under Roman Law and Συνέδριον by the Roman-collaborating Hellenist Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ Kō•heinꞋ ha-Jã•dōlꞋ as a Shō•pheitꞋ. The passage documents that he "supervised" ("held the coats" of) the "eye-witnesses" (the only ones authorized to carry-out an execution). I.e. Σαῦλος was the Shō•pheitꞋ who adjudicated the case of the Hellenist Jew named Στέφανος, who had been convicted, on blatantly false charges, by suborned "witnesses". By all appearances, the "digging up" and pressuring (suborning) of such "witnesses" was a routine practice instigated by Σαῦλος to set "examples" and enhance his reputation!

Σαῦλος The Hellenist Tzᵊdōq•iꞋ Of Beit Sha•maiꞋ And The קַנָּאִים

Σαῦλος brags that he is an Ἑβραῖος ἐξ Ἑβραίων, while twice boasting of being a קַנָּאִי (ζηλωτὴς), including when addressing his fellow-ζηλωτὴς!. This further demonstrates that Σαῦλος understood himself to be the "Ultra-Orthodox of Ultra-Orthodox" of his time—a recognized leader in the murdering, militant-extremist, "strictest αἵρεσιν" rabid terrorist קַנָּאִים, which had split-off from the Pᵊrūsh•imꞋ rabbis! more

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פֵּאוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. pæ•ōtꞋ; פאה, פאות, peiah, peah, peiyot, peiot edges.

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Πέλλα [Glos N-Q, updated: 2011.04.03]


Click to enlargeΠελλα (Pella) — one of the Decapolis, in present-day Jordan, 13km (8mi) SE of בֵּית שְׁאָן (then Scythopolis).

Pella or Phei•khalꞋ, now Khirbet Fahil (Phakhil); Hellenist Roman city of the Decapolis ("Ten Cities"; in red on map) with forum, public baths, a nymphaeum, and a small theater (odeum). The archeological site is located about 4 km (2.5 mi.) east of NᵊharꞋ ha-Yar•deinꞋ and 27 km (17 mi.) south of Yãm Ki•nërꞋët.

See also First Century Christian Flight To Pella.

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פֶּרֶקPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. përꞋëq; פרקי אבות, pereq, pirqei avot episode, chapter

פִּרְקֵי אָבוֹת (pl. of אַב): Ma•sëkꞋët ãv•ōtꞋ + Ch. 8 (Vilna ed.) of Ma•sëkꞋët Khal•ãhꞋ — the complete encyclopedia of Tōr•ãhꞋ source-principles.

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פְּרִיPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2010.09.21]

Tree fruits

irreg. n. (m.s./​f.p.) pᵊriꞋ; פרי, פרות, peri, p'ri, peirot fruit (m.s. and m.s. combinative form: fruit of…); pl. פֵּרוֹת (peir•ōtꞋ; fruits) and pl. comb. form פֵּרֵי (peir•eiꞋ; fruits of…).

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פְּרוּשִׁיPronunciation Table Hear it! [Glos N-Q, updated: 2020.05.14]

masc . n. Pᵊrūsh•iꞋ, pl. פְּרוּשִׁים‎ —פרושים,פרשה,פרושה,פרשות,parashah,parashot,Perushim,P'rushim,peirushah,phrishut BH:

  • Transitive (פָּרַשׁ): a parser, one who parses (differentiates as distinct; distinguishes; explains or clarifies Ha•vᵊdãl•ãhꞋ; one who complies with Ha•vᵊdãl•ãhꞋ; separates out or apart from),

  • Intransitive: (הִתְפָּרֵשׁ) someone or something parsed as distinct or distinguished apart or separate; discerned as Ha•vᵊdãl•ãhꞋ compliant.

פְּרִישׁוּת—, the practice of parsing (separating, distinguishing); the praxis of Pᵊrūsh•imꞋ, "Pharisaism".

PEMRH: a parsed "meaning; explanation, interpretation, gloss, annotation, comment, or commentar­y." In fact, the English "parse" traces back "from Latin pars 'a part, piece'", likely to this Hebrew root!

We know from DSS 4Q MMT and CD that the Biblical (original) Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ (Οs•inꞋ) held the Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ of the Pᵊrush•imꞋ דּוׂרְשֵׁי הַחְלָקוׂת  in contempt. Thus, it contradicts the historical record to represent RibꞋi Yᵊho•shuꞋa's fellow Pᵊrush•imꞋ as the strict element of Judaism — particularly based on the feeble example of today's Medieval Ultra-Orthodox Kha•reid•imꞋ who daily demonstrate their assimilation into Dark Ages Europe.

Not until a longstanding Judaic-Hellenist schism finally exploded in B.C.E. 175, did the "parsers" (Pᵊrush•imꞋ) finally "parse themselves apart" from the Hellenist Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ. The term "Pᵊrush•imꞋ" was subsequently Hellenized in LXX, as Φαρισαῖος, ("Pharisee"). more

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פֶּסַחPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2023.12.06]

Click to enlargePësꞋakh SæꞋdër Table, Tei•mãn•iꞋ Style

masc . n. PësꞋakh; פסח, Pesakh a skipping, excluding or bypassing something in a set, series, collection or group (e.g., Am Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ). PësꞋakh does not remotely suggest over (overhead) or above, as popularly imagined by idolatrous anthropomorphists! PësꞋakh refers specifically to the SæꞋdër at dusk, as sunset approaches, on the 14th of Firstmonth (assimilated to Babylonian "Nisan").

PësꞋakh also served as shorthand for the  זֶ֖בַח חַ֥ג הַפָּֽסַח, which was stipulated to be a male שֶׂה (either a טָלֶה or a גְּדִי; nothing idolatrously physicomorphic / supernatural about this: this was the ancient intermediate-class annual financial obligation, monetarily valued between approved fowl and cattle).

Note: PësꞋakh is only one dusk, not the following 7 days! The seven day festival, which begins with and subsumes PësꞋakh, is Khag ha-Matz•ōtꞋ—the Khag of the Firstfruits of Barley harvest. PësꞋakh is only the ërꞋëv SæꞋdër of the first (of seven) day(s) of Khag ha-Matz•ōtꞋ).

The only no-fables, science-compatible, historical Ha•gãd•ãhꞋ (for tablets & similar devices): more

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פֶּשַׁעPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2010.06.30]

masc . n. pëshꞋa; פשעים, פושע, פושעים, peshaim, p'shaim, posheia, poshim willful, deliberate, intentional and felonious transgression against Tōr•ãhꞋ; pl. פְּשָׁעִים (pᵊshã•imꞋ). Contrast with kheit and ã•wonꞋ.

Cognates: פּוֹשֵׁעַ (pō•sheiꞋa; willfully, deliberately, intentionally and feloniously transgressing against Tōr•ãhꞋ), pl. פּוֹשְׁעִים (pō•shᵊimꞋ).

Contrast with the completely unrelated proper verb for "rebel": מָרַד. While a willful transgression is rebellious, there is a difference in meaning; the verbs are neither identical nor always interchangeable.

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פְּשִׁיטָאPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2017.12.29]

Peshiteta (late 5th century, schoyencollection.com)

irreg. n. (Aramaic/​Syriac; f.s./​m.p.) Pᵊshi•tãꞋ, explanation, commentary; פשיטא, Peshita, Peshitta, P'shit'ta(c 300-399 C.E.) version of the Καινής Διαθήκης.

Although Ma•titᵊyãhꞋu was originally written in Hebrew,   analysis of theistic names and other factors demonstrate that the Pᵊshi•tᵊ•tãꞋ was translated from Greek, not an originally Aramaic work.

In the original Hebrew, there are several different titles / names for Ël•oh•imꞋ. These are always differentiated in Hebrew and Aramaic when quoting from the Ta•na״khꞋ (or the Tar•jumꞋ).

In the Greek, by contrast, these are all expressed by only two terms, corresponding either to θεος or κυριος. Despite Aramaic's richness in paralleling of names and titles, the Pᵊshi•tᵊ•tãꞋ follows the Greek pattern, unlike original Aramaic and Hebrew texts. The richness of the Aramaic has, with certainty, been funneled and filtered through Hellenized limitations of understanding, translating one of the two Greek concepts.

The only reasonable explanation is that the Pᵊshi•tᵊ•tãꞋ was translated from a Greek (or possibly Latin a-3) text. The Pᵊshi•tᵊ•tãꞋ, most certainly, does not reflect a pristine Aramaic text. Being a second-generation product of an earlier Greek text, the Pᵊshi•tᵊ•tãꞋ is even less reliable than the earliest Greek mss. This back-translation is paralleled by both the modern rewrite of the Greek text (Textus Receptus) to corroborate the KJ/V as well as the modern Hebrew translation of the NT, which is the product of some modern evangelist-to-Jews Christian organization (probably hiring an Israeli) translating the KJ/V Roll eyes into Hebrew (by unidentified translators) as the"הַברית הַחדשה"

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פְּשָׁטPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2017.09.25]

masc . n. pᵊshãt; פשט, peshat, p'shat simple, plain meaning; by extension literal, said of plain, literal reading of Scripture. Conversational usage: פָּשׁוּט (pã•shūtꞋ; [it's] simple).

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פְּסִיקְתָּאPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. (Aramaic) PᵊsiqꞋᵊtã; פסיקתא, פסקתא, pesiqta, p'siqtaapportionment, agreement to pay (especially a dowry). PBH cleaving, halakhic ruling (see pã•sūqꞋ) refers specifically to several Mi•dᵊrãsh•imꞋ on Tōr•ãhꞋ

  • פְּסִיקְתָא דְרַב כַּהֲנָא (Pᵊsiqtã dᵊ-Rav Ka•hanꞋã), the oldest—5th century C.E.,

  • פְּסִיקְתָא רַבָּתִי (PᵊsiqꞋtã Rab•ãtꞋi; large cleaving), 9th century C.E. and

  • פְּסִיקְתָא זוֹטַרתִּי (PᵊsiqꞋtã Zo•tarꞋti; small cleaving) or פְּסִיקְתָא זוּטַרתָּא (PᵊsiqꞋtã Zu•tarꞋti), 11th century C.E.

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פֶּתַחPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2019.07.21]

masc . n.pëtꞋakh;פתח,petakh opening, doorway, entrance. See also dëlꞋët and shaꞋar.

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פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶתPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2019.03.06]

Click to enlargeTa•litꞋ with Tzitz•itꞋ with pᵊtilꞋ tᵊkheilꞋët, tied Nō•sakhꞋ Tei•mãn•iꞋ

masc . n. pᵊtil tᵊkheilꞋët; פתיל תכלת, petil tekheilet, petil tekhelet, p'til t'kheilet, p'til t'khelet a string of indigo, required to be included in tzitz•itꞋ (bᵊ-Mid•barꞋ 15.38). Bar-KokhꞋvã's soldiers, under the mentoring of Rabbi A•qiꞋvã, used kela ilan—dye from the indigo plant; the original color of Levi jeans ("Tekhelet," EJ, 15:913-14).

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PG [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

Patrologia Graeca, Migne

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Φίλων [Glos N-Q, updated: 2011.03.29]

(PhilꞋōn; Anglicized to Philo)

Diaspora Hellenist Jew and philosopher in Alexandria, Egypt (b. ca. B.C.E. 20—50 C.E.). Some hypothesize that Yᵊho•shuꞋa Bën-Yo•seiphꞋ, while a boy in Egypt becoming learned in Greek and mastering Aristotelian analytics (logic, מִידּוֹת) and dialectics (debate, פִּלְפּוּל), may also have studied under Φιλων; though later he became a tal•midꞋ of Ja•mᵊl•iy•eilꞋ).

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Φοίνιξ Pronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2023.01.14]

Red Phoenix Firebird Chinese Golden Pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus)
Click to enlargeProbable faraway-land inspira­tion for Red Phoenix Firebird (Gold­en Pheasant, Chryso­lo­phus pictus, China)

masc . n. PhoiꞋnix (corrupted to Phoenix), the Pūlossian Greek term referring to the original, Bᵊn•eiꞋ-ÕdãmꞋ (proto-Semitic), 𐤑𐤓  reddish-purple:          ; Hebrew arᵊgãm•ãnꞋ) & gold, Phoenix Firebird of its namesake, the (Semitic—not Greek) maritime shipping Bᵊn•eiꞋ-ÕdãmꞋ of the northern coast of A•dãm•ãhꞋ  who became known for their Phoenix Firebird— reddish-purple textile dye. Foreign peoples from all around the Mediterranean and Middle-East called them by the exonym Phoeni­cians.

(The best known mariners of the ancient Mediterranean were the later Pūlossians (corrupted to Philistines")  (Πύλος-tines).

The Phoenix Firebird was also stylized in the well-known "Tyrian-red feathered"  headdress that distinguished adult males of the Tzurians-Tzidonians (exonym: "Phoenicians") and Πύλος-tines, "for both sported plumes of feathers in their head-dresses more

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physicomorphism [Glos_N-Q, updated: 2023.11.06x]

physꞋic•o•morphꞋism; superset containing all elements of animism, anthropomorphism, idolatry, and similar infringements—idolatry+all of which violate Shᵊm•ōtꞋ 20.3, et al.!

Physicomorphism encompasses the range of spiritism linked to physical objects (cf. infra) that, millennia later, were misleadingly narrowed via oversimplified Hellenist transgarblation into Greek "idolatry" (cf.infra). Thus, physicomorphism encompasses and describes all of the types of violations, including and beyond simple idolatry, prohibited by Shᵊm•ōtꞋ 20.3, et al.

Students of the "Hebrew Bible" will be gobsmacked to discover that there is no such Biblical Hebrew word as "idolatry" in Ta•na״khꞋ!!! It turns out that Εἰδωλολατρία/idolatry addresses only a small niche of the issue prohibited in Ta•na״khꞋ. Rather, Ta•na״khꞋ describes, through an array of passages, often conflicted by then-unnoticed physicomorphic impingements, a far wider range of prohibited beliefs beyond what the early sō•phᵊr•imꞋ and Nᵊviy•imꞋ were capable of describing as a single concept: physicomorphism—the hypernym (superset) subsuming the hyponyms (subsets) animism, anthropomorphism (including gender), supernaturalism, superstition, et al.including the Hellenist-interpreted, Anglicized "idolatry". Rather, Ta•na״khꞋ prohibits physicopomorphism! more

A physicomorphism is an expression of something that is not physical distorted through terms of physical characteristics. Whereas anthropomorphism is more limited (attempts to perceive the Creator distorted through physical human characteristics), physicomorphism is the broadest term describing the attempt to perceive anything that is not physical through any physical term(s).

Note: Superset is a logical term used routinely, for example, in computer science. Set A is the superset of set B if all of the elements of set B are elements of set A. This means that all animism, supernaturalism, superstition and idolatry are elements of the larger, superset, of physicomorphism.

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פִּדיוֹן הַבֵּןPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n.Pid•yōnꞋ ha-Bein; פדיון הבן, פידיון הבן, Pidyon ha-Bein, Pidyon ha-Ben, Pidyon haBenransom of the first-born-son (5 silver coins to a kō•heinꞋ) — reminiscent of the sparing of the son at the A•qeid•ãhꞋ.

Aqeidah, sacrifice of the Ayil (ram)
Click to enlargeA•qeid•ãhꞋ (incognizant surreal finger­painting by Yã•eilꞋ in 1990 — at 4 years old). Hover cursor over figures to dis­play explanations.
Pidyon ha-Ben
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פִעֵלPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

pi•eilꞋ; פיעל, pieil, piel intensive-causative verb bin•yãnꞋ; transitive / active.

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פִּלְפּוּלPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2009.11.10]

black pepper cornshot chili peppers

masc . n. pil•pūlꞋ;פלפול, פילפול, pilpulpeppering (פִּלְפֵּל [pil•peilꞋ] is pepper). Used metonymically of clever (wise-ass, gotcha) casuistry and heated, toxic polemics; i.e. peppery argu­mentation.

Notice that the rabbinic meaning — and direction — differs markedly from Aristotelian dialectics and debate; and differs even further from modern mathematically-precise logic—which near-illiterate Ultra-Orthodox Kha•reid•imꞋ rabbis smugly and superciliously dismiss as Hellenist (i.e. goy•imꞋ) Epikoros.

This error is the first of the two pillars of rabbinic evolution that have caused Ultra-Orthodox Kha•reid•imꞋ rabbis to rely on, and become over-skilled in pil•pūlꞋ (pillar 1) while simultaneously adamantly refusing education in mathematics and science — thereby becoming bereft of logic and disconnected from the real world (pillar 2). Consequently, European Dark Ages, anti-science Church-like, illiterate-by-choice Ultra-Orthodox Kha•reid•imꞋ rabbis have led, and continue to lead, many Jews toward Qa•bãl•ãhꞋ mythology, far astray — in the opposite direction — from the Omniscient Logic and reality of Tōr•ãhꞋ.

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פָּנִים Pronunciation Table [Glos_N-Q, updated: 2023.05.11]

pãn•imꞋ; (pl. of פָּנֶה, a plurale tantum)—"inner nature" or "inner character" (not conventional superficial "face").

Superficially, and without explanation, assumed to simply mean "face"; from פָּנֶה. Scholars have employed circuitous reasoning to miss the conspicuous: the relevance of the pl. cognate פְּנִים—specifically, its back formation from its fem.n., פְּנִימָה and we're back to "formed from פָּנִים"!

This is a not-very-subtle roadsign that we should logically (i.e. not relying directly on any combination of our 5 physical senses) evaluate and perceive behind the visible surface (superficial face), to logically perceive the plurality—beyond the first superficial (physical) face to the inward "innerface"; the logically perceived, inner (non-physical) nature or character(istic) that presents before us. In other words, Tōr•ãhꞋ teaches that on a daily basis, seeing only the physical face is superficial! Tōr•ãhꞋ expects humanity to perceive individuals based not on their exterior, superficial face (much less the gender or race of their avatar), but on their inner, spiritual "face", their true nature and character. While this is true in all of our interactions with others—it is demanded of our perceptions of יְהוָׂה (Existant), the Omniscient and Almighty Singularity! A priori, beyond obvious anthropomorphisms, all physicomorphisms are, therefore, false gods!

Physical metaphors—like face, voice, ear, eye, arm, hand, sword, fire, sacrifice, smoke—can, at best, refer exclusively to mortals who act, speak and write in accordance with the Mandate of Ta•na״khꞋ-centric Instruction—from Avᵊrã•hãmꞋ and Mōsh•ëhꞋ to the Nᵊviy•imꞋ of every generation—Existant is Immutable  but הָעוֹלָם הִשְׁתַּנָּה (mundus mutatus). The follower of יְהוָׂה must accordingly raise the standards, substituting intangibles in preparation for existence and interaction in a non-physical environment without your avatar eyes to see, etc. (e.g., substituting, in lieu of the anthropomorphisms above, e.g. respectively: merit, communication, attentiveness, discerning, might, means, justice, intensity, elucidation, delusion). Instead of focusing on the impossible goal of bringing spirits and gods into the physical human world, reorient yourself to instead prepare for entry into the inevitable, inexorable, post-physical state.

Metaphoric reference to physical attributes, other than creation, are never permitted to be applied to Existant (Hebrew יְהוָׂה), Who is beyond any mortal comprehension.

A fortiori, the conventional superficial understanding of פָּנִים as physical face when applied to Existant violates the Ta•na״khꞋ prohibition against (anthropomorphist forms of) physicomorphism. Therefore, "face" cannot be the correct meaning! Only this more in-depth definition of פָּנִים satisfies Ta•na״khꞋ requirements!

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פִּקּוּחַ נֶפֶשׁPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2023.05.08]

masc . n. pi•qūꞋakh nëphꞋësh; פקוח נפש, פיקוח נפש, piquakh nephesh, piquakh nefesh cognizance (overseeing, supervising) of the psyche, i.e. saving an endangered soul/life from any reasonably perceived threat; i.e., a medical emergency.

There are three categories of violation for which pi•qūꞋakh nëphꞋësh does not apply and one must choose martyrdom rather than commit any of these three categories of violation (Ma•sëkꞋët Sunedrion 74a-b):

  1. a•vod•ãhꞋ zãr•ãhꞋ,

  2. illegitimate sexual violations, or

  3. murder (which includes lᵊshonꞋ hã-rãꞋ, murdering someone's reputation).

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פִּתָּהPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2012.08.24]

Pitah Iraqit (haShipudia)
PitꞋãh I•raq•itꞋ (ha-Shipudia Restaurant, Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim)

fem. n. PitꞋãh (popularly spelled "pita"), derives from Hellenist Greek πίτα, displacing BH: צַפִּיחִית — flatbread.פיתה, pitah

The most authentic today, both to Har Sin•aiꞋ and the 1st century CE, is PitꞋãh I•raq•itꞋ — from the land of Av•rã•hãmꞋ; which makes this style an Israeli family recipe virtually identical to the Israeli צַפִּיחִית in Har Sin•aiꞋ.

To make your own PitꞋãh I•raq•itꞋmore

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'Pizza Process' [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

A hybrid of the "salami negotiating tactic" combined with the blood-shedding of terrorism.

The "salami tactic" is a well-known negotiating tactic by which one side extracts a slice at a time until they have taken the entire salami.

The 'Palestinian' Arabs call their salami tactic their "plan of phases," by which they intend to take whatever they can get, applying terrorism whenever convenient, slice by slice, until the "holy Islamic middle east" has been "ethnically cleansed" of Jews. Using human bombs, Arabs turn our streets into a grisly pizza of Jewish blood and body parts. Their 'Salami Tactic' is more accurately a grisly 'Pizza Tactic' for acquiring "all of 'Palestine'" (as they call Israel) a grisly pizza-slice at a time through terrorist warfare.

With a wink to Arab terrorists, the world pervertedly calls blowing up Jews a "peace process." 'Palestinians' get the peace —plus land, money, and employment —while Israel and Jews get a war of terror, a grisly 'Pizza Process', and nearly unanimous condemnation by the UN for resisting this wonderful opportunity to go like sheep to our slaughter like we did in the Holocaust.

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𝔓n (or P-n) [Glos N-Q, updated: ]2012.04.07

𝔓1, …, 𝔓25, … 𝔓64, …; papyrus fragments.

Though obviously Hellenized, being in Greek, the papyri fragments represent the earliest sources of tiny parts of the NT and The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu (NHM, in English). Despite their antiquity, there is little evidence to suggest that papyri should be regarded as authoritative. Their authorship and usage may signify nothing more than the recall of Greek-speaking Roman (pagan) students of apostate Hellenist Jews. Consequently, one might incline toward א and even β in preference to a given papyrus.

Yet, things aren't so simple. We can see that misojudaism antinomian (anti-Tōr•ãhꞋ; in concert with misojudaic attitudes) increased with the passage of time among those who exercised control over the mss. Consider graphing time on an x-axis and increasing antinomianism on the y-axis. The earlier we can view this text in terms of time (the x-axis), the lower the point at which we can intercept the antinomian curve on the y-axis. This minimizes the antinomian distortion and misojudaism in the text.

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Πολύκαρπος [Glos N-Q, updated: 2011.03.29]

(Po•lūꞋkar•pös; Anglicized to Polycarp)

b. ca. 70 C.E., Greek-speaking Hellenist who, ca. 110 C.E., became bishop of an isthmus (Smyrna) jutting into the Aegean Sea from western Turkey during the late-foetal (64 C.E.—135 C.E.), proto-Christian Hellenist Gentile Church and claimed to know one "apostle"—"St. John." Because he held office for such a long tenure and became so venerated, the popular belief arose that he had been "a hearer of St. John" and had received his "episcopate" from "St. John." This, despite his Hellenist and seething misojudaism orientation (denouncing those—predomnantly Jews—who rejected his Hellenist Christian Church as "the firstborn of Sã•tãnꞋ" and blaming his martyrdom primarily on "the Jews") while being intractably contradictory to the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ—who recognized only the Pã•qidꞋ and Beit-Din ha-Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ in Yᵊru•shã•layꞋim.

"Our knowledge of the life of Polycarp between the date of his letter and his martyrdom is almost entirely derived from three notices by Irenaeus" "During the later years of his life Gnostic speculation had become very active, and many things unknown to the faith of ordinary Christians were put forth as derived by secret traditions from the apostles." The same must be stated of claims made by other gentiles that their Hellenist traditions were derived from the "apostles." ("Polycarpus (1)," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," IV:423ff.)

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Pseudepigrapha [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.05.26]

The editor of The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (Garden City: Doubleday 1983, Vol. I, p. xxiii), James H. Charlesworth, defines "the Pseudepigrapha as follows: Those writings

  1. that, with the exception of Ahiqar, are Jewish or Christian;
  2. that are often attributed to ideal figures in Israel's past;
  3. that customarily claim to contain [God]'s word or message;
  4. that frequently build upon ideas and narratives present in the Old Testament [sic];
  5. and that almost always were composed either during the period [B.C.E. 200] to [200 C.E.] or, though late, apparently preserve, albeit in an edited form, Jewish traditions that date from that period."

– "…to call the Pseudepigrapha 'non-canonical,' or the biblical books 'canonical,' can be historically inaccurate prior to [100 C.E.] and the period in which most of these documents were written. These terms should be used as an expression of some later 'orthodoxy' about a collection that is well defined regarding what belongs within and what is to be excluded from it. It is potentially misleading to use the terms 'non-canonical,' 'canonical,' 'heresy,' and 'orthodoxy' when describing either Early Judaism or Early Christianity" (Charlesworth, p. xxiv).

However, the above statement is misleading without noting Charlesworth's earlier acknowledgment of the earlier compilation of Ta•na״khꞋ (p. xxiii), "it is becoming obvious that the process of canonization began long before the first century [C.E.], and that perhaps the earliest part of the Bible, the [Torah], had been closed and defined as authoritative well before the second century [B.C.E.], and the Prophets surely by that time. On the other hand, it is clear that after [90 C.E.] there were still debates regarding the canonicity of such writings as the Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, and Esther, but it is not clear what were the full ramifications of these debates. It seems to follow, therefore, both that the early Pseudepigrapha were composed during a period in which the limits of the canon apparently remained fluid at least to some Jews [namely, the Hellenists, who can be dismissed], and that some [i.e., Hellenist] Jews and [Hellenist] Christians inherited and passed on these documents as inspired. They did not necessarily regard them as apocryphal, or outside a canon."

The Dead Sea Scrolls are customarily considered a separate class, and excluded, from the Pseudepigrapha or Apocrypha.

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פֻּעַלPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

pu•alꞋ; פועל, pual intensive-passive intransitive verb bin•yãnꞋ.

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Q [Glos N-Q, updated: 2009.04.23]

(Quell; source {German}).

Hypothesized source document supposedly used as the basis for later Christians to compose the Christian "gospels."

More accurately, Q represents a synthesis of the earliest (post-135 CE) Hellenized oral accounts—stories and myths—of Hellenist (i.e., Greek-speaking) Jews to the Hellenist, gentile, Roman Christians.

Unsurprisingly, the Hellenist product supports Paul's Hellenist Christianity, leaving precious little authentic Judaic content.

It can be seen from the historical record that the Hebrew Ma•tit•yãhꞋu, documented by Eusebius, in contrast to Q, would have been a thoroughly Judaic description uncontaminated by Hellenism / Christianity. However, pointing to a few, sparse, Judaic elements in the heavily Hellenist-redacted "gospels" as "Q" ignores the many Hellenizing redactions that, when restored to their Judaic original, produces a far fuller and richer account. This can be achieved only by threading back from the NT Greek, matching it to LXX Greek to restore a Tōr•ãhꞋ-faithful Hebrew Ma•tit•yãhꞋuexactly what The Nᵊtzãrim Reconstruction of Matityãhu, alone, has achieved.

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קַבָּלָהPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2009.01.20]

fem. n. Qa•bãl•ãhꞋ; קבלה,Qabalah,Qaballah "received" (popularly, but incorrectly, spelled "Kabbalah") "is the traditional and most commonly used term for the esoteric [euphemism for Dark Ages mystical] teachings supposedly of Judaism; and for Jewish mysticism, especially the forms that it assumed in the [Dark] Ages since the 12th century" C.E.

"The most famous work of Qa•bãl•ãhꞋ, the ZōꞋhar. was revealed to the Jewish world in the 13th century C.E. by Moses De Leon ["Shem Tov"; Castile, Spain], who claimed (with no documentation basis whatsoever) that the book contained mystical writings by the 2nd century C.E. rabbi [Shim•onꞋ Bar Yo•khaiꞋ (post-135 C.E.)]. Almost all modern Jewish academic scholars believe that De Leon himself authored the ZōꞋhar"

The Ram•ba"mꞋ vehemently opposed the irrational superstition and mysticism that his fellow countryman, De Leon, developed, a century later, into Qa•bãl•ãhꞋ. more

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קָדַשׁPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2019.02.25]

Qã•dashꞋ; intrans. v.קדש, קידש, qadash, qideish was sanctified/​consecrated as qōꞋdësh; especially as a sacred, holy sacrifice; thereupon assigned as property of י‑‑ה and, consequently, forbidden to others or for any khōl purpose.

קִדֵּשׁ (qi•deishꞋ); pi•eilꞋ (trans. v.) — to sanctify/​consecrate as qōꞋdësh.

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קַדִּישׁPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Qa•dishꞋ, pl. קַדִּישִׁים/ן (qa•dish•im/nꞋ); קדישים, קדישין, Qadishim, qadishin PBH adj. & n.; holy, sacred (as defined in Tōr•ãhꞋ); title of liturgical tᵊphil•ãhꞋ sanctifying י‑‑ה in days of bereavement.

Conventionally anglicized (Hellenized) to "Kaddish." Contrary to more than a few ignorant Jews, the Qa•dishꞋ is not, nor has it ever been, a prayer for the dead!

Like most Judaic Tᵊphil•otꞋ, the Qa•dishꞋ received its name due to its opening phrase:

יִתְגַּדַּל וְיִתְקַדַּשׁ שְׁמֵיהּ רַבָּא (yit•ga•dalꞋ wᵊ-yitqa•dashꞋ shᵊm•eiꞋ rab•ãꞋ; may be magnified and may be sanctified His Great Name).

There are four versions of this tᵊphil•ãhꞋ: Complete Qa•dishꞋ, Half Qa•dishꞋ, Scholar's Qa•dishꞋ and Mourner's Qa•dishꞋ. The overriding purpose of each is to sanctify י‑‑ה. The mourners' version (Mourner's Qa•dishꞋ) sanctifies י‑‑ה even in the face of great sorrow and mourning. It contains not even a remote hint of any prayer for the dead.

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קָדוֹשׁPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2020.10.25]

masc . n.קדושים,qadosh,ha-Qadosh,haQadosh,qedoshim,q'doshim (adj.) qã•dōshꞋ; pl. קְדֹשִׁים  — consecrated, sanctified, holy; compound—adjectival m.n.—form □-קְדוֹשׁ 

  • (n.) an epitome, manifestation, exemplification or quintessence of holy/​holiness;

  • (adj.) holy;

  • (pl. n. & adj.) קְדוֹשִׁים; perverted, via LXX, sometimes to "saints" ("holy ones") and "holies" ("holy things"). The perversion of this theme by Hellenist syncretism is most conspicuously in the correspondence, via LXX, to αγιος (agios; dedicated to the idol-gods). See also The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu (NHM, in English) note 1.18.7.

קָדוֹשׁ distinguishes the primary orientation to י‑‑ה and His incorporeal Realm, lᵊ‑ha•vᵊdilꞋ the profane/​material world, variously distinguishing one or more "holy":

  1. nᵊphãsh•otꞋ (beings),

  2. a•vod•ãhꞋ (efforts, service) or

  3. essential appurtenances

הַקָּדוֹשׁ (ha-Qã•doshꞋ; the Holy [Being]), i.e., י‑‑ה, invariably followed by the phrase בָּרוּך הוּא (bã•rūkhꞋ ; blessed be He). Referring to any other as "His Holiness" is idolatry.

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קַנָּאִיPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2021.07.04]

Janbiya in belt
Click to enlargeJanbiya in belt (photo: Anthony Pappone )

Qa•nãyꞋ, pl. קַנָּאִים (Qa•nãyꞋim);Qanaim,Qanayim,Kanayim,Kanaim — radical Tōr•ãhꞋ Zealots, Avengers.

The Qa•nãyꞋim earned the monicker "Daggers" due to their penchant for their under-cloak concealed dagger (literally cloak & dagger)— the traditional Middle-Eastern curved, short-dagger known in Hebrew, Aramaic and later Arabic as the Janbiya. The Latin-speaking Romans called it a sicæ. So "Daggers" in Latin became "Sicarii" to the Romans, later adopted by English-speakers.

The Sha•maiꞋ, having been ousted from Nasi by Hileil, became opposed to the Perushim; the extremists among them a violent-prone "Fourth Philosophy" (per Josephus; i.e. radical Tōr•ãhꞋ fanaticism)—i.e. the heros of today's "Religious Ultra-Nationalist" Kach extremists and riot-inciting Kha•reid•imꞋ radical religious fanatics. more

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קָמַץPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2007.03.08]

masc . n. qãmꞋatz; קמץ, qamatz T-shaped "aw" vowel located beneath a consonant.

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קְדֻשָּׁה (alt. קְדוּשָּׁה)Pronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2024.03.09]

fem. n. qᵊdūsh•ãhꞋ; קדשה,קדושה,qedushah,q'dushah PBH f.n. — holiness, sanctity; title of 3ʳᵈ tᵊphil•ãhꞋ of A•mid•ãhꞋ; PEMRH: title of bᵊrãkh•ōtꞋ prefixed before 3ʳᵈ tᵊphil•ãhꞋ of the a•mid•ãhꞋ, namely: "qã•dōshꞋ, qã•dōshꞋ, qã•dōshꞋ".

Re: discussion of HH qᵊdūsh•ãhꞋ vs BH: qō•dësh see these notes for each and the other link.

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קְהִלָּה / קָהָלPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2008.05.29]

fem. n. Qᵊhil•ãhꞋ & Qã•hãlꞋ; קהלה, קהילה, qehilah, q'hilah, qahal community & convocation (summoned-congregation, appointed-assembly, invited-audience), respectively. The connective form of qᵊhil•ãhꞋ is קְהִלַּת- (qᵊhil•atꞋ; community of…). The plural is קְהִלּוֹת (qᵊhil•otꞋ).

Hellenized to εκκλησια (ekkleisia; congress, corrupted to "church").

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קֵץPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2008.08.20]

masc . n. qeitz; קץ, qeitz, qetz cut-off, termination; a non-routine end. קֵץ derives from the verb קָצַץ (qãtz•atzꞋ), meaning "chop off." A synonym, סוֹף (soph), translates more accurately as "end." Another synonym for "end," כָּל (kal, all, finish, end), found in Dãn•i•eilꞋ, is used as a verb in the sense of "that's all," "finish up" or "end it."

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קְרֵיPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2007.09.14]

qᵊrei (conj.); קרי, qerei, q'rei"recited" form of a questionable word in Tōr•ãhꞋ; as contrasted against the kᵊtiv form.

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קִרְיָהPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2011.08.01]

fem. n. qi•rᵊyãhꞋ; קריה, qiryahtown; combinative form: …קִרְיַת (qi•rᵊyatꞋ… -town).

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קֶרֶןPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2019.10.06]

qeren dawn sunrise rays
Dawn qᵊrãn•ōtꞋ

fem. n. QërꞋën (irreg. f. n.),קרן,qeren dual קַרְנַים, pl. קְרָנוֹת; a ray or beam that radiates outward; especially, the horn of an animal radiating from its head; also a sun beam or a ray of light.

Mizbeiakh Tel Beer-Sheva, reconstruction. (photo: Dr. Avishai Teicher, Pikiwiki, Israel)
Click to enlarge4-Qᵊrãn•ōtꞋ Mi•zᵊbeiꞋakh Tël Bᵊeir ShëvꞋa — reconstructed from original remnants. Original was probably hollow, housing an oven for a fire and equipped with a copper grate to support the sacrificial meat being grilled. The Mi•zᵊbeiꞋ­akh of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ was copper-plated (photo: Dr. Avishai Teicher, Pikiwiki, Israel)

A qërꞋën was featured on each corner of the Mi•zᵊbeiꞋakh and, depicted as a cantillation symbol, the qërꞋën also came to modify how a Hebrew letter is pronounc­ed.more

Shophar (ayal-ram)

From the shō•phãrꞋ (ram’s horn), the term was extended to musical horns and, more recently, the cornucopia—from which, by extension, qërꞋën accreted the connotation of a financial fund.

Mōsh•ëhꞋ’s “Horns”
keraunographic lightning tree fern-leaf feathering
Click to enlargeKeraunographic rays, or beams (arborescent erythema)—radiating from a lightning strike — often temporary (lasting a few days), fern-leaf feathering tree following epidermal blood vessels. (photo NBC)

Radiating rays or beams of light, often particularly prominent at dawn and dusk, could only be depicted by early artists and sculptors as radiating lines, beams, rays or striations—qᵊrãn•ōtꞋ (e.g., extending from the crown of the modern Statue of Liberty).

QërꞋën derives from the verb that Ta•na״khꞋ used to describe Mōsh•ëhꞋ’s face when he descended from Har Sin•aiꞋ — “the skin of his face קָרַן”. This phenomenon was likely the result of being struck by lightning in a storm while on the mountaintop — synonymous with “seeing” the Face of י‑‑ה in one verse seemingly contradicted just a few verses later by seeing the Face of י‑‑ה being declared impossible. When Medieval European painters and sculptors, mystified by the phrase, depicted Mōsh•ëhꞋ with the “the skin of his face קָרַן” (“horned”), they echoed their predominant European culture of miso-Judaism—giving him the horns of Hãt-HōrꞋ instead of a radiating tree of lightning burns.

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קִדּוּשׁPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2023.11.29]

masc . n.Qidush cup, pewter (tarnish resist) with easy-clean plastic linerQi•dūshꞋקדושין, Qidushin — verbal m.n.; BH: acknowledging as sacred and holy; consecrating and sanctifying to be used solely for holy and sacred purpose. PBH: the invocation of a bᵊrãkh•ãhꞋ acknowledging sacredness and holiness; consecration, sanctification, a consecrating or sanctifying; especially the bᵊrãkh•ãhꞋ over products of the grapevine, including grape wine or grape juice, and typically followed by a festive banquet dinner (or symbolic light brunch). more

masc . n. קִדּוּשִׁין (Aramaic m.p.) — sanctifications; especially, in later usage, of marriage that is in accordance with Tōr•ãhꞋ.

'קִדּוּשׁ ה — contrasted against lᵊ-hav•dilꞋ & khi•lūlꞋ ha-Sheim — form counter-balancing pillars, sanctification versus diminution of the Kã•vōdꞋ of ha-Sheim, constituting one of the most significant concepts in Tōr•ãhꞋ, based on wa-Yi•qᵊr•ãꞋ 22.31-32.

Two orientations or perspectives apply to each of the aforementioned two counter-balancing pillars: ha-Sheim-originating and mortal-originating e.g., bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbarꞋ 20.12; Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 32.51; wa-Yi•qᵊr•ãꞋ 22.32; Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu 34.16; •mōsꞋ 2.7).

According to rabbinic interpretation, Qi•dūshꞋ ha-Sheim could be consummated in three ways: [1] martyrdom, [2] exemplary ethical and moral conduct and [3] tᵊphil•ōtꞋall of which are limited by mortal fallibility, failing to rise to the capability to make anyone or anything holy.

Two formal tᵊphil•ōtꞋ of the si•dūrꞋ stand out in this respect: the Qᵊdūsh•ãhꞋ and the Qa•dishꞋ. The Qᵊdūsh•ãhꞋ is based on Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 6.1-3. The more esoteric recitation, preceding the Shᵊm•aꞋ, refers to the sanctification of י‑‑ה by the ma•lᵊãkh•imꞋ, while the recitation in the A•mid•ãhꞋ is the formal acknowledgment by Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ proclaiming the Holiness of ha-Sheim.

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קְלָףPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

Teimani mezuzah qlaph

masc . n. Qᵊlaph; קלף, qelaph, q'laph, qelaf, q'lafparchment, especially handwritten parchment for a mᵊzuz•ãhꞋ.

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קֹדֶשׁ (alt. קוֹדֶשׁ)Pronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2024.03.09]

masc . n. m.n. QōꞋdësh,קדשים,קודש,qodesh,qadashim pl. קָדָשִׁים, from קָדַשׁ; the state of being declared holy, consecrated or sanctified—by one or more mortals (e.g., a clergy); the resulting state being recognized by mortals as holiness, sanctity or sacredness.

Thus, a clergy or "prophet" may declare as holy (being holy, in a state of holiness)

  1. a person

  2. an effort (עֲבוֹדָה).

    When referring to an effort or service, this is the subset of עֲבוֹדָה that is (a) appropriate and encouraged at all times and (b) exclusive of, lᵊ‑ha•vᵊdilꞋ, מְלָאכָה (which must be done, but is prohibited on Sha•bãtꞋ and other Ta•na״khꞋ-ordained holy days). I.e., קֹדֶשׁ includes all עֲבוֹדָה that is not מְלָאכָה.

    Instances in which the two mutually exclusive subsets seem to blur defaults to the מְלָאכָה subset; only resolving to the mutually exclusive קֹדֶשׁ subset if and only if the 1st-order goal satisfies the following conditions:

    1. The עֲבוֹדָה is primarily in furtherance of a קֹדֶשׁ, rather than a מְלָאכָה, purpose; or

    2. the עֲבוֹדָה is pi•quꞋakh nëphꞋësh essential as defined by Beit Hi•leilꞋ — which transforms the עֲבוֹדָה from מְלָאכָה (i.e., khōl) to קֹדֶשׁ, thereby making it a mi•tzᵊwãhꞋ to perform even on Shab•ãtꞋ; and

    3. the עֲבוֹדָה can neither be reasonably accomplished in advance nor postponed.

    Since עוֹלָם וָעֵד includes our true family: all of His children — namely, those who are Tōr•ãhꞋ-faithful (refusing frequent contra-Tōr•ãhꞋ rabbinic overreaches), therefore, building and strengthening these קֹדֶשׁ familial bonds and relationships, making good memories and times, falls within the purview of קֹדֶשׁ.

  3. physical supplementary appurtenances regarded by (physical) mortals as (physically) essential, most notably, the קֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים—the דְּבִיר (the Ultimate, Quintessential "Holy of Holies" of the ŌꞋhël Mō•ædꞋ and subsequent Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ of ShᵊlōmꞋōh. The Dᵊvir (in the קֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים) was separated from the merely הַקֹּ֜דֶשׁ  (i.e. the Hæ•khãlꞋ) by the פָּרֹכֶת,    which was hung from above, supported on four pillars of acacia overlaid with gold, and seated in sockets of silver (Shᵊm•ōtꞋ 26.32, 36.36).

which are deemed, by physical mortals, to be essential in the physical realm in service pursuant to goals that are primarily oriented to non-physical יְהוָׂה {Existant}, in the non-physical עוֹלָם וָעֵד (popularly Hellenized to "heaven").

The ability to grasp this concept is the sole determinant attribute of a sentient human Homo sapien nëphꞋësh (being) that distinguishes him or her above other animals. (Science has demonstrated that all other distinctions are either not definitive attributes of sentient human beings or are merely a matter of blurring degree: more sophisticated use of tools, language, usually smarter, etc.)

עֲבוֹדָה‎ = קֹדֶשׁ‎ + מְלָאכָה Ergo, קֹדֶשׁ‎ = עֲבוֹדָה‎ - מְלָאכָה

Re: discussion of HH qᵊdush•ãhꞋ vs BH: qō•dësh, see these notes for each and the other link.

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רַב יוֹסֵף קָאפַּח ז"ל Pronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2012.09.23]

Qapheikh, Rabbi  Mori Yoseiph
Rav Mor′ i Yo·seiph′ ′ pheikh (1918—2000)
Gapheikh, Mori Yikheya
Mori Yi′ khᵊyã Gã′ pheikh (Tei•mãn•i′  pronunciation) 1853—1932

Rav Yo•seiphꞋ QãꞋpakh קאפח, Qapheikh, Qapakh(popularly "Kapakh"), 1917.11.27 in Tei•mãnꞋ — 2000.07.21 in Yi•sᵊrã•eilꞋ; the foremost rabbi in the nascent Tei•mãn•iꞋ — and Dor DaꞋim — community in modern Yi•sᵊrã•eilꞋ.

רַב יוֹסֵף קָאפַּח was the grandson of, and raised from the age of 6 by, רַב יְחִיֶא קָאפַּח ‭ ‬ (1853—1932), the Chief Rabbi of Sana'a and founder of the Dor DaꞋim (rational, anti-Qa•bãl•ãhꞋ) movement advocating for logical Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ, explicitly as formulated in the Mi•shᵊn•ëhꞋ Tōr•ãhꞋ of Ram•ba"mꞋ.

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קָרְבָּןPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2019.04.18]

masc . n. Qã•rᵊb•ãnꞋ (pl. qã•rᵊb•ãn•ōtꞋ)קרבן,qarban,qorban—convergence; deriving from the verb קָרַב. The nouns קֶרֶב and קְרַב demonstrate that mere approaching or coming close doesn't adequately convey this term, which implies an approach that culminates in convergence, contact or communing. Qã•rᵊb•ãnꞋ, then, implies the necessary provisions—in Biblical times referring to animal zᵊvãkh•imꞋ—enabling (re)convergence with י‑‑ה.

Qã•rᵊb•ãnꞋ paralleled the ancient Middle-Eastern de rigueur house-gift of a sacrificial animal, wine or baked good, presented upon approach or convergence by, or with, an important entity; especially when approaching to seek audience, petition or commune.

Referring specifically to animal zᵊvãkh•imꞋ, qã•rᵊb•ãnꞋ evolved the popular connotation of "victim."

Just as it is the custom to bring a house-warming gift (bottle of wine or the like) when invited to someone's home for a dinner or evening, so the קָרבָּן parallels the custom of bringing an appropriate gift when requesting audience with a King.

Another term deriving from קָרַב is קִירוּב (qi•ruvꞋ; outreach — resulting in convergence). more

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קָטָןPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2016.09.17]

qãt•ãnꞋ; קטן, qatan little, small.

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קֹהֶ͏‌ֽלֶת Pronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Qō•hëlꞋët; קהלת, קוהלת, Qohelet convoker, one who convokes a convocation. This is ShᵊlōmꞋōh ha-MëlꞋëkh, the one who called the קָהָל (Qã•hãlꞋ; convocation) to assembly (cf. also qᵊhil•ãhꞋ); fourth of the five Mᵊgil•otꞋ (de-Judaized to Ecclesiastes, "churcher"). Qᵊhil•ãhꞋ is a cognate of the same root.

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קְטֽׂרֶתPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2019.07.17]

fem. n.QᵊtōrꞋët;קטרת,קטורת,qetoret smoke (n.), especially from an altar or grill (i.e. kã•sheirꞋ meat or spice incense) producing a רֵיחַ נִיחוֹחַ.

The verb קָטַר is denominated from the noun. Hiph•ilꞋ הִקְטִיר 


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קוּבָנָהPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2012.08.26]

חַלָּה/קוּבָנָה (khallãh/Pitã)
Qu•bãnꞋãh Tei•mãn•itꞋ (popularly corrupted "Kubaneh"; i.e., Khal•ãhꞋ Tei•mãn•itꞋ), with baked egg in shell.

Qū•bãnꞋãh קובנה, qubanah (khã•lãvꞋ); prepared before Shab•ãtꞋ, this khal•ãhꞋ Tei•mãn•itꞋ, including one egg (in shell) per person, bakes all night and is served warm (off a hotplate) as khal•ãhꞋ with the noon Shab•ãtꞋ Qi•dushꞋ (after Sha•khar•itꞋ and Mu•sãphꞋ), embellished with a bit of skhug. To make Qu•bãnꞋãh, … more

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קוּמְרָאןPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2017.10.03]

Topographical map of Israel
Click to enlargeTopographical map of north and central Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ, in­cluding northern NëgꞋëv and northern A•rãv•ãhꞋ.

Qūmᵊr•ãnꞋ; קומראן, Qumran beltway; probably deriving from Aramaic קַמְרָא and describing the gateway, at the northwest corner of Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh, to the narrow beltway running south between the cliffs of the Judaean hills and the west shore of Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh from YᵊhudꞋãh and Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim to the iron and copper mines in the A•rãv•ãhꞋ and the seaport city of Ë•tziy•ōnꞋ GëvꞋër (modern Eil•atꞋ) enabling shipping trade via the Red Sea with Arabia, India and Africa.

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קֹ֔רַחPronunciation Table [Glos N-Q, updated: 2021.09.15]

QōꞋrakh;קורח,Qorakh,Korakh — leader of a genetics-based, entitled-"Chosen" Orthodoxy obsessed with usurping and displacing Mōsh•ëhꞋ. Accordingly, QōꞋrakh Orthodoxy, based on genetically (racist) "Chosen" entitlement, is the original displacement Orthodoxy!

The Orthodoxy of genetically "Chosen" entitlement is by definition exclusivist; inevitably expressed in self-righteousness, arrogance, xenophobia, polarization and schisms producing a fanatic religious cult of tyrannical clergy-rulers. QōꞋrakh-incarnate cults, described by the ōs•inꞋ as בְּנֵי-חֹשֶׁךְ are discernible behind every major national disaster that has expressed the Wrath of יְהוָׂה upon Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ and YᵊhūdꞋãh throughout our national history.

Apparently, no previous literato has dared list the motivations and implications of QōꞋrakh's cult—likely because that always points a finger directly at one or more contemporary QōꞋrakh-incarnate, בְּנֵי-חֹשֶׁךְ, Ultra-Orthodox fanatic displacement, supersessive, racist cults—in every generation from Mōsh•ëhꞋ to the Enlightenment! Religious cults are recognizable by their dismissal of fact, documentation, logic, science and reality in their zeal to impose their spin (set of interpretations, "faith") superseding Tōr•ãhꞋ—polarizing and fragmenting the Jewish world against itself in their insatiable lust to impose themselves as the only official interpreter-Spokesmen—"the Living Tōr•ãhꞋ"! All institutionalized religious denominations are QōꞋrakh displacement cults, serving some mortal master(s); packs of "wolves posing as sheep", having scattered the Creator's Flock yet again! more

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Qephri: scarab-face god of the rising sun (Cyprus & copper)  ‎► קפרי ‎► yrpq ‎► Qu-pe-r-y  Kiti Linear-B BCE15th Qupros Cyprus Pronunciation Table [Glos_N-Q, updated: 2023.07.10]

Kitim Pula Kition Larnax colony (Cyprus)
Click to enlargeQephri: scarab-face god of the rising sun (Cyprus & copper) (קֶפְּרִי, modern Cyprus). Famed since the begin­ning of the Chalcolithic (Copper) Age (cBCE 6500) as a primary source of copper (which is named after the island—ergo, ultimately after the Egyptian god!

QëꞋphᵊr•y (Hellenized to Linear-B QūꞋpᵊr•y)Qupry,Qupri,Qupros,Kupross,Kuprioss—later Κύπριος, then Latinized  to the modern Mediterranean island of Cyprus.

Analyses of archaeological evidence by 21st century science labs have turned "traditional" history on its head. Until now, historians "knew" that Genus Homo (human) "arrived" on Crete and Cyprus no earlier than ≈10 Ka. 

Recent 14C findings, however, have pushed this back to at least 130 Ka, overturning traditional assumptions!

Moreover, the presence of 14C-dated bones of extinct elephants and hippos on both of these islands demonstrates mammalian presence on these islands that precede 2.8 M—when Genus Homo evolved from Hominini! The suggestion that these particular species of elephants or hippos, in sufficient numbers to breed a herd, could have survived a swim of such distances isn't tenable. There is no reason to suppose that these mammals, including Genus Hominini ancestors of humans, weren't evolving descendants autochthonous to these Cimmerian Terranes keys…more

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