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Hebrew Glossary: R-S

The reason this simple page of glossary definitions is ranked so popular with the search engine is because so many people click on our links to these definitions from the content in… the 'Netzarim Quarter' Village web site in Ra•an•anꞋã(h), Israel at www.netzarim.co.il

In Hebrew, the original followers of Riyb"y were called the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ (Hellenized-Anglicized to "Nazarenes"). The real content is in the main body of the 'Netzarim Quarter'! Click on the Netzarim logo (at top) for an exciting visit to the 'Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Quarter' where you'll learn about Historical Riyb"y and his original, Jewish, followers—before the excision of The Apostate Paul, c. 49 CE, that resulted in his Great Jesus-Christianity Apostasy, founded (7 churches) in Anatolia (now modern Turkey). Just as importantly, learn how you (whether Jew or non-Jew) can follow the historically Ta•na״khꞋ-coherent Riyb"y, according to the bᵊrit with יְהוָׂה—which is what genuinely can make you a Jew; regardless of any pronouncement(s) by mortals! (Walking in the bᵊrit must be among Jews in order to be witnessed by Jews; but their, or any mortals', endorsement is of no spiritual relevance whatsoever.)

Until Paqid Yirmeyahu researched the Netzarim name and sect and began publishing about it in 1972 in The Netzarim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matityahu (NHM) no one in modern times was even aware of the name Netzarim. It stretches credulity that no one in modern times had heard of the Netzarim until Paqid Yirmeyahu published it in 1972… and then, suddenly, everybody figured it out??? Check (and verify) the dates of the earliest works about the Netzarim by the others and you'll see that they are deceiver-plagiarists. Then insist on the person whom ha-Sheim selected to entrust the knowledge, not imposters who falsely call their continuing practice of Displacement Theology "Nazarene Judaism" or directly plagiarize the name "Netzarim."

Because we teach and practice the authentic Judaic teachings of Ribi Yehoshua—not Displacement Theology—we are the only group who have restored the Netzarim to be accepted in the legitimate Jewish community in Israel—genuinely like Ribi Yehoshua and the original Netzarim. Consequently, the 'Netzarim Quarter' is the only web site of legitimate Netzarim / Nazarene Judaism.

Give all the friends you've ever known the chance to know about this exciting site; send them our web site address (www.netzarim.co.il) that opens modern eyes for the first time to the Judaic world that Ribi Yehoshua and his original Netzarim knew, practiced and taught.

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רַעPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2017.10.19]

masc . n. ra, רָעָה (rã•ãhꞋ, fem.); רעָוֹת (rã•ōtꞋ, f. pl.). רע, rawrong, bad, apostate, straying or idolatrous as defined by Tor•ãhꞋ. Borrowed from Egyptian , the sun-idol supreme deity; i.e., correspondingly straying, apostate, idolatrous.

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רַעֲנַנָּהPronunciation Table Hear it![Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

Raanana downtown, Rekhov Akhuzah (Estate St.)Downtown Ra•a•nanꞋã(h)

fem. n. (adjectival n.) Ra•a•nanꞋãh רעננה, Raanana"fresh"; spelled in English as Ra´anana and pronounced by Anglos as Ra•nanꞋa. Ra´anana is a small city roughly 20km (12mi) north of Teil •vivꞋ, between Kᵊphar SabꞋa and Her•tzᵊl•iyꞋah at the narrowest point of Israel's pre-1967 waist.

Ginah in Ra'anana Park Ra'anana
Gin•ãhꞋ in Ra•a•nanꞋãhPark Ra•a•nanꞋãh
Gan Uri Gordon in Ra'ananaKanyon Renanim in Ra'anana
Gan Uri in Ra•a•nanꞋãhKan•yonꞋ (Mall) Rᵊnan•imꞋ
in Ra•a•nanꞋãh

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רַבָּן, pl. רַבָּנָן Pronunciation Table [Glos R-S, Updated: 2023.03.22] 

masc . n. Rab•ãnꞋ (m.s., also Hebrew), Rab•ãn•ãnꞋ (m.p., Hebrew רַבָּנִים);רבן,Rabanan the official Hellenist SëꞋlë•ūk•ös-Aramaic language title of the Hellenist SëꞋlë•ūk•ös-appointed Chief Authority over the Hellenized Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ Συνέδριον (consequent to the coup, BCE 175, by Ἀντίοχος  4th Ἐπιφανής  in collusion with Yᵊhō•shūꞋa Bën-Shim•ōnꞋ-Jr., Bën-Tzã•dōqꞋ, the Hellenist Kō•heinꞋ ha-RëshꞋa)—displacing the original Beit Din ha-Jã•dōlꞋ and imposing a SëꞋlë•ūk•ös Satrapy over YᵊhūdꞋãh, controlled by their Hellenized SëꞋlë•ūk•ös-appointed Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ Zūg•ōtꞋ

There are subtle differences between SëꞋlë•ūk•ös-Aramaic as contrasted against the "Jewish-Babylonian Aramaic" aka Biblical-Aramaic of the Targūms, both Talmūds and 1st century CE YᵊhūdꞋãh. (The former designation, "Chaldean Aramaic", per Jastrow "ch.", was found to be a misnomer unconnected to the Chaldeans or their language. Jastrow distinguishes "ch." from earlier SëꞋlë•ūk•ös-Aramaic.) The most critical of these differences is a subtle change in the meaning of Rab•ãnꞋ: the former referring to pre-BCE 28 Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ Chief Authorities over the Συνέδριον while the latter refers to post-BCE 28 Pᵊrush•imꞋ Chief Authorities over the Συνέδριον. This was compounded in the 2nd–5th centuries CE as Pᵊrush•imꞋ RabꞋis well-intentioned attempts to heal the schism by minimizing the differences as they compiled both Tal•mūds. It stands as a lesson to give Truth precedence over good-intentions that skew history, as their attempt only compounded the confusion in illuminating the pre-schism Truth of DërꞋëkh יְהוָׂה.

This foreign Hellenist imposition of Zūg•ōtꞋ continued only 4 iterations (the latter part of which were influenced by the temporal Kha•shᵊmōn•aꞋyim non-Davidic false "priest-kings")—until BCE 28-27 when the turmoil of civil wars in Rome (metamorphosing from Republic into Empire) created a domino-effect weakening SëꞋlë•ūk•ös hegemony. As a result, autonomy increased for YᵊhūdꞋãh, including the rise—and fall—of the temporal, and increasingly failing, non-Davidic (ergo contra-Beit-Dã•widꞋ Pᵊrush•imꞋ) Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ Kha•shᵊmōn•aꞋyim. (As a point of interest, Kha•nūkh•ãh celebrates breaking free of the SëꞋlë•ūk•ös Gog—critically, before they self-radicalized into Scripture-contradicting QōꞋrakh Qa•nãyꞋim. Thus, Kha•nūkh•ãh should also celebrate moderation.)

Consequently, BCE 28–27 marks a tectonic pivotal-point during the brief interlude between the failing Hellenist Syrian Gog, yet prior to the ascending iron-rule of the Hellenist Roman Gog (through their Roman-Satrap "king" Ἡρῴδης the Ë•dōm•iꞋ-Arab) culminating in Titus in 70 CE & Hadrian in 135 CE. In BCE 28, this respite enabled -ãm to thrust their Pᵊrush•imꞋ chief authority to the fore for the first time—ever, placing Hi•leilꞋ ha-Za•qeinꞋ, "the Babylonian" at the head of the Συνέδριον. Accordingly, for the first time ever the position bore a new, Pᵊrūsh•iꞋ, Hebrew title: Nã•siꞋ; lᵊ-ha•vᵊdilꞋ from the Tzᵊdōq•iꞋ title (Rab•ãnꞋ). This simultaneously coat-tailed the Õmōr•ãꞋyim Rav  ("Rabbi")  into prominence.

A priori, this title came into use only after Hi•leilꞋ ha-Za•qeinꞋ, "the Babylonian" became the first Pᵊrūsh•imꞋ Nã•siꞋ in BCE 28. The appropriate distinctions must be recognized and maintained.

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רַב Pronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2017.11.05]

masc . n. rav — great(ness), much; m.n. & adj.

רבי; (Rabi? Or Ribi)? — ריבי, רב, Rabbi, Ribireligious title in Ta•lᵊmudꞋ popularly Anglicized to "Rabbi".

No rabbinic title existed prior to the secession of the Pᵊrush•imꞋ faction of the Biblical Kha•sid•imꞋ from the Hellenized Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ faction of the Biblical Kha•sid•imꞋ in BCE 135. "The more ancient generations, … which were far superior, had no such titles… The title 'Rabbi,' too, came into vogue among those who received the laying on of hands [sᵊmikh•ãhꞋ] at this period."

From the inception of the Pᵊrush•imꞋ in BCE 135 to c 20 CE, the Hellenist Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ dominated the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον (as you can tell by the Greek, rather than Hebrew, name — including the tractate name in Ta•lᵊmudꞋ), dismissing Pᵊrush•imꞋ titles as illegitimate and meaningless. It was only around 20 CE that the Pᵊrush•imꞋ finally achieved dominance in the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον and Pᵊrush•imꞋ titles obtained significance.

According to the Jewish Encyclopedia's English, Shᵊrir•ãꞋ Gã•ōnꞋ (906-1006 CE) declared that "The title 'Rab' is Babylonian, and that of 'Rabbi' is [conferred only by the Academies in YᵊhudꞋãh]." Meanwhile, in seeming direct contradiction, R. Dr. Ernest Klein defines the PBH m.n. רַב as "'Rabbi' — title of the Babylonian ãmor•ãꞋyim." As if to ensure chaos prevails, רַב is today generally translated into English as "rabbi."

Ta•lᵊmudꞋ remained unvoweled until quite recently: 1964 — CE — when I was in U.S. Air Force Intelligence in Germany, playing keyboard with the Forerunners, and the Beatles were climbing to the top of the charts. The confusion among these terms stems from disputes among various modern Judaic traditions concerning the proper pronunciation of רבי in Ta•lᵊmudꞋ. In Hebrew, pronunciation differentiates the words, with their corresponding definitions. This confusion was amped-up when רַב began to be translated as "rabbi" in English.

The confusion traces back not to how 1st century C.E. Jews pronounced רבי, but to how Hellenist Roman gentiles — not necessarily reliably — transliterated and pronounced the rabbinic title of Yᵊho•shuꞋa in the original — post-135 C.E. — Greek mss. of the Christian Καινής Διαθήκης — as "ῥαββί." Thus, modern European-assimilated (Ash•kᵊnazꞋim and Sᵊphã•rãd•imꞋ) rabbis have unknowingly relied on the Christian Καινής Διαθήκης tradition for their 1964 vowelization of רבי (rbi) as ῥαββί in Ta•lᵊmudꞋ.

Ta•lᵊmudꞋ describes רבי A•qiꞋ, inter alia of the YᵊhudꞋãh Academy (as contrasted against the Babylonian-assimilated Academies), as רבי, while those of the Babylonian Academies are, indeed, called רב. This is what both the Jewish Encyclopedia, Klein's Concordance, and many others are trying to explain while getting all gnarled up in conflicted English translations.

Accordingly, we must examine the many errors in a wide range of opinions regarding the proper vowelization of the Talmudic title: רבי. The confusion blurring the sᵊmikh•ãhꞋ of modern rabbis with the sᵊmikh•ãhꞋ of the ancient רבי is a boon to the same rabbis who self-servingly, "eclectically" vowelized רבי to רַבִּי — glossing over countless breaks in the chain of their claimed uninterrupted and unbroken line of sᵊmikh•ãhꞋ from Mōsh•ëhꞋ to today's European-origin (Ash•kᵊnazꞋim and Sᵊphã•rãd•imꞋ) rabbis. It's then understandable why they assume an authoritative stance in "eclectically" insisting on vowelizing רבי in Ta•lᵊmudꞋ as "rabbi", seemingly merging the two.

Yet, Judaic scholars acknowledge that the most pristine Judaic tradition is that of the Tei•mãn•imꞋ (followed by other Mi•zᵊrakhꞋim, in contrast to European {then the Hellenized Roman Empire, in 70 and 135 C.E.}) Judaic traditions). Finally, this history lesson leads us to a logically consistent answer: while the European-assimilated rabbinic tradition pronounce the רבי of the Academies of YᵊhudꞋãh as "רַבִּירַבִּי A•qiꞋ," the Tei•mãn•imꞋ pronounce "רִבִּי A•qiꞋ"; clearly distinguished from both רַב and the modern רַבִּי!

This, finally, enables clear and proper distinctions and definitions between

Contrary to popular misconceptions, these terms have no linguistic relationship to "teacher" or "instructor" (which is the יָרָה family of cognates that includes תּוֹרָה and MōrꞋi).

Other titles, like "Rebbe," are far more recent — 19th-20th century CEand European-assimilated (reflecting, as proven by recent genetic studies, Hellenist Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ Exiles of 70 CE and 135 CE taking refuge in the Hellenist European Roman Empire); not authentic to ancient Middle Eastern origins — Pᵊrush•imꞋ exiles of 70 CE and 135 CE who fled the Hellenists, including the Romans, into Arab countries; namely, Tei•mãn•imꞋ and Eid•ōtꞋ ha-Mi•zᵊrakhꞋ.

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רַבָּנוּתPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2011.10.16]

fem. n. Ra•bãn•ūtꞋ; רבנות, RabanutRabbinate: 17th century CE, non-Biblical ordainment — by Turkey (Ottoman Empire) and secular Israeli governments.

Foreign "Sᵊmikh•ãhꞋ": Turkish (Ottoman) Empire

Far from being an ancient historical (much less Biblical) institution, the Ra•bãn•utꞋ dates back only to 17th century appointments by the Turkish (Ottoman) Empire! Today's Ra•bãn•utꞋ is the product, not of Tōr•ãhꞋ, but of Dark Ages European (Ultra-Orthodox) medievalists empowered by secular politicians of the modern state of Israel (in return for "king-maker" Ultra-Orthodox voting blocks).

In the beginning of the 17th century, the title of the first Rishon lᵊTzi•yonꞋ was given to the chief rabbi of Jerusalem by the Turkish (Ottoman) Empire. In 1842, the position of "Hakham Bashi", Chief Rabbi of Constantinople who represented the Turkish Jews before the Sultan, and the position of Rishon lᵊTzi•yonꞋ which at that time already represented the Old Yishuv before the Sultan, were combined into one position [and only one Chief Rabbi!] called Rishon lᵊTzi•yonꞋ. more

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רַחֲמִיםPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2019.09.24]

masc . n. (pl.) ra•kham•imꞋ; רחמים, rakhamimcompassion—lit. "compassions" (m.p.). Being bound in the plural implies that "compassion" cannot exist in the singular, as a lone occurrence; it is necessarily, and only exists as, a continuing (pl.) action.

(ShaꞋar ha-Ra•kham•imꞋ is the "Gate of Compassion," the East Gate of Har ha-BayꞋit. Based on a mistranslation, non-Jews know this gate by an erroneous name: the 'Golden Gate.")

masc . n.רַחוּם ra•khūmꞋ; compassionate (adj.)

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רָחֵלPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

Rã•kheilꞋ; רחל, Rachel, Rakhel, Rakheilewe.

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רָמָהPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2022.02.02]

Ramat ha-Golan
Click to enlarge Rãm•atꞋ ha-Gō•lãnꞋ

Rãm•ãhꞋרמת הגולן, רמת הגלן, Ramat ha-Golan, Ramot-Jilead, Ramot Gilead, Ramot-Gilead height. (Compound sing. form …-רָמַת. height of…; compound pl. -…רָמֹת. heights of…)

רָמַת הַגּוֹלָןRãm•atꞋ ha-Gō•lãnꞋ, the Height (sing.) of Golan. The meaning of Golan is unknown, perhaps "mound-like (or wave-like) hills", from גַּל (jal or gal, mound, heap, pile, wave).

Ramot Jilad & Nakhal Yaboq
Click to enlargeRãm•ōtꞋ Ji•lᵊãdꞋ & NaꞋkhal Ya•bōqꞋ

רָמֹת גִּלְעָדRãm•ōtꞋ Ji•lᵊãdꞋ (Heights of a Witness-Mound). The meaning of גִּלְעָד is uncertain, but perhaps a portmanteau of גַּל (jal or gal, mound, heap, pile, wave) + a variant inserted vowel עֵד (æd, a sworn eyewitness, testimony under oath).

Located by NaꞋkhal יַבֹּק (modern Zarqa River), ≈45km (≈28mi) SE of Yãm Ki•nërꞋët; i.e. ≈17km (≈10 mi) SE of modern Irbid, Jordan.

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רמב"םPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.07.31]


RamꞋba"m רמב"ם, רמב''ם, Rambam, Ramb"m(1135-1204 CE), acronym for Rabbi Moshëh Bën-Mai•monꞋ (son of Maimon, his father's name). RamꞋba"m is also widely known by his Greek—Hellenist—name: Maimonides. In the great medieval European controversy over rationalism, RamꞋba"m, who was the leading Sage of medieval Spain, was the champion of רַצְיוֹנָלִים against אי-רַצְיוֹנָלִים.

Tei•mãn•imꞋ Jews consulted, and sided, with RamꞋba"m. To avoid persecution by the Muslims of Spain—who offered Jews and Christians the choice of conversion to Islam or death—RamꞋba"m fled with his family, first to Morocco, later to Israel, and finally to Egypt.

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רמב"ןPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2010.08.17]

Ram•ba"nꞋ רמב''ן, Ramban, Ramb"n(1194-1270 CE), acronym for Rabbi Moshëh Bën-Nakh•manꞋ (son of Nakhman; Hellenist Nakhmanides), one of the last leading אי-רַצְיוֹנָלִים of medieval Spain. In the great controversy of רַצְיוֹנָלִים versus אי-רַצְיוֹנָלִים (which includes Qabãl•ãhꞋ), Ram•ba"nꞋ attempted to reconcile the two. Thus, Ram•ba"nꞋ is the least irrational of the irrationalists. Perhaps, taking into account the limited science of his day, we could state this alternatively as the first Sage to attempt to understand spirituality from a scientific perspective—which is the perspective of the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ.

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רש"יPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2014.03.07]

Rash"i, רש''י, Rashiacronym for Rabbi Shlomoh Yitzkhãqi (1040—1105 CE, spanning the First Crusade); medieval French rabbi and commentator.

Whether RashꞋ"i himself had an illogical and flawed understanding, or whether these logical flaws reflect an illogical and flawed understanding by his students or by modern commentators, his legacy displays a fondness for combining parables and symbolism with fanciful flights into logically flawed (i.e., irrational) allegory.

Much of the internal religious controversy within Judaism can be expressed as RashꞋ"i and Qa•bãl•ãhꞋ vs Ram•ba"mꞋ. In such cases, the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ always follow discrete logic — which typically translates into supporting Ram•ba"mꞋ.

RashꞋi's commentary is mainly distinguished by a rather imaginative philological treatment of Mi•dᵊrãshꞋic interpretations riddled with logical inconsistencies. When the text didn't fit into his view he reworded (suggested "better" wording) the Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ, the Tar•jumꞋs, cantillations, etc. to conform to his allegories. RashꞋi's second great shortcoming was his medieval frame of reference: his failure to deal with reconciling philosophy and Biblical concepts with logic, science and the universe.

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רַצְיוֹנָלִיםPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2010.08.17]

ra•tzᵊyon•ãlꞋim; rationalists

The antonym is אי-רַצְיוֹנָלִים (iy-ra•tzᵊyon•ãlꞋim; irrationalists).

Today's accounts in Hebrew of the Maimonidean Controversy are so thoroughly biased by the modern primarily-Litvak (Lithuanian) writers that it cannot be communicated in Hebrew without supplying more historically accurate Hebrew terms to describe the basic two sides of the controversy: rationalists versus irrationalists. In modern Hebrew accounts, the controversy is couched in terms of Ram•ba"mꞋ's Greek "science" of the goy•imꞋ versus "our holy Tōr•ãhꞋ" (which are, in fact, Lithuanian fable-ized traditions based in ignorance and superstition). Of course, no Jew would prefer Greek "science" of the goy•imꞋ over "our holy Tōr•ãhꞋ," which, in our modern era, has relegated the primary aspect of Ram•ba"mꞋ's arguments to obscurity so as not to challenge the claimed exclusive authority of modern Lithuanian rabbis.

Of course, no Tōr•ãhꞋ Sage—including Ram•ba"mꞋ—, ever championed Hellenism. The controversy was over adherence to מַדָּע—i.e., רַצְיוֹנָלִים to properly interpret and understand Tōr•ãhꞋ versus ignorant, superstitious, fable-izing irrationalists; in Hebrew, אי-רַצְיוֹנָלִים. Described in these more accurate terms, relating to the spiritual domain of Tōr•ãhꞋ in a rational, scientific and logical, frame of reference clarifies into sharp focus: a non-dimensional Realm of the Creator-Singularity preceding and beyond our physical (i.e., dimensional) universe.

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רָצוֹןPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2007.01.21]

masc . n. rãtz•ōnꞋ; רצון, ratzonpleasure, wish, will

רָצוֹן is often suffixed by the pronominal ך (khã meaning "your") to form רְצוֹנְךָ (rᵊtzon•khãꞋ; your [masc.]) pleasure or will. The connective form without the suffix, רְצוֹן, is pronounced rᵊtzon…, e.g. רְצוֹן י--ה (rᵊtzon ha-Sheim, the will or pleasure of ha-Sheim). רָצוֹן can also be prefixed by a preposition, for instance, ב (bᵊ-…; in…) to form בְּרָצוֹן (bᵊ-rã•tzonꞋ; with [lit. "in"] pleasure). These can also take a pronominal suffix to form, for example, בְּרָצוֹנְךָ (bᵊ-rᵊtzon•khãꞋ; with or by your pleasure).

רָצוֹן derives from the verb רָצָה (rãtz•ãhꞋ; he was pleased with, favorable toward). While it is translated for "he wanted," the English wanting = lacking something, is a connotation absent in this Hebrew term. The future tense is used in the phrase אִם יִרצֶה הַשֵּׁם (im yi•rᵊtz•ëhꞋ ha-Sheim), abbreviated אי"ה (IY"H), which means "if [it] will please ha-Sheim.

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ריב״יPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2022.07.17]

Riyb״yHebrew acronym for רִבִּי יְהוֹשֻעַ בֶּן-יוֹסֵף. This is the rabbinic tradition (e.g., "Ramba"m") dating back to his Beit-Dã•widꞋ Babylonian-sᵊmikh•ãhꞋ mentors, Hi•leilꞋ ha-Za•qeinꞋ, "the Babylonian" and Rab•ãnꞋ Ga•mᵊl•i•eilꞋ Sr. (Because Riyby was in the first generation to be commissioned (sᵊmikh•ãhꞋ) in YᵊhūdꞋãh—directly from the hand of the Nã•siꞋ after ha-Kha•tiph•ãhꞋ ha-Bã•vᵊl•itꞋ, the aboriginal designation of RibꞋi. Given Riyb״y's rhetoric and popularity, he epitomized the first, original RibꞋi.)

A priori, the proper designation for רִבִּי יְהוֹשֻעַ בֶּן-יוֹסֵף is simply "Riyb״y".

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רָעָהPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2020.07.10]

רָעָהרעה,רועה,רעי האליל,roeih,roi ha-elil,reieh,reeh,re'eh,rei'eh,reiah,reah,re'ah,rei'ah (rã•ãhꞋ); BH: 1. he ranched; i.e. tended, pastured, grazed—(shep)herded—a herd or flock of kã•sheirꞋ domestic livestock; (sheep, goats andor cattle). BH: 2. he (or masc. it) was a fellow-member of a herd or flock of kã•sheirꞋ domestic livestock.


masc . n. רֵעֶה BH: male fellow-member of a herd or flock; a flock-fellow, herd-fellow or yoke-fellow (in the yoke of Ta•na״khꞋ, Ta•na״khꞋ-centric), pl. rei•imꞋ. (PEMRH: רֵעַ).

fem. n. רֵעָה BH: female fellow-member of a herd or flock; a flock-fellow, herd-fellow or yoke-fellow (in the yoke of Ta•na״khꞋ, Ta•na״khꞋ-centric).

masc . n. רוֹעֶה; n. a rancher, herder of livestock, i.e. shepherd or cowboy; also the pres. tense v., ranching, herding, pasturing, grazing, shepherdingm.s. (in the specific case of sheep). Plural רֹעִים; ranchers, herders, also the pres. tense v. ranching, herding m.pl. and the compound sing. …רֹעִי and pl. …רֹעֵי forms; e.g., הָרֹעִים.

Subversion Of "The Golden Rule"

Over millennia of exposures to Babylonian, Egyptian, Hellenist-Assyrian, Hellenist-Roman and European-Christian acculturation, syncretism, assimilation and "Orthodox" ecumenic reforms, the original implications of this family of cognates has been diluted to today's ecumenic, Christian-compatible PEMRH: "associate with, keep company with" (which has devolved to "neighbor" and "friend" inclusive of Christians, Muslims, and all other gentiles); sanitized of its original inherent Ta•na״khꞋ-centric membership particularization. The Biblical meaning casts a different light on the words of RabꞋi Hi•leilꞋ ha-Za•qeinꞋ and RibꞋi Yᵊhō•shūꞋa for Ta•na״khꞋ-centric Bᵊn•eiꞋ-Yi•sᵊrã•eilꞋ: וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ —to love your fellow flock/herd-members—not foreigners alien to the flock/herd! See also Shᵊkhin•ãhꞋ (neighbor).

Prophecy of "רֹעִי Of The Feckless-Idol" – Namely, Jesus

The pivotal instance of the phrase, רֹעִי הָאֱלִיל is found in Zᵊkhar•yãhꞋ 11.(16 &) 17; clarified in Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 19.1, where the term is used in the connective pl., אֱלִילֵי, meaning the "feckless-idol gods of" Egypt. A priori, the phrase רֹעִי הָאֱלִיל properly describes one who is represented to be a shepherd (i.e., a peer of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ and Tōr•ãhꞋ), but who, instead, misleads the sheep astray after "the feckless god-idol" — which has consistently been the Hellenist god throughout the ages. See also Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu 10.21; 23.1-8; 3.15 and Yᵊkhë•zᵊq•eilꞋ chap. 34.

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רְחוֹב, usually abbreviated 'רחPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2008.03.10]

masc . n. Rᵊkhōv; רח', רחוב, rechov, rekhovBH public square or expanse; in NH times, they paved them over and now the word means "street." Plural is רְחוֹבוֹת. Moving the accent back to the penultimate syllable, RᵊkhovꞋot (public-squares, expanses or streets) is the name of a city in the NëꞋgëv.

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רפאים,Rephaim,Rapi Uma,rpum,rpwm [Glos R-S, updated: 2021.04.15]

masc . n. רְפָאִיםPronunciation Table Hebrew transliteration of the Ugaritic-speaking Rāpiʾūma tribe of Kᵊna•anꞋ, differentiated by their Ethnosalvific Intercessory Necro­demigodic Mysticism (EINM) religion. more – Rapiuma

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Replacement Theology [Glos_R-S, updated: 2012.08.31]

See Displacement Theology.

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רָשַׁעPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.05.17]

masc . n. rãsh•aꞋ; רשע,רשעים,reshato do wickedness, pl, rᵊshã•imꞋ

רֶשַׁע (rëshꞋa, wickedness); see also -Kō•heinꞋ -RëshꞋa ("The Wicked Priest"). more

רָשָׁע (rã•shãꞋ, a wicked person).

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רְאוּבֵןPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2015.10.28]

Rᵊu•veinꞋ, ראובן, Ruvein, R'uvein, Reuben, Reuvein"See [the] bein!" — 1st son of Ya•a•qovꞋ (mother: LeiꞋãh). more

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רְבִיעִיPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2014.11.28]

Rᵊviy•iꞋ; רביעי, reviyi, r'viyifourth. (Frequently used to denote the 4th day of the week.)

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רִבְקָהPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

Ri•vᵊqãhרבקה, Rivqah

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רִאשׁוֹןPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2021.02.16]

masc . n. Rish•ōnꞋ; m.n., adj. & ordinal # (e.g., 1st day of the week) — first; pl. רִאשׁוֹנִים

"The רִאשׁוֹנִים" is a rabbinic deception—3½ mllennia after the genuine "first ones" (the Shō•phᵊt•imꞋ)—that refers to the "First" European Dark Ages (11th-15th century CE) rabbis by contrast to the even more recent, post-15th century CE through today, A•kha•ron•imꞋ rabbis.

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רֹגֶזPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.09.10]

masc . n. RōꞋgëz;רוגז,רגז,rogez agitation, irascibility, exasperation.

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רֹאשׁPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2021.02.10]

masc . n. Rōsh; ראש חודש,ראשונים,rosh khodesh,chodesh,ha-shanah,rishonim,reish,reshhead (by extension, top, chief or start); the Hebrew letter ר (Aramaic reish). more

fem. n. רֵאשִׁית, f.n. & adj. — Prefix this with the preposition בְּ and you have the name of the first book in Tōr•ãhꞋ: בְּרֵאשִׁית !

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רֹאשׁ בֵּית דִיןPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2021.02.16]

Rōsh Beit Din (lit. "Head of the House of Law");Rosh Beit Din — the Chief Justice of a Higher Court.

רֹאשׁ בֵּית דִין בְּכָל מָקוֹם  — the Chief Justice of the Court, both in the Beit Din -Gã•dōlꞋ and in every Beit Din ha-Qãt•ãnꞋ. There is no contradiction of this tradition from the Shi•vᵊimꞋ by the sᵊmikh•ãhꞋ of Mōsh•ëhꞋ at Har Sin•aiꞋ until An•tiꞋ•ŏkh•ŏs ŏ Ëp•i•phan•eisꞋ and Yәhō•shuꞋa Bën-Shim•ōnꞋ Jr. Bën-Tzã•dōqꞋ ha-Kō•heinꞋ in BCE 167 when the structure was Hellenized to suit the Roman Sātrapy Συνέδριον.

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רוּחַPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2021.05.01]

masc . n., also fem. n. RūꞋakh; ruakhspace or void between objects, something unseen but evidenced by breeze, wind; believed by ancients to be spirits—evidenced and defined by odor (sweet smell equated to a godly spirit, foul odor equated to evil spirit/​demon); modern air, atmosphere. This corresponds, via LXX, to πνευμα (pneuma, origin of English pneumatic), meaning breeze, wind or spirit). See also The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu (NHM, in English) note 1.18.6.

Developed from the Egyptian concept of ka, your רוח is the life-force, dependent upon food, water and physical environment, which physically animates your avatar (physical body). Your רוח contrasts with your nëphꞋësh, a refinement of the earlier Egyptian concept of ba.

Though unable to distinguish נֶפֶשׁ from נְשָׁמָה, in LXX the Hellenists distinguished these two terms from רוח, which they rendered πνευμα (pneuma; wind, spirit).

Whether for good or evil, your רוח strongly influences your נֶפֶשׁ and נְשָׁמָה. The רוח is the interface between your נֶפֶשׁ and נְשָׁמָה in the non-dimensional realm, on the one side, and your body in the physical universe.

All of our physical senses are located in our physical body. Thus, all of our perceptions that depend upon our physical senses seem to us to be experienced in our body and in our physical world—just as when playing a virtual game we experience being in a virtual world.

It is this sentiency interface that "unplugs" from the physical brain at death, liberating the נֶפֶשׁ and נְשָׁמָה in the non-dimensional realm. Those who haven't prepared for the non-dimensional realm, developing healthy and complementary נֶפֶשׁ and נְשָׁמָה don't survive. Even among those who survive, those who haven't developed their non-dimensional senses are entirely disoriented—like a virtual game-player who has never seen the "real" world.

רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ (RuꞋakh ha-QoꞋdësh) is the Spirit of QoꞋdësh, where QoꞋdësh is defined by Tōr•ãhꞋ. רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, conveying a spirit independent of localized closeness, was adapted by goy•imꞋ for whom י--ה was never their aboriginal שָׁכֵן, and, therefore, to Whose spiritual שְׁכִינָה, they could never relate. With rare exception, Jews use the term שְׁכִינָה exclusively.

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רוּתPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

Rūt;רות a Mo•ãvꞋ name; Hellenized to "Ruth." Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ associates the name with rã•at•ãhꞋ ("she saw", i.e. understood, the words of her mother-in-law, Artscroll, The Book of Ruth, p. 67).

Rut is the second of the five Mᵊgil•otꞋ

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שָׂעִירPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2019.06.12]

masc . n.sã•irꞋ;שעיר,sair billy-goat.

fem. n.שְׂעִירָה (sᵊir•ãhꞋ); nanny-goat (female, doe, doeling or dam goat).

Banks, checks and paper currency didn’t exist in antiquity. For tax purposes, a man’s wealth was valuated by his livestock and crop land. Fines—not “blood sacrifices”—were stripped of anthropomorphism (restored to Avrahamic purity?) by Mōsh•ëhꞋ, assessed according to a man’s wealth and position, type of misstep, and according to this valuation system. In today’s currency (2019), approx. ₪720 or U.S. $200

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!סְלִיחָהPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2012.01.29]

fem. n. sᵊlikh•ãhꞋ;סליחה,סליחות,salakh,selikhah,selichah,Selikhot,Selichot,Slikhot,Slichot excuse, forgiveness, "Excuse me!," fem. n. of סָלַח (sã•lakhꞋ; he excused, forgave). The plural noun, סְלִיחוֹת (sᵊlikh•ōtꞋ; excusings, forgivenesses), is the title of Tᵊphil•otꞋ incorporated in Sha•khar•itꞋ from the first day of the week preceding Yom Tᵊru•ãhꞋ until Yom ha-Ki•purꞋ.

See also מָחַל (mã•khalꞋ) and חָנַן (khã•nanꞋ).

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סָלָט טוּרְקִי [Glos_R-S, updated: 2009.03.10]

Salat Turki (matbukha)
Sã•lãtꞋ TūrꞋki (ma•tᵊbūkhꞋãh)

and similar מַטְבּוּחָה סלט טורקי, מטבוחה, Salat Turki , matbukha(adapted from Mimi)

Yield: approximately 4 cups

  • 1 large onion

  • 2 Tblsp. olive oil

  • 1 green bell pepper

  • 2 red bell peppers

  • 2 large tomatoes

  • 3 Tblsp. sliced or pitted, chopped green olives

  • 1 tsp. salt

  • 1/2 tsp. ground cumin

  • 1/2 tsp. black pepper

  • 4 Tblsp. tomato purée

  • 2 Tblsp. chopped coriander leaf

  • skhug to taste (and color)

  1. Peel and dice the onions. Fry them in the olive oil till golden: use a medium-sized pan or a large frying pan.

  2. Remove the stem, seeds and white inner membrane from all the peppers. Chop into dice. Add them to the onions. Cover the pan and cook the vegetables till the peppers are soft - about 8 minutes. Stir once or twice.

  3. Dice the tomatoes. If necessary, pit and slice the olives. Add all of these to the pan.

  4. Add the black pepper, cumin, salt, tomato paste and skhug.

  5. Cover the pan again and cook the vegetables over a medium flame for about 15 minutes.

  6. Sprinkle coriander over the salad

  7. Serve cold.

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סַםPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2020.02.11]

masc . n. sam (pl. סַמִּים);סם,סמים,samim BH: spice.

Translations as “drug” are PEMRH: תַּבְלִין is PBH. PEMRH: distinguishes herbs from the aforementioned as עִשְׂבֵי תִּבּוּל.

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Συνέδριον / Σύνοδος Pronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2022.12.07]

Sū•nëdꞋri•ön, ("Sanhedrin")—Hellenist Greek term, lit. "sitting together"; from συν + έδρα; a (Σελευκιδῶν, later Roman) Hellenist-Sãtrapy Senate Assembly!

Because the Ma•kab•imꞋ internalized Συνέδριον, this Hellenist Greek term was transliterated into Hebrew—סַנְהֶדְרִין before becoming Anglicized; becoming "sanhedrin" instead of "synhedrin" (like the Hellenist Greek "synagogue", et al.).

However, the Pᵊrush•imꞋ adhered to the core Tōr•ãhꞋ Principles in accordance with their own, more eclectic and cosmopolitan, Tōr•ãhꞋ-centric interpretations and resulting world view; recognizing that war-like arrogance and forcible conversions are not compatible with these core Principles of Tōr•ãhꞋ, like ë•mëtꞋ and tzëdꞋëq.

This basic schism was reflected in the composition of the "Sanhedrin". The Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ continued their practice, set up by Ἀντίοχος  4th Ἐπιφανής  and Yᵊhō•shūꞋa Bën-Shim•ōnꞋ-Jr., Bën-Tzã•dōqꞋ, appointing their own Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ representative as Nã•siꞋ of the "Sanhedrin" throughout the time of the Ma•kab•imꞋ kō•han•imꞋ Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ rule, until Pᵊrush•imꞋ Hi•leilꞋ ha-Za•qeinꞋ, "the Babylonian" became Nã•siꞋ.

Failure to understand this Hellenist-"Jewish" orientation of the Ma•kab•imꞋ, simplistic scholars have flailed to explain the nuances of positions and differences that drove the ensuing conflict between these parties. (By this time, the Ōs•inꞋ followers of Mōr•æhꞋ ha-TzëdꞋ<ëq had spent 14 years increasingly relegated to the wilderness; no longer a political factor.)

Like today's politicians, began with a great flourish of anti-Hellenist promises to repel —which quietly melted-away into a distinctly hybrid, Ma•kab•imꞋ blend, incorporating Tōr•ãhꞋ-compatible advances in Hellenist knowledge with the defining Core Principles of Tōr•ãhꞋ.

At first, the Ma•kab•imꞋ "present[ed] Judaism (ioudaismos) as the antithesis of Hellenism (allophylismos [another phylum, species]… or hellenismos, [Hellenism]", emphasizing the Bᵊrit Mil•ãhꞋ, Sha•bãtꞋ, kã•shᵊr•ūtꞋ and tzᵊdãq•ãhꞋ.

retaining significant Hellenist attributes; i.e. Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ as opposed to Pᵊrush•imꞋ.

Sū•nëdꞋri•on is only one of numerous Greek—Hellenist—terms introduced from the time of Yᵊhō•shūꞋa Bën-Shim•ōnꞋ-Jr., Bën-Tzã•dōqꞋ, under Ἀντίοχος  4th Ἐπιφανής : inter alia synagogue, ka•rᵊpasꞋ, aphꞋi•kōmꞋon) assimilated in the wake of BCE 167 by the Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ and post-400 CE (Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ-Yᵊrū•sha•lᵊm•iꞋ) Pᵊrush•imꞋ rabbis. This Hellenist Greek term, via transliteration to סַנְהֶדְרִין (later Anglicized to "Sanhedrin"), persists even today as the Hellenist reform defilement that displaced the pre-BCE 167 (pre-Hellenization, pre-Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ, pre-Sha•maiꞋ Sr.) Beit Din -Gã•dōlꞋ of the Ōs•inꞋ.

Σύνοδος Anglicized to the Hellenist Greek Roman Christian "synod" — σύνοδος (a caravanning, converging or meeting together, conjunction of planets) from συν (sūn, Anglicized to "syn"; "together") + ὁδός (oddꞋossꞋ, a caravanning, traveling or journeying; a way of doing, speaking, etc.). This is only one of a number of assimilations through the millennia that need to be restored to the original historical record. more

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Santorini [Glos_R-S, updated: 2023.02.04]

Sanctus Ir•rënꞋëss (Latin)—Roman (Christian) Latin rename of the Aegaean Cycladic Thæra Island (which the Pūlossians renamed to Kal•lisꞋtæ). Interestingly, (primarily western Christian) scholars seem to hide the lateness of its Roman Christian Latin origin. Difficult to find, one has to resort to translating "Santorini", already aware that it means "Saint Irene", back to its original Latin. See Thera. more

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𒈗  𐤔𐤓 Pronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2024.04.12]

masc . n. שַׂרSar, (boss, leader, chief), related to — one who perseveres, persists, endures, pursues, contends, struggles, strives, never gives-up or quits and prosecutes a mission to the end, a survivor or revenant (from the verb שָׂרָה); by extension, a battle-distinguished warrior, honcho or commander; pl. שָׂרִים (sar•imꞋ); plural connective form …-שָׂרֵי (sar•eiꞋ-…; leaders or minsters of…). In PEMRH: a government minister is called a Sar (of Finance, Education, Transportation, of the Interior, etc.).

𒈗שרה,שרים,שרה,𒊬,Sarah,sar,sarim,shar (shar, autocrat, monarch, king); used after BCE 14th century by 𒀸𒋩 (Middle Assyria), 𐤀𐤓𐤌𐤉𐤀 (Aramea), 𒀸𒋩𒆠 (Neo-Assyria) and 𒆳𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 (Neo-Babylonia). Rulers of earlier Assyria—i.e. 𒋩 (Early Assyria) & 𒆳𒀭𒊹𒆠 (Old Assyria)—considered themselves only the Ish•iyꞋak (demigod & deputy) of their God Ash•shūrꞋ (Assyria). See also the Hebrew term for king: mëlꞋëkh.

fem. n. שָׂרָה (Sãr•ãhꞋ), f.n. noblewoman, princess; from the v. to contend, struggle, strive (הַמִּשְׂרָה of…). Also, the name of the wife of Av•rã•hãmꞋ, SãrꞋãh, and the first element of Yi•sᵊrã•EilꞋ.

שָׁרָי (Sãr•ãiꞋ = sar + ãi; my nobles or princes), apparently also a fem. plural contraction of שָׁרַתַ + י (i.e., my princesses).

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סָרִיס Pronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2023.11.14]

sâ•risꞋ,saris סָרִיסִים (sã•ris•imꞋ) ; gender-indeterminate; intersex, eunuch, castrated or injured testicles. Sã•ris•imꞋ were respected, treated with dignity and often held positions of authority.

See related:

  1. anᵊdᵊrō•gyn•iyꞋ

  2. ayᵊlōn•itꞋ

  3. ish

  4. ish•ãhꞋ

  5. nᵊqæv•âhꞋ

  6. tūmᵊtūmꞋ

  7. zâ•khârꞋ

  8. Further details in my article in Israel Jews News: The Bathroom Wars

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שָׂשׂוֹןPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2020.09.25]

masc . n. sã•sōnꞋ; ששון, sasonexuberance.

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שָׂטָןPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Sã•tãnꞋ;שטן,Satan,satan,satanic a human impugner, adversary, accuser, polemicist or prosecutor; e.g., one of I•yovꞋ's debaters. (Ancient convention was to credit י--ה, directly, rather than the human who spoke Words credited to י--ה.) Synonymous with yeiꞋtzër hã-ra.

Thus, "[t]he doctrine of the two inclinations (or drives) is a major feature of rabbinic psychology and anthropology." However, "the rabbinic notion of two inclinations shifts this dualism from a metaphysical to a more psychological level (i.e., two [dissonant] tendencies in man rather than two [warring Armageddon] cosmic [principalities]." However, the rabbis confuse the sexual aspect of this inclination, regarding it internally oxymoronic — רָע, yet "not intrinsically [רָע] and, therefore, not to be completely suppressed." (Inclination, Good and Evil, Ency. Jud., 8.1318).

Hellenist Christians later syncretized and corrupted these Judaic concepts with earlier traditions morphed into their own native (Hellenist Greco-Roman) traditions: the Ugaritic idol Anzu-Tiamat (an evil angel who stole the "Tablet of Destinies," the supreme authority to rule the universe), the Mesopotamian idol Ishtar (morphed into Greek Aphrodite, morphed into Roman Venus, morphed into Latin Lucifer, Great Whore of Babylon, crown of snakes? early serpent & dragon themes of later Hellenist Hydra idol), and these expanded with their native Greek idols Pan (sexual tempter, evil music & seducer & satyr), Thanatos (angel of death) and perhaps Icarus (fallen angel) to fabricate the Christian anti-god mélange of "SāꞋtan" aka the devil (evil demon) aka Beelzebub.

Mesopotamian Anzu-TiamatAkkadian-Assyrian-Babylonian Ishtar Sumerian Inanna Semitic AshtarteHellenist PanThanatos (death angel)
Ugaritic idol —
Mesopotamian idol —
Greek idol —
Greek idol —

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[Glos R-S, updated: 2021.08.02]

Map 12 Tribes
Click to enlargeMap 12 Tribes

SãꞋtrap;sātrapyDeputy- Shãh Comptroller of a SãꞋtrap•y (Tax-District) of the Achaemenid (Iranian/Persian) Empire (BCE 550–330).

"The SãꞋtraps, appointed by the Iranian Shãh, normally were members of the royal family or of Persian [i.e. Iranian] nobility, and they held office indefinitely. As the head of the [SãꞋtrap•y], the satrap collected taxes and was the supreme judicial authority; he was responsible for internal security and raised and maintained an army."

YᵊhūdꞋãh became an Iranian Satrapy in BCE 538, with the overthrow of Babylon by Iranian Shãh Kō•rꞋëshꞋ Jr. "the Great". Not much is known of the peculiarities of either the Babylonian administration of YᵊhūdꞋãh nor the Iranian Satrapy of YᵊhūdꞋãh, nor how the latter may have differed from the former, except that:

  1. After the initial Babylonian Coup d'État, of YᵊhūdꞋãh, with the utter destruction of Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim and deportation to Babylon of the capital city's kō•han•icꞋ and Davidic elite aristocracy, both mostly ignored YᵊhūdꞋãh, and

  2. Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim remained much like a meteor crater when it initially entered the Iranian SãꞋtrap•y—utter desolation at the center rimmed by almost unscathed regions of Bin•yã•minꞋ immediately north of Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim and the hills of YᵊhūdꞋãh immediately south.

The Iranian SãꞋtrap•y endured until Babylon fell to Alexander the Great, c. BCE 330, who adapted the Iranian SãꞋtrap•y of YᵊhūdꞋãh into a Hellenist-version SãꞋtrap•y.

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סְדוֹםPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2021.11.03]

Lot's wife, Har Sedom
"Lōt 's Wife", Har Sᵊdōm, west shore of Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh (known among ancient non-Jews as Lake Asphalt), Sᵊdōm & A•mōr•ãhꞋ

masc . n.סדום,Sedom,S’dom Sᵊdōm — probably variant pl. spelling or misascription from סִיד; itself a variant spelling of שִׂיד, pl. ‫(הַעֵ֖מֶק) שִּׂדִּ֑ים‬. These may have morphed from שְׁדֵמָה (as farm fields by the quicklime).

The name was Hellenized to Σόδομα, hence English "Sodom".

See also A•mōr•ãhꞋmore

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שֶׂהPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2021.07.01]

שֶׂה = Family: Bovidae, Subfamily: Caprinae
eiz - goat Nubian buck kidAyil - ram

masc . n. Sëh שה,seh,lamb,goat— Family: Bovidae, Subfamily: Caprinae. Compare & contrast with aꞋyil, tal•ëhꞋ, këvꞋës, eiz, and tzon.

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סֵדֶרPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2007.02.18]

Pesakh Table (2004)
Ben-David Family, 2004

masc . n. SeiꞋdër, סדר, סדורים, Seiderespecially the PësꞋakh SeiꞋdër; order [table setting or a service], liturgy, schedule, programme, schedule, arrangement). See also סִדּוּר (si•durꞋ).

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סֵדֶר מוֹעֵדPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.06.27]

Soft MatzahOmer (barley or wheat) - Shavuot Ben-David family's Sukah
Khag ha-Matz•otꞋ (PësꞋakh)Khag ha-Shãvu•otꞋKhag ha-Suk•otꞋ
The Three Mo•ad•imꞋ / Khaj•imꞋ

masc . n. SeiꞋdër Mō•eidꞋ ; סדר מועדת, Seider Moeid, seider mo'eid, seder moed, seder mo'edOrder: Appointed), 2nd order of the Mish•nãhꞋ (i.e., Tal•mūdꞋ)

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סֵדֶר נָשִׁיםPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.06.27]

Nashim - women

masc . n. SeiꞋdër Nãsh•imꞋ; סדר נשים, seider nashim, seder nashimOrder: Women), 3rd order of the Mish•nãhꞋ (i.e., Tal•mūdꞋ)

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סֵדֶר נְזִיקִיןPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.06.27]

tort law
Tort Law

masc . n. SeiꞋdër Nᵊziq•inꞋ; סדר נזיקין, Seider Neziqin, Seder Neziqin, Seider Nezikin, Seder Nezikin, Seider N'zikin, Seder N'zikin, Seider N'ziqin, Seder N'ziqin, Order: Torts), 4th order of the Mish•nãhꞋ (i.e., Tal•mūdꞋ)

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סֵדֶר קָדָשִׁיןPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.06.27]

qedoshim - saints

masc . n. SeiꞋdër Qã•dãsh•inꞋ; סדר קדשין, Seider Qadashin, Seder Qadashin, Seider Kadashin, Seder KadashinOrder: Holinesses), 5th order of the Mish•nãhꞋ (i.e., Tal•mūdꞋ)

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סֵדֶר טָהֳרוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.06.27]


masc . n. SeiꞋdër Tã•hãr•ōtꞋ; סדר טהרות, Seider Taharot, Seder TaharotOrder: Decontaminations), 6th order of the Mish•nãhꞋ (i.e., Tal•mūdꞋ)

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סֵדֶר זְרָעִיםPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.06.27]


masc . n. SeiꞋdër Zᵊrã•imꞋ; סדר זרעים, Seider Zerayim, Seder Zerayim, Seider Zeraim, Seder Zeraim, Seider Z'raim, Seder Z'raimOrder: Seeds), 1st order of the Mish•nãhꞋ (i.e., Ta•lᵊmudꞋ)

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סֵפֶרPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

seipher (megilah / scroll)

masc . n. SeiꞋphër, ספר, seipher, seifer, seferpl. סְפָרִים (sᵊphãr•imꞋ); originally a writing or scroll; later, a codex or book (see also Mᵊgil•ãhꞋ). One who hand writes sᵊphãr•imꞋ is called a סוֹפֵר (sōꞋpheir), pl. סוֹפְרִים (so•phᵊr•imꞋ).

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סֵפֶר יוֹסֵף הַמְּקַנֵּאPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

SeiꞋphër Yō•seiphꞋ ha-Mᵊqan•eiꞋ;ספר יוסף המקנא,Seipher Yoseiph ha-Meqanei,Seifer Yoseiph ha-Meqanei,Seipher Yoseiph ha-Mekanei,Seifer Yoseiph ha-Mekanei,Seipher Yosef ha-Mekanei,Seifer Yosef ha-Mekanei Scroll of Yoseiph "the Zealous"; a polemic work against the NT by Rabbi Yo•seiphꞋ Bën-Nã•tãn Official (surnamed because his father, then himself, were financial adviser and administrator "officials" of the Archbishop) of Sens, France, ca. 1280 CE

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𓀻 [Glos_R-S, updated: 2021.12.23]

Egyptian hierarchy (historyonthenet)
Click to enlargeEgyptian hierarchy (historyonthenet)

Sëmër (smr, hieroglyph A50)—semer an Egyptian noble appointed by the Par•ōhꞋ.

The Sëmër answered to the Tyat, who answered to the Par•ōhꞋ

A Sëmër appointed to rule over an spët was denoted in hieroglyphics by the name of the Sëmër on a 𓊾 over a spët—a iët-spët.

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סְמִיכָהPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2019.04.17]

fem. n. sᵊmikh•ãhꞋ; סמיכה,semikhah,semichah,s'mikhah,s'michah"resting on, being supported by, leaning on, laying on"; from סָמַך dates from the time of the Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ, c BCE :

Two Applications
  1. Of qãr•bãn•ōtꞋ in both the Mi•shᵊkãnꞋ and the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ -Rish•ōnꞋ

    סמיכה was obligatory whenever sacrifices were offered by individuals. This was effected by the owner resting both of his hands between the horns of the animal immediately before shᵊkhit•ãhꞋ according to kã•shᵊr•ūtꞋ.

  2. Of ordination —

    dating at least as early as Mōsh•ëhꞋs סמיכה of Yᵊho•shuꞋa Bin-Nun (וַיִּסְמֹךְ אֶת-יָדָיו עָלָיו, c BCE 1624, and his subsequent סמיכה of the 70 Zᵊqein•imꞋ.

    No Succession, Compounded By Idolatrous Exaggeration of Authority
    1. Countless Breaks, No Continuous Succession

      Whereas a single missing-link disconnect invalidates an entire chain of supposed succession, today's rabbis gloss over countless missing links disconnecting the succession of סמיכה since the time of Mōsh•ëhꞋ.

      In contradiction of both Scripture and legitimate historical and archeological hard evidence, RabꞋis in the modern era fabricated a reform: a seemingly seamless succession of speculated and assumed (undocumented before the modern era) fill-in "links". The resulting "chain" — more missing links than chain — appears to document the speculated conferral of סמיכה from some individual(s) in one era to some individual(s) in the next (often disconnected) era — not unlike the Church fabricating the first 15 or so popes.

      Nevertheless, even Orthodox rabbis are now beginning to yield to the reality that (in addition to the earth being older than 6,000 years, inter alia), through the intervening millennia, there are far more gaps than documented chain.

      Additionally, the rabbis decided to abandon the "laying on of hands," ordaining instead by the reform of merely conferring the title "rabbi" either orally or in writing.

      There is no direct line, nor supernatural power, coursing from the original סמיכה of Mōsh•ëhꞋ to today's Orthodox (or Ultra-Orthodox/​Kha•reid•iꞋ) rabbinic סמיכה.  more

    2. Arrogated & Exaggerated Meta-Tor•ãhꞋ Authority

      When today's rabbis cite Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 17.11 as the Basis of their claimed meta-Tor•ãhꞋ authority to override not only Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ dᵊ-Ōr•ai•tãꞋ — but even Tōr•ãhꞋ shë-bi•khᵊtãvꞋbesides burying the lack of succession, they bury the key limiting phrase: עַל-פִּי הַתּוֹרָה — "According to the Tor•ãhꞋ that they shall instruct you…" more

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''Sen-en-Mut'' (Egyptian glyph; Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Hover over word for MH, xlit & xlatnSen-en-Mut; "Brother in the Mother-Goddess (Mut, consort of Amun)" (Egyptian glyph; Metropolitan Museum of Art). Ideogram (griffon vulture) faces point to begin reading, i.e., right-to-left, and glyph is read top to bottom — after any deity name is read first.
Glyph: phonogram n (water ripples) Glyph: phonogram n (water ripples) Glyph (T22): phonogram sen (arrowhead; brother) Glyph (T22): phonogram sen (arrowhead; brother) Glyph (G14): phonogram mt, mwt (griffon-vulture; mother) Glyph (G14): phonogram mt, mwt (griffon-vulture; mother) Glyph: phonogram t (a loaf of bread), probably a fem. indicator ending (to mother) Glyph: phonogram t (a loaf of bread), probably a fem. indicator ending (to mother)

Sen-en-mut, Senenmut[Glos R-S, updated: 2013.10.11]

Sen-en-Mut ostrica - Mosheh (found in his chapel Egypt Museum)
Click to enlargePortrait of Moses (Sen-en-Mut ostrica, found in his Chapel, Egypt Museum)

Exactly contrary to some superficial, amateur commentators, the translation, "Mother's brother," perfectly corroborates the relationship of the Pharaonic Princess, Khãt-shepꞋset, as the deific mother-Isis figure to Sen-en-Mut HōrꞋus-Moses, the deific HōrꞋus-son figure. The weight of evidence increasingly supports my assertion that this Pharaonic Princess adopted into her Pharaonic house, as her brother, the baby she found floating in the reeds of the Nile and named Sen-en-Mut HōrꞋus-MosesHōrꞋus-incarnate.

In fact, Sen-en-Mut can only be identical with Moses: (adopted) brother of Princess (later Queen-Par•ohꞋ) Khãt-shepꞋset, who was, at the same time, deific mother-IꞋsis to her deific son HōrꞋus -Moses!

The historical record of Sen-en-Mut's parents demonstrate that Sen-en-Mut could only have been his own "mother's brother" if his father had married his aunt — which is exactly the case of Moses!!! As the son of Amᵊram's aunt Yo•khëvꞋëd (Shᵊm•otꞋ 6.20), Moses was simultaneously both his father's son and matriarchal brother. As Moses was the matriarchal brother of her husband, Moses was his mother's brother (in-law) too! But there's a lot more!

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שְׂאוֹרPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2019.10.02]

שְׂאוֹר (sᵊor: starter dough, sponge dough)
שְׂאוֹרClick to enlarge(photo: sourdoughbreads.com)

masc . n. sᵊōrꞋ שאור, seor, s'or— Ancient Israel & Biblical definition: leaven, An agent, such as yeast, that causes batter or dough to rise, especially by fermentation; a subset of חָמֵץ, sᵊorꞋ was sourdough starter batter, also called "sponge" dough, cultured from wild yeast that is u­biq­ui­tous in the environment, on the skin of grains, plants and even in the soil.

Today, a package of yeast, not available in ancient Israel, is often substituted. שְׂאוֹר was the ancient "leaven" before yeast was identified (17th century CE), isolated (even later) and sold in packets on the shelves of local supermarkets.

שְׂאוֹר — might be secured from a neighbor. Otherwise, to develop שְׂאוֹר from scratch (as required after every Khag ha-Matz•otꞋ — if you wanted to enjoy leavened bread), requires more than a week of "feeding" starter batter and allowing it to cure or rest, permitting the wild yeast time to be cultured and ferment into שְׂאוֹר. Each family, using their own family recipe, cultured their unique "family שְׂאוֹר".

The following (exhuastive) Scriptures instantiating שְׂאוֹר prohibit the universal Orthodox — and Ultra-Orthodox — practice of placing offending products in a cupboard or closet that is then taped closed for the period of Khag ha-Matz•otꞋ. The offending contents are still located within one's borders. The subsequent, absurdly sham, "sale," at a ridiculously symbolic price, to a gentile cannot override the Scriptural prohibition. (The contents are then "bought back" after Khag ha-Matz•otꞋ.) Needless to say, the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ do not approve the sham.

  1. Shᵊm•otꞋ 12.15 — on the first day you shall have halted שְׂאוֹר from your houses

  2. Shᵊm•otꞋ 12.19 — seven days שְׂאוֹר shall not be found in your houses

  3. Shᵊm•otꞋ 13.7 — שְׂאוֹר shall not be seen of yours within any of גְּבֻלֶךָ

  4. wa-Yi•qᵊr•ãꞋ 2.11 — (not specific to Khag ha-Matz•otꞋ) … neither any שְׂאוֹר nor any דְּבַשׁ [can be offered], לֹא תַקְטִירוּ

  5. Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 16.4 — שְׂאוֹר shall not be seen of yours within any of גְּבֻלֶךָ

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סְפָרָדִיPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.05.01]

Sᵊphãr•ãd•iꞋ:ספרדים,Sepharadim,S'pharadim,Sefaradim,S'faradim descendant of Hellenist Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ who fled in 70 CE or 135 CE to Hellenist Spain in the Hellenist Roman Empire (as opposed to Hellenist Germany & Eastern Europe of the Hellenist Roman Empire, Ash•kᵊnazꞋim) in the European Roman Empire; pl. Sᵊphãr•ãd•imꞋ are, along with the Ash•kᵊnazꞋim, one of the two European (Hellenist Roman Empire) traditions of Jewry. (The anti-Hellenist (ergo, anti-Roman Empire) Pᵊrush•imꞋ, by contrast, fled the incompatible Hellenism of the Roman Empire entirely, settling in other parts of the Middle East and Africa. The most pristinely preserved Pᵊrush•imꞋ, uninfluenced by the Hellenism of the Roman Empire, are the Tei•mãn•imꞋ, who fled to Yemen in 70 & 135 CE)

According to a 2013.10 paper by Prof. Martin Richards, of the Archaeogenetics Research Group at the University of Huddersfield (England), after sequencing the full 16,568 bases of the whole mitochondrial genomes, "in the vast majority of cases, Ashkenazi lineages are most closely related to southern and western European lineages — and that these lineages have been present in Europe for many thousands of years."

"This means that, even though Jewish men may indeed have migrated into Europe from [Judea] around 2000 years ago, they brought few or no wives with them. They seem to have married with European women, firstly along the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, and later (but probably to a lesser extent) in western and central Europe. This suggests that, in the early years of the Diaspora, Judaism took in many converts from amongst the European population, but they were mainly recruited from amongst women. Thus, on the female line of descent, the Ashkenazim primarily trace their ancestry neither to [Judea] nor to Khazaria, but to southern and western Europe."

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סְפִירַת הָעֹמֶרPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2022.10.11]

Omer (barley) - Shavuot
Click to enlargeעֹמֶר (barley during Khag ha-Matz•ōtꞋ; at other times also a sheaf of wheat or other grain).

Sᵊphir•at hã-ÖꞋmër;שפירת, (the) Count of the (Wheat) Sheaf. 

On the second day of Khag ha-Matz•ōtꞋ, an ōꞋmër of barley was cut, sheafed and brought to the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ as a grain offering: the ŌꞋmër. Thus, we count both the 49-days—& the 7 weeks—ŌꞋmër beginning (on the ërꞋëv of) the 2nd day of Khag ha-Matz•ōtꞋ; i.e., Ha•vᵊdãl•ãhꞋ that concludes the end of the 1st day of Khag ha-Matz•ōtꞋ (PësꞋakh).

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Ra (N5: solar disk, sun) s (S29: folded cloth) q (N29 sandy-hill slope) n (N35: water ripple) not pronounced (D40: arm with pronged stick) n (N35: water ripple) t (X1: bread loaf) not pronounced (O47: unknown) not pronounced (Z2: plural or collective) not pronounced, meaning: ''the great'' (O29, unknown) ' [ayin] (D36: forearm and hand, palm up) midjat, meaning certified? awarded? (Y1: papyrus roll, tied)

[Glos R-S, updated: 2018.03.22]

Par•ohꞋ Seqen-en- Tao

Par•ohꞋ Seqen-en- Tao;Seqen-en-Ra Tao14C-dated reign in WãsꞋët ended c BCE , when he was violently killed; almost certainly in the Nile Delta battling Levantine immigrant colonists — the KhëqᵊqãwꞋ KhãsꞋᵊt (Hyksos), an eiꞋrëv rav of Kᵊna•an•imꞋ and neighboring immigrants from the Levant (which included, inter alia, Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ). The fertile, well-irrigated Delta of the Nile was universally renowned as the breadbasket of the ancient world — the dream refuge for the starving. After years, perhaps decades, of frequent and catastrophic droughts in the Levant (as a consequence of the Santorini Eruption?), Levantine immigrants were overrunning, and colonizing, the Nile Delta of Lower (i.e. northern) Egypt.

Par•ohꞋ Seqen-en- Tao is credited by historians as having initiated the first wars against the Levantine immigrants, wars that predominated and defined his reign — perhaps describing the Par•ohꞋ of Shᵊm•ōtꞋ 1.8-2.23.

Evidencing intense and frenzied hatred for this Par•ohꞋ, his mummy shows that he died of multiple head wounds. He was apparently first struck perhaps by an arrow in the temple or a bronze-tipped javelin elsewhere to the head that stunned him. His enemies then set upon him and finished him with a club smashing his face, a couple of coup de grãce axe strikes to the forehead and a stab wound below the ear (the latter not visible in the photograph). more

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שָׂרָףPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2019.10.03]

masc . n.

2010 Carmel ''consuming fire'' - Seraphim (AFP photo)
אֵשׁ שְׂרָפִים (Carmel 2010.12.03 AFP -ÂrꞋëtz)
Sã•rãphꞋ, שרף,שרפת,שרפים,Seraphim,Serafim,S'raphim,S'rafimblazing tower of flames, thought by ancients to be a “flaming being” (i.e. fiery demon); pl. שְׂרָפִים (sᵊrãph•imꞋ, corrupted to "seraphim"); raging infernos, blazing towers of flames, “fire devils” advancing like living beings. The combinative sing. form is "…שְׂרַף" (sᵊraphꞋ…; towering fire-demon of…).

שְׂרֵפַת חָמֵץ — the burning, committing to the blaze or flames, of khã•meitzꞋ on the morning preceding PësꞋakh (concluding element of Bei•ūrꞋ Khã•meitzꞋ. (Contrast Sã•rãphꞋ (blazing flame) with Bei•ūrꞋ (BH: burning-up, consuming by fire).

Seraph Ein Gedi
SᵊraphꞋ Ein Gᵊdi" (the Sã•rãphꞋ of Ein Gedi) Atractaspis engaddensis

Also, by allusion to its "raging fiery venom," the Atractaspis engaddensis is called the "SᵊraphꞋ Ein Gᵊdi" (aka "burrowing viper," "mole viper" or "stiletto snake"). "Highly venomous, a Cytotoxic poison, no anti-venom - but don't worry, you won't die…" (scienceblogs.com). more info

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סְעֻדָּה שְׁלִישִׁיתPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2007.03.16]

fem. n. Sᵊūd•ãhꞋ Shᵊlish•itꞋ;סעדה שלישית,סעודה שלישית,Seudah Shlishit,Sudah Shlishit,S'udah Shlishit,Seudah Shelishit,Sudah Shelishit,S'udah Shelishit,Seudah Sh'lishit,Sudah Sh'lishit,S'udah Sh'lishit "third meal" [of Shab•ãtꞋ or Khag). It is a Mitz•wãhꞋ to eat three meals on Shab•ãtꞋ (Ma•sëkꞋët Shab•ãtꞋ 117b).

This brunch-like afternoon meal, completed before sundown, generally begins and concludes, among Tei•mãn•imꞋ and Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ with various fruits and nuts. In between, the main course consists of pita & khumꞋus, often with smoked (kã•sheirꞋ) fish, garnished with skhug, khilꞋbãh or fiery chile peppers, washed down with beer or other beverage and all liberally sprinkled with zᵊmir•otꞋ chanted with great gusto.

Sᵊud•ãhꞋ Shᵊlish•itꞋ overrides and replaces the Sᵊud•ãhꞋ Maph•sëqꞋët.

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סְעֻדָּה מַפסֶקֶתPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2008.07.27]

fem. n. Sᵊūd•ãhꞋ Maph•sëqꞋët סעדה מפסקת, סעודה מפסקת,Seudah Maphseqet,S'udah Maphseqet,Seudah Mafseqet,S'udah Mafseqet,Seudah Maphseket,S'udah Maphseket,Seudah Mafseket,S'udah Mafseket"interrupter, breaker, disconnector"; the meal preceding a tzōm.

When a tzom commences on Mo•tzã•eiꞋ Shab•ãtꞋ, Sᵊud•ãhꞋ Shᵊlish•itꞋ overrides and replaces Sᵊud•ãhꞋ Maph•sëqꞋët (in which case Sᵊud•ãhꞋ Shᵊlish•itꞋ should be eaten is its customary fashion).

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שַׁעַרPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

Shaar ha-Rakhamim
Sha•arꞋ hã-Ra•kham•imꞋ

masc . n. shaꞋar, שערים, shaar, sha'arpl. שְׁעָרִים (shᵊãr•imꞋ); gate. (See also dëlꞋët and pëtꞋakh.)

MeiꞋãh Shᵊar•imꞋ, the Ultra-Orthodox enclave in Yᵊru•shã•layꞋim, means "100 Gates."

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שַׁעַטנֵזPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. (acronym?) sha•at•neizꞋ; שעטנז, שעטנ"ז, שעטנ''ז, Shaatneiz, Sha'atneiz, Shaatnez, Sha'atnezfabric made of wool mixed with linen, perhaps deriving from Egyptian; symbolic of prohibition against mingling Yi•tzᵊkhãqꞋ with Yish•mã•eilꞋ (i.e., intermarriage). See also sha•at•nei"zꞋ gei"tz.

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שַׁעַטנֵ"ז גֵ"ץPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

sha•at•nei"zꞋ gei"tz; שעטנז גץ, שעטנ"ז ג"ץ, שעטנ''ז ג''ץ, Shaatneiz Geitz, Shaatneiz Getz, Shaatneiz G"tz, Sha'atneiz Geitz, Sha'atneiz Getz, Sha'atneiz G"tz, Shaatn"z Geitz, Shaatn"z Getz, Shaatn"z G"tzthe seven letters of the SeiꞋphër Tōr•ãhꞋ that are written with crowns; symbolizing sha•at•neizꞋ plus the acronym גֵ"ץ (geitz)—Geir TzëdꞋëq, warning against intermarrying even with a Geir TzëdꞋëq (much moreso against intermarrying a goy).

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שַׁבָּתPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2023.11.22]

Shab•ãtꞋ Collage

fem. n. Shab•ãtꞋ; שבתון,Shabat,Shabbat,Shabbos,Shabatoncessation, desistance or refraining from mᵊlãkh•ãhꞋ, pl. שַׁבָּתוֹת, cognate of שְׁבִיתָה and שַׁבָּתוֹן (details in "more" link below); deriving from שָׁבַת.

The weekly Shab•ãtꞋ (3rd most im­portant Principle of Ta•na״khꞋ) begins about 18 minutes before sunset of 6th-day with the women of the household, on behalf of the assembled family, officiating Ha•dᵊlãq•atꞋ Neir•ōtꞋ.—more

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שַׁדַּיPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2016.11.03]

masc . n. Shad•aiꞋ. שדי, Shadai, ShaddaiDespite a universal effort to sanitize the term, this is the dual (pair) form of m.n. שָׁד (shãd; breast, teat); i.e., Pair of Breasts, symbolizing the nurturing and sustaining feminine facet of the Singularity-Creator—and displaced the goddess-idols like Ishtar that featured a "breast pose" (see tᵊrãph•imꞋ) or, often, a chestful of multiple breasts.

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𐏋 [Glos_R-S, updated: 2022.03.10]

Shã (English Shah; abbreviation of 𐎧𐏁𐎠𐎹𐎰𐎡𐎹 Akhᵊ shã•a•ya•th•i•yah) — monarch of the 𐎶𐎠𐎭 (Old Mede-Persian/​Iranian Confederation, cBCE 8th–7th centuries) who ruled over one or more Persian-adapted (originally Assyrian-designed) SãꞋtraps & SãꞋtrap•ies. The title of Shah was continued by the 𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶 (Neo-Persian Iranian Empire cBCE 6th century).

𐎧𐏁𐎠𐎹𐎰𐎡𐎹 is remarkably similar to the (Semitic Akkadian derived) Hebrew phrase אֵיךְm שְׁהָיָה תִּהְיֶה (Eikh shë-hã•yãhꞋ tiꞋhᵊyëh As He was, so shall you [or she] be). Such derivation would imply that the meaning wasn't merely "king" but, rather, "succeeded by…"; i.e. a monarch appointed by the gods and reigning by divine right of succession.

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שׁוחPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2014.12.14]

    שחה, השתוחח, shakhah, shachah, hishtakhavah, hishtachavah
  1. Primary root: שׁוחdictionary entry: שָׁח; he bowed or bent down.

    Hit•pōl•eilꞋ: הִשְׁתּוֹחַח (see secondary root (1))

  2. Secondary metathesized root (1): שׁחחdictionary entry: שַׁח; he bowed deeply.

    Hit•pōl•eilꞋ: הִשְׁתּוֹחַח; he was bowing deeply, was bowed deeply in a kneeling position; also in despair (same as primary root)

  3. Secondary metathesized root (2) & dictionary entry: שָׁחָה; he bowed or bent down.

    Hit•pa•eilꞋ: הִשְׁתַּחֲוָה; he prostrated himself. more

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שַׁחֲרִיתPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Sha•khar•itꞋ; שחרית, shakharit, shacharit, shaharitpre-dawn darkness (and, by extension, pre-dawn Tᵊphil•otꞋ) paralleling the liturgy in the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ. שָׁחוֹר (Shã•khōrꞋ) means "black."

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שָׁלִיחַPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2021.12.01]

masc . n. shã•liꞋakh, pl. שְׁלִיחִים (shᵊlikh•imꞋ); שליחים,ש"ץ,ש''ץ,shaliakh,shatz,sh"tzmessenger, agent, representative, delegate, emissary, envoy, deputy. This tracks, via LXX, to the Hellenized (Greek) ἀπόστολος (aꞋpöꞋstöl­•ös); messenger, emissary; anglicized—and de-Judaized—to "apostle"); from the verb שָׁלַח (shã•lakhꞋ; to send, dispatch, extend or reach out). See also The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu (NHM, in English) note 10.2.1.

שׁ"ץ (Sha"tz, acronym for שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר; viz., congregational leader of the tᵊphil•otꞋ.

(This term is unrelated to Ta•shᵊlikhꞋ.)

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שָׁלֵםPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2020.06.01]

Most translators properly derive שָׁלוֹם (giving rise to English mistranslation "peace-offering") and שֶֶׁ͏‌ֽלֶם from the shōrꞋësh שָׁלֵם (though there may be a further connection to שָׁלָה as noted by Klein).

masc . n. שֶֶׁ͏‌ֽלֶם‎ (pl. שְׁלָמִים) — completion; e.g., celebratory-sacrifice upon completion of: a khaj, full payment or compensation (in settlement or satisfaction of a vow, an adjudicated dispute or court-imposed [Beit Din-imposed] fine), payments of a transaction (especially demonstrating satisfaction of a vow of restitution/​tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ). These were “not offerings of atonement.” more

masc . n. שָׁלוֹם — used as "hello" and "good-bye" in Hebrew. more

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שַׁמַּאי Pronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2021.01.03]

Sham•aiꞋ שמאי, Shamai, Shammai("assessor"; c. BCE 50 to c. 30 CE) — though he has widely been represented to be a Pᵊrush•iꞋ, the fact is that, from the beginning of the ZūgꞋōt in B.C.E. 175, the Συνέδριον was officiated by a Pair: a Hellenist Tzᵊdoq•iꞋ senior Complement (Nã•siꞋ) + a Pᵊrush•iꞋ junior Complement (Av Beit Din). The last ZūgꞋōt were Sham•aiꞋ and Hi•leilꞋ Sr. "the Babylonian"—grandfather of Rab•ãnꞋ Ga•mᵊl•i•eilꞋ Sr., who became the first Pᵊrush•iꞋ to wrest control of the Συνέδριον from the Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ!!!

A priori, the Hellenist "Temple" Kohanic—Tzᵊdoq•iꞋ—Complement of the last pair of the ZūgꞋōt could only have been Sham•aiꞋmore

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הַשָׁמַיִםPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2010.04.11]

masc . n. ha-shã•maꞋyim; שמים, השמים, שמיים, shamayim, shammayimthe pair of heavens – the -aꞋyim ending (see, inter alia, maꞋyim) is a dual (paired) form. The ancients perceived the skies (heavens) as twofold: what we understand today as the atmosphere (in which we live and birds fly) and the universe beyond containing the sun, moon and night lights. There was no concept, nor word expressing, a single sky / heaven.

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שַׁאמִיPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2007.03.06]

ShaꞋmi; שאמי, Shamifrom Arabic "asham," meaning Greater Syria (and meaning the inclusion of Israel), i.e. based on the Sᵊpharadi tradition with many deviations: assimilated with Ash•kᵊnazꞋim and infused with the Zō•harꞋ and Qa•bãl•ãhꞋ). The ShaꞋmi were the Yemenite Reform, diverging from the pristine Ba•lad•iꞋ Tei•mãn•imꞋ tradition.

The Shami Bãt•eiꞋ-ha-KᵊnësꞋët introduced additions to the si•durꞋ made by the Qa•bãl•ãhꞋ-ists in Tzᵊphat in the 16th century. (ShaꞋmi, The many Yemenite synagogues of RᵊkhovꞋot, hã-ÂꞋrëtz, 2004.06.18)

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שָׁנִיPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2024.03.15] 

Kermes Cochineal light-sensitive Carmine red (photo: Inez Dolores, slideserve.com)
Click to enlargephoto: Inez Dolores (slideserve.com)

masc . n. shãn•iꞋ crimson, scarlet, carmine dye made from the to•la•atꞋ.

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שָׁרָבPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2017.06.16]

masc . n. shã•rãvꞋ; שרב, sharavheatwave (extreme warm front, high pressure area). Note: "khamsin" is Arabic, not Hebrew.

In the northern Hemisphere high-pressure systems rotate CW, low-pressure systems CCW. Thus, when a shã•rãvꞋ approaches (from east to west), the winds, circling CW around the peak high pressure isobar, blow out of the NW; a sea-breeze from the Mediterranean inland. When the peak high pressure isobar passes, however, then the wind trailing the peak high pressure isobar blows in the reverse direction, from the SE interior of Egypt out to sea. The more severe the shã•rãvꞋ contrasts relative to the surrounding weather systems, the stronger the winds circling the peak high pressure isobar — in each, opposite, direction as the system passes.

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שֵּׁרֵת Pronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2023.11.16]

shæ•rætꞋ (pi•ælꞋ);sheireit,shareit, minister, officiate to minister, officiate (e.g., gov't or religion).

שָׁרֵת (shã•rætꞋ), official or minister (of gov't or religion)

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שׁ"סPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2011.08.18]

Sha"s ש''ס, ש"ס, Shas, Sha"s, Sha's, Sh"s, Sh's; acronym for שִׁשָּׁה סְדָרִים — the Ultra-Orthodox khareid•iꞋ political party under the supervision of (former Chief Rabbi of Israel) Rav Ovad•yãhꞋ Yo•seiphꞋ. ש"ס rabbis held the position of Minister of the Interior (in contrast to later governments in which ש"ס rabbis would only serve as Deputy Ministers in order to avoid the responsibility, imposed by the Supreme Court, of approving and signing-off on non-Orthodox converts). Thus, ש"ס rabbis exercised undisputed authority over the מִשְׂרַד הַפְּנִים with respect to every candidate approved (in the case of converts, confirming that all conversions were Orthodox) to make a•liy•ãhꞋ under the Law of Return from 1984.12.24 — 1987.01.06 (http://www.knesset.gov.il/govt/eng/GovtByMinistry_eng.asp?ministry=8).

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Hieroglyph Shasu M8 water-plants sha M23 sedge-weed sw  G43u-ew (pl)
Sha•suꞋHover over glyph symbol for xlit & xlatnpedestrian mi­grant nomads of the northern Sinai coast and the A•rãv•ãhꞋ.
sha (Gardiner's M8, water plants) sw (Gardiner's M21, sedge weed) u/ew (Gardiner's G43, quail chick; plural determinative)

[Glos R-S, updated: 2018.03.07]

שַׁסוּ (ShaꞋsu) — Shasu,שסוethnonym substantiated in the Amarna Tablets as popular in Egyptian usage from the time of Amun-hotep 3rd (14C c BCE 1400-1378) through Ra-moses Jr. "the Great" (14C c BCE 1292-​52)two centuries after the Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ! The Amarna cunei­form tablets describe the ShaꞋsu as Semitic, transhumant, Bovidae (Biblical tzōn) livestockmen, settled along the northern coast of Sinai and the A•rãv•ãhꞋ. (Thus, the ShaꞋsu included, in addition to Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ, both Sinai Bedouin and Ë•dōm•imꞋ.) the Notably, they are never located in mid- nor southern Sinai.

The Amarah inscription in the Soleb temple in Sudan (ancient Nubia, south of Egypt), dating from the same period, substantiates the association of "[YãhꞋu] (in) the land of the ShaꞋsu."

This is, of course, reminiscent of י‑‑ה, ël•oh•imꞋ of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ. "[T]hus early Israel may have been one of the ShaꞋsu clans."

This shouldn't be surprising as the descendants of the twin-brother of Ya•a•qōvꞋ/​Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ was Ei•sauꞋ, aka Ë•dōmꞋ, who settled in the region of Har Sei•irꞋ, neighboring Har Sin•aiꞋ and Qã•deishꞋ Bar•neiꞋa.

The connection between י‑‑ה and Sei•irꞋ can be learned from a number of early biblical verses, e.g., Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 33.2, the Song of DᵊvōrꞋãh, Shō•phᵊt•imꞋ 5.4, and Kha•va•qūqꞋ 3.3.

The khã•khᵊm•ãhꞋ of Ë•dōmꞋ was esteemed by the Nᵊviy•imꞋ. Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu asked in amazement: "Is there no longer khã•khᵊm•ãhꞋ in Tei•mãnꞋ? Have its citizens lost sound-advice? Has their khã•khᵊm•ãhꞋ begun to stink?" (49.7); Ō•vad•yãhꞋ 8 repeats the same idea: "Shall I not, in that day, cause the Kha•khãm•imꞋ of Ë•dōmꞋ to be lost, along with the understanding of Har Ei•sauꞋ?"

Ergo, it shouldn't be any surprise to learn from an Egyptian during the time of Ra-moses Jr. "the Great" (14C c BCE 1292-52) that the descendants of the twin brother of Ya•a•qōvꞋ/​Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ, namely Ei•sauꞋ (aka Ë•dōmꞋ/​A•mã•leiqꞋ/​Sei•irꞋ) revered יָּהוּ — very similar to both Yah and, lᵊ‑ha•vᵊdilꞋ, י‑‑ה of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ.

See also Kha•birꞋu and KhëqᵊqãwꞋ KhãsꞋᵊt (Hyksos).

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שָׁבוּעַPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2019.10.10]

irreg. n. (m.s./​f.p.) Shã•vūꞋa — a שֶׁבַע-day week; pl. שְׁבוּעוֹת and dual שְׁבוּעַיִםשבועות,שבועה,חג הקציר,יום הבכורים,חג מתן תורה,shavua,Khag ha-Shavuot,Khag ha-Qatzir,Yom ha-Bikurim,Khag Matan Torah

The concluding greeting of Ha•vᵊdãl•ãhꞋ initiates the start of a new week: Shã•vuꞋa tōv! (Good week!). This greeting is also common on Day1 of each week upon meeting people for the first time that week.

Seipher Torah Teimani
SeiphꞋër Tor•ãhꞋ Tei•mãn•iꞋ
חַג הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת 

Pilgrimage of Weeks — the Week of Weeks = 49 days; i.e. the Count­ing of the ŌꞋmërfollowing the first special Sha•bãtꞋ of Khag ha-Matz•ōtꞋ (i.e. PësꞋakh).

Is Also (i.e. Alternate Names)

fem. n. שְׁבוּעָה, Shᵊvū•ãhꞋ — an oath (solemnly recited 7 times), plural shã•vū•ōtꞋ. For the connection between shã•vūꞋa and why the 7-day week constitutes the swearing of a bᵊrit (bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 31.16-17), see cognate shëva.

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שֵׁנִיPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2007.03.07]

Shein•iꞋ; שני, Sheini, Shenisecond (adj.). (Frequently used to denote the 2nd day of the week.)

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שֵׁשׁPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2020.02.01]

sheish;שש, white-marble, secondary form of שַׁיִשׁ (shaꞋyish; marble), a metonym for fine linen that resembles white-marble. (See also synonyms būtz and bad.)

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שְׁכֶםPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

Shekhem; Har Grizim (lft) Har Eival (rt)
הַר גְּרִזִּים, Shᵊkhëm and הַר עֵיבָל

masc . n. Shᵊkhëm ("shoulder"); שכםBiblical city of Kᵊna•anꞋ — where Ya•a•qovꞋ bought a parcel of land for his homestead (bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 33.18-20) and the bones of Yo•seiphꞋ were interred (Yᵊho•shuꞋa 24.1, 25, 34), first capital of the 10 Breakaway Northern Tribes of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ (Mᵊlãkh•imꞋ ãlꞋëph 12:1; 14:17; Di•vᵊr•eiꞋ-ha-Yãm•imꞋ Beit 10:1).

Commanded by Mosh•ëhꞋ (Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 27-28) to be the site of reading the bᵊrãkh•otꞋ from atop הַר גְּרִזִּים and the curses from atop הַר עֵיבָל. Later, Shᵊkhëm became the capital of the Ten Northern Tribes of Israel rivaling Yᵊru•shã•layꞋim (capital of Judea).

Hellenized after 135 CE, Arabs couldn't pronounce the "p" when the Romans renamed the city "Neapolis." Hence, the Roman-Hellenized, later Arab-occupied city became known as 'Nablus.'

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שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2020.05.24]

fem. n. (& interj.) שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּשהחינו, sheHekheyanu,sheHecheyanu (He Who has kept us alive).

This bᵊrãkh•ãhꞋ is recited, appended to Qi•dushꞋ when applicable, for the first instance during the Judaic year of special events.

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שָׁכַןPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2020.07.12]

ShōrꞋësh:שכינה,שכונה,שכן,shekhunah,shechunah,shehunah,sh'khunah,sh'chunah,sh'hunah,Shekhinah,Shechinah,Shehinah,Sh'khinah,Sh'chinah,Sh'hinah,shakhan,shekhunah shã•khanꞋ, BH: he neighbored, was a neighbor, dwelled in the neighborhood; was neighboring or dwelling in the neighborhood

masc . n.  שָׁכֵן BH: male neighbor MH:

fem. n. שְׁכִינָה — Note that, when referring to the Creator-Singularity, neighboring (i.e. dwelling near), as a dimension of His Omnipresence, doesn't violate the proscription against anthropomorphism.

fem. n. שְׁכוּנָה; connective form -שְׁכוּנת;‎ שְׁכוּנת הַנְצָרִים is the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ neighborhood, or quarter (in the sky/cloud; i.e. website).

masc . n. מִשְׁכָּן — For י‑‑ה to dwell in a physical building (or in any way utilize physical sacrifices) unavoidably does violate the proscription against anthropomorphism and animism! A priori, the מִשְׁכָּן and Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ could be no more than a mō•tzeitzꞋ between the abandonment of idolatrous temples and weaning from earthly (physical) manifestations, including temples, of gods; i.e. idols.

While Yᵊsha•yahꞋu ha-Nã•viꞋ prophesied (56.7) a future Beit Tᵊphil•ãhꞋ — for all -am•imꞋ, avoiding reversion back into anthropomorphism or animism, it further implies that those intent upon building yet another Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋinstead of the prophesied Beit Tᵊphil•ãhꞋ — are tō•imꞋ, aimed at reverting back into the anthropomorphic and animistic idolatry from which י‑‑ה delivered Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ in BCE 591.06.06 — a realization that should change our fasting and mourning days into celebration days!

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שְׁחִיטָהPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2019.09.29]


fem. n. Shᵊkhit•ãhꞋ שחיטה,שוחט,שחט,shekhitah,shechitah,shehitah,sh'khitah,sh'chitah,sh'hitah(f.n.); slaughter and butchering of livestock; implying, unless otherwise specified or indicated by context, according to Tōr•ãhꞋ standards of kã•shᵊr•ūtꞋ; i.e. kã•sheirꞋ שְׁחִיטָה by a שׁׂחֵט (from שָׁחַט).

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שְׁלִישִׁיPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2010.04.11]

masc . n. shᵊlish•iꞋ שלישית, shelishit, sh'lishit(m.s.); שְׁלִישִׁית (shᵊlish•itꞋ; f.s.) third. (Frequently used to denote the 3rd day of the week.)

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שְׁמַעPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2006.05.01]

masc . n. Shᵊma!; שמע, Shema, Sh'maHearken! Hear! (To decode the meaning of the two enlarged letters in the שְׁמַע, see DërꞋëkh, "The Way.")

The diminutive of שְׁמַע is שִׁמְעוֹן, the 2nd son of Ya•a•qovꞋ (mother: LeiꞋãh).

Non-Jews who have any familiarity with Judaism—and too many Jews—have the misconception that the שְׁמַע is (only) Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 6.4.

In fact, not even the three passages from written תּוֹרָה fully cover the recitation of the 'Shᵊma'.

The recitation of שְׁמַע begins with the tᵊphil•ãhꞋ that introduces the שְׁמַע in the si•durꞋ, אַהֲבַת עוֹלָם, and continues through אֱמֶת וְיַצִּיב

Particularly salient to the self-orientation and Displacement Theology of today's western culture are two concepts inherent in the שְׁמַע more

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שֶׁמֶןPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2015.10.04]

masc . n. shëꞋmën; שמן, shemenoil. Unless otherwise specified, the Bible generally means שֶׁמֶן זַיִת (shëꞋmën zaꞋyit; oil [of] olive; i.e., olive-oil).

While oil symbolized fertility and prosperity to the neighboring ancient Hittites, Canaanites and other Mesopotamian idolaters, in both cases where it is found in the Bible (I•yovꞋ 29.6 and Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 32.13), it follows the context of the previous verse, specifying the accompaniment of the Shᵊkhin•ãhꞋ / RuꞋakh י‑‑ה. This reveals the earliest core symbolism of שֶׁמֶן זַיִת within Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ: representing the Imprimatur of the Shᵊkhin•ãhꞋ / RuꞋakh ha-QoꞋdësh.

map Beit Eil (al-Bireh), Ai, Psagot (Jebel et-Tawil)
Click to enlargemap Beit Eil (modern Arab-occupied al-Bireh), סֻלַּם יַעֲקֹב / Psagot (Jebel et-Tawil) and potential locations of Ai

Serving as fuel for oil lamps, including the Mᵊnor•ãhꞋ in the Mi•shᵊkãnꞋ (Shᵊm•otꞋ 25.6; 27.20; wa-Yi•qᵊr•ãꞋ 24.2) and later the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ, שֶׁמֶן זַיִת symbolized the ruꞋakh of the fire / light, especially of the Mᵊnor•ãhꞋ.

Both in Ugarit (V AB, B 31ff; Pritchard, Texts, 136) and in the Bible (wa-Yi•qᵊr•ãꞋ 8.10–11), anointing with שֶׁמֶן זַיִת is associated with the dedication of pouring out of a sacred spirit(s) on sites deemed sacred, as well as of people. Thus, by anointing his campsite with shëꞋmën zaꞋyit (bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 28.18), Ya•a•qovꞋ dedicated it—calling it Beit Eil (modern Arab-occupied al-Bireh, a suburb of Ramallah, not the city modern archeologists assumed from 4th century CE Church Fathers, Hellenized to "Bethel" on today's maps; see also "Oils," Ency. Jud., Jewish Virtual Library)

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שְׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶתPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2022.10.08]

Sh'mini Atzeret & (in Israel) Simkhat Torah (goldenlightimages.com)
Shᵊmin•iꞋ A•tzërꞋët

fem. n. Shᵊmin•iꞋ A•tzërꞋëtשמיני עצרת,Shemini Atzeret,Sh'mini Atzeret,atseret,shmini— Eighth [day] Off; in which one "restrains" or "arrests" himself or herself from doing mᵊlãkh•ãhꞋ — immediately following, yet separate from, the seven days of Khag ha-Suk•otꞋ (bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbarꞋ 29.35).

שְׁמִינִי is the masc. adj. form of שְׁמוֹנָה. ‭ ‬ עֲצֶרֶת is the fem. noun form of the verb עָצַר.

Shᵊmin•iꞋ A•tzërꞋët marks the beginning of the rainy season following the harvest in Israel. Tᵊphil•atꞋ גֶּשֶׁם is the only ritual unique to Shᵊmin•iꞋ A•tzërꞋët.

Since the completion of the annual cycle of Tōr•ãhꞋ readings occurred around the time of Shᵊmin•iꞋ A•tzërꞋët, a rabbinical tradition developed in the Middle Ages [emphasis added] to celebrate — with joyful processions, singing and dancing — the completion and restarting of the annual cycle of weekly Tōr•ãhꞋ readings on Shᵊmin•iꞋ A•tzërꞋët. This celebration came to be known as Sim•khatꞋ-Tōr•ãhꞋ.

In Israel, this single day is referred to as "Shᵊmin•iꞋ A•tzërꞋëtSim•khatꞋ-Tor•ãhꞋ" (see in our Pã•rãsh•atꞋ Shã•vuꞋa pages of our virtual Beit ha-kᵊnësꞋët via our Click 'n Go directory panel at left).

In the Diaspora, Sim•khatꞋ-Tōr•ãhꞋ is celebrated on the second day of Shᵊmin•iꞋ A•tzërꞋët. It is common for Jews in the Diaspora to refer to the first day as Shᵊmin•iꞋ A•tzërꞋët and to the second day as Sim•khatꞋ-Tōr•ãhꞋ.

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שְׁמִטָּהPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

Shemita year fallow field
Shᵊmit•ãhꞋ year, fallow field

fem. n. Shᵊmit•ãhꞋ; שמטה, שמיטה, Shemitah, Sh'mitah, Shemmitah, Sh'mmitah, Shemittah, Sh'mittah, Shemmittah, Sh'mmittahremission year (each 7th year). The years of the cycle can be calculated by taking the remainder after dividing the Hebrew calendar year by 7; i.e., the Hebrew year modulo 7.

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שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵהPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Shᵊmōn•ëhꞋ Ësᵊr•eihꞋ; שמונה עשרה, Shemoneh Esreih, Sh'moneh Esreih, Shemonah Esreih, Sh'monah Esreih18. This refers to the 18 bᵊrãkh•otꞋ comprising (and thus a synonym for) the A•mid•ãhꞋ.

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שֵׁםPronunciation Table Hear it![Glos R-S, updated: 2022.08.11]

cBCE 5500 & 2629 (Chalcolithic & Early Bronze Ages) Post-Mabul Bᵊnei-Nōakh in (Early Bronze Age writing: Sumero-Akkadian cuneiform) Adamah
Click to enlargecBCE 5500 & 2629 (Chalcolithic & Early Bronze Ages) — Post-Ma•bulꞋ Bᵊn•eiꞋ-NōꞋakh in A•dãm•ãhꞋ (Early Bronze Age emergence of writing: Sumero-Akkadian cuneiform), with later Hebrew. ("Natufian" is a modern invented name; no people by that name ever existed.)

gender undefined, irreg.שם,שמות,sheim,Shemot,Sh'mot sheim (m.s.; grammar note: irregular: m.s. / f.pl.)

  • Proto-Semitic memProto-Semitic shin,

  • a son of NōꞋakh; origin of Sheim(ites)—Semites, Semitic.

שְׁמוֹת (shᵊm•ōtꞋ, names) f.pl. — de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Exodus"—which is correctly Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ.

בְּנֵ֥י שֵׁ֖ם  (English Sheimites; i.e. "Shemites", Semites and Semitic), the ancestors of Avᵊrã•hãmꞋ (ancestor of both Jews & Arabs).

Proto-Sheim—pre-BCE 8800: the earliest recorded (from oral traditions ) post-NōꞋakh ) hunter-gatherer settle­ments (where the Sheimitic ("Semitic") language took its major roots) and their geographical region on the Eastern Mediterranean Basin. Proto-Sheim, as shown on the accompanying map, is the only historically-relevant and Ta•na״khꞋ-compatible name for the "Holy Land"; (lᵊ-ha•vᵊdilꞋ) distinguishing it from later, millennia after-the-fact, Pauline (Roman/​Christian), Muslim (pseudo-Palestinian  ) and presumptuous arts-degreed archaeologists' ("Natufian"     ) misrepresentations.

Over the next several millennia, the Proto-Sheimites expanded across the "Fertile Crescent" down to what is today the Arabian-Persian Gulf—and included Ūr, the birthplace of Avᵊrã•hãmꞋ. About 6 millennia later (cBCE 2000), Avᵊrã•hãmꞋ retraced those steps, immigrating back to the original Proto-Sheim, which was by that time known as Kᵊna•anꞋ; and would be include the Sheimite Phoenicians.

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שְׁמוּאֵלPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2018.06.27]

Shᵊmū•eilꞋ; שמואל, Shemueil, Sh'mueil, Shemuel, Sh'muel, Shmueil, ShmuelThe view of Dark Ages French rabbi David Qimkhi רד"ק (1160-1235 CE), that שְׁמוּאֵל is an amalgamation of שָׁאוּל מֵאֵל, "is not tenable. … Ch. iii. supports the theory that the name implies 'heard by [Eil]' or 'hearer of [Eil].' The fact that "alef" and "'ayin" are confounded in this interpretation does not constitute an objection; for assonance and not etymology is the decisive factor in the Biblical name-legends, and of this class are both the first and the second chapter." Thus, the shōrꞋësh שָׁמַע is established.

Since the simple passive ("be heard by") is the niph•alꞋ, the resulting name heretofore proposed would begin with "n" — "Nishᵊmueil". Therefore, it is, rather, the simple active pa•alꞋ (hearken, hear) that seems implied. Thus, the name seems more likely to be a contraction of the portmanteau: שָׁמְ[ע]וּ אֵל— "Eil hearkened, heard"!

שְׁמוּאֵל and שְׁמוּאֵל are two books of Ta•na״khꞋ (de-Judaized/​Hellenized to I & II Sam.).

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שְׁאוֹלPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2021.04.19]

masc . n. Shᵊōl; שאלה,Sheol,Sh'ola topic of, or under, question — fem. שְׁאֵלָה (shᵊeil•ãhꞋ; a question; cognate שָׁאוּל (Shã•ūlꞋ, Hellenized to Saul/​Paul; [something or someone] requested or "asked for").

שאול is the ancient netherworld of the grave and demigodal passage to the eternal unknown, sheddding of the avatar (body)—the gazillion $ question more

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שֶׁקֶלPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2008.03.30]

Israeli New Sheqel
/ ShëqꞋël

masc . n. / shëqꞋël, plural shᵊqãl•imꞋ; שקלים, sheqelim, shekelim, shekalim,sh'qelim, sh'kelim, sh'kalim,a measure of weight. Archeologists estimate the weight to be about 11 grams (½ oz.) and usually refers to silver.

The modern 'New Israeli Sheqel' (abbreviated NIS) sign is , a merger of overlapped letters: ש (for שֶׁקֶל) and ח, for חָדָשׁ (khã•dãshꞋ; new). thus abbreviates שֶׁקֶל חָדָשׁ (shëqꞋël khã•dãshꞋ; new shëqꞋël).

Up to the moment /$ exchange rate (rightmost column).

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Hieroglyph Sheshenq
Shë•shë•n•q (top to bottom)
[Glos_R-S, updated: 2021.12.25]

Cartouches of Parōh Hëdj-khëpër-Rã Sëtëp-ën-Rã
Cartouches of 22nd Dynasty Libyan-Egyptian Par•ōhꞋ Hëdj-khëpër- Sëtëp-ën- Shë•shë•n•q Sr. (reigned c BCE 1047-1001)

Hebrew transliteration: שִׁישָֽׁק;Shoshanq, Shishanq, Shishak, Shishaq, Shoshanq, Shishanq, Sheshonk — 22nd Dynasty Libyan-Egyptian Par•ōhꞋ Hëdj-khëpër- Sëtëp-ën- Shë•shë•n•q Sr. (reigned 14C BCE 1047-1001 ), who invaded YᵊhūdꞋãh cBCE 1035. He apparently became so wealthy from emptying the coffers of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ of ShᵊlōmꞋōh and the palace of Yã•rãvᵊãmꞋ ha-MëlꞋëkh YᵊhūdꞋãh that he became known as "The Silver Par•ōhꞋ"—at a time in which, because it had to be imported, silver was more valuable in Egypt than gold.

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שֶׁבַעPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, Updated: 2024.02.20]

masc . n. shëvꞋa; שבע,sheva,7seven, heptad or septuple. (Note: A fish, 3 bells, a shoe, & 2 shovels form a heptad [group of 7], but not a septuple [i.e. a sevenfold, a group of 7 of a kind, e.g., 7 years, 7 weeks, 7 days]. Thus, all septuples are heptads, but not all heptads are septuples.)

As a verb (in the niph•alꞋ), נִשְׁבַּע means to "septuple something, render something sevenfold, repeat something seven times (imprinting it firmly in one's memory)—which constituted an oath; hence, to swear an oath.

See also cognates: shãvuꞋa and shiv•ãhꞋ.

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שֶׁבַע מִצווֹת בְּנֵי-נֹחַPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.06.14]

ShëvꞋa Mitz•wōtꞋ Bᵊn•eiꞋ-NōꞋakh; שבע מצוות בני-נח, Sheva Mitzvot Benei Noakh, Sheva Mitzvot B'nei Noah, Sheva Mitzvot Benei Noach, Sheva Mitzvot B'nei NoachSeven Laws of NōꞋakh.

According to the Encyclopedia Judaica ("Noachide Laws," 12:1190ff), the earliest extant reference to (a prototype consisting of four of) the ShëvꞋa (seven) Mitz•wotꞋ Bᵊn•eiꞋ-NōꞋakh was formulated by the Beit Din ha-Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ, in Ma•a•vãrꞋ 15.20:

"This … list is the only one that bears any systematic relationship to the set of religious laws which the Pentateuch makes obligatory upon resident aliens (the geir ha-gãr) and ëz•rãkhꞋ [indigenous, native]".

The ShëvꞋa Mitz•wotꞋ Bᵊn•eiꞋ-NoꞋakh are:

  1. Subordinate yourself to a legitimate Beit-Din

  2. Do not profane the Name (see Profaning the Holy Name Unawares)

  3. Have no part in idolatry (including J*esus and Christianity)

  4. Do not engage in sexual promiscuity (including intermarriage between a Jew and a gentile)

  5. Do no murder (including reputation, i.e., character assassination and slander)

  6. Do not steal (includes misrepresentation, i.e. stealing someone's reputation and life)

  7. Do not eat tã•reiphꞋ meat

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שְׁבָרִיםPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2012.09.23]

masc . n. (pl.) Shᵊvãr•imꞋ, שברים, Shevarim, Sh'varimof שֶׁבֶר (shëvꞋër; a break, fracture, shard); pl. staccato — broken — notes (traditionally three yelping notes) blown on the shō•phãrꞋ. See also tᵊqiyꞋãh and tᵊrū•ãhꞋ (Idelsohn, A.Z., Jewish Music, in Its Historical Development (New York: Schocken, 1929, 1973), p. 9-10 with note p. 495).

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שֵׁבֶטPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2019.03.03]

Egyptian heqa (l) & sekhem (r) scepters
Click to enlargeEgyptian heqa (l) & שְׂכֶם (r) scepters. Rulers would hold one in each hand when adjudicating a matter; the שְׂכֶם in the right hand and the heqa in the left hand.

masc . n. sheivꞋët; שבטים,sheivet,shivtei,shivetei,shevatimscepter, wand; metonym for tribe and tribal chief. (Contrast with ma•qeilꞋ and ma•tëhꞋ.) Pl. שְׁבָטִים (shᵊvãt•imꞋ), pl. connective …-שִׁבְטֵי (shivᵊteiꞋ-…).

Tribal Coats of Arms / Dᵊgãl•imꞋ
  1. Degel Shevet1-Ruvein: water symbol on red backgroundDegel Shevet1-Ruvein: mandrake on red background
    Rᵊu•veinꞋ — Biblical: water symbolRᵊu•veinꞋMi•dᵊrãshꞋ Rab•ãhꞋ dëgꞋël: mandrake

    Rᵊu•veinꞋ — Biblical symbol: water.

    Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ Rab•ãhꞋ dëgꞋël: mandrake on red back­ground.

    Mother: LeiꞋãh.

  2. Degel Shevet2-Shimon: weapons on green backgroundDegel Shevet2-Shimon: Shᵊkhem  on green background
    Shi•mᵊōnꞋ — Biblical: weap­onsShi•mᵊōnꞋMi•dᵊrãshꞋ Rab•ãhꞋ dëgꞋël: ShᵊkhëmꞋ

    Shi•mᵊōnꞋ — Biblical symbol: weapons

    Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ Rab•ãhꞋ dëgꞋël: city of ShᵊkhëmꞋ on green background

    Mother: LeiꞋãh.

  3. Urim Tumim
    Lei•wiꞋUr•imꞋ wᵊ-Tum•imꞋ

    Lei•wiꞋ — Biblical symbol: weapons

    Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ Rab•ãhꞋ dëgꞋël: Ur•imꞋ wᵊ-Tum•imꞋ on white, black & red back­ground.

    Mother: LeiꞋãh.

  4. Yᵊhudah: lion cub
    YᵊhudꞋãh — lion cub

    YᵊhudꞋãh — Biblical symbol: lion cub (not lion-​king)

    Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ Rab•ãhꞋ dëgꞋël: lion cub on sky blue background

    Mother: LeiꞋãh.

  5. Zëvulun ship on moon-color background
    Zᵊvūl•ūnꞋ — ship (symbolizing seafaring, coastal & port dwelling)

    Zᵊvul•unꞋ — Biblical symbol: seacoast, shipping, port

    Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ Rab•ãhꞋ dëgꞋël: ship (symbolizing a port) on moon-color background

    Mother: LeiꞋãh.

  6. Degel Shevet 6-Yisakhar 'load-mover'' donkey lying down between sheep-cotes, navy-blue backgroundDegel Shevet 6-Yisakhar: sun & moon (astronomy & calendar)
    Yi•sã•khãrꞋ — Biblical: "load-mover" don­key lying down between sheep-​cotesYi•sã•khãrꞋMi•dᵊrãshꞋ Rab•ãhꞋ dëgꞋël: sun & moon

    Yi•sã•khãrꞋ — Biblical symbol: "load-mover" don­key lying down between sheep-cotes

    Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ Rab•ãhꞋ dëgꞋël: sun & moon on navy-blue background

    Mother: LeiꞋãh.

  7. Dan - Negev horned pit viper on sapir (lapis lazuli) blue
    Click to enlargeDãnNëgꞋëv שְׁפִיפֹן on sa•pirꞋ blue

    Dãn — Biblical symbol: NëgꞋëv des­ert shᵊphiy•phōnꞋ.

    Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ Rab•ãhꞋ dëgꞋël: NëgꞋëv des­ert shᵊphiy•phōnꞋ (not a cobra) on sa•pirꞋ blue.

    Mother: RiꞋvᵊq•ãh

  8. God - warriors b&w
    God — warriors (b&w)

    God — Biblical symbol:

    Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ Rab•ãhꞋ dëgꞋël: warriors, b&w

    Mother: Zi•lᵊp•ãhꞋ

  9. <cite>
    ã•sheirꞋancient bread & olive tree on pearl back­ground

    ÕsheirꞋ — Biblical symbol: ancient bread & olive tree

    Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ Rab•ãhꞋ dëgꞋël: like a gem of woman's jewelry with an olive tree.

    Mother: Zi•lᵊp•ãhꞋ

  10. Naphtali ayalah (doe)
    Na•phᵊtalꞋi — doe

    Na•phᵊtalꞋi — Biblical symbol: doe (not a stag or buck)

    Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ Rab•ãhꞋ dëgꞋël: doe on wine-color (burgundy)

    Mother: Bi•lᵊh•ãhꞋ

  11. ccc
    Ë•phᵊr•aꞋyim — Egypt & ox on black background

    Ë•phᵊr•aꞋyim — Biblical symbol: Egypt & ox

    Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ Rab•ãhꞋ dëgꞋël: Egypt & ox on black background

    Father: Yo•seiphꞋ (son of Rã•kheilꞋ); Mother: Egyptian idolatress ã•sᵊn•atꞋ Bat-PōtꞋi-PhërꞋa, idolatrous Egyptian ko•heinꞋ of Ōn City, Egypt).

  12. ccc
    Mᵊnash•ëhꞋ — Egypt & oryx on black background

    Mᵊnash•ëhꞋ — Biblical symbol: Egypt & oryx

    Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ Rab•ãhꞋ dëgꞋël: Egypt & oryx on black background

    Father: Yo•seiphꞋ (son of Rã•kheilꞋ); Mother: Egyptian idolatress ã•sᵊn•atꞋ Bat-PōtꞋi-PhërꞋa (idolatrous Egyptian ko•heinꞋ of Ōn City, Egypt).

  13. ccc
    Bin•yã•minꞋ — wolf on all 12 colors

    Bin•yã•minꞋ — Biblical symbol: wolf

    Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ Rab•ãhꞋ dëgꞋël: wolf on background of all 12 colors

    Mother: Rã•kheilꞋ

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שִׁדּוּכִיןPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2018.10.15]

shi•dūkh•inꞋ;שדוכין,שידוכין,shidukhin preliminary negotiations & harmonious resolution resulting in betrothal; from Aramaic שִׁדּוּכָא (shi•dukh•ãꞋ), pi•eilꞋ of שַׁדַּךְ (sha•dakhꞋ; to negotiate a harmonious resolution; soothe, pacify or appease); popularly, "match-making". See ni•sū•inꞋ (marriage).

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שִׁלֹּחַPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2014.09.01]

1886: Teimani Kᵊphar Shiloakh
Click to enlarge1886 photo: Kᵊphar Shi•loꞋakh, Yemenite-Jewish Village.
Karen with hand in Pool of Shiloakh
Karen with hand in Bᵊreikh•atꞋ Shi•lōꞋakh (Pool of Shi•lōꞋakh)

masc . n. Shi•lōꞋakh;שילוח, Shiloakh, Shiloach, Shiloah, Siloakh, Siloach, Siloahissuance, dispatch, launch—Hellenized by Josephus to Σιλωά (Silōa), Σιλωᾶς (Silōas) and Σιλωάμ (Silōam), which was, only in the 1930s — after Arabs rioted and forcibly expelled the indigenous Tei•mãn•imꞋ Jews from their earlier village — Arabized to Silwan.

Bᵊreikh•atꞋ Shi•loꞋakh; Pool of Shi•loꞋakh.

Kᵊphãr Shi•loꞋakh; Issuancetown, Issuanceville — the original name (cf. Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 8.6 & Nᵊkhëm•yãhꞋ 3.15) of Ir Dã•widꞋ (The Ophel).

Tei•mãn•imꞋ (Yemenite) Jews returned to restore and rebuild their ancient Biblical village in 1873, reestablishing it in 1884. Arabs expelled the Tei•mãn•imꞋ Jews in the 20th century (!) from the Bibical City of David in the Arab uprising of 1936-39. (See also Teimani History, 1873-1938.)

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שִׁילֹהPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2020.03.05]

ShilꞋōh שילה, Shiloh(SHEE-lo, not shy-lo); Ancient Israeli capital for Yᵊhō•shūꞋa Bin-Nūn (≈50 km due east of Tël •vivꞋ-YãphꞋō).

Click to enlargeShil•ōhꞋ
Click for pic4: Shiloh today Click for pic3:  Shiloh today Click for pic2: Tel Shiloh Click for pic1: Tel Shiloh

Understanding the term שִׁילֹה is critical because of the Scriptural passage in which it is found: bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 49.10—which the rabbis acknowledge is the primary Tor•ãhꞋ Scripture upon which belief in the Mã•shiꞋakh is founded.

שִׁילֹה derives from the shōrꞋësh שׁלה. While the primary meaning of שׁלה is to be quiet, at ease, tranquil or serene; there is also a secondary meaning: to be drawn out from water — as out of a mi•qᵊwëhꞋ, the womb (i.e., a birth) or, perhaps, across a sea.

Accordingly, these produce their respective resultant nouns: "tranquility" (the traditional interpretation) or "one drawn up from a mi•qᵊwëhꞋ, the womb (i.e., a birth), or from across a sea."

All of the rabbinic requirements for a period of tranquility to precede the coming of the Mã•shiꞋakh dangle from this interpretation of this single term in its primary, rather than secondary, meaning! Yet, even the rabbis cannot reconcile the messianic period of tranquility preceding the coming of the Mã•shiꞋakh! Serious researchers, therefore, must focus on never-​before-​considered implications introduced by the secondary meaning.

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שִׁמְעוׂן בֶּן-הִלֵּלPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2021.11.07]

Rab•ãnꞋ Shi•mᵊōnꞋ (Sr.) Bën-Hi•leilꞋ (ha-Za•qeinꞋ, "the Babylonian"); הַזָּקֵן, הַתַּנָּא, הַנָשִׂיא (c 10 CE – c 12 CE).Simon,Simeon,Shimon

Little is known about Rab•ãnꞋ Shi•mᵊōnꞋ (Sr.) Bën-Hi•leilꞋ. He succeeded his father, Hi•leilꞋ ha-Za•qeinꞋ, "the Babylonian", as Nã•siꞋ c 10 CE, and was succeeded as Nã•siꞋ shortly after, c 12 CE, by his own son, Rab•ãnꞋ Ja•mᵊl•i•eilꞋ (Sr.) Bën-Shi•mᵊōnꞋ (Sr.).

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שִׁקּוּץPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2022.12.12]

masc . n. shi•qūtzꞋ;שיקוץ, shiqutz, shikutza detestable, repugnant, repulsive abhorrence; metonym for a physicomophism.

שִׁקּוּץ שֹׁמֵם (Dãniy•eilꞋ 12.11); also שִׁקּוּצִים מְשֹׁמֵם (Dãniy•eilꞋ 9.27) and הַשִׁקּוּץ מְשׁוֹמֵםthe detestable, repugnant, repulsive abhorrence-idol appalls horrifyingly (Dãniy•eilꞋ 11.31). See full details and explanation in The 1993 Covenant (Click on "70th Week, Dãniy•eilꞋ 9.27").

שֶׁקֶץPEMRH: especially a gentile man who marries a Jewess.

שִׁקצָהPEMRH: (popularly corrupted to "shikꞋsa"), especially a gentile woman who marries a Jew.

See also shō•mæmꞋ.

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שֶׁרֶץPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2020.04.05]

ShërꞋëtzשרץ,sheretz cannot mean swarmers or teemers per se, since arᵊb•ëhꞋ, which are swarmers and teemers, are kã•sheirꞋ. Yet, subsuming some swarmers and teemers in the definition implies the inclusion of bats and, perhaps, tãm•eiꞋ flocking birds. A priori, this suggests that shërꞋëtz refers to the combined families of swarming/​teeming reptiles, rodents, bats and, perhaps, tãm•eiꞋ flocking birds (i.e. excluding lone predatory birds—specifically listed as tãm•eiꞋ elsewhere, which cannot be classified as swarmers nor teemers).

It is not reasonable to infer that ants, caterpillars and smaller insects (including animals too small to be seen with the naked eye) were included simply because they swarm, teem, creep or crawl.

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שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִיםPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2011.05.13]

masc . n. Shir ha-Shir•imꞋ שיר השירים(chant of the chants; popularly, but somewhat inaccurately, song of songs) is the first of the five Mᵊgil•otꞋ (de-Judaized to Song of Solomon and Canticles)

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שִׁשִּׁיPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2014.11.28]

Shish•iꞋ; ששי, שישי, Shishisixth. (Frequently used to denote the 6th day of the week.)

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עֲצֵי שִׁטִּיםPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2014.01.22]

irreg. n. (f.s./​m.p.) Shit•imꞋ (sheet•imꞋ);שטים, shitim, shittimacacias; s. שִׁטָּה (shit•ãhꞋ).

acacia in Negev (Roger Gelfand)
Click to enlargeעֵץ שִׁטִּים

This is a very large tree by today's standards. Most are only slightly taller than a man, like the ones to the right of the big tree. (In ancient times, there were likely many similar to this.)

acacia close-up
Click to enlargeעֵץ שִׁטִּים

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שִׁעוּרPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2008.04.15]

masc . n. shi•ūrꞋ, שעור, שיעור, shiur, shiyurlesson (which may be a short lecture), class, homework.

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שִׁבעָהPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Shiv•ãhꞋ; שבעה, שיבעה, shivahseven; frequently referring to the first seven days of mourning following burial of a Jew, during which time "the mourner emerges from the stage of intense grief to a new state of mind in which he is prepared to talk about his loss and to accept comfort from friends and neighbors. The world now enlarges for the mourner. While he remains within the house, expressing grief through the observances of avelut—the wearing of the rent garment, the sitting on the low stool [pillow on the floor according to No•sakhꞋ Tei•mãn•iꞋ], the wearing of slippers, the refraining from shaving and grooming, the recital of [Qa•dishꞋ]—his acquaintances come to his home to express sympathy in his distress." (Maurice Lamm, The Jewish Way in Death and Mourning, p. 78).

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שְׁלֹמֹהPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

Shᵊlōm•ōhꞋ, שלמה, Shlomoh, Shelomoh, Sh'lomohHellenized to "Solomon."

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שׁוֹאָהPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Shō•ãhꞋ; שואה, ShoahHolocaust, Calamity — in Biblical prophecy: עֵת-צָרָה – popularly "Time of Trouble" and "Jacob's Trouble"; see Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu 30.7, Zᵊkhar•yãhꞋ 13.6-9; Dãn•iy•eilꞋ 12.1; The 1993 Covenant and Pã•rãsh•atꞋ Ki Tã•voꞋ (for which, click in our Beit K'nesset in the navigation panel, then the תּוֹרָה scroll).

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שֹׁמֵםPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2024.03.10] 

shō•mæmꞋ:שומם,shomeim,barren,desolation he/​it caused a series of horrifying-appallments, barren-desolations. This is a pᵊōlᵊlꞋ (Klein abbreviates "Pol.") form: doubling the last consonant to indicate serial…, repeated…; in this case of the verb of יָשָׁם (yã•shãmꞋ, to be barren-desolate).

fem. adj. shō•mᵊm•ãhꞋ, a series of… barren-desolate …s. The fem. pl. adj. is שֹׁמֵמֽוֹת, ‎>1 series of barren-desolate …s (cf. Dãn•iy•ælꞋ 9.26-27, 11.31 & 12.11).

There is general agreement that this was fulfilled in the Hellenization of the Kō•han•imꞋ and Hellenist Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ Temple of Herod the Ë•dōm•ite (to "Temple"), in BCE 175, by Yᵊhō•shūꞋa Bën-Shim•ōnꞋ-Jr., Bën-Tzã•dōqꞋ, under the authority of Ἀντίοχος  4th Ἐπιφανής , ousting his own brother to become the first Hellenist Tzᵊdōq•iꞋ Kō•heinꞋ ha-RëshꞋa.

See also shi•qūtzꞋ.

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שׁוֹמֵרPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.05.01]

masc . n. shō•meirꞋ; שומר, shomeir, shomerkeeping protective watch over, as in guard duty, present tense of שָׁמַר (shã•marꞋ; he kept watch over). The noun is מִשׁמָר (mi•shᵊmarꞋ; a watch or shift, as of guard duty). Compare and contrast this verb with its synonym: נוֹצְרִים (Nō•tzᵊr•imꞋ).

Ultra-Orthodox often sanctimoniously describe themselves as "sho•meirꞋ Shab•ãtꞋ."

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שׁוֹמרוֹןPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2024.04.03]

BCE 8ᵗʰ-7ᵗʰ Centuries Neo-Assyrian Empire
Click to enlargeBCE 8ᵗʰ-7ᵗʰ Centuries Neo-Assyrian Empire of Sharū-kin (Sargon Jr.) Jr. during the forced exchange of popu­la­tions in BCE 722.

masc . n. Shō•mᵊrōnꞋ שומרון, Shomron, Shomeron, Shom'ron(Hellenized to Samaria); named after "Watchguard Mountain," refers to the region surrounding the city, originally Canaanite and located about 8km NW of ShᵊkhëmꞋ, named שֶׁמֶר (Mᵊlãkh•imꞋ ÂlꞋëph 16:24).

When Israel conquered the land and absorbed the surviving Canaanites, שֶׁמֶר was made the capital of the Kingdom of Israel. While this was the only name for the area from ancient times, in BCE 30, Herod the Great renamed the city of שֶׁמֶר to (Hellenist) Σεβαστη (Latin: Augustus) in honor of Gaius Octavius Caesar Augustus.

שׁוֹמרוֹנִי m.s. adj. and m.pl.adj. שׁוֹמרוֹנִים—"Samaritans".

The deracinating of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ ("10 Tribes" in contrast to YᵊhūdꞋãh) uprooted every nëphꞋësh of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ, dispersing and deporting them to widely dispersed and isolated small ghettos of outlanders among the local populations throughout the eastern parts of the Neo-Assyrian Empire—where they assimilated, intermarried and melted unidentifiably into the local population becoming Neo-Assyrians, no longer distinguishable as any part of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ.

Simultaneously, Sharū-kin (Sargon Jr.) Jr. deported captives from other lands that the Neo-Assyrian Empire had conquered into vacated Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ to repopulate it; exchanging its population and identity entirely—including the Shō•mᵊr•ōnꞋ—as permanent outlanders (subsequent "Samaritans"). Samaritans have never been any part of Am Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ.

The archeological site is on a hill northwest of ShᵊkhëmꞋ. The Sho•mᵊronꞋ is Arab-occupied Israeli land that was inhabited by the 10 Northern Tribes of Israel prior to the deracination by Syria in BCE 722.

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שׁוֹפָר (or שֹׁפָר)Pronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2018.05.13]

Shophar (ayal-ram)

masc . n. Shō•phãrꞋ; שופר, shophar, shofarram's ornament, decoration (i.e., horn); from שָׁפַר (shã•pharꞋ; to be decorous, adorned, embellished) — photo shows an authentic-halakhic Tei•mãn•iꞋ shō•phãrꞋ. (Not the long spiraled shō•phãrꞋ that Ash•kᵊnazꞋi Jews say is Tei•mãn•iꞋ!)

Beyond signaling the beginning of Sha•bãtꞋ, Khag or Mō•eidꞋ, the shō•phãrꞋ was the ancient equivalent of the American Old West Calvary bugler, communicating battle and tactical orders to the troops.

Millennium before the invention of electricity, phones or radio communications, battle communications depended upon fire or, daylight only: smoke signals, arm (scepter) signals and the shō•phãrꞋ. Thus, the "sound of the shō•phãrꞋ" was as attention-arresting as modern sirens warning of a missile attack.

Commanders monitored battles from some vantage point, then communicated their tactical orders via complex hand signals (most of which have been lost, but remnants still accompany Tei•mãn•iꞋ cantillation of Tōr•ãhꞋ today). These arm movements, augmented by a large scepter in order to be clearly seen from afar, identified the appropriate battle unit and communicated the direction they should focus ("on your right flank" or "about face", etc.) and what maneuver they should perform ("attack", "withdraw", "form a front line", etc.).

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שׁוֹפֵטPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2018.05.03]

masc . n. shō•pheitꞋ, שופטים' שופטת, shophet, shopheit, shophtim, shophetet, shophetim, shoph'tim, shofetjudge; fem. שׁוֹפֶטֶת pl. שׁוֹפְטִים — de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Judges"; also the name of the book in Ta•na״khꞋ.

In modern usage, שׁוֹפֵט no longer refers to judges in a ("religious") Beit Din, who have, instead, been redefined as da•yãn•imꞋ. As a result, שׁוֹפֵט today refers to a trial or judge only in a "secular" state court or any arbiter, arbitrator or referee. Thus, today, a שׁוֹפֵט, even though (s)he may personally be "religious," judges based on "secular" state law, not Ultra-Orthodox interpretations — so-called "din Tor•ãhꞋ."

On the other hand, the verdict, whether of a שׁוֹפֵט or a da•yãnꞋ, is a pᵊsaqꞋ din and the sentence (announcement of punishment) is a gᵊzar din.

Derived from the verb שָׁפַט. See also the cognate mi• shᵊpãt and synonym, zᵊqan•imꞋ.

The Hebrew term, שׁוֹפֵט, evolved, via LXX, to the Hellenist concept of κριτής. See also The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu (NHM, in English) note 5.25.1.

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שֹׁרֶשׁ, also שׁוֹרֶשׁ Pronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. shōrꞋësh; שורש, shoreshroot

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שׁוֹטֵרPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.05.01]


masc . n. Shō•teirꞋ; שוטר, shoteir, shoterBiblical, an officer of the Beit-Din, law enforcement officer. In modern terminology, a shō•teirꞋ is an officer of the court, i.e. a law enforcement officer or policeman. In Israel, the police are the מִשׁטָרָה (mi•shᵊtãr•ãhꞋ).

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שׁוּלחָןPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2023.11.17]

Table, Seudat Shlishit

masc . n. Shūl•khãnꞋ, table;שולחן,השולחן לחם, השולחן פנים,עריכת השולחן,shulkhan,shulchan,shulhan commemorating הַשֻׁלְחָן לֶחֶם פָּנִים in the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ—joined every Sha•bãtꞋ & Khag by the Pãn•imꞋ (presence) of the entire, fresh, Family of יְהוָׂה {Existant}, all 12 tribes of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ at our Shū•lᵊkh•ãnꞋ Sha•bãtꞋ: those who have gone before us, those who are temporarily distant from us, and those who will follow after us, whether or not they are recognized by the irrelevant contemporary mortals of modern clergy or Rabbinate!

See also the prophecy of all Hellenists conspiring at one שֻׁלְחָן in Dãniy•eilꞋ 11.27 and [Wisdom] עָרְכָה שֻׁלְחָנָה (Mi•shᵊl•eiꞋ ShᵊlomꞋoh 9.2).

From antiquity, in the Middle Eastern world one's (dining) table has been a metonym for Miz•beiꞋakh. While this has been almost completely lost in the Christian world, Tōr•ãhꞋ Jews, particularly since the destruction of the Beit ha-Miq•dãshꞋ, still regard their— kã•sheirꞋ(!)—dining table as the mnemonic symbol recalling the Shū•lᵊkh•ãnꞋ and Miz•beiꞋakh. more

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שׁוּלחָן עָרוּךPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.05.01]

Table, Seudat Shlishit

masc . n. Shūl•khãnꞋ •rūkhꞋ; שולחן ערוך, Shulkhan Arukh, Shulchan Aruch, Shulhan Arukh, Shulhan Aruchthe set table, i.e., the table that is set, ordered, arranged)—the name of what is heralded as the Jew's daily operating manual, written by Joseph Caro (Portugal & Turkey; Sᵊphãr•ãd•iꞋ, 1488-1575 CE) and first printed in Venice in 1565 CE, for daily Judaic practice, but was opposed into the 17th century and from which some Orthodox Jews still sometimes disagree and deliberately diverge. It was first rejected by Ash•kᵊnazꞋim until adopted by Moses Isserles () to the assimilation of German and Poland culture. The Shul•khãnꞋ •rukhꞋ is an adaptation, by Caro, of an earlier work—ArbꞋa Tur•imꞋ (Four Rows) by Ya•a•qovꞋ Bënsheir (Spain = Sᵊphãr•ãd•iꞋ, 1270?-1340 CE):

  1. אֹרַח חַיִּים (OꞋrakh khayꞋim; path of life), dealing with bᵊrãkh•otꞋ, Tᵊphil•otꞋ, Shab•ãtꞋ, Khaj•imꞋ and ta•an•i•yotꞋ (fasts)

  2. יוֹרֶה דֵעָה (Yor•ëhꞋ Dᵊãh; "knowledge shooter" or "knowledge gun"), dealing with ritual law (shᵊkhit•ãhꞋ, tᵊreiph•otꞋ, usury, A•vod•ãhꞋ Zãr•ãhꞋ & mourning)

  3. אֶבֶן הָעֵזֶר (ËꞋvën hã-EiꞋzër; the helping stone), dealing with feminine matters (marriage, divorce, extrication from levirate obligation and kᵊtub•ãhꞋ)

  4. חֹשֶׁן מִשׁפָּט (KhoꞋshën Mi•shᵊpãtꞋ), dealing with civil law and personal relations.

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שׁוּקPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2018.08.19]

shūq;שוק,ככר.כיכר,קניון.shuq,shuk,suq,suk,public square,plaza,mall,canyon (or "shuk"; rhymes with spook); public market square or plaza (cf. Mi•shᵊl•eiꞋ ShᵊlōmꞋōh 7.8; Qō•hëlꞋët 12.4-5; Shir ha-Shir•imꞋ 3.2); from which Arabic adopted سوق‎ (suq/​suk; also rhymes with spook). Ancient counterpart of the village business district, public park and industrial zone; combined modern קַנְיוֹן (qanᵊyōnꞋ; mall) and כִּכָּר (ki•kãrꞋ; plaza/​public square).

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סִדְרָהPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2007.02.22]

fem. n. si•dᵊr•ãhꞋ; סדרה,סידרה,sidrahorder [of recitation], liturgy, schedule, programme, schedule, arrangement; especially, the weekly portion of Tōr•ãhꞋ and Ha•phᵊtãr•ãhꞋ read by Jews around the world.

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סִדּוּרPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2007.02.18]

Sidur: Teimani Tiklal set
Tei•mãn•iꞋ תִּכּלַאל, No•sakhꞋ Ba•lad•iꞋ

masc . n. si•dūrꞋ, סדור,סידור,סדר,sidur,siddur,seiderpl, si•dūr•imꞋ; order [of a service], liturgy, schedule, programme, schedule, arrangement; also, the book containing the liturgy; de-Judaized to "prayer book." See also סֵדֶר (SeiꞋdër).

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סִימָןPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.05.01]

masc . n. si•mãnꞋ, סימן, simansign, mark, symbol, signal, paragraph).

Si•mãnꞋ is used as "chapter" in citing a chapter of Ta•na״khꞋ, e.g. 'בס (bᵊ-s') is an abbreviation for "in chapter…"

Thus, using the standard abbreviations, wa-Yi•qᵊr•ãꞋ 17:11 would be וַיִּקְרָא בס' י"ז י"א, though 'בס (bᵊ-s') is generally understood and omitted.

Note that the numbers of the chapter and verse are given in Gi•ma•tri•yãhꞋ, their corresponding Hebrew letters (10 + 7 = 17 and 10 + 1 = 11).

Two Glaring Exceptions Never Before Explained — except by rabbinic disinformation

There are two exceptions to this convention: 15 and& 16. The standard rabbinic explanation for this is ludicrously self-contradicting! Rabbis who cannot spell in Hebrew allege that this departure from the standard convention stems from the desire to avoid accidentally (i.e. profanely) writing a combination of thse two numbers that inadvertently form the Holy Name, י‑‑ה.

Notice, however, that, using the standard convention for these two numbers, even a child should be able to soon figure out that no combination of the two numbers, י''ה and י''ו, can possibly form the Holy Name, י‑‑ה. Jews, gullibly accepting the rabbis' explanation unquestioningly, just don't check it for themselves.

The rabbis, yet again, lead suckers astray into subterfuge.

Thus, all 15's & 16's (including 115, 2516, etc.) are formed using 9 + 6 (ט"ו) and 9 + 7 (ט"ז) rather than the expected 10 + 5 and 10 + 6. The standard convention then resumes with 17 = י"ז, the convention continues after that as expected.

The Real Reason: A Cryptic Connection Between These Two Numbers

The lapse of two millennia from the 15th Pã•qidꞋ ha-Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ to the 16th Pã•qidꞋ ha-Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ is the only historically-validated connection of sufficient merit to mirror the mystical status of these unique, cryptic, two sequential numbers. See also Gi•ma•tri•yãhꞋ.

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שִׁמחָהPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2019.06.06]

fem. n. si•mᵊkh•ãhꞋ, connective si•mᵊkh•atꞋ-…; שמחה, simkhah, simchah, simhahrejoicing; especially for a festive celebration commemorating completion of a mi•tzᵊwãhꞋ (e.g. Bᵊrit Mil•ãhꞋ, Bar-Mi•tzᵊwãhꞋ, etc.).

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סִינַיPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2022.03.19]

Map: Sinai Yetziah El Arish Har Karkom Har Sinai Midbar Paran
Click to enlargeMap: Sin•aiꞋ, Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ, Ël Arish, Har Kar•komꞋ, Har Sin•aiꞋ, Mi•dᵊbarꞋ Pa•ranꞋ

masc . n.Sin•aiꞋ;סיני,Sinaiסִינַי could be a Hebraization of local nomad "My 𒂗𒍪" (Mesopotamian moon- god)

See also Har Sin•aiꞋ

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א [Glos_R-S, updated: 2010.11.28]

Codex Sinaiticus
Codex Sinaiticus (click to enlarge)

Codex Sinaiticus (ca. 300-399 CE) The earliest extant complete ms. of the Christian NT, alleged to have originated in Israel. א is more likely derived from Israel and Israeli Hellenists than the other source texts, perhaps leaving it less Christianized by pagan (Hellenist Roman gentile) redactors and, therefore, less misojudaic.

א* Using the conventions of the apparatus of the Novum Testamentum Graeca, the asterisk refers to the original Hellenist Greek scribe of a document (in this example, of the Codex Sinaiticus). א1 refers to the first redactor's handwriting, א2 to the second redactor's handwriting, etc. as they redacted the Greek ms.

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שִׂנאַת חִנָּםPronunciation Table[Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. sin•atꞋ khi•nãmꞋ; שנאת חנם, שנאת חינם, sinat khinam,sinat chinam,sinat hinam,sinat chinom,sinat hinomgratuitously or baselessly eschewing; PEMRH: hating or hate-mongering, from the shōrꞋësh שָׂנֵא (sã•neiꞋ; he eschewed; PEMRH: hate).

While "hate," connoting the bearing of malice, is the pop. English counterpart, the context of passages using this verb, שָׂנֵא, reflect ancient Biblical Hebrew-speakers who, when appropriate, eschewed fellow country folk and even family, but did not hate them.

Hate is encapsulated in a different verb, from the root אָיַב (ã•yavꞋ; to be hostile to, to be at enmity with, an enemy of — to hate), in the vindictive and malice-bearing sense connoted in English — but prohibited by תּוֹרָה (cf. The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu (NHM, in English) note 5.43.4).

Consider, too, that hate is the antonym of love. Hate is contradictory to love. Could, then, the Ël•oh•imꞋ of love at the same time be an Ël•oh•imꞋ of hate toward the same individuals and people simultaneously? (Cf. Tᵊhil•imꞋ 5.6; Mi•shᵊl•eiꞋ Shᵊlom•oh′  6.16ff; 13.24; Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 21.15; bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 29.31; et al.)? One must remember to relate to the Hebrew; never rely on any translation.

Only when all references in Ta•na"khꞋ to שָׂנֵא, are understood to mean eschew, not hate, are they perfectly compatible — and only when תּוֹרָה is understood to be internally perfectly compatible is it correctly understood.

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סְכָךְPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2008.07.28]

skakh, rolledSukot with skhakh — better with palm fronds on top

masc . n. sᵊkhãkh; סכך, skhakh, schach, s'khakh, s'chacha wicker-like semi-covering on a Suk•ãhꞋ (Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ prohibits a true roof on a Suk•ãhꞋ).

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סְחוּגPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2021.06.25]

skhug adom (red)skhug yaroq (green)
Red SᵊkhugGreen Sᵊkhug

masc . n.Sᵊkhūgסחוג,skhug,s'khug

hot n spicy Yemenite sauce dip condiment, to dab on Iraqi Pita & Ma•laꞋwakh (flatbreads) and meats, etc.

The color and heat are determined by the type and amount of hot chili peppers used.

Recipe (2021 update) —  more

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סוֹפֵרPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2007.08.05]

Sopheir stam (stam-ink.blogspot.com)
So•pheirꞋ St"m

masc . n. sō•pheirꞋ; סופר, sopheir, sofeir, sopher, sofera counter (popularly "scribe"), because the Tōr•ãhꞋ scribes counted the number of letters in several different ways (by line, etc.) to ensure accuracy; pl. sō•phᵊr•imꞋ; pl. connective so•phᵊr•eiꞋ-).

A cognate, SeiꞋphër, "book" or "scroll," is widely used of a SeiꞋphër Tōr•ãhꞋ and Beit-SeiꞋphër (house of books = school).

סת"ם (pronounced stahm), acronym for סִפְרֵי-תּוֹרָה, תְּפִלִּין, מְזוּזוֹת (Si•phᵊr•eiꞋ-Tōr•ãhꞋ, tᵊphil•inꞋ, mᵊzuz•otꞋ).

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𓈈 [Glos_R-S, updated: 2021.12.23]

spët (sp3t, hieroglyph N24)—nome,spet an Egyptian nome (irrigation-control region), which delineated an Egyptian administrative, province-like territory under the governance of a Sëmër.

spëtity (coined here), anglicization denoting administrative rule as an Egyptian spët. Example sentence: Under Par•ōhꞋ Hëdj-khëpër- Sëtëp-ën-, YᵊhūdꞋãh was an Egyptian spëtity.

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סְתָמִיPronunciation Table [Glos_R-S, updated: 2006.04.27]

stãm•iꞋ; סתמי, stamineutral (e.g., neither khã•lãvꞋ nor bã•sãrꞋ).

"Parve" is a Yiddish word—which represents German assimilation. In the Bible and Tal•mūdꞋ the closest term is פֵּרוָה (peirv•ãhꞋ), a completely unrelated term meaning "fur." While stãm•iꞋ is likely the only correct word for "neutral, neither meat nor dairy" (assimilation to the Yiddish term, used by "everyone," being ruled out), your use of stãm•iꞋ will probably be the first time anyone has ever heard of it—affording you a teaching moment opportunity.

There is, however, another side. From the earliest times, Hebrew had the occasional loan word from other languages. Today, primarily Arabic, Russian, English and German. While speaking the Yiddish language must be rejected, avoiding the occasional loan word would be an impossibility. Still, that the doctrine of "parve" has no preceding Hebrew origin demonstrates that the doctrine of "parve" utensils was introduced as a reform (!) after the European assimilation of Yiddish (9th century CE).

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Στέφανος [Glos_R-S, updated: 2011.04.01]

StëphꞋan•os; Stephanos, Stefanos, StephenHellenist (Jew) and founder of the Ëb•i•ō•naῖꞋoi. Anglicized to Stephan.

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נְטִיָּהPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2018.09.20]

fem. n. nᵊtiy•ãhꞋ נטה, נטיה הגדולה, נטיה גדולה( BH: he stretched-apart, pulled-apart, stretched-forth), from the verb נָטָה.

The "Big Bang" is the modern physicists' conception of the ancient Biblical נְטִיָּה הַגְּדוֹלָה — the נְטִיָּה הַשָׁמָיִם — Scriptural "Big Stretch-Apart" of the heavens.

Physicists have described Einstein's Theory of Relativity as imagining one were riding a photon through the universe, and how that would affect local time and space. Einstein's simple formula, E=mc2, can be solved to reveal to you exactly what time is in our (and Einstein's) internally-constrained view of the universe. C, the speed of light, is a factor of time (namely, distance per second). Solving for the time factor in his equation, yields time t = distance per energy per mass!

From time = distance ÷ energy ÷ mass, it's plain that if distance covered by energymass drops to zero, then time, similarly, drops to 0, i.e. no longer exists. Thus, time is merely a man-defined metric that measures distances covered by energymass interactions — like miles (mph) or kilometers (kph), temperature, rate of acceleration or deceleration, or computer processing speed — not an intrinsic, physical component of the universe. Time — like miles, kilometers, and degrees — is merely a useful measuring unit, created by man, for clarifying our understanding of physical movement.

Therefore, This Postulate Is Testable

Mathematicians and logicians have an advantage of simplifying logic via manipulating definitions (reduced to mathematical or logical symbols) with excellent logic, but their downfall is when they so often are found to have failed to correctly understand how their result translates back into the real world. For this reason, having never followed the logical realities from start to conclusion (only manipulating their symbols according to mathematical-logical rules to skirt real-world phenomena too difficult for them to follow and elucidate), no mathematician has ever, nor will ever, "see" (nor grasp) infinity. That can only be realized, if at all, by following the real phenomena (not merely the symbols, whose definitions don't always fully and accurately reflect reality).

The equation I mathematically deduced above, may be expressed in terms of real phenomena without need of math: If all movement in the universe is stopped, that includes photons (light) and any given POV (relative to anything physical) becomes static with visibility of zero distance. In other words, the POV being zero means that infinity has shrunk to 0; i.e. everything is "frozen" in time(lessness) because time — as the measuring tool — has ceased to exist when everything in the universe ceases movement.

Conversely, if energy or mass drops to zero, then there is division by zero (time = distance ÷ 0), which is (man-defined) to be undefined (meaningless). In terms of real phenomena (rather than manipulating symbols). What does this mean? Whenever either energy and-or mass drops to 0, physicality (i.e. any particle) has ceased to exist. Distance, also being nothing more than a man-created measuring tool, divided by nothing — i.e. the (never defined) distance traveled by nothing — is meaningless.

Recent catching-up in physics — re: tokamaks — are enabling my postulate to be as testable as any physicist's theory. In some ways, pulling-apart physical particles ("lumps" of massenergy) by external force(s) within a "magnetic super-bottle" tokamak would seem, in some ways, to partially simulate the application by י‑‑ה of pre-universe (i.e. external) forces "pulling apart" the original, pre-universe, nothing — thereby perhaps mimicking, on a minute scale, the Nëtiy•ãhꞋ. Thus, in essence, these experiments may be "creating" nano-scale, nano-moment universes modeling, in nano-respects (magnetism being only one aspect of the basic forces that combined to create our universe), the Nëtiy•ãhꞋ — thereby confirming my long-published Nëtiy•ãhꞋ Postulation. It's certainly more logical, grounded in reality and makes more sense than the endless baseless and speculative "may have" possibles Roll eyes touted by many physicists, who often peddle their speculations with no basis, contradicting known physics (every action causes, and therefore is also caused by, a reaction — including the ultimate origin of our universe). They most-unscientifically obfuscate, never answering where is the Prime Cause ex nihilo? Thus, many physicists wildly speculate our universe somehow "growing" out of previous universes, multiverses, etc.; obscenely exceeding the math they point to, taking advantage that it goes over most people's heads, to kick the can down the road based on sheer speculation for flash-in-the-pan fame and profits from papers and books.

A short animation that shows the expansion of the universe in the standard 'Lambda Cold Dark Matter' cosmology, which includes dark energy (top left panel red), the new Avera model, that considers the structure of the universe and eliminates the need for dark energy (top middle panel, blue), and the Einstein-de Sitter cosmology, the original model without dark energy (top right, green). The panel at the bottom shows the increase of the 'scale factor' (an indication of the size) as a function of time. The growth of structure can also be seen in the top panels. One dot roughly represents an entire galaxy cluster. Units of scale are in Megaparsecs (Mpc), where 1 Mpc is around 3 million million million [i.e., 3 quintillion] km. (Video: István Csabai et al.)

Further discussion, including Scriptural citations:  more info

For discussion specific to the implications on reality, the nëphꞋësh and eternity, see commentary on bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ more info

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סֻכָּה or סוּכָּהPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2019.10.09]

Ben-David family Sukkah
Bën-Dã•widꞋ Family Suk•ãhꞋ

fem. n. Sūk•ãhꞋ; סכה, סוכה, sukah, sukkah, sukot, sukkothut or booth, pl. סֻכּוֹת (Sūk•ōtꞋ; huts; Modern Hebrew: booths). This is widely rendered by the inaccurate and misleading term "tabernacles," leading to confusion of סֻכָּה with the completely unrelated מִשׁכָּן; and Khag ha-Sūk•ōtꞋ (Huts). The modern phrase "Festival of Tabernacles" is no less inaccurate and misleading.

Ta•na״khꞋ also calls this Khag -ã•siphꞋ

Friends & Family in our Suk•ãhꞋ (2009)

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Suzerain(ty) 𐏋/​SãꞋtrap•y [Glos R-S, updated: 2024.03.06]

There was no "suzerainty" (French for "sovereign") until 14ᵗʰ century CE France! Being reliant on modern notions of sovereignty, neither French models nor China's earlier, Cefeng model, reflect Media-Persian times or interrelations between ancient Media-Persian tribal nations.

While some have attempted to define a "limited treaty-suzerainty" between two unequal states to fit pre-feudal times (i.e. prior to the 8th century CE), Encyclopedia Britannica 1911 is succinct: "All definitions of suzerainty are of little use. Each instrument in which the word is used must be studied in order to ascertain its significance. Even in feudal times suzerainty might be merely nominal…"

In Biblical times, eons before the feudal era, alliances were unique and enforcement of terms event-driven. No ancient Empire was a suzerain and no subordinate state a suzerainty. This erroneous term illustrates the countless inconvenient indeterminate complexities that remain unknown.

In contrast to the successor Persian SãꞋtrap•y; the Medes comprised a confederacy of Media (Persian) tribes, headed by what modern societies would recognize as the "Grand Tribal Chief of Council of the Median Confederacy of Persian Tribes"—the 𐏋!

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ΣυναγωγήPronunciation Table [Glos R-S, updated: 2020.05.06]

Greek sū•na•gōgꞋæ;synagogue from συν (sūn, Anglicized to "syn"; "together") + ἄγω (a•gōꞋ, to lead, lead along, bring); Anglicized to "synagogue".

The need for, and therefore presence of, local civic structures dedicated to study and public prayer gatherings date back at least to the time of the first national Shō•pheitꞋ (namely עָתְנִיאֵל בֶּן קְנַז), some indefinite time after Yᵊho•shuꞋa Bin-Nun.

However, scholars have been sloppy by ignoring that which is conspicuous in their protection of their "Orthodox" rabbinic pro-synagogue agenda. Prior to the Hellenist coup d'état in B.C.E. 176, distinctively Judaic religio-civic structures were either a בֵּית מִדְרָשׁ for study, or a בֵּית תְּפִלָּה, or חֶדֶר תְּפִלָּה ("prayer room") for a mi•nᵊyãnꞋ of public prayers. Perhaps some reformers once even called these by Babylonian names (paralleling assimilations of "Nisan" and other calendar names as well as switching the New Year from Biblical Firstmonth, in spring, to the Babylonian autumn birthday of Ma•rᵊdukh in Sevenmonth).

Aside from Hellenists (who were assimilated, never mainstream), however, these were not a Συναγωγή, much less a προσευψή! This is only one of a number of assimilations through the millennia that need to be restored. more

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