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Hebrew Glossary: K-M

The reason this simple page of glossary definitions is ranked so popular with the search engine is because so many people click on our links to these definitions from the content in… the 'Netzarim Quarter' Village web site in Ra•a•nanꞋã(h), Israel at www.netzarim.co.il

In Hebrew, the original followers of Riyb"y were called the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ (Hellenized-Anglicized to "Nazarenes"). The real content is in the main body of the 'Netzarim Quarter'! Click on the Netzarim logo (at top) for an exciting visit to the 'Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Quarter' where you'll learn about Historical Riyb"y and his original, Jewish, followers—before the excision of The Apostate Paul, c. 49 CE, that resulted in his Great Jesus-Christianity Apostasy, founded (7 churches) in Anatolia (now modern Turkey). Just as importantly, learn how you (whether Jew or non-Jew) can follow the historically Ta•na״khꞋ-coherent Riyb"y, according to the bᵊrit with יְהוָׂה—which is what genuinely can make you a Jew; regardless of any pronouncement(s) by mortals! (Walking in the bᵊrit must be among Jews in order to be witnessed by Jews; but their, or any mortals', endorsement is of no spiritual relevance whatsoever.)

Until Paqid Yirmeyahu researched the Netzarim name and sect and began publishing about it in 1972 in The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu (NHM, in English) no one in modern times was even aware of the name Netzarim. It stretches credulity that no one in modern times had heard of the Netzarim until Paqid Yirmeyahu published it in 1972… and then, suddenly, everybody figured it out??? Check (and verify) the dates of the earliest works about the Netzarim by the others and you'll see that they are deceiver-plagiarists. Then insist on the person whom ha-Sheim selected to entrust the knowledge, not imposters who falsely call their continuing practice of Displacement Theology "Nazarene Judaism" or directly plagiarize the name "Netzarim."

Because we teach and practice the authentic Judaic teachings of Ribi Yehoshua—not Displacement Theology—we are the only group who have restored the Netzarim to be accepted in the legitimate Jewish community in Israel—genuinely like Ribi Yehoshua and the original Netzarim. Consequently, the 'Netzarim Quarter' is the only web site of legitimate Netzarim / Nazarene Judaism.

Give all the friends you've ever known the chance to know about this exciting site; send them our web site address (www.netzarim.co.il) that opens modern eyes for the first time to the Judaic world that Ribi Yehoshua and his original Netzarim knew, practiced and taught.

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Καϊάφας [Glos K-M, updated: 2011.06.22]

(Kai•aphꞋas, popularly Caiaphas)

Ossuary of קפא (Qãphã; Caiaphas) Ossuary of יהוסף בר קיפא (Y'hoseiph Bar Qayãphã; Caiaphas)

Roman-appointed Hellenist-Tzᵊdoq•iꞋ ("Sadducee"!) High Priest.

Since his name is grammatically unrelated to (Shim•ōnꞋ) "כֵּיפָא", his Hellenist name probably did not derive directly from כֵּיפָא despite the conjecture of later commentators who speculated that his Hellenist name might have derived from קיף (Qa•yaphꞋ; a mocking portmanteau, coined by the Pᵊrush•imꞋ, of כֵּיפָא and קוֹףqoph; monkey; compare MishꞋnãh pãr•ãhꞋ iii. 5; Derenbourg, "Essai sur I'Histoire de la Palestine," p. 215, note 2; Schürer, "Gesch." 3d ed., ii. 218; Josephus, "Antiquities of the Jews," xviii. 2, § 2; Jewish Ency.) Certainly, their family name did not derive from Pᵊrush•iꞋ mockery.

Consulting Jastrow's Aramaic Dictionary, קפא—the name on the less-ornate Caiaphas ossuary—is the root verb meaning "to be on top, to float on the surface."

For more details, click on the less-ornate ossuary.


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Καισάρεια [Glos K-M, updated: 2011.04.03]

Keisariyah Promontory Palace
2001.04 Keisariyah Promontory Palace

Kai•sarꞋei•a; קיסריה, Caesarea, Keisariyah, Keisariah, Kesariyah, Kesariah transliterated into Hebrew as קֵיסָרְיָה‎ (Qei•sãꞋrᵊyãh), Anglicized to Caesarea; Hellenist "Caesar City" built by the Εd•om•iꞋ king, Herod the Great, for the Roman occupiers on the coast of present-day Israel, midway between modern Tel Aviv and KheiphꞋãh (Anglicized to Haifa).


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Καλλίστη Pronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2023.02.02]

Pulossian-Phoenician Mediterranean trade routes
Click to enlarge𐤑𐤓-Colony Island—​Hellenized exonyms: pre-LBAC  ΘΥΡΑ, post-LBAC  Θήρα.

Kal•lisꞋtæ—​Kallistae the rename cBCE 1236, by the Pūlossian, upon conquering and recolonizing the previously TzūrꞋi•an Cycladic Aegean island of Thæra, 3 centuries after its catastrophic, Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ-triggering, volcanic eruption of cBCE . Finally, Latin Roman Christians renamed it Sanctus Ir•rënꞋëss (transgarbled to "Santorini") Island. more


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r•t•ph•K (Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew)Egyptian hieroglyph; Keftia (Crete)
KaphᵊtōrꞋ (Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew)Click to enlarge Keftia hi­er­o­glyph
[Glos_K-M, updated: 2023.06.29]


ccc
Click to enlarge Mi•tzᵊr•ayꞋim & Kit•imꞋ) Ka•phᵊtōrꞋ (later renamed by Pūlossians to PūlꞋos)

Ka•phᵊtōrꞋKaphtor,Kaftor,Caphtor,Caftor,Keftia,Kephtia Though the location of Ka•phᵊtōrꞋ is debated and unsettled, the most likely location according to Scripture and Ἰώσηπος seems to be neither Crete nor Cyprus, but originally a Kit•imꞋ (Anatolian) seaport on the northern coast of the Sin•aiꞋ bordering Mi•tzᵊr•ayꞋim. Ka•phᵊtōrꞋ was later renamed by their Cimmerian Terranes keys Pelopónnese islander cousins, the PūlossiansPūlꞋos (Hellenized to "Pelusium").

The neighboring Egyptians transgarbled Ka•phᵊtōrꞋ to Kë•phᵊtiꞋa.


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כִּכָּרPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2022.04.22]

ki•kãrꞋ;kikar a shaped or molded, usually symmetrical (rounded or oblong) mass (as of bread or meat); i.e. a public square or plaza, a city block, a plain (as the ki•kãrꞋ Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh (aka עֵ֖מֶק הַשִּׂדִּ֑ים).

A ki•kãrꞋ (Hellenized to τάλαντον) of gold or silver, as estimated by Oxford Biblical Studies Online from many varying descriptions of the shëqꞋël, was about the weight of 2¾ standard bars of gold (i.e. 75½ lbs. U.S. Avoirdupois or 34.3 kg).


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כִּלְיָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.06.27]

ki•lᵊyãhꞋ;כליה,kileyah,kilyah kidney, believed by ancient Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ to be the seat of integrity and morality, the body’s bag of good or evil (in contrast to the Egyptian—hence gentile modern—view of the heart as the seat of good or evil.

The ancient association of the kidney with good vs evil was likely expressed among the goy•imꞋ in nephromancy (divination by examination of a kidney) when seeking to resolve questions related to good vs evil.


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כִּיּוֹרPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2020.02.14]

ki•yōrꞋ;כיור,kiyor basin, tub; PEMRH: sink.


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Ka-moses
Ka-moses
Ka. vitality, soul, spirit (D28: upheld-arms) mos, incarnate (F31: 3 desert wolf pelts)d s (O34 door bolt)

[Glos K-M, updated: 2018.03.19]


Par•ohꞋ Ka-moses;Kamoses, Ka-moses last Par•ohꞋ of the 17th Dynasty/​Second Intermediate Period, reigned in WãsꞋët c BCE . Although there currently appears to be significant doubt surrounding his birth, he is thought to probably have been the son of Se-qen-en- Tao, therefore the older brother of his own successor, Neb-petit- Yah-moses — 1st Par•ohꞋ of the New Kingdom/​18th Dynasty.

The reign of Par•ohꞋ Ka-moses is most important for the decisive military initiatives he took against the KhëqᵊqãwꞋ KhãsꞋᵊt (Hyksos) Levantine immigrants, who had colonized the northern Delta and most of Lower Ancient Egypt — putting his successor (brother?) in position to achieve victory, reunifying Upper and Lower Egypt. more


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כָּנָףPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2021.06.01]

fem. n. kã•nãphꞋ כנף,כנפים,kanaph,kanaf,canaph,canaf wing.

  • connective -כְּנַף (kᵊnaph-; a wing of…),

  • pl. (& dual) כְּנָפַיִם (kᵊnãph•aꞋyim: a pair of wings, pairs of wings, wings;

  • pl. connective -כַּנפֵי (kan•phei-; wings of…).


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כַּפָּרוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2010.07.18]

Kaparot (Ultra-Orthodox / Khareidim - black felt kipah)

fem. n. (pl.) Ka•pãr•ōtꞋ; כפרות, kaparot, kapparot, caparot, capparot atonements-sacrifice.

Performed preceding Yom ha-Ki•pur•imꞋ, כַּפָּרוֹת is the ritual atonement-sacrifice of a chicken (though practitioners deny it is a sacrifice), which originated in Dark Ages European assimilation.

This superstitious ritual is practiced only by some (not all) Ultra-Orthodox (and no mainstream Orthodox), by swinging it above one's head to absorb the demonic aura of tã•meiꞋ.

Kaparot (Black hat Ultra-Orthodox / Khabad)

The כַּפָּרוֹת is then slaughtered according to shᵊkhit•ãhꞋ, cooked (the process believed to destroy by fire, on the family stove, the demonic aura of tãm•eiꞋ, which supposedly dissipates in the cooking vapors Roll eyes); then eating the כַּפָּרוֹת before the start of the tzōm.

This constitutes a "private altar" sacrifice prohibited in Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 12.8-27. See, also, our glossary entry for cognate ki•purꞋ supplemented by our explanatory discussion of ki•purꞋ.


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כָּרִיךְPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2021.07.02]

karikh (food enwrapped in bread)
Click to enlargeKã•rikhꞋ

Kã•rikhꞋ;karikh — a main food item, usually a meat or vegetable, customarily dipped in a hot spicy sauce condiment, often garnished with salad greens—and enwrapped in a soft  lëkhꞋëm.

From practically the discovery of making bread in the ancient Middle East c. BCE 13,000 (with 3 zeros), lëkhꞋëm was used to grasp and dip meat or veggies into hot spicy sauce, which was then garnished with salad greens.

moreThe first extant recorded name associated with the bread-meat-dip-greens combo is the kã•rikhꞋ of Hi•leilꞋ Sr. "the Babylonian"! (born c. BCE 70 in Bã•vëlꞋ, died 10 CE in Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim). A priori, he referred to lëkhꞋëm Bã•vᵊl•iꞋ (modern Iraq)—today called "Iraqi pita".

The Hebrew term, kã•rikhꞋ, predated the development of the Arabic language. Thus, the Kã•rikhꞋ also predates the Schwarma and Laffa.

It wasn't until nearly 15 millennia later, in the mid-18th century CE, that the English called the kã•rikhꞋ after their Earl of Sandwich.


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כָּרֵתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2018.07.04]

masc . n. kã•reitꞋכרת, kareit, karet, careit, caret 1. a cutting-out, hewing-out, engraving, inscribing or excising (from stone, wood, metal, etc.); particularly, in the Biblical era, engraving a bᵊrit in stone. 2. Post-Biblical rabbinic-era superstitions of incantations (curses) able to bring about premature deaths aside, as science advanced this Hebrew verb matured to recognize an eternal — i.e. spiritual — excommunication, ban or banishment, as a "hewing-out" or excision from Am Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋmore

See also kheiꞋrëm (shunning).


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Καρπός Pronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2020.05.03]

Kar•possכרפס,אזוב,karpas,carpas (Hellenist Greek term) — any fruit or vegetable; whether of trees, fields or the earth; i.e. parsley, celery, lettuce, etc.

In the (Hellenist Roman) Christian era, the Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ and rabbis assimilated significant Hellenism: including reclining while eating and Greek terms from synagogue to Sanhedrin and ka•rᵊpasꞋ to aphꞋi•kōmꞋon). Thus, they syncretized ka•rᵊpasꞋ into the PësꞋakh SeiꞋdër plate; displacing BH: אֵזוֹב (eiz•ōvꞋ).

They did this by transliterating Καρπός into Hebrew letters: כַּרְפַּס — despite that כַּרְפַּס is found only once in the Ta•na״khꞋ (Ës•teirꞋ 1.6)—where it means a finely-woven fabric, not a vegetable)! This is only one of a number of assimilations through the millennia that need to be restored. more


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𒅗𒀸 [Glos_K-M, updated: 2023.06.07]

kã•rūmꞋkarum—Akkadian Proto-Semitic, Egyptian and Anatolian (mislabeled "Minoan") cuneiform, indigenous to central Anatolia. ("The language is preserved in two closely related but distinct forms, one using cuneiform script and the other using [not Egyptian] hieroglyphic writing.")

A kã•rūmꞋ was 1. an ancient maritime port or merchant caravan commercial trading district-citydom, and 2. the province of satellite villages and lands surrounding the central kã•rūmꞋ district (city).

The logistically best-situated kã•rūmꞋ citydom of an area typically grew to become the capital city of its surrounding satellite villages and lands, which became its kã•rūmꞋ (province), named after the capital city (e.g., Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋsha, Kã•rūmꞋ Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋsha).


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כָּשֵׁרPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

(certificate of fitness - dairy only) תעודת כשרות - חלבי בלבד
Typical Certificate of Kash•rutꞋ:
Khã•lãv•iꞋ
(certificate of fitness - meat only) תעודת הכשר - בשרי בלבד
Typical Certificate of Kash•rutꞋ:
Bᵊsãr•iꞋ

kã•sheirꞋ (adj.); כשרות, kasheir, kasher, casheir, casher, kosher, kashrut, koshrut fit for use (Hel­lenized to "kosher"); from כָּשַׁר (kã•sharꞋ; he/it was fit, qualified, trained).

fem. n. כַּשׁרוּת (ka•shᵊr•utꞋ; the topic of what is and isn't kã•sheirꞋ).


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כַּלְדִּיםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2022.06.05]

Ka•lᵊd•imꞋ (corrupted to Chaldeans)כשדים,כלדים,כלדאי,Kaledim,Kasedim,Chaldeans—from 𐤀𐤓𐤌𐤉𐤀 (Aramean) pl. כַּלְדָּאֵי, which evolved in Aramaic to כַּלְדָּאִין, and introduced the dysphemism כַּשְׂדִּים, used exclusively for "Chaldeans" in modern Hebrew.

The Aramaic כַּלְדָּאִין was then Hebraized (probably in Aramaic/​Middle-Semitic Hebrew) to pl. כַּלְדִּים, while the Syriac ܟܠܕܘ Hellenized to Greek as Χαλδαία, which was then Anglicized to Chaldeans.

While less likely, it is possible that a scribe wrongly copied the name from a worn scroll (or corrected from an ostracon) in a different (often far from precise) handwriting. The two could be confused from an old scroll in the Proto-Sinaitic alephbeit, confusing Proto-Sinaitic lamed (English: shepherd's crook) with Proto-Sinaitic shin (English: two front teeth; sharp), transforming כַּלְדִּים to כַּשְׂדִּים. However, the error is much less likely in the later, Middle-Semitic alephbeit or Modern Hebrew.

The כַּלְדִּים were immigrants from the Levant to Bã•vëlꞋ, who took advantage of domestic conflict to take the throne of Bã•vëlꞋ cBCE 780 and maintain rule until finally overthrown by the 𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶 (Neo-Persian Iranian "Shãh-dom) Shãh 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 in BCE 539 (soon after Dãn•iy•eilꞋ's fateful prophecy to the doomed Kalᵊdean regent-son, Bel-shazar (Akkadian cuneiform: ''Bel protect the king), in the absence of his father, Shãh Nabu-na id (Akkadian cuneiform: ''Nabu is praised'', BCE 556-539); Hellenized to ''Nabonidus'', of the "writing on the wall").


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כַּוָּנָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. ka•wãn•ãhꞋ; כוונה, kavanah, kawanah, cavanah, cawanah directed intention, meaning, "the state of mental concentration and devotion at prayer and during the performance of mitzvot… clearly referred to by… [Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 29.13]… Kawãnãh in Mitzwot This is defined as the intention of the person performing the action to do so with the explicit intention of fulfilling the religious injunction which commands the action." ("Kavvanah," Ency. Jud., 10.852).


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כָּבוֹדPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.06.27]

masc . n. kã•vōdꞋ; כבוד,כבד,kavod,cavod,kevod,cevod,k'vod,c'vod,kaveid gravitas (weighty, derived from gravity), respect, honor. When used of יהוה, Kã•vōdꞋ generally refers to the Shᵊkhin•ãhꞋ.

masc . n. Cognate כָּבֵד (kã•veidꞋ) — heavy, weighty, grave, gravitas (both meaning weighty or solemn, and deriving from gravity), burdensome, onerous, stressful. Also, the liver, which the ancients believed to be the body’s stress (stress-decisions) center.

The ancient association of the liver with stress was likely expressed among the goy•imꞋ in hepatomancy (divination by examination of a liver) when seeking to resolve questions related to stressful situations.


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כְּהֻנָּהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2020.02.08]

Kᵊhūn•ãhꞋ; priesthood.


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כֵּיפָאPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2017.12.19]

fem. n. (Aramaic; Hebrew: כִּיפָּהkip•ãhꞋ) KeiphꞋã, כיפא, Keipha, Kepha, Cephas a vault, vaulted chamber or arcade; perhaps because he was known for wearing a kip•ãhꞋ while the others didn't or, alternately, perhaps he was bald.

Shim•onꞋ "KeiphꞋã" Bar-YonꞋãh, the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Jew, was distorted and perverted by post-135 C.E. Hellenist Roman Christians into the polar opposite and antithetical Hellenized (i.e. Christianized) image of "Simon Peter." Only then, between 142 & 168 C.E., Hegesippus ἐποιησάμην  the Hellenized, mythical-Christian "Simon Peter" retroactively, long after his death, into the first ἐπίσκοπος 


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כְּנַעַן & Phoenician nunPhoenician ayinPhoenician nunPhoenician kaphPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . prop. n. Kᵊna•anꞋHellenized to "Canaan"; region of cursed tribes (aka Nᵊphil•imꞋ) in the Levant; later (in the Levant Late-Bronze Age), beginning c BCE 1513, conquered, absorbed and subsumed in Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ.כנען,Retenu,Rethnu,Kenaanim

Deciphering related Egyptian hieroglyphs unveils the KhëqᵊqãwꞋ KhãsꞋᵊt (corrupted to "Hyksos") as the indigenous inhabitants of "Rethnu" (i.e. Kharët-unu rëtjën) — Kᵊna•anꞋ:

Rethnu (Kenaan)
Retnu (Kᵊna•anꞋ)

Kharët-unu rëtjën — Glyphs read by column, top-to-bottom, then right-to-left unless some direc­tional symbol faces left. Faces always point to the beginning of the glyph, though dieties take precedence over that to be pronounced first.


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בֵּית-הַכְּנֶסֶתPronunciation TableHear it! [Glos K-M, updated: 2023.12.04]

Beit K'nesset Moreshet Avot, Raanana
Click to enlargeBeit ha-KᵊnësꞋët Mo•rëshꞋët Ãv•otꞋ – Yad Nã•ãm•iꞋ, Ra•a•nanꞋã(h). Click video icon to play (or download and save to pay forward: i.e. post & cite) short video of the congregation and me during my 10 year membership in Israeli Tei•mãn•iꞋ Orthodox beit ha-kᵊnësꞋët chanting הוֹשַׁענָא רַבָּא: Ho•shaꞋ-nã Rab•ãꞋ

Beit ha-KᵊnësꞋët; pl. בָּתֵי-כְּנֶסֶת (bãt•eiꞋ-kᵊnësꞋët); "house of assembly," widely abbreviated ביהכ"נ — Hellenized to συναγωγή. Israel's congress or parliament is called the KᵊnësꞋët. ("Shul" is Yiddish, an example of assimilation to German culture, to be avoided.)בית הכנסת,בתי-כנסת,beit ha-keneset,beit ha-k'neset,beit ha-kneset,beit ha-kenesset,beit ha-k'nesset,beit ha-knesset,bet ha-keneset,bet ha-k'neset,bet ha-kneset,bet ha-kenesset,bet ha-k'nesset, bet ha-knesset

The origins of the beit ha-kᵊnësꞋët developed in the continuing religious worship—tᵊphil•ãhꞋ, reading of Scripture and dᵊrashꞋ—after the prohibition of sacrifices in the local shrines, antedating the Beit-ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ hã-Rish•onꞋ (Mᵊlãkh•imꞋ Beit 22-23). The development of the beit ha-kᵊnësꞋët surged with the Gãl•utꞋ to Bã•vëlꞋ (Yᵊkhëz•qeilꞋ 11.16; 8.6, 14.1; 20.1).

Bãt•eiꞋ-kᵊnësꞋët were typically very small and, by the first century C.E., numbered between 300 and 500 in Yᵊru•shã•layꞋim alone, including one on Har ha-BayꞋit (Sot. 7.7-8)!

The function of the beit ha-kᵊnësꞋët as a center not only for tᵊphil•ãhꞋ and dᵊrash, but as the all-embracing communal social center, dates from the earliest period (Ency. Jud., 15.583).

The beit ha-kᵊnësꞋët is the proper place for Jews to "assemble" for all matters Judaic.


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כְּפָרPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2014.12.21]

masc . n. Kᵊphãr, כפר, k'far, kephar, k'phar, kefar, kphar, kfar rural village (-ville) or town; most often seen in the combinative form: □-כְּפַר (Kᵊphar-□) and spelled K'far – e.g., KᵊpharꞋ Na•khumꞋ (Village of Na•khumꞋ, Na•khumꞋville; Na•khumꞋtown; Hellenized to Capernaum) or K'far Saba (Village of Grandpa, Grandpaville, Grampatown) and the like.


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כְּפִירPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2018.12.20]

kᵊphir yearling lion
Kᵊphir

masc . n. kᵊphir; כפיר,kephir, k'phir, kefir, k'fir,gur,arieh,ariyeh,ariyeih a male yearling lion whose mane is first beginning to grow in — the time when a male lion is expelled from the pride to find a mate and start its own pride.

Like the גּוּר, a kᵊphir is a stage of life of an אַרְיֵה.


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כְּרוּבPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2008.06.12]

masc . n. kᵊruvꞋ, כרובים, keruvim, k'ruvim, cherubim plural כְּרוּבִים (kᵊruv•imꞋ) of uncertain origin and meaning; most likely refers to the early middle-eastern (Egyptian & Mesopotamian) prototype of the later Hellenist name—"sphinx." Anglicized to "cherub" and "cherubim".

Keruv Left Assyria 9th or 8th century Ivory
Kᵊruv: Assyria BCE 9th-8th century, Ivory

"Hōr-em-akht (Horus in the horizon)—Hellenized, millennia later, and misleadingly called the Great "Sphinx" (a cognate of "sphincter," meaning "strangler"). Beyond a few cosmetic similarities to Greek statues of millennia later, the Greek meaning of "strangler" has nothing to do with the much earlier ancient Egyptian statues. Hōr-em-akht originally represented HōrꞋus, god of the dawn, with the head of a ram (the guardian against the demons of the netherworld) on the body of a lion (the guardian of Ra). [An enterprising pharaoh, perhaps followed by successive pharaohs, resculpted the head of "The Sphinx" to depict his own face (resulting in a head disproportionately small); a pattern imitated by kings of other middle-eastern and Mesopotamian countries.]

"Two sculptures of Hōr-em-akht, back to back guarding the comings and goings of Ra, symbolized the rule of the universe. The Egyptian Hōr-em-akht statues bear a far closer resemblance to the kᵊruv•imꞋ (corrupted to “cherubim”) and sᵊrãph•imꞋ described by Yᵊkhëz•qeilꞋ (1 & 10) and Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu (6). See also, inter alia, Ancient Mysteries, Guardian of the Ages: The Great Sphinx, A&E Television Networks and The History Channel, 1996." (The Mirrored Sphinxes, Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu Bën-Dãvid, 2007).


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כְּתִיבPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2007.09.14]]

masc . n. kᵊtiv, כתיב, ketiv, k'tiv, cetiv, c'tiv "written" form of a word in Tōr•ãhꞋ; as contrasted against the qᵊrei form.


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כְּתֻבָּהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2018.10.13]

ketubah
Kᵊtub•ãhꞋ

fem. n. kᵊtub•ãhꞋ כתובה, ketubah, k'tubah, ketubbah, k'tubbah a writing, specifically, a marriage contract. Plural is kᵊtub•otꞋ.



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כְּתוּבִיםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. (pl.) Kᵊtuv•imꞋ כתובים, Ketuvim, K'tuvim writings (Books of Ta•na״khꞋ other than Tor•ãhꞋ shë-bikh•tãvꞋ and Nᵊviy•imꞋ)


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כֶּבֶשֹPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.07.23]

keves - sheep
KꞋvãs•imꞋ

masc . n. KëvꞋës; כבשים, keves, kevasim one sheep, a sheep (sing.), כִּבְשָׂה (ki•vᵊs•ãhꞋ; an ewe), כְּבָשִֹים (kꞋvãs•imꞋ; sheep pl.). Compare & contrast with aꞋyil, tal•ëhꞋ, eiz, tzon, and sëh.

Before there was paper money, checks, credit cards or banks, a këvꞋës served as a donation, or payment of a court-imposed fine equal in today’s currency to approx. ₪100 or U.S. $25. (A tal•ëhꞋ was more valuable.)


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חב"דPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2012.07.19]

Kha•badꞋ; חב"ד, חב''ד, Khabad, Khab"d, Chabad, Chab"d, Habad, Hab"d popularly, Chabad—acronym for חָכְמָה (khã•khᵊm•ãhꞋ; sagacity — as in sage, wisdom), בִּינָה (bin•ãhꞋ; understanding) and דַּעַת (daꞋat; knowledge).

Thus, although חב"ד identifies with an Ultra-Orthodox view of modern Kha•sid•imꞋ (who are traditionally irrationalists), the three pillars forming the foundation of חב"ד imply their strong leaning toward a rationalist approach of Ram•ba"mꞋ to spirituality—an approach to which the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ — Biblical (logical Orthodox), not Ultra-Orthodox — Kha•sid•imꞋ readily relate.


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חַגPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.10.04]

masc . n. Khag;חגים,khagim,khajim,hajim,chagim,chajim,khagnikim,khagniqim pl. חַגִּים (Tei•mãn•iꞋ pronunciation: khaj•imꞋ; Israeli pronunciation: Khaj•imꞋ); pilgrimage(s) to Har ha-BaꞋyit in Yᵊru•shã•layꞋim; eroded after 135 C.E. to mean "festival" or "feast." This is the term from which Arabic and Islam plagiarized "haj."

חַגְּנִיק (khagꞋniq), pl. חַגִּנִיקים khag•niq•imꞋ; “Khaj-niks” (coined here, applying a modern suffix, adopted from Russian, to describe participants of the attached noun); i.e. Khag pilgrims from the Tᵊphutz•ãhꞋ.

The Three Annual Khaj•imꞋ
  1. Khag ha-Matz•ōtꞋ — Firstmonth, the Khag of PësꞋakh and Matz•ōtꞋ/​Firstfruits of Barley harvest

  2. Khag Shãv•ū•ōtꞋ — the Khag of Weeks/​Firstfruits of Wheat harvest

  3. Khag ha-Sūk•ōtꞋ /​ Khag hã-ã•siphꞋSeventhmonth (not the assimilated Babylonian “New Year” of Ma•rᵊdukh), the Khag of the Huts/​Firstfruits of the Ingathering harvest


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חַגָּיPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

Khaj•aiꞋ; חגי, Khagai, Chagai, Haggai "My pilgrimages" tenth of the twelve minor Nᵊviy•imꞋ in Ta•na״khꞋ, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Haggai.'


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חָלַל Pronunciation Table [Glos_K-M, updated: 2023.11.13]

khã•lalꞋ;khalal to hollow-out, be hollow or be hollowed-out; be bored-out, hole-punched; vacuous (e.g., space), cavernous, porous or empty; modern outer space.

Metamorphically, khã•lalꞋ is used to denote emptied or hollowed-out of worth or value. i.e. profaned, common (e.g., a defrocked priest); to play a hollowed-out flute.

As a noun or adjective, it means empty (e.g. worldly, non-religious, non-spiritual, secular; common, profane, ordinary). By extension, "getting one's hands dirty" (profaned) in the sense of beginning or getting started on something from scratch (beginning with empty hands or vessel).


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חַסָּהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2021.06.20]

Biblical-era accessible in the Levant Lactuca sativa longifolia (lettuce)
Click to enlargeBH: Biblical-era Egyptian & Levant (modern Romaine) lettuce 

חַסָּה,חוס,khasah,khus derived from the Aramaic חַסָּא  — the long-leaved, Lactuca sativa, var. longifolia (Romaine) lettuce; a variety popular in ancient Egypt and Israel. This variety of lettuce had an early and intimate idolatrous history with the Egyptian god, Min.

So חַסָּה has come to be PEMRH: lettuce, BH: 1. seek or find refuge, be merciful or sparing, care for or about; 2. Romaine lettuce; 3. the "Mercy Seat" on the A•rōnꞋ ha-Bᵊrit i.e. Throne of יְהוָׂה, flanked by 2 kᵊrūv•imꞋ, on the celestial Më•rᵊkãv•ãhꞋ!

What went awry?  more


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חָכָםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2021.11.06]

masc . n. Khã•khãmꞋ; חכם,חכמים,חכמה,חז”ל,khakhamim,khakhemah,chachamim,hahamim,hachamim,khazal,khaz”l,chazal,chaz”l sagacious, wise, intelligent, prudent, shrewd, learned man; a sage. Pl. חֲכָמִים (kha•khãm•imꞋ; sages) — perhaps the origin of the early American word "cockamamie". See also leiv (heart).

fem. n. חָכְמָה (khã•khᵊm•ãhꞋ; sagacity, wisdom, intelligence, prudence, shrewdness, learning (n.); a sagacious, wise, intelligent, prudent, shrewd, learned woman).

חז’’ל (kha•zalꞋ), post-Talmudic acronym (חֲכָמֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה) subsuming the Talmudic terms Tan•ã•imꞋ and Õmōr•ãꞋyim. This acronym effectively redefined Pᵊrūsh•imꞋ from the post-Zūg/​ pre-YaꞋvᵊn•ëh perception of Pᵊrūsh•imꞋ to a post-5th-century (Talmudic) conflation. Over the intervening centuries, this unresolved conflation, which perverted YaꞋvᵊn•ëh, has fueled unending internal "Jewish" conflicts and polarization.


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חַיִּיםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2017.08.25]

masc . n. (pl.) khai•yimꞋ; חיים, khaiyim, khaiim, chaim, chaiim, hayim, haim life, live, living (usually found in the collective plural, lit. "lives").

This term is often used in the phrase מַיִם חַיִּים (maꞋyim khaiy•imꞋ; lit. "living water") to describe running or flowing—i.e. "live"—water (in a spring, brook or stream), preferred for drinking, in contrast to still or stagnant water (in a container, cistern or pool), which is unfit to drink. In the arid Middle East, where potable water is closely associated with maintaining life, maꞋyim khaiyꞋim also has the connotation of rejuvenating or "life-giving water."

KhaiꞋyim is also a masculine name (for a name, the accent moves to the penultimate, in this case first, syllable).

חַיָּה (kha•yãhꞋ; ׁliving being, animal, beast; anything that would have appeared to ancients to move of its own volition — would have included an animated carving or idol, modern clock, fan, automobile, train, airplane, robot, etc.); plural חַיּוֹת (kha•yōtꞋ; living beings, animals, beasts, robots).


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חַלָּהPronunciation Table חלה,חלות,פיתה עיראקית,לאפה‎,khalah,khalot,hallah,hallot,lafah,Iraqi pitah[Glos K-M, updated: 2019.03.29]

khalat lekhem shemen
Click to enlargeBiblical חַלָּה—prior to 15th century CE like this unleavened, olive-oil Indian chapati. (courtesy of Aarti Sequeira; photo: foodnetwork)

fem. n. khal•ãhꞋ, pl. חַלָּוֹת (routinely corrupted in English to halla or challa). Since the discovery of making bread in the ancient Middle East c. BCE 13,000 (with 3 zeros), khal•ãhꞋ has referred to normal soft flatbread; dis­tinct from either

  • כִכַּר or

  • רָקִיק,

חַלַּת לֶחֶם שֶׁמֶן  im­plies that khal•ãhꞋ is a per­fo­ra­ted, soft, round, olive-oil & סֹלֶת-matz•ãhꞋ flatbread. Approximately 1/24th of the raw סֹלֶת was commanded to be set aside as tᵊrūm•ãhꞋ for the kō•heinꞋ. (Unleavened Biblical khal•ōtꞋ, therefore, is also the authentic flatbread of Khag ha-Matz•ōtꞋ.)

After the destruction of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ ha-Shein•iꞋ and the subsequent Roman destruction of yō•khas•inꞋ, "kō•han•imꞋ", having thereby been disqualified as no longer Biblically legitimate (i.e. thereafter relegated solely to ceremonial rituals), no longer qualified to eat Tᵊrūm•ōtꞋ.

As a result, the term khal•ãhꞋ evolved to include the matz•ãhꞋ from which Tᵊrūm•ōtꞋ had previously been apportioned to the kō•han•imꞋ, and reserved it to be eaten on Shab•ãtꞋ and Khaj•imꞋ, when two khal•ōtꞋ are placed on the table (recalling the double portion of mãn), over which the bᵊrãkh•ãhꞋ is recited. Traditionally, they are covered until the bᵊrãkh•ãhꞋ, so that learning children won't mistake which bᵊrãkh•ãhꞋ belongs to the wine and which to the khal•ōtꞋ.

Until the 15th century CE, all Jews used their weekday rectangular loaves or round flatbread also for Shab•ãtꞋ.

Strucla Polish poppyseed  xmas loaf (Fir0002/Flagstaffotos)
Click to enlargeAssimilated post-​15th century C.E. Strucla — Polish poppyseed Xmas loaf (Fir0002/​Flagstaffotos)

Beginning in the 15th century CE, however, Orthodox German (Ash•kᵊnazꞋi) Jews initiated a reform, assimilating a "new form of Sabbath bread, an oval, braided loaf modeled on a popular Teutonic bread."

Over time, the Polish Strucla Xmas loaf became the most commonly used "Shabbos hallos" in the Ash•kᵊnazꞋi Orthodox Jewish culture. This Orthodox Ash•kᵊnazꞋi reform assimilation has subsequently spread throughout the world of Ultra-Orthodox, Orthodox and non-Orthodox Jews around the world.

The European-assimilated Ash•kᵊnazꞋi khal•ōtꞋ should be eschewed. However, if the only kã•sheirꞋ bread is the Ash•kᵊnazꞋi khal•ōtꞋ then they will suffice.

חַלָּה/קוּבָנָה (khallãh/pitã)
Click to enlargeShab•ãtꞋ noon meal: Qu•bãnꞋãh (popularly corrupted "Kubaneh") with baked egg in shell.

Before coming to Israel and being assimilated into the Israeli Ultra-Orthodox reforms, the older and more pristine genera­tion of Tei•mãn•imꞋ (and, there­fore, Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ), Mi•zᵊrakhꞋim and Sᵊphã•rãd­imꞋ communities, by contrast, still served the ancient round flat bread for khal•ōtꞋ.

Among European-assimilated Jews today, khal•ōtꞋ are misunderstood to be loaves of bread baked from any kind of kã•sheirꞋ flour (and from which the tᵊrūm•ãhꞋ has been removed with the recitation of the proper bᵊrãkh•ãhꞋ before forming the loaf and baking). The removed tᵊrūm•ãhꞋ is properly burned.

If a khal•ãhꞋ has not been baked in a kã•sheirꞋ bakery (which could be your home if your kitchen is kã•sheirꞋ), then it is not khal•ãhꞋ; regardless what it looks like or how it is labeled or advertised.


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חָלָבPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.06.27]

masc . n. khã•lãvꞋ; חלב, khalav,chalav,halav,kheilev dairy, milk ("Milchik" is Yiddish, a corruption of German assimilation.)

A mother’s חָלָב was also a metonym for one’s native culture (including religion; cf. Shᵊm•ōtꞋ 23.19; 34.26; Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 14.21).

masc . n.חֵלֶב — milk-like fat surrounding intestines, which was considered the tastiest or choicest—perhaps based on an ancient belief that the Creator was ethereal (as contrasted with metaphysical) and, therefore, more pleased by an ethereal (smoke) sacrifice, fueled by fat (which burns well and produces the aroma of meat on a grill).

Probably regarded by ancients as stored pre-חָלָב (pre-milk, in the mistaken belief that it would become fully-formed and dispensed as milk only by females), חֵלֶב is naturally stored around the intestines inside both sexes. Because of the obvious association with the metonymous “milk” (mother-culture) of Egyptian animal-gods, חֵלֶב was taboo for Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ (rather than the ancient assumption that it be sacred and reserved exclusively for י‑‑ה and His kō•han•imꞋ).

Since י‑‑ה specifically stipulated that Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ sacrifice the Egyptian animal-gods, the requirement that the metonymous “milk” be burned entirely thereby symbolized Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ’s complete rejection and destruction of the entire mother-culture (“milk”) of Egyptian idolatry.


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חָמֵץPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.10.02]

חָמֵץ (khã•meitzꞋ) – breads & pastries

masc . n. khã•meitzꞋ חמץ,khameitz,khametz,hametz,hometz,khameits,khamets,hamets,homets (corrupted to "chomets" and "hummetz").

Ancient Israel & Biblical definition:

  1. all dough (and foods produced from it), other than מַצָּה, that is

  2. made from The Five Species.

שְׂאוֹר is a subset of חָמֵץ.

Note above that, contrary to careless popular assumptions, khã•meitzꞋ is not leaven (which is שְׂאוֹר)! Rather, khã•meitzꞋ is the dough that has been leavened! This makes a significant difference when noting the symbolism of Bᵊdiq•atꞋ Khã•meitzꞋ and Bi•ūrꞋ Khã•meitzꞋ. The search and elimination of khã•meitzꞋ is not a search and elimination of a•veir•ãhꞋ (which correlates to שְׂאוֹר) as the Dark Ages superstitious would have it; it is, rather, the search and elimination of the corresponding fermented dough, i.e. the a•veir•ãhꞋ-fermented nëphꞋësh—i.e. soul-searching and elimination of any a•veir•ãhꞋ-fermentation agent in every nëphꞋësh of the home and family.

However, modern rabbis contravening Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 13.1 (and mindless followers contravening Shᵊm•otꞋ 23.2) have expanded the list of products to include pages of listings — from condiments to ice cream, dish-washing soap, hand soap, bath soap, kitchen cleaning products,, water softeners, lipstick, toothpaste, coffee, soft drinks… This is the inescapable, ex falso quodlibet, result of insisting on the false premise that the Sages cannot have been mis­tak­en. So the rabbis concluded that Moses erred! Roll eyes

Scripture prohibits the universal Orthodox (and Ultra-Orthodox) practice of placing offending products in a cupboard or closet that is then taped closed… The sub­se­quent, הֶתֵּר מְכִירָה — sham "sale" — at a symbolic price, to a gentile cannot override the Scriptural prohibition… more


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חֲמִישִׁיPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2014.11.28]

Kha•mish•iꞋ; חמישי, חמש, חומש, khamishi, khameish, khumash, chamish, chumash, hamishi, hamesh, humash fifth, from חָמֵשׁ (khã•meishꞋ; five {fem.}). (Frequently used to denote the 5th day of the week.)

masc . n. The book containing the five books of Tōr•ãhꞋ is called a חֻמָּשׁ (Khu•mãshꞋ). Intriguingly, to be armed is חֻמַּשׁ (khu•mashꞋ), to arm is חִמֵּשׁ (khi•meishꞋ), and one Biblical term for stomach is חֹמֶשׁ (kho•mëshꞋ) – food for the soul, the Bread of Life.


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חֲנֻכָּה or חנוכה Pronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.04.17]

Khanukiyah

fem. n. Kha•nūk•ãhꞋ;חנוכה,חנוכיה,חנכיה,khanukah,khanukkah,hanukah,hanukkah,chanukah,chanukkah dedication, particularly of the Beit-ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ ha-Shein•iꞋ; popularly corrupted to Hannukah, Chanukah, etc. De-judaized (Hellenized) in the NT (Jn 10.22) to the Greek ἐγκαινια, translated in KJ/V as "feast of dedication." See the full account and details in our Calendar page link: More info/details.

fem. n. חֲנֻכִּיָּה (Kha•nūk•iyꞋãh); originally an 8-branched (plus shã•mashꞋ) Kha•nūk•ãhꞋ oil-lamp.


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חֲנוּתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. khan•utꞋ; חנות, khanut, hanut shop or shoppe


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חָנַןPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2022.12.22]

khã•nanꞋ; חן,חנן,khanan,chanan,hanan,khein,khen,chen,hen to be gracious, to issue graciousness;

masc . n. cognate חֵן (khein; graciousness). A RuꞋakh khein is promised in Zᵊkhar•yãhꞋ 12.10. Perverted by Christianity into an idolatrous "grace"; tracks, via LXX, to χαρις (kharis; grace).

Historically critical: In BCE 175, when Ἀντίοχος  4th Ἐπιφανής  partnered with Yᵊhō•shūꞋa Bën-Shim•ōnꞋ-Jr., Bën-Tzã•dōqꞋ, the Hellenist Kō•heinꞋ ha-RëshꞋa to depose his brother, Khōn•iꞋ•yō Bën-Shim•ōnꞋ-Jr., Bën-Tzã•dōqꞋ, Kō•heinꞋ ha-Jã•dōlꞋ—the Mōr•æhꞋ ha-TzëdꞋëq, and Hellenize the priesthood & Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ of ZᵊrūꞋ-Bã•vëlꞋ into the "Temple", the resulting rivalry ensued between their respective parties, the Hellenist proto-Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ and pre-Hellenist proto-Pᵊrush•imꞋ, respectively:

  1. Tobiads—the QōꞋrakh-like, Philhellenic priestly & aristocrat Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ families trace at least as far as טֽוֹבִיָּה֙, known among philhellenists as Τωβίου, in cBCE 465—with embers likely tracing back as far as QōꞋrakh! Being Hellenist Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ, they went by their Hellenist name derived from טֽוֹבִיָּה֙ the Õmōn•iꞋ (then part of Israel, Tribe of Bin•yã•minꞋ‎): Tobiads!

  2. Kha•nan•imꞋ—the pre-Hellenization kō•han•imꞋ of the party of Khōn•iꞋ•yō Bën-Shim•ōnꞋ-Jr., Bën-Tzã•dōqꞋ, Kō•heinꞋ ha-Jã•dōlꞋ—the Mōr•æhꞋ ha-TzëdꞋëq. Being anti- Hellenist, they certainly eschewed the Hellenization of Khōn•iꞋ•yō to Ὀνίας (and Oniad), they would have been known among themselves, and among those who sympathized with them, as חֲנַנִים (or perhaps Kha•sid•imꞋ)—for which Hi•leilꞋ ha-Za•qeinꞋ, "the Babylonian" was famous. Over time, the onerous vicissitudes of Hellenism thrust the Hellenist name "Oniads" upon them; erasing ha•vᵊdãl•ãhꞋ—leaving them appear no different from the Hellenist parties.

masc . n. חַנּוּן (khan•ūnꞋ; gracious) adj.

See also מָחַל (mã•khalꞋ) and סָלַח (sã•lakhꞋ).


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חֲרֵדִיPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2021.06.01]

Khareidim anti-Zionists (Umm Al-Fahm 2010)
Haredi(m) anti-Zionists (Umm Al-Fahm 2010)

Ultra-Orthodox (pl. חֲרֵדִים;חרדים,khareidim,charedim popularly corrupted to "Haredim"): anti-education (anti-science & anti-math), Dark Ages, Tōr•ãhꞋ-violating (anti-Hi•leilꞋ Sr. "the Babylonian" & anti- YaꞋvᵊn•ëh praisers of Sha•maiꞋ Sr.), intolerant, exclusivist, xenophobic, racist, hate-mongering cult of charlatan liar & slanderer false accusers. (In their highest religious court they falsely charged that I'm a follower of YëshꞋ"u. NOTE: mortal Pharisee Jew RibꞋi Yᵊhō•shūꞋa is NOT the Apostate Paul's Hellenist divine fairytale YëshꞋ"u idol—and I'm not a follower of YëshꞋ"u!!! The Israeli gov't imprimatur of these obscene Kha•reid•imꞋ ideals in "official Israeli court" Judaism is largely responsible for today's growing miso-Judaism. Israel's & Jews' security and future depends upon renouncing these cult practices of Sha•maiꞋ Sr.—denounced at YaꞋvᵊn•ëh—and restoring Tōr•ãhꞋ of Mōsh•ëhꞋ Bën-AmᵊrãmꞋ at Har Sin•aiꞋ.

Khareidi sawing off the limb he's sitting on
Click to enlargeKha•reid•iꞋ sawing off the limb he's sitting on

Here's Why Kha•reid•imꞋ Cannot Avoid Failing

Kha•reid•imꞋ pin all of their hopes and dreams on being more pious; and make no bones about claiming that they are more pious than other Jews whom they castigate as Epikoros or goy•imꞋ (and periodically even refer to Israeli police and IDF as "Nazis"!). Thus, an 8% of Israeli Jews presumes to be holier-than-thou and rule religiously over the remaining 92% of Israeli — and, therefore, world Jews.

Kha•reid•imꞋ Rabbinic Formula
  1. Get direction from a Kha•reid•iꞋ rabbi, which includes ghetto-izing from non-Kha•reid•imꞋ, belligerently refusing education in science and math (beyond basic arithmetic) and becoming more meticulous in adhering to rabbinic strictures.

  2. Result — Trouble is, no matter how pious they get, their prayers are no more powerful than Thai Buddhists praying for a children's soccer team stranded in a flooded underground cave or Christians praying for miners trapped underground in South America. Things still go wrong for Kha•reid•imꞋ just as often and severe as everyone else on the planet.

  3. So their answer is: insufficient piety, something wrong in their meticulousness to Dark Ages rabbinic fences. They lack an authentic relationship with י‑‑ה and they are not happy nor fulfilled. Go back to #1.

This ultimately impossible and unhappy cult trap inexorably leads to failure, hopelessness, depression and, eventually serious intellectual dysfunction and a break-out to leave ultra-orthodoxy (and, too often, moderate Orthodox Judaism as well) for an education and intellectual fulfillment.

Remedy

Tōr•ãhꞋ requires only that you do your utmost to live according to the mi•tzᵊw•otꞋ. Then rely on the Graciousness of י‑‑הnot relying on your piety/​meticulousness — for ki•purꞋ as He (not some Dark Ages rabbi) has promised in Tōr•ãhꞋ! His promise you can rely on; and only this will ever enable you to trust Him that you commune with Him. As for "prayer power," you're supposed to serve Him; not Him serve you!!! Ask not for Him to serve you. Ask, instead, how you can serve Him!!! Your meticulousness to cultish Dark Ages rabbinic fences can never substitute for His Graciousness promised in Tōr•ãhꞋ.

The inevitable result of refusing His promise results in countering the popular rabbinic חֲזָרָה בִּתשׁוּבָה. Leaving the Kha•reid•iꞋ ghetto cult occurs either in the form of חֲזָרָה בַּשְׁאֵלָה or יְצִיאָה בַּשְׁאֵלָה or יְצִיאָה/​הַנִּקְראֵת לַשְׁאֵלָה, or becoming straight-up דַּתְלָ"שׁ.

Being the best educated in the Kha•reid•iꞋ community, even children and grandchildren of the most prominent Kha•reid•iꞋ rabbis are leaving the Kha•reid•iꞋ cult.

Historical Background

Fanatic descendants (both Ash•kᵊnazꞋim and Sᵊphã•rãd•­imꞋ) of 1st century C.E. Hellenist Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ who were expelled by the Hellenist Romans from Judaea in 70 C.E. & 135 C.E. Being Hellenist themselves, it was only the Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ who fled to Europe — then a Hellenist-friendly part of the Roman Empire. (The Pᵊrush•imꞋ, who were the anti-​Hellenists, fled to non-Hellenist regions either in the Levant outside of Judea or outside of the Hellenist Roman Empire: Asia and Africa — and are now the Eid•ōtꞋ ha-Mi•zᵊrakhꞋ.)

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Click to enlargeKha•reid•imꞋ riot against IDF, call Israeli police "Nazis", in Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim 2017.10.23 (AP)

Largely as a result of Dark Ages, Medieval-era — and even more recent — European persecutions having origins in the Christian Church, the mindset of these descendants of the Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ in Europe ossified into the current, archaic collection of combative, anti-science, Dark Ages mysticism and superstitions characteristic of the early Church. While their dress varies according to the individual cult of Ultra-Orthodoxy, practically all Ultra-Orthodox exhibit some elements of Medieval or pre-WW-II European clothing styles, language (Yiddish) — and science-illiterate, stunted intellect.

Khareidim throw feces at Orthodox schoolgirls, call them whores in Beit Shemesh, Israel BBC 2011.10.10
Click to enlargeBBC video 2011.10.10 — Ultra-Orthodox Kha•reid•imꞋ spit on an eight year old Orthodox elementary schoolgirl, calling her a פְּרוּצָה (whore), a זוֹנָה (slut-prostitute) and a שיקצע or שיקסע" ("a detestable — goyꞋãh — girl" in Yiddish); according to mother, Hadassah Margolis (dossim.com/ContentPage.aspx?item=352). They also assault an Orthodox rabbi (blue shirt) for being moderate — Beit ShëmꞋ ësh, Israel video

While the outside world views the odd assortment of often peculiar black hats, black suits, and sidelocks hanging from over the ears of Haredi(m) as the archetypal "Jew," in fact, the term Haredi(m) has only relatively recently (not Biblically) been hi-jacked by this relatively small, hodge-podge collection of Ultra-Orthodox fringe extremists, who are morbidly different from legitimate — moderate and tolerant — Orthodox Jews.

Although Haredi(m) are only a tiny fraction of Israeli or world Jews, their free time, combined with their absolute zombie-like, virtually idolatrous worship of their Ultra-Orthodox rabbis, makes them highly active, vocal and visible when orchestrated by their Ultra-Orthodox Haredi(m) rabbis; generating public awareness (irritation and blowback) of their extremist ways far above the majority of Jews — who are busy at their jobs, working for a living.

Orthodox Jews, in contrast to the Ultra-Orthodox Haredi(m) fringe extremists, are moderate, and dress normally (though most wear a knitted, not-black, kip•ãhꞋ) and are known as Orthodox-nationalist or "knitted kip•ãhꞋ" Israeli Jews. more


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חַרְחֲבִינָאPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2021.07.02]

Maror-3 Kharkhavina (Apiaceae Eryngium creticum) 1st leaves not dissected
Click to enlargeחַרְחֲבִינָא מַכְחִילָה — (Apiaceae Eryngium creticum) Tender 1st leaves not dissected 

Kharᵊkha•vinꞋã (Aramaic);kharkhavina Field Eryngo (Eryngium creticum), defined in Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ Bã•vᵊl•iꞋ as a kind of mã•rōrꞋmore


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חֲרֹסֶתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2009.04.02]

fem. n. Kha•rōꞋsët; חרוסת, kharoset, charoset, haroset see דוּכֵּה (duk•eihꞋ).


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𒄷𒌨𒊑 [Glos_K-M, updated: 2024.01.23]

hū•ūr•ri[ans];Harrians,Hurrians,Minoans, ("Hurrians"); confederation of Anatolians (modern west Turkey) including, inter alia, Mittanis & seafaring Luwians. The name "Minoans" dates back only to the WW-II era 1940s CE. The hū•ūr•ri were the predecessors of Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshans.


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חַשְׁמַלPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2022.11.16]

ccc
Click to enlargePyrite (Fool's Gold, Fire-Stone)

masc . n. kha•shᵊmalꞋ;חשמל,khashmal,kheshmal,electrum the Biblical meaning, as understood in the 1st century CE, "gold-colored stone"; as opposed to a later meaning of "electrum" or the modern meaning: "electricity".  — further info


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חַשׁמוֹנָאִיםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2021.07.16]

masc . n. (pl.) Khash•mō•nã•imꞋ חשמונאים,Khashmonaim,Hashmonaimfrom Aramaic אוּסְמָנַיָא — The "Glistenings" — an Egyptian tribe paralleling Kush•imꞋ (Cushites: Ethiopians, who, for a time, ruled southern parts of Egypt) in Tᵊhil•imꞋ 68.32 (Hellenized & Anglicized to 'Hasmoneans').

The family surname seems to indicate Royal lineage from ShᵊlōmꞋōh ha-MëlꞋëkh by the Kushite Queen of Sheba—known today as the Tei•mãn•imꞋ (Yemenite Jews). The family is more famously known by their title: the " Ma•kab•imꞋ" (Hellenized & Anglicized to "Maccabees").


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חָתַם Pronunciation Table [Glos_K-M, updated: 2024.01.22]

khã•tamꞋ; to seal (away, in, off, out, over, up); MH: sign & seal.


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חֲטִיפָה Pronunciation Table [Glos_K-M, updated: 2022.11.18] 

fem. n. kha•tiph•ãhꞋ;kidnapping,abduction abduction, kidnapping.

הַחֲטִיפַת מֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַלִבָּה לְבָּבֶל; the abduction of the core government to Babylon.

הַחֲטִיפָה הַבָּבְלִית, The Babylonian Abduction (BCE 586): This was neither an "Exile", nor did SãꞋtrap Nabû-kudurri-utzur (English: Nebuchadnezzar) (Nabû-kud•urri-utzur Jr.) deracinate all of the "Jews" in YᵊhūdꞋãh (like the Assyrian Shar Neo-Assyrian (cBCE 727–722) Shūlᵊmãnū-Asharëdū (''Friend-god is pre-eminent''; Shalmaneser) 5th (Shūlᵊmãnū 5th), more than a century earlier—BCE 722, had done to the northern 10 Tribes)! Only the core government of Beit-Dã•widꞋ (later Beit Hi•leilꞋ) and kō•han•imꞋ Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ (later Beit Sha•maiꞋ) in Yᵊrū•shã•laꞋyim were abducted to, and held captive in, Babylon. The remainder of YᵊhūdꞋãh remained mostly intact, but had to replace practically all of its previous core government leadership of Davidic & kō•han•imꞋ Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ governors, who were all sequestered in Bã•vëlꞋ until they were authorized by the decree of BCE 539 of Shãh 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Jr. (of the Neo-Persian Iranian Empire) to return to Yᵊrū•shã•laꞋyim.


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Cartouche: i-mun-n akhenem-khat-t shepsi-t
Cartouche: birth name of Khat-shepsetHover cursor over glyphs for translation (read in 3 rows, top to bottom and as ideograms face: {i-mun-n} {akhenem-khat-t} {shepsi-t-[3 vertical strokes]} (Amun-akhenem Khat-shepꞋset} ("Amun-born, Foremost of Noble-Overseers"); photo of her obelisk at Karnak temple.
Glyph: phonogram i/y (papyrus reed) Glyph: phonogram mn (a senat game board) Glyph: phonogram n (water ripples) Glyph: phonogram khat (lion's right forequarter; foremost) Glyph: phonogram t (a loaf of bread), probably a fem. indicator ending Glyph: phonogram akhenem (stone nekhnem [oil] pitcher; poured out, having given birth) Glyph: ideogram multiple, plural indicator (three vertical strokes), not pronounced Glyph: phonogram sheps (seated noble-blood holding flail; noble-overseer) Glyph: phonogram t (a loaf of bread), probably a fem. indicator ending

[Glos K-M, updated: 2012.12.17]

Khat-shepꞋset; Hatshepsut, Khat-shepset "Foremost of Noble-Overseers" (looks like a picture, and it is, but cartouche at left is the name, in ancient Egyptian hieroglyph: "Khat-shepset" — not Arabic (post-Islam "Egyptian"), Hebrew or English letters; see caption for details).

Cartouche: Khat-shepset apotheotic name
Cartouche: apotheotic name of Khat-shepset

Maat-ka-Ra


Hover cursor over glyphs for translation(Red Chapel wall, Karnak).

more

Glyph: ideogam Ra (Egyptian supreme sun god), solar disk Glyph (S39): ideogam [not pronounced] shepherd's crook scepter (ruler indicator) Glyph: ideogam maat (order, justice, truth), seated woman with one knee up Glyph: ideogam ka (soul, psyche), bull horns or raised arms

As it is also known that Egyptian Royal families married only siblings (to keep the royal blood pure), it then becomes likely that the known paramour — i.e., eligible sibling — of Queen Khãt-​shepꞋset, the architect who built her mortuary temple on the same pattern as the future Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ would eventually be built, was named Sen-en-Mut. Interestingly, like Queen Khãt-​shepꞋset herself, Sen-en-Mut was blotted from Egyptian history by her (their?) own son and successor. Ergo, the likely name of "Moses," later Hebraized to his native culture as משֶׁה, was Egyptian Royal Pharaonic Prince Sen-en-Mut Tut-M▫s▫z, little brother of famed Egyptian Queen-Par•ohꞋ Khãt-​shepꞋset!


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𒄩𒀜𒌅𒊭, Proto-Sinaitic  Hebrew memProto-Sinaitic Hebrew yodProto-Sinaitic Hebrew tawProto-Sinaitic Hebrew kaph Pronunciation Table [Glos_K-M, updated: 2023.09.05]

Eastern Mediterannean Basin, Nesha/Khattusha
Click to enlargeEastern Mediterannean Basin, Nesha/Khattusha

As Emeritus Professor of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies at the University of Pennsylvania James D. Muhly remarked, "The first thing to realize about the Hittites is that they are not Hittites."

In fact, traditional historians and archaeologists (as contrasted to recent hard scientists specializing in these and related fields) have made a terribly confused mess, conflating a series of successive ruling Anatolian citydoms, whom the ancient Egyptians lumped together as the "Sea Peoples". 19th and early 20th century CE "Indiana Jones" -style European "superiors"—uh, yeah, they were white—explorers, unable to properly identify the origin-peoples of the bones and artifacts they were excavating, began to simply fabricate their own names for ancient "John or Jane Does".

This is the archaeologically-embarrassing origin of several non-existant peoples; e.g., "Minoans" and "Natufians" as well as most species of early hominins (neanderthals, etc.) as well as identifying their earliest tool-making. Not incidentally, these were European whites who regarded their European selves—wrongly including Pelopónnese and Anatolia as original Greece (European) and—as "superior"; and today remain adamantly skewed to insist that post-LBAC  Pelopónnese and Anatolian "Greek Europeans" (rather than African-related Pelopónnese and Anatolians) have always been and must today remain the sole indigenous claimants to Pelopónnese, Anatolia and Cyprus origins. (Full disclosure: I'm blue-eyed white of Dutch descent; just not racist nor supremist.) Thus, the west-east longitudinal geotectonic "seam" running through Pelopónnese and Turkey, where the two continents were joined, differentiates the Laurussian (European) continent from the subducting African continent (with its Cimmerian Terranes island chain). This "seam" then becomes increasingly critical to distinguish the remains of ancient Africans-cousin Homo subspecies from European-cousins Homo subspecies.

Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshansHittites,Hattiland,Hattians,Khattushans,Kitim,Kittim (aka כִּתִּים (Kit•imꞋ), collectively transgarbled to modern "Hattians" & "Hittites")—Autochthonous Anatolians (modern western Turkey)—defined by their NëꞋshan language (as also defined their "cousin" Anatolians who succeeded them).

The ᴷH•ãrꞋrians of Anatolia were the earliest—likely autochthonous—human inhabitants of Anatolia (modern western Turkey)—along with their cousin "ocean-like" islanders (particularly Pelopónnese, Crete and Cyprus) that are now part of the Cycladic civilization remnant of the Cimmerian Terranes island chain.

However, it was their more successful NëꞋsha-speaking, neighbor-Anatolian Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshan/​Kit•imꞋ cousins who developed the first truly seaworthy shipbuilding architecture technology, enabling them to build the world's first international cargo and naval fleets. In addition to their land-based caravans, their unique and exclusive fleet of seaworthy ships (partially dependent upon Tzūran cypress wood, probably paid for in seaworthy ships, which also boosted Tzūr into international maritime trade) enabled the Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshan/​Kit•imꞋ to becoome the world's first international land & sea superpower and international traders; navigating and controlling the Mediterranean Sea. more

The Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshan/​Kit•imꞋ NëꞋshan-speakers

The Anatolian NëꞋshan-speakers were neighboring citydoms of the central and southern-coast Mediterranean regions of western Turkey, who serially predominated their collective confederation of land and seafaring "superpower" citydoms. Muddled and fragmented by modern archaeologists to mere sequential individual citydoms, the Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshans/​Kit•imꞋ were the world's first land and sea superpower!

Taaru (Bull god)/Tarshish/Taurus/Tarsus
Click to enlargeCuneiform: Khattushan god Ta-a-ru (bull weather lightning & mace) (Bull god), i.e. Tarshish/Taurus/Tarsus in the pyrite-rich Central Taurus Mountain Range

cBCE 1525 Minoan Bull-Leaper fresco Knossos, Crete
Click to enlargecBCE 1525 Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshan/​Kit•imꞋ Bull-Leaper fresco Knossos, Crete

The principal god of the Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshans was Cuneiform: Khattushan god Ta-a-ru (bull weather lightning & mace). Several asso­ci­a­.tions with Taurus, the ancient weather-god of lightning & mace, including the Taurus Mountain Range, which is rich in Bull-God-Stone (pyrite).

The Hebrew for pyrite, Ta•rᵊshishꞋ, seems to have developed as a trans­gar­bling of the Greek θαρσος. Thus, this Hebrew term likely reflects the Hellenization taking place during the post-Ramses era (like the use of the name Ramses itself).


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חָצֵרPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2020.02.06]

fem. n. khã•tzeirꞋ;חצר,khatzeir courtyard.


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חֲבַקּוּקPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

Kha•va•quqꞋ; חבקוק, Khavaquq, Havaquq, Habakkuk embrace; derived from חִבּוּק (khi•buqꞋ; hug or embrace), is thought to be related to Mᵊlãkh•imꞋ Beit 4:16 ("she will embrace a son"). Kha•va•quqꞋ is the eighth of the twelve minor Nᵊviy•imꞋ in Ta•na״khꞋ (de-Judaized to Habakkuk).


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חָבֵרPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Khã•veirꞋ; חברים, khaveirim, haveirim, haverim Biblical usage: associate, fellow, comrade, member – in contradistinction from a foreigner, gentile or goy•imꞋ; plural khã•veir•imꞋ

"Friend," by comparison, more accurately reflects יָדִיד (yã•didꞋ), often inaccurately exaggerated to "beloved"; see Dã•widꞋ


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חַברוּתָאPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. (Aramaic)Kha•vᵊr•utꞋã; חברותא, khavruta, havruta HH company, companionship, society—yᵊshivꞋãh slang: "learning companion." See our Kha•vᵊr•utꞋã "Distance Learning Companion" Syllabus by clicking the appropriate Ministry in our navigation panel at left—"Tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ Center" [only for Jews recognized by Orthodox rabbis] or "Non-Jews"—where you'll find the Kha•vᵊr•utꞋã track geared to your perspective.

A male candidate in our Kha•vᵊr•utꞋã is a חַבְרָא (kha•vᵊr•ãꞋ). A female candidate in our Kha•vᵊr•utꞋã is a חֲבֶרְתָּא (kha•vë•rᵊ•tãꞋ). Candidates (plural) in our Kha•vᵊr•utꞋã are חַבְרַיָּיא (kha•vᵊr•a•yãꞋ).


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חֲבוּרָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2008.02.12]]

fem. n. kha•vur•ãhꞋ, חבורה, khavurah, havurah pl. kha•vur•otꞋ; HH company, party, association; a band or small group of people. Colloquially, a small religious fellowship, generally focused on tᵊphil•ãhꞋ and Tōr•ãhꞋ study.


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חַוָּ֑הPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2022.08.18]

Mitochondrial Eve, ca. BCE 125,000 (bradshawfoundation.com)
Every Human's MomMitochondrial Eve — by Prof. Stephen Oppenheimer, Inst. of Human Sciences, Oxford Univ. KhaūꞋãh was likely more dark clay-red, like Tei•mãn•imꞋ.

fem. KhaūꞋãh.חווה,Khawah,Khauah,Khavah Ta•na״khꞋ has always exhibited the tradition of bestowing a name based on a wordplay of some memorable aspect of the event. In this case, the thinking was something like, "Her name was חַוָּ֑ה, and that's like חַיָּה, because she is (was assumed to be) the mother of everyone חָֽי This was later Hellenized, then Anglicized to "Eve."


Mother of all humans lived 200,000 years ago Rice [Univ.] statisticians confirm date of 'mitochondrial Eve' with new method

HOUSTON — (Aug. 17, 2010) — The most robust statistical examination to date of our species' genetic links to "mitochondrial Eve" — the maternal ancestor of all living humans — confirms that she lived about 200,000 years ago. The Rice University study was based on a side-by-side comparison of 10 human genetic models that each aim to determine when Eve lived using a very different set of assumptions about the way humans migrated, expanded and spread across Earth.

The research is available online in the journal Theoretical Population Biology. more

See also Ä•dãmꞋ


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חֲזֶרֶתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2021.06.19]

Biblical-era accessible in the Levant Lactuca sativa longifolia (lettuce)
Click to enlargeBH: Biblical-era Egyptian & Levant (modern Romaine) lettuce 

fem. n. kha•zërꞋët — a type of mã•rōrꞋmore
  • BH:khazeret long-leaved, Lactuca sativa, var. longifolia (Romaine) lettuce; a variety popular in ancient Egypt and Israel. This variety of lettuce had an early and intimate idolatrous history with the Egyptian god of sexuality, Min.

  • MH: (resulting from Medieval European Ultra-Orthodox Ash•kᵊnazꞋim assimilation & reform): horseradish

חֲזֶרֶת derives from חָזַר. Klein noted that this base is related to the base חָדַר, from which חֶדֶר derives.

Shō•meirꞋ Tōr•ãhꞋ Jews, because they practice kã•shᵊr•ūtꞋ, will be aware of the innumerable tiny chambers enclosing, concealing and surrounding insects that Tōr•ãhꞋ prohibits us from eating, and the resulting difficulty of examining and cleaning–notoriously exasperating in חֲזֶרֶת–would give חֲזֶרֶת signature notoriety as a khasꞋã for insects—a fitting metonym. This seems likely not only the correct derivation, but secondarily confirmed in its subsequent association with חַסָּא—a metonym for lettuce.

Because Medieval (11th-12th centuries CE) European Jews were sometimes unable to obtain lettuce in time for Khag ha-Matz•ōtꞋ, French Ash•kᵊnazꞋim Ultra-Orthodox rabbis reformed (assimilated) חֲזֶרֶת to mean horseradish. Because Ash•kᵊnazꞋim (secular) Jews have dictated modern Hebrew and Israel, חֲזֶרֶת has come to be accepted as horseradish in MH.


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חֵרֶםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2023.05.17]

masc . n. khærꞋëm;חרם,kheirem,kherem, a quarantine or segregation of anything for a particular purpose: i.e. quarantining, segregating (also netting) apart; e.g., protectively quarantining a kã•sheirꞋ animal that has been approved as complying with Tōr•ãhꞋ requirements and devoted as a qōr•bãnꞋ.

KhærꞋëm can also refer to an exclusionary segregation—segregating and quarantining apart from; i.e. excommunicating or excising. KhærꞋëm also sometimes refers to permanent quarantine: i.e. as a synonym of kã•reitꞋ.

KhærꞋëm is the origin of the modern English term, "harem."


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חֵשֶׁב (הָאֵפוֹד)Pronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.03.18]

KheiꞋshëv-□חשב,kheishev—incomprehensibly marvelous diviner of… (compound form of the pi•eilꞋ verbal noun derived from חָשַׁב).

KheiꞋshëv-□ is found only 8x in Ta•na״khꞋ, where it is reserv­ed exclusively for the buckling system that belted the bottom of the KhōꞋshën Mi•shᵊpãtꞋ (holder-pouch, in which the marvelous divining Ūr•imꞋ wᵊ-Tūm•imꞋ was secured) to the Ei•phōdꞋ; in other words, the Marvelous Divining Buckle [of the Ei•phōdꞋ]—world's only Divining belt-buckle!

Interestingly, PEMRH: for "computer" is a close cognate, מַחְשֵׁב (ma•khᵊsheivꞋ).


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חֵטאPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2020.03.23]

masc . n. kheit,חטא,חטאים,חטאה,חטאת,חוטא,kheit,cheit,khet,chet,khotei an unintentional misstep, misdemeanor, mess-up or petty transgression against Tōr•ãhꞋ (pl. חֲטָאִים.); derived from the pi•eilꞋ חִטֵּא; in turn derived from the shōrꞋësh חָטָא.more


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חֶלֶףPronunciation TableΚλωπᾶς [Glos K-M, updated: 2011.04.04]

masc . n. KhëlꞋëph; חלף, kheleph, khelef, heleph, helef Hellenized to Κλωπᾶς ("Klō•pasꞋ"; then Anglicized to "Clopas").

Greek names mixed with Hebrew names of the ossuary inscriptions in the Talpiot Tomb and Har ha-Zeit•imꞋ ossuary complexes demonstrate that, particularly consequent to the crucifixion of RibꞋi Yᵊho•shuꞋa, the Nᵊtzãr•im′ , Yᵊhud•im′ —and even the family—were forced to lower their profile, under the radar of both their Hellenist Roman occupiers and Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ informers, downplaying their royal Davidic lineage, concealing their identity as Nᵊtzãr•im′  and even becoming known publicly by Greek names.


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חֵפֶץPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2020.07.13]

KheiꞋphëtz;חפץ,kheiphetz,khephetz BH: ambition (i.e. desire, wish. drive) to succeed materialistically, for worldly (physical) fortune and fame; the essential element distinguishing mᵊlãkh•ãhꞋ, prohibited on Sha•bãtꞋ, from other strenuous effort or work permitted on Sha•bãtꞋ.

As is generally the case involving two or more enigmatically different meanings, the Biblical meaning of this term is the intersection of the two modern meanings (which are based on traditional—susceptible to the same foibles as today—translations of ancient texts: 1. material, worldly physical things; i.e. an object or article. 2. a desire, want or wish (for, and in pursuit of, #1).


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חֶסֶדPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2010.08.17]

masc . n. khësꞋëd; חסד, חסידים, khesed, khasidim, hasidim, hesed(loving)kindness. One who practices khësꞋëd is a חָסִיד (Khã•sidꞋ; one who is lovingkind), pl. חֲסִידִים (Kha•sid•imꞋ, Hellenized to "hasidim" and even "chasidim").

Modern "Hasidim," which Sheim-Tov began in the 18th century C.E., was apparently an attempt to imbue the iy-ra•tzᵊyon•ãlꞋim (popular during the lifetime of Ram•ba"mꞋ and led ultimately to the 13th century mysticism of Qa•bãl•ãhꞋ) with the authenticity, reputation and imprimatur of the ancient Kha•sid•imꞋ, who are documented at least as early as the time of Dã•widꞋ ha-MëꞋlëkh (click "further info" icon for documentation). Thus, today's Kha•sid•imꞋ, primarily represented by חב"ד, are iy-ra•tzᵊyon•ãlꞋim—opposite to both Ram•ba"mꞋ and the ancient Kha•sid•imꞋfurther info


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(חֶבְרֶה) חבר'הPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2008.02.12]

masc . n. (pl.) KhëꞋvᵊr•ëh, חבר'ה, khevreh, hevreh (military) Company!, (slang) Guys!


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חֶברוֹןPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Khë•vᵊr•ōnꞋ, חברון, Khevron see suffix -ōn; Hellenized to "Hebron."


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חִלָּזוֹןPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2008.04.02]

Khilazon - Murex trunculus (encyclopedie-universelle.com)
Khilazon — Murex trunculus (encyclopedie-universelle.com)

masc . n. Khi•lãz•onꞋ,חלזון,חילזון,khilazon,hilazon snail, slug, gastropod—technically excluding the cuttlefish (which is a cephalopod) argued by one of the two contemporary rabbinic schools; the Talmudically-defined source of tᵊkheilꞋët dye. In Talmudic times, however, perhaps it referred to all mollusks. (See the Tei•mãn•iꞋ Judaica Shoppe, in the Mall.)

More specifically חֶלזוֹן-הָאַרגָמָן (khël•zonꞋ hã-ar•gã•mãnꞋ; Murex trunculus, lit. purple [dye] snail).



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חִלְבָּהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2020.05.22]

Tei•mãn•iꞋ condiment made from חִלְבָּה (khilꞋbãh)חילבה,khilbah,khilbeh,hilbah,hilbe

khilbe
חִלְבָּה
Recipe (refine to taste):
  • 2 Tsp חִלְבָּה

  • 1 tsp green or red — usually green — skhug (to make green or red חִלְבָּה)

  • 2 cloves pressed garlic

  • Purée of 1 fresh ripe tomato

  • Salt to taste

Check seeds properly, then grind to a very fine powder. Add boiling water to ground חִלְבָּה and cover; let it sit until thickened, at least for 3 hours. Drain well. Then beat with a wire whisk

To conserve the חִלְבָּה for a few days, warm it over fire, stirring continuously, bring to a boil, remove scum and cool.

Add salt, garlic, grated tomato purée, either red or green skhug and mix well. For green חִלְבָּה, use green skhug and leave out the tomato purée.


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חִלּוּל הַשֵּׁםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2008.09.15]

khi•lulꞋ ha-Sheim; חילול השם, khilul haSheim, hilul hashem, chilul hashem treating the Name as ordinary or routine (i.e., failing to accord proper sanctity to the Name), profaning the Name, secularizing the Name, any "diminution" of the Name; the antonym of Qi•dushꞋ ha-Sheim.

Note that this encompasses immensely more than the narrow concept of "defamation." One can be guilty of khi•lulꞋ ha-Sheim without ever "defaming" or "blaspheming" the Name, merely by falling short of performing Qi•dushꞋ ha-Sheim—thereby "diminishing" His kã•vodꞋ. Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ considers any consciously rebellious act against ha-Sheim as khi•lulꞋ ha-Sheim (Maim. Yad, Yᵊsodei ha-Torãh 5.10).

These counter-balancing pillars, khi•lulꞋ ha-Sheim and, lᵊ-hav•dilꞋ, Qi•dushꞋ ha-Sheim, constitute one of the most significant concepts in Tōr•ãhꞋ, based on wa-Yi•qᵊr•ãꞋ 22.31-32. See also Qi•dushꞋ ha-Sheim.


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חֹדֶשׁPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2023.12.17]

moon data

masc . n. khōꞋdësh, חודש,khodesh,chodesh,mud-bricks,leveinah,leveinim m.n. lunar-month (modern Hebrew evolved to also refer, alternately, to the solar month on secular calendars); pl. חֳדָשִׁים (khã•dãsh•imꞋ). Typically spelled חוֹדשׁ to distinguish it from the adj. חָדָשׁ (khã•dãshꞋ; new).

"Moon," specifically, in Hebrew, is יָרֵחַ (yã•reiꞋakh) and is often referred to by its feminine metonym לְבָנָה (lᵊvãn•ãhꞋ; a white object, especially a white mud-brick, see below).

The first day of the new lunar month is רֹאשׁ (the head or top of) חֹדֶשׁ

The Biblical names of months are simply Firstmonth through Twelfthmonth. These became assimilated by Babylonian Jews, who assimilated the Babylonian names (Ni•sãnꞋ, …) so thoroughly that even the earliest extant texts of Ta•na״khꞋ include the Babylonian names to ensure clarity in important dates. more

However, this was not an authorization to assimilate the Babylonian names. This is only one of a number of assimilations through the millennia that need to be restored. more

undef. n. לְבֵנָה, irregular masc. pl. suffix לְבֵנִים; refers to special, Egyptian dzhebet (adobe) brick ("d•zhëbꞋët", origin of "adobe") mud-bricks (in Mediterranean countries dating back to cBCE 12,000), to which crushed (powdered) white shale, quarried from nearby valley sediments, was added to whiten them—i.e. white-bricks (cf. Shᵊm•ōtꞋ 1.14). Ordinary mud-bricks retained the natural reddish color of the clay soil or were further reddened by the addition of crushed red shale—from faraway quarries. Whitening the bricks represented added manufacturing burdens—quarrying white shale from nearby valley sediment, transporting it, crushing it to powder and then adding the proper mixture to whiten the damp mixture before sun-baking them to hardened bricks.


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חֹלPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2020.09.05]

masc . n. khōl; pl. (Aramaic) חֻלִּין (khul•inꞋ); חול,חולין,חלל,khol,hol,khulin,hulin hollow, void, empty, nothing; thus, ordinary, unremarkable, mundane, commonplace, regular, routine—i.e. profane

חֹל derives from the verb shōrꞋësh חָלָל, which takes 4 senses from a common etymological theme:

  1. a hollow or empty—i.e. profane—priest (illegitimate or defrocked) void of priestly holiness;

  2. a person who was stabbed or slain (profaned)—hollowed, emptied or void of sacred blood/​soul;

  3. HH hollow, empty cavity, void, space; and

  4. NH: flutist (player of hollowed wood).


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חֹק / חוֹקPronunciation TableHear it! [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. khōq; pl. חֻקִּים and connective pl. חֻקֵּי, חוקים, חוקה, khoq, khuqim, khuqah from verbal shōrꞋësh חָקַק; BH: legislated law of the Beit Din as "engraved in stone" (in contrast with Biblical case law mi•shᵊpãtꞋ of the Beit Din).

חֻקָּה, and pl. חֻקָּוֹת, are passive verb forms.

Anomalously, Hebrew conveys more precisely than English the sense of legal and lawful v illegal and unlawful, which, in reality, is relative to legislated-law: חֻקִּי v בִּלְתִּי חֻקִּי 

A legislative body or parliament is a beit ha-מְחוֹקְקִים, overseeing חֲקִיקָה (making the חֻקִּים) — but the parliament in Israel is the KᵊnësꞋët — yet a beit kᵊnësꞋët is where Orthodox Jews assemble to pray. What can ya do?

In MH, חֻקָּה means "constitution." In BH, there was no appreciable distinction between the masc. and fem. forms of these nouns.


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חֹרֵבPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. KhōrꞋeiv; חורב, Khoreiv, Khorev, Horeb desolation. הַר חֹרֵב (Har KhorꞋeiv; Mount Desolation, Desolation Mountain).

The location and identity of this mountain, like the location and identity of Har Sin•aiꞋ itself, are uncertain — but close to each other. In early Hebrew, the names could easily have become corrupted either to הר חרוז (Har Khar•ozꞋ; ≈4km [≈2½ mi] NE of Har Kar•komꞋ) or to הר חדר (Har Khad•arꞋ; ≈27km [≈17 mi] NE of Har Kar•komꞋ).

Because of its proximity to the neighboring Har Kar•komꞋ (the probable modern identity of Har Sin•aiꞋ), it was a metonym for Har Sin•aiꞋ; Hellenized and de-Judaized to "Mt. Horeb."


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חֹשֶׁךְPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2021.08.09]

KhōꞋshëkh;חשך,חושך,khoshekh 1. a darkener, one who darkens or brings darkness; 2. darkness (or Darkness), ignorance; metaphorically: evil.

בְּנֵי-חֹשֶׁךְ — enemies of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ, including those who abandon Tōr•ãhꞋ; in contrast with the בְּנֵי-אוֹר (from the DSS, especially 1Q 1.1, The "War Scroll").


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חֹשֶׁן מִשׁפָּטPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2022.10.13]

masc . n. KhōꞋshën Mi•shᵊpãtꞋ, חושן משפט,חשן משפט, khoshen mishpatthe chest pouch of embroidered with gold thread, tᵊkheilꞋët, royal-purple and crimson brocaded on interwoven fine-textured linen—in which 12 jewels, engraved with the names of the Twelve Tribes, were fixed in gold settings..

The KhōꞋshën Mi•shᵊpãtꞋ was belted to the chest of the Kō•heinꞋ ha-Jã•dōlꞋ by means of threading the AvᵊneitꞋ through the gold rings at the bottom of the KhōꞋshën Mi•shᵊpãtꞋ; simultaneously incorporating the KhōꞋshën Mi•shᵊpãtꞋ, its interior pouch housing the Ūr•imꞋ wᵊ-Tūm•imꞋ, as an integral part of the חֵשֶׁב הָאֵפוֹד—the Marvelous Divining-Buckle of the Ei•phōdꞋ

In the pouch sewn underneath this gold frame, the אוּרִים וְתֻמִּים were kept — closest to the heart. The חֹשֶׁן מִשׁפָּט was fastened to the אֵפוֹד, which was similarly woven from threads of gold, tᵊkheilꞋët, purple and scarlet.

חֹשֶׁן is called "breastplate" (or "chest piece") only because the original meaning has been lost and it was the thing tied over the chest. There is no likely etymology connecting חֹשֶׁן to the chest, "breastplate" or any of its synonyms. It more likely derives, via חוׂשׁ, from חֲשָׁשׁ and cognate חַשְׁשָׁן. Thus, חֹשֶׁן more likely alludes to the overwhelming gravity/​gravitas, apprehension and cautious deliberation due in weighing matters of mi•shᵊpãtꞋ or deferring to the last resort: committing the outcome to the אוּרִים וְתֻמִּים within (its pouch).

בָּרֶקֶת (baREQet=malachite, green tourmaline or emerald): לֵוִי (LeiWIY) פִּטְדָה (pit'DAH=citrine topaz): שִׁמְעוֹן (ShimON) אֹדֶם (ODem=carnelian-sard): רְאוּבֵן (R'uVEIN) Right: אֹדֶם, Targum: סָמְקָן — ‭ ‬ Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Nun, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Beit, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Waw, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Aleph, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Resh, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
Center: פִּטְדָה, Targum: יָרְקָן — ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Nun, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Waw, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Ayin, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Mem, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Shin, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
Left: בָּרֶקֶת, Targum: בָּרְקָן — ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Yod, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Waw, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Lamed, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
יַהֲלוֹם  (yahaLOM=rock crystal or white sapphire): נַפְתָּלִי (NaphtaLIY) סַפִּיר (saPIR=lapis lazuli): דָּן (Dan) נֹפֶךְ (NOphekh=garnet): יְהוּדָה (YeHUDah) Right: נֹפֶךְ, Targum: אִזְמַרַגְדִּין — ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Hei, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Dalet, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Waw, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Hei, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Yod, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
Center: סַפִּיר, Targum: שַׁבְזֵיז — ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Nun, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Dalet, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
Left: יַהֲלוֹם , Targum: סַבְהֲלוֹם — ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Yod, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Lamed, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Tau, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Pei, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Nun, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
אַחְלָמָה (akhLAMah=amethyst): יִשָּׂשכַר (YissaKHAR) שְׁבוֹ (sh'vo=agate): אָשֵׁר (AWsheir) לֶשֶׁם (LESHem=opal): גָּד (Gawd) Right: לֶשֶׁם, Targum: קַנְכֵּירִי — ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Dalet, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Gimel, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
Center: שְׁבוֹ, Targum: טְרַקְיָא — ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Resh, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Shin, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Aleph, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
Left: אַחְלָמָה, Targum: עֵין עִגְלָא — ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Resh, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Kaph, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Shin, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Shin, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Yod, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
יָשְׁפֵה (yashPEIH=aquamarine): בִּנְיָמִין (BinyaMIN) שֹׁהַם (SHOham=sardonyx): יוֹסֵף (YoSEIPH) תַּרְשִׁישׁ (TarᵊshishꞋ=chrysolite / pyrite): זְבֻלוּן (Zᵊvūl•ūnꞋ) Right: תַּרְשִׁישׁ, Targum: כְּרוּם יַמָּא — ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Nun, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Waw, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Lamed, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Beit, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Zayin, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
Center: שֹׁהַם, Targum: בֻּרְלָא — ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Pei, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Samekh, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Waw, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Yod, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David
Left: יָשְׁפֵה , Targum: פַּנְתֵּירִי — ‭ ‬Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Nun, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Yod, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Mem, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Yod, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Nun, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-DavidProto-Sinaitic Hebrew: Beit, © 2007 Yirmeyahu Ben-David

Ancient Hebrew fonts courtesy of Ancient Hebrew Research Center

Unlike non-Jewish attempts (typically ignorant of ancient Judaism, Aramaic, Hebrew or even Greek) and rabbinic interpretations (suffering from tunnel-visioned exclusion of any information outside of Ta•lᵊmudꞋ), this table also incorporates my research comparing translations of Ta•na״khꞋ Hebrew later Hellenized into Greek, primarily Josephus and LXXmore


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חוּמוּסPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2008.03.30]

Khumus
Khumus

masc . n. (Arabic) KhūmꞋus חומוס, khumus, humus(KHOOmoos) . Basic recipe (refine over time):

  • 2 cups canned chick-peas

  • drained juice of 2 lemons

  • 1 tsp. salt

  • 1/4 tsp. cumin

  • 3 tbs. pure tekhina paste or 1 cup tekhina (raw sesame seeds)

  • 2 garlic cloves, mashed (more if desired)

  • 2-3 tbs. Israeli extra-virgin olive oil

  • parsley (for garnish, if desired)


Place all the ingredients in a food processor or blender, mix until chick-peas are smooth. Refrigerate khumus in a covered container. Serve well-chilled on a saucer or cake plate. Rather than make a depression in middle like in the photo, most homes and restaurants simply splash extra-virgin Israeli olive oil on top, leaving scattered little puddles of olive oil on top. (That also minimizes too much olive oil in some servings and not enough in other servings.) Best sprinkled with pine nuts. Optional: lightly stir in green skhug (leaving green streaks in khumꞋus; it's hot, don't use too much) or sprinkle chopped parsley on top. Make a meat sandwich by spreading khumꞋus liberally, insert desired kã•sheirꞋ meat, then stuff with shredded cabbage or tossed salad; or just khumꞋus and stuff with shredded cabbage or tossed salad—and, in any case, top with Salat Turki.


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חֻפָּה or חוּפָּהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2018.11.07]

My friend's wedding khupah and Rav Qapakh
Click to enlargeFriend's wedding Khūp•ãhꞋ, officiated by Rav QãꞋpakh (1998)

fem. n. Khūp•ãhꞋ;חופה,חפה,khupah,huppah BH: a protective or concealing cover; PEMRH: a wedding "concealing ceiling" (a baldachin representing the bridal chamber); canopy of a parachute.

Yael's Wedding 2012
Wedding — Khūp•ãhꞋ, Tzᵊvi & Yã•eilꞋ (2012)

The wedding khūp•ãhꞋ symbolizes the new home being created by the bride & groom.

While ni•sū•inꞋ is conducted within the symbolic new home (i.e. the khūp•ãhꞋ), the preceding ei•rūs•inꞋ is traditionally enacted in a public — field — venue, reminiscent of the ancient community wells (bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 24 & 29).


el-Arish date palms nedomex, Flickr
Click to enlargeDate palms at el-Ar•ishꞋ (Arabic: "the date-palm huts"; nedomex, Flickr)

Intersecting with the meaning of canopy, רְפִיד, with its pl. place-name רְפִידִים, refers to a properly covered made-bed, spread-bed or dressed-bed — reminiscent of the upholstered baldachin of an ancient sedan-chair. (PEMRH: upholstering, covering).

The placename, רְפִידִים, on the northeastern coast of the Sin•aiꞋ, probably likens the frond-canopy of a date-palm grove to the baldachins draped over ancient sedan-chairs.

As an "island boy" tween in the '50s who lived in a coconut grove on a sandy beach on the Atlantic in Islamorada on the Florida keys, I can easily relate to strolling through this date palm grove, surrounded by the trunks of date palms like upright frameworks of giant sedan-chairs, shaded by their frond-רְפִידִים overhead.

רְפִידִים was located on northeastern coast of Sin•aiꞋ within the corridor of the annual spring (northerly) & autumn (southerly) quail migrations across the Mediterranean Sea to and from Europe; i.e. probably modern el-Arish.


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חֹטֶר (also חוֹטֶר)Pronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2016.07.09]

khoter
חֹטֶר

masc . n. khōꞋtër; חוטר, khoter, hoter a budding new branch sprouting from the trunk.

Contrast חֹטֶר, often translated as "a shoot," against נֵצֶר, which is also often translated as "a shoot." As is often the case, clarity is found only in the original Hebrew.


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חֻצְפָּהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2017.10.25]

fem. n. Khū•tzᵊp•ãhꞋ; חוצפה, khutzpah, hutzpah effrontery; brazen arrogant presumptuousness.


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כִּפָּהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2023.11.06]

kipot
Modern kip•ōtꞋ
Mood & Color-Coordinate Your Outfits

fem. n. kip•ãhꞋ, arch, dome covering, pl. כִּיפּוֹת‎ or כִּפּוֹת (kip•ōtꞋ);כיפה,כיפות,kipah,kippa,kipot viz., the modern beanie cap, which seems to have evolved from the Biblical-era dome-shaped, scalp-protection undercap (not "skullcap") worn as a padding and sweat-absorbent under the mi•gᵊba•atꞋ (wound turban) or mi•tzᵊnëphꞋët (Pharaonic-style scarf).

This undercap helped to minimize chafing from the tō•tëphꞋët gold head-ornament (for the Kō•hænꞋ ha-Jã•dōlꞋ) or leather headdress, which held the mi•tzᵊnëphꞋët (Pharoanic-style scarf) of the Kō•hænꞋ ha-Jã•dōlꞋ (or the mi•gᵊba•atꞋ headdress of the other kō•han•imꞋ) in place on the head, and from blowing off one's head in a gust of wind.

  • Confusing the following general guidelines, Liberal and unaware Jews, for Jewish events, wear whatever type of כִּפָּה they fancy.

    Silk is popular in this category, with black for funerals and white for more joyful events).

    A כִּפָּה with an obvious crease in it probably indicates that the כִּפָּה spends more time folded in the wearer’s pocket than on his head. This usually means that the person is observant enough to want to cover his head while attending "temple" or saying blessings, but not all the time.

  • Fabric:

    • Velvet or Terylene—(Black) favored by yᵊshivꞋōt, Kha•sid•imꞋ, Kha•reid•iꞋ and Khab״d.

    • Knitted (infrequently crocheted)—generally indicates dati leumi Israeli-nationalist rather than kha•reid•iꞋ. However, size matters; smaller indicating "modern-leaning Orthodox Lite" while larger indicates more extreme or fanatic zealous nationalist and-or Ultra-Orthodox.

    • Satin or Silk—generally indicates a liberal or non-observant Jew, simply respectful at "temples" or Jewish events.

  • Size: The bigger the כִּפָּה the more devout—or sanctimonious—the wearer.

  • Color:

    • Black generally indicates an Ultra-Orthodox kha•reid•iꞋ wearer.

    • Colors on a white background generally indicate an Israeli-Nationalist (or unaware non-Orthodox) rather than an Ultra-Orthodox or kha•reid•iꞋ. Again, size matters.


Ancient Hebrew Non-Priests: Headdress Or Bareheaded?

The Romans destroyed the genealogical yo•khas•inꞋ and Ta•lᵊmudꞋ declares (Ma•sëkꞋët Qi•dush•inꞋ 70b) that genealogical records, once lost, are forever lost. Today's kō•han•imꞋ are recognized as strictly ceremonial, having no legitimate genealogical claim to the priesthood. Thus, strictures of headdress for priests are irrelevant for today's Jews.more


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כִּפֵּרPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2024.01.22]

Ki•peirꞋכיפר,כיפור,כפורת,כפרת,kaporet,caporet,kaphar,kipeir,kipur,kippur,kaparah,kaporet (trans. v.) —

  • Literal — To "Wipe-on" or "smear-over", especially applying pitch, tar or asphalt to weatherproof an object, then smoothing, by "Wiping-off," "Sopping-up" or "Blotting-up", to produce a finished surface.

  • Metaphoric — To "Wipe-on" or "smear-over", applying a Tōr•ãhꞋ-prescribed, transgression-covering agent (e.g., blood of the sacrifice evidencing payment of the Tōr•ãhꞋ (court) -imposed fine/​penalty, spattered on the appointed non-anthropomorphic mi•zᵊbeiꞋakh (and annually on Yōm ha-Ki•pūr•imꞋ to "transgress-proof" the penitent from the Tōr•ãhꞋ-defined offense, then smoothing by "Wiping-off," "Sopping-up" or "Blotting-up" to produce a finished surface.

The Encyclopedia Judaica acknowledged that the customary rendering of כִּפֵּר as "to atone for", or even "to expiate", is misleadingly inaccurate — and the "dumbing down" in translation often produces an a•vōd•ãhꞋ zãr•ãhꞋ. Insist on exclusive explanation & use of the Hebrew terms.

    Cognates:
  • כָּפַר (kã•pharꞋ), to smear-over (as with pitch or a protective coating), besmear, cover-up, cover-over, paper-over. (Note: This verb should be distinguished from "to deny", more accurately translated by the hiph•ilꞋ of כַּחַשׁ.)

  • masc . n. כִּפּוּר — a Tōr•ãhꞋ-prescribed, post-reparations, expiatory-covering remedy for Tōr•ãhꞋ-defined transgression.  more

    Pl. כִּפֻּוּרִים; see יוֹם הַכִּפֻּוּרִים — more

  • fem. n. כַּפֹּרֶת — the kᵊrūv•imꞋ-surmounted, expiatory-cover on the mobile A•rōnꞋ ha-Bᵊritmore

  • lᵊ‑ha•vᵊdilꞋ

  • fem. n. כַּפָּרוֹת (pl. of כַּפָּרָה) — a post-9th century C.E., contra-Tōr•ãhꞋ sacrificial ritual practiced by some Ash•kᵊnazꞋim, Kha•sid•imꞋ & Sᵊphã•rãd•imꞋ cults of "Orthodox" Judaism, who believe the sins of a person are symbolically transferred to a chicken they swing around their head (and then slaughter, cook and eat).


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כִּסֵּא/​כֵּסPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2021.06.03]

  • masc . n. כִּסֵּא (ki•seiꞋ); plural כִּסְאוֹת (ki•sᵊōtꞋ) — כסא,kisei,keis chair or seat; especially "bench" in the sense of the "bench" of a Beit-Din, judge or other court. The meaning of throne was originally exclusively in the sense of a kritarchy ("bench"); only later evolving to a king's throne.

  • masc . n. כֵּס (keis; same meaning as above; a hapax legomenon in Ta•na״khꞋ (Shᵊm•ōtꞋ 17.16); probably a sing. combinative form.


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𐀐𐀩𐀳
Kᵊrē•të (Linear-B) 
[Glos K-M, updated: 2023.06.23]


MiddleEast BCE05500&2629 Out of Adamah BeneiNoakh
Click to enlargecBCE 3000–1150 ᴷH•ãrꞋrian-Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshan (Kit•imꞋ); cBCE 1450 confederated with, then eclipsed by Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•an-TzūrꞋi•ans, finally eclipsed by Pūlossians Mediterranean Maritime Trade Routes

Kᵊrē•të Kaphtor,Kerete,Kaphtor,Caphtor,Kaftor,Caftor,Keftia,Keftiu,Keftiw,Kephtia,Kephtiu,Kephtiw(Crete)—The earliest extant evidence of human-crafted stone tools on the Mediterannean island of Kᵊrē•të sets the terminus ad quem of early autochthonous human presence on Kᵊrē•të: ≈130 Ka  b.p.  

Who were this Mediterranean island's original, techhnologically advanced maritime super-civilization and culture mislabeled "Minoans" & "Sea Peoples"?

Were they neighboring relatives from the Cimmerian Terranes keys, which broke off from proto-South America in Gondwana, Pangea ≈270 Ma and drifted imperceptibly slowly across the Paleotethys (now the Atlantic & Mediterranean) Ocean until ≈50 Ma? 


Crete-Turkey-Greece 260Ma (Stampfli)
Click to enlargeCrete-Turkey-Greece 260 Ma (graphic: Prof. Gérard Stampfli, Professeur Honoraire, Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Lausanne, Switzerland) 

The Kit•imꞋ (Anatolian, Turkish) or Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•an-TzūrꞋi•an  (exonym: Phoenicians) were all areas of the Cimmerian Terranes keys, on the far side of the planet from European Greece until ≈50 Ma—the time, over tens of thosands of years, when anthropoids, then Hominidae, began emerging among mammals wherever conditions were favorable.

This is about the time when the Kit•imꞋ (Anatolia, Turkey), Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•an-TzūrꞋi•ans  (exonym: Phoenicians) of the Cimmerian Terranes keys slow-mo crashed and subducted, imperceptibly slowly, into and under the European continent—first meeting Europe and Greece. Combined with rising waters from glacial melting Crete reached its present island location and form in the Mediterranean Sea.

Greeks and Europeans argue that the first Hominoids on Crete only occurred hundreds of millions of years after the Cimmerian Terranes keys broke off from South America and drifted across what is now the Atlantic Ocean to crash into Europe—finally meeting European-Greek colonists?

Yet, they were a pre-Greek technologically-advanced, seagoing super-civilization of Cretans. They appear to have evolved within the Cimmerian Terranes independently. In such case, autochthonous Cretans shared their history with Anatolians (Turks) and Incas for eons before the first European, initially from the far side of the planet, identifying as Greek ever set foot on earth. more


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כִּיּוֹרPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2020.02.04]

masc . n. ki•yōrꞋ;כיור,kiyor basin, sink.


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KJ/V [Glos K-M, updated: 2022.12.03]

The King James [per]Version; i.e. Καινής Διαθήκης, was published 1611 C.E. (ridiculously recent) under the rule of a misojudaic King James of England—in which Jews had been banned for more than three centuries (since 1290 C.E.; a lot these misojudaic English gentiles knew about Jewish Scripture… some "authorities"!)—from which, outrageously, the later Elzevir Textus Receptus of 1624 C.E. (not a typo! look at the anachronism!) was translated into Greek.

Perversely, most Christians think that the Textus Receptus is the Greek source text of their NT! Although one Christian door-to-door pentecostal responded to this news, before walking off in a huff, eliminated any Hebrew or Greek sources altogether by declaring "If the KJV was good enough for Paul, it's good enough for me!" rofl (rolling on the floor laughing)

This KJ/V 1611 C.E. Greek source text KJ/V created a closed, circular, misojudaic text-source, preserving the intrinsic Hellenist (antinomian / misojudaic) nature, which is intractably incompatible with the Ta•na״khꞋ and from which all subsequent Christian versions emanate. For its veracity and relevance, see NT).


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Klein, Ernest [Glos K-M, updated: 2012.08.26]

Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language For Readers of English (Ernest Klein)
Klein's (Etymological Dictionary)
(1899-1983), Rabbi (Czechoslovakia) Ph.D. (Univ. of Vienna) Semitic languages and literature. Also a survivor of both Auschwitz and Dachau, after which, he moved to Canada and spent 20 years studying the history of the English language.

A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language For Readers of English (Jerusalem: Carta, Haifa: Univ. of Haifa, 1987.


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כֹּהֵןPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2021.07.11]

masc . n. kō•heinꞋ, pl. כֹּהֲנִים (kō•han•imꞋ); כוהן,כהנים,kohein,kohenim priests genealogically descended from A•ha•rōnꞋ Bën-AmᵊrãmꞋ. From the time of Pi•nᵊkhãsꞋ, these kō•han•imꞋ appended the subtitle Qa•nãyꞋim. Still later, with Tzã•dōqꞋ, they added the designation Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ)..

To be legitimate, each was required to prove his genealogy from the ancient yō•khas•inꞋ public registers—which were destroyed c. 135 CE by the Romans!!!

הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל was the High (lit. "big") Priest.

Cognate: כְּהֻנָּה (kᵊhun•ãhꞋ; priesthood). more info


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כּוֹלֵלPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2014.10.26]

masc . n. ko•leilꞋ; כולל, koleil, kollel full-time yᵊshiv•ãhꞋ (advanced study of the Ta•lᵊmudꞋ and rabbinic literature) for married students, for which students receive an exemption from serving in the IDF as well as a stipend from the Israeli government instead of working.


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𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 ("Cyrus" 2nd, the Great) [Glos K-M, updated: 2024.02.13] 

aaa
Click to enlargeShãh Kū•ū•rū•shã the Great with an Egyptian-style triple atef  Hemhem crown on corkscrew ram horns book-ended by an uraei  on each side. He also features a four-winged kᵊrūv tutelary di­vi­ni­ty. (from a relief in the residence of Shãh Kū•ū•rū•shã in his ancient capital ciy, Pasargadae (134 km [83 mi] NE of modern Shiraz), Iran (also where his tomb is located ).

masc . n.Koresh Kū•ū•rū•shã (master debater, orator);  b. cBCE 600 in Persia (modern Iran) – d. 530. Transliterated into Hebrew כּוׁׂרֶשׁ, to Greek ΚΥ͂ΡΟΣ Πρεσβύτερος, Latinized then Anglicized to "Cyrus".

map Herodotus Achaemenid Neo-Persian Empire of Darius 1<sup>st</sup> the Great
Click to enlargeAchaemenidian-Persian Empire of Shãh Kū•ū•rū•shã BCE 559-539; ex­pand­ed beyond Persia (Iran) cBCE 539-465.08

cBCE 559

Kū•ū•rū•shã becomes Shãh of Neo-Persia (Iran).

cBCE 539

Shãh Kū•ū•rū•shã conquers Neo-Bã•vëlꞋ, establishing the Akh•sa•kh•ëmꞋ  Neo-Persian (Iranian) Empire.

Neo-Bã•vëlꞋ and YᵊhūdꞋãh absorbed as Akh•sa•kh•ëmꞋ  SãꞋtrap•ies.

Shãh Kū•ū•rū•shã was widely noted, even in his day, for extending humanitarianism beyond that introduced to the world by Shar NãꞋbū-kūd•ūri•ūt•zūrꞋ.

Shãh Kū•ū•rū•shã viewed respect for individual rights, politics, and military strategy as means to a more orderly and cooperative empire. His influence is found in subsequent traditions of both the Eastern world and the Western world. Many of the great inventions, wisdom and cultural advances claimed by LBAC  Greeks, were arrogated from, and correctly track back to Shãh Kū•ū•rū•shã Particularly, as the founder of the first Persian empire, Shãh Kū•ū•rū•shã has played a crucial role in defining the original national identity of today's Iranian nation. He would be deeply ashamed of Iran's rulers today!

cBCE 538  —The דָבָ֗ר Of Shãh Kū•ū•rū•shã

For this, Shãh Kū•ū•rū•shã became the only foreigner  in history to be called a מָשִׁ֣יחַ!!! 

In this context, it must be said that Shãh Kū•ū•rū•shã did this when he ruled unquestioned over practically all of the ancient world. While he certainly merits the title מָשִׁ֣יחַ as granted in Scripture, it must also be acknowledged that his righteous act was significantly bettered by 45th U.S. Pres. Donald John Trump (b. 1946.06.14), in recognizing—and declaring in defiance of practically the whole planet!—that Yᵊrū•shã•laꞋyim is the historical and eternal exclusive capital of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ !!! Pres. Trump's decree is, then, by Scriptural definition and standard, even more meritorious of the title מָשִׁ֣יחַ than Shãh Kū•ū•rū•shã הַמָשִׁ֣יחַ!

Note: It must be noted also that all of these Mᵊshikh•imꞋ, like every Kō•hænꞋ ha-Jã•dōlꞋ, MëlꞋëkh Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ and Nã•viꞋ are all are mere paradigms distinct from their realization: the Mᵊshikh•imꞋ: the Mã•shiꞋakh Bën-Yō•seiphꞋ  and Mã•shiꞋakh Bën-Dã•widꞋ. 

Dãn•iy•ælꞋ's 70 "Weeks" Until כָּרֵת Of מָשִׁ֣יחַ נָגִ֔יד 

If calculated from BCE 538, Dãn•iy•ælꞋs 70 septuples ("weeks", sevens) of years (70 x 7 = 490 years) brings us (538 - 490) to BCE 48! The only historical event of note that year seems to have been a new Roman calendar system. No מָשִׁ֣יחַ!

A priori, one must look to another, follow-up דָבָ֗ר, by the grandson of his successor, Shãh Dā•a•ra•ya•va•ū•shã: namely, Shãh A•rᵊta•khᵊshaꞋsᵊtã Sr. more


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כּוּשִׁיPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2018.02.07]

Kūsh•iꞋ, fem. Kūsh•itꞋ, pl. Kūsh•imꞋ; כטשית, KushiAfrican — including Egypt(ian), in contrast to nomads of the Sin•aiꞋ and Levant.


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כֹּתֶלPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

1995 Kotel, Paqid Yirmeyahu
Pã•qidꞋ Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu at the כֹּתֶל ‭ ‬ (1985).Click to enlarge

masc . n. KōꞋtël; כותל, Kotel wall, usually refers to the 'Western Wall'. (Though more than a few Jews ignorantly use the phrase, 'Wailing Wall' is offensive to knowledgeable Jews.)


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כֻּתֹּֽנֶתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2020.02.08]

fem. n. kū•tōnꞋët (pl. כֻּתֳּנֹת);כתנת,כתונת,kutonet kaftan, tunic of linen; nightshirt or nightgown; derived from כֻּתְנָה (kū•tᵊn•ãhꞋ, linen; PEMRH: cotton — origin of associating cotton with underwear).


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לְהִתרָאוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.08.10]

Lᵊhit•rã•ōtꞋ; להתראות, lehitraot, l'hitraot see you later (lit. "to seeings").


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לְPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2016.11.27]

lᵊ- prefix; lit. "{toward, to, for}…"

Contraction of לְ and ה (ha-, the); form depending on subsequent letter:

  • לַla- prefix; lit. "{toward, to, for} the…"
  • לָ- prefix; lit. "{toward, to, for} the…"

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לֵאָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2015.10.25]

fem. n. LeiꞋãh; לאה, Leiah, Leah weary, short-tempered.


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לֵב \ לֵבָבPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.02.25]

masc . n. Leiv/leiv•ãvꞋ לב, leiv, lev heart (the second form is formal or poetic); understood by the sō•phᵊr•imꞋ of Ta•na״khꞋ to be the seat of thought and decision-making—i.e. sapience, reasoning, logic, intelligence; which forms one’s intellectual orientation, the conscience and nëphꞋësh; i.e. the will and resulting personality, character, integrity and moral values—characteristics we ascribe today to the brain—certainly not the modern romantic connotation.

Remnants of this surface centuries later. "In his treatise On the Usefulness of the Parts of the Body, written in the second century [C.E.], Galen reaffirmed common ideas about the heart… as the organ most closely related to the [nëphꞋësh]… He argued that the expansion and contraction of the heart was a function of its role as an intelligent organ: "The complexity of [the heart's] fibers… was prepared by Nature to perform a variety of functions… enlarging when it desires to attract what is useful, clasping its contents when it is time to enjoy what has been attracted, and contracting when it desires to expel residues."

Thus, חָכָם לֵב is to be understood as excelling in sapience, reasoning, logic and intelligence; i.e. perspicacious, astute. This was especially applied to a top expert artisan or craftsman in a given field of expertise.


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לֵוִיPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Lei•wiꞋ, לוויים,Leiwi,Leiviy,Lewiyim,L'wiyim,Levipl. לְוִיִּים (Lᵊwiy•imꞋ; escorts, ushers, accompaniers), (Hellenized to 'Levi' and 'Levites'). 3rd son of Ya•a•qovꞋ (mother: LeiꞋãh).

The most famous descendent of Lei•wiꞋ was Mōsh•ëhꞋ Bën-AmᵊrãmꞋ ha-Lei•wiꞋ—the Mi•tzᵊr•ayꞋim-adopted Par•ōhꞋ-Nã•sikhꞋ who led Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ in the Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ!

His big brother, A•ha•rōnꞋ Bën-AmᵊrãmꞋ, was the next most famous descendent of Lei•wiꞋ: appointed by Mōsh•ëhꞋ as the first Kō•hænꞋ ha-Jã•dōlꞋ


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לֶ֣חֶםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2023.04.08]
Pitah Iraqit (haShipudia)
ËrꞋëv Shab•ãtꞋ: PitꞋãh I•raq•itꞋ/​LãfꞋah (photo: ha-Shi•puꞋdi•a Restaurant, Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim)

masc . n. LëkhꞋëm; בית לחם,Beit Lekhem,Bet Lekhem originally c. BCE 13,000 & BH: a flatbread; PEMRH: bread.

In the time of Av•rã•hãmꞋ, long before Har Sin•aiꞋ, leavened (yeast-risen fluffy) bread referred to something very similar to the qu•bãn•ãhꞋ of the Tei•mãn•imꞋ.

חַלָּה/קוּבָנָה (khallãh/pitã)
Shab•ãtꞋ noon: Qu•bãnꞋãh (popularly corrupted "Kubaneh"; i.e., Khal•ãhꞋ Tei•mãn•itꞋ), with baked egg in shell.

Until the 15th century, all Jews used their weekday rectangular loaves or round loaves for Shab•ãtꞋ. Eventually, however, German (Ash•kᵊnazꞋi) Jews began assimilating a "new form of Sabbath bread, an oval, braided loaf modeled on [i.e. assimilated from] a popular Teutonic bread."

מַצּ֖וֹת לֶ֣חֶם עֹ֑נִי (Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 16.3): an unleavened-flatbread of response—barley being the spring crop variety of unleavened-flatbread in the panicked fleeing response of the Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ bug-out.

לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים (LëkhꞋëm ha-Pãn•imꞋ; Bread of the Inner [Sanctum]). הַפָּנִים can mean either "the face(s)" or "the interior/​inner". The popular stretch, from "Face Bread" to "Display Bread" is logically indefensible and without credible precedent or support. The correct understanding is "Bread of the Inner Sanctum." The Israeli מִשְׂרַד הַפְּנִים (Mis•radꞋ ha-Pᵊn•imꞋ) is the Office (i.e., Ministry) of the Interior—not the Office of the Face (or Display Office). One should keep in mind that the difference in vowels is a product of the 9th-10th centuries C.E. and represents evolution in the language rather than indicating any particular difference in meaning.

Even PEMRH: פִּתָּה derives from the Greek πίτα—which was Greek for lëkhꞋëm.

בֵּית-לֶחֶם (Beit-LëkhꞋëm; House of Bread, the bread house), Hellenized to today's Arab-occupied "Bethlehem."

See also khal•ãhꞋ.


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לְחִי-חֲמוֹרPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.10.30]

Egyptian khophesh Tel Apheq
Click to enlargeBronze Age LᵊkhiꞋ-Kha•mōrꞋ (”Jawbone Of An Ass”) Sword

LᵊkhiꞋ-Kha•mōrꞋלחי-חמור,lekhi-khamor teriyah (“Jawbone of An Ass”) — originally a Kᵊna•an•iꞋ sword; hence, perhaps the original name. The Egyptians, who adopted the sword, called it the “Khopesh” (”foreleg”). more

Jawbone of an ass
Jawbone of an ass; either side resembling a weapon.

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לְשׁוֹן הָרָעPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2018.08.22]

fem. n. Lᵊshōn hã-Rã; לשון הרע,leshon hara,l'shon hara unnecessary and wrongful — i.e. harmful — communication; including defamation (e.g., slander, libel, passive defamation of character) and gossip; lit. "the Wrongful Tongue/​Language".

"Death and life are in the hand [i.e. power] of the lᵊshōn" (Mi•shᵊl•eiꞋ ShᵊlōmꞋōh 18.21). Lᵊshōn hã-rã is regarded so serious in Tōr•ãhꞋ that it has historically been equated to murder, incest and idolatry; the three only cardinal transgressions of Tōr•ãhꞋ not overridden by pi•quꞋakh nëphꞋësh! (I.e. one must choose to die rather than commit any of these three cardinal transgressions of Tōr•ãhꞋ.) Murder of a person's reputation equates to murder of that person, the penalty for which was capital punishment by stoning! (Ma•sëkꞋët Arãkh•inꞋ 15b)

This historic correlation of lᵊshōn hã-rã with murder derives directly from Tōr•ãhꞋShᵊm•ōtꞋ 23.7: "Distance yourself from baseless-chatter — don't kill anyone with clean hands or who is a tza•diqꞋ; for neither will I exonerate-as-a-tza•diqꞋ anyone who is a rëshꞋa!"

Lᵊshōn hã-rã also includes unnecessary and harmful communication even when it's true; e.g., divulging confidential information (financial, etc.) detrimental to the victim; e.g., the "bottom line" buying or selling price of an item leaked to victim's competitor (see Ta•lᵊmudꞋ Bã•vᵊl•iꞋ, Ma•sëkꞋët Yom•ãꞋ 4b). However, the notion that because some true communications are lᵊshōn hã-rã excludes defamatory lies from the definition — making it ok to to defame someone as long as it's a lie — is non sequitur and does extreme perversion to the words of the Sages (Ram•ba"mꞋ, Mi•shᵊn•eihꞋ Tor•ãhꞋ, Hi•lᵊkh•ōtꞋ Dei•ōtꞋ 7.4).

See also the more serious transgression of publishing or broadcasting defamation—mō•tziꞋ sheim ra.


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Levantin (Fr.)Pronunciation Table [Glos_K-M, updated: 2022.08.12]

Herodotus' Description of the East Mediterranean Coast (Rainey 2001)
Click to enlargeBCE 5th Century, Herodotus' Description of Eastern Mediterranean coastlands from Syria in the North to Egypt; including the 4 Pulossian (Philistine/​Palestina;) colonies

"East, toward sunrise"Levantine — This is a Christian-era 16th century French term! In Bibical times no "Levant" even existed!!! There is no finite geographical definition of this modern term other than (lands) "east" (of the Mediterrranean Basin)! This confuses and misdirects any discussion about the land of Avᵊrã•hãmꞋ and Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ into a contemporary political minefield, which scholars likely tried to avoid through intentional ambiguity (unscholariness).

The most widely-used "geographic-ish", supposed synonym of the (ambiguous) term "Levant" is Syrian-Palaistine (Philistines, who were Greek, not Arab)—first mentioned by Herödötös as a region north (limegreen on the accompanying map) of the endonymic Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•an-TzūrꞋi•ans (exonym: Phoenicians (modern Lebanon) and modern Turkey!!! This location, next to what is Turkey today, continued until 135 CE, when Roman Emperor Hadrian changed Roman Law to move the southern border of the Roman Province of Syrian Palaistine south to envelop YᵊhūdꞋãh (pale blue on map). No Arab nation today accepts 135 CE Roman law as the defining their historical boundaries; they only want it to apply to Israel! Historical (rather than Roman perverted) BCE 5th century Palaistine-assimilated Proto-Sheimia was the northernmost part of Mediterranean-coastal Syria bordering Turkey!!!

Practically everyone has a politically-agendized—wrong—notion of this term, which misdirects discussion to a displacement mythology regarding the geographic location of the ancient land of Avᵊrã•hãmꞋ and Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ.

What we can rely on is that language (in this case, Semitic) greatly defines people who communicate; a community: i.e. Sheimites, of "Sheimia" (sometimes corrupted to Shemites, "people of the Name"; Semites and Semitic), and the land they originally settled—Anglicized to Proto-Sheimite(s).


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לְצַדPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.03.13]

lᵊtzad;לצד,letzad,peers,beside to the side or flank; i.e. beside, as a peer beside.

In Dãn•iy•eilꞋ's prophecy of the 11th qërꞋën (popularly the 666 "antichrist"), this is the key word in the original language (Aramaic Dãn•iy•eilꞋ 7.25): וּמִלִּין לְצַד עליא [עִלָּאָה] יְמַלִּל—(and he shall absolutely proclaim proclamations as a peer beside the Most-High). See also Hō•sheiꞋa 13.4 & Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 45.21-22.

Logical/​scientific interpretations of Scripture (Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ) is unavoidable and complementary to Scripture. Rabbinic or other adding to (or, even worse, contradicting) Scripture transgresses an explicit mi•tzᵊwãhꞋ ! Those who pō•seiqꞋ Dark Ages rabbinic or Christian, or even later and further removed Muslim, additions or contradictions of Scripture blaspheme; vaunting themselves to be peer spokespersons of י‑‑ה.

A millennium after Dãn•iy•eilꞋ, the earliest extant Christian Church historian, Eusëbios, recorded all ten of these original "beams of the beast"; i.e. the first 10 gentile/​Christian Church episkopos who "changed the times and the religion", from the original and first gentile/​Christian episkopos: Marcus, in 135 C.E. For further details, see my 1990 book, which later proved accurate: The 1993 Covenant Live-Link 


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Linear A & Linear B Pronunciation Table [Glos_K-M, updated: 2023.01.31]

Kitim hieroglyph stele (Anatolian Hittite, Luwian dialect)
Click to enlargeKit•imꞋ hieroglyph stele; Anatolian Hittite, Luwian dialect (photo: Georges Jansoone)

Linear A & Linear B are BCE 2nd millennium Mediterranean Basin Semitic-TzūrꞋi•an international maritime trade pidgin, written (clay tablet) records, scrutable to both parties of a contract.

  1. Linear A—Early BCE 2nd millennium Semitic-TzūrꞋi•an international pidgin maritime trade written (clay tablet) records, scrutable to both parties of a contract; with seemingly strong ties to Egyptian trade and hieroglyphic symbols; and likely a pre-Hellenic maritime rival: the Kit•imꞋ—who also used a hieroglyphic script.

    "There is sufficient evidence that Linear B is a derivative from Linear A, so the question is, how did this transmission process happen? … Linear B is the Greek Mycenaean dialect, used in administration of not only the Mycenaean palaces of Crete but also in Thebes, Myceanae, Pylos, and Τίρυνς on the Greek mainland."

    The multilingual communication and contractual needs of blossoming maritime trade throughout the Mediterranean Basin provide the answer to that question. Linear A was the parent of Linear B, the latter reflecting expanding international and multilingual maritime trade records not only with Egyptian but, increasingly, with Mycenaean, Aegean and other Mediterranean Basin trade partners—as well as a rising rival maritime competitor: the Pūlossians.

  2. Linear B—Late BCE 2nd millennium Mediterranean Basin Greek-Pūlossian extension of TzūrꞋi•an pidgin Semitic-TzūrꞋi•an maritime trade international written (clay tablet) records scrutable to both parties of a contract.


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לִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִיתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2011.04.04]

Lishkat ha-Gazit (red dot)
Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ — Sanhedrin (red dot)

fem. n. Lish•katꞋ ha-Gã•zitꞋ (connective form of לִשְׁכָּה); לשכת הגזית, lishkat hagazit the Chamber of Dressed Stone, located on the upper level of the portico in the southeastern corner of the Ëz•ratꞋ Yi•sᵊ•rã•eilꞋ — where the Beit Din -Jã•dolꞋ convened (see also Beit Din hã-Jã•dolꞋ).


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λόγος [Glos K-M, updated: 2011.04.03]

logos

The origin of λογος traces back to Heraclitus (ca. B.C.E. 535—475), who used the term for the principle of [spoken] order and knowledge, in other words, intellectual oral discourse. Aristotle, similarly, used λογος in the sense of reasoned oral (rhetorical) discourse. more


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לוּחַPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.10.12]

irreg. n. (m.s./​f.p.) lūꞋakhלוחות,luakhot — stone slab or slate (e.g., blackboard), tablet (incl. for writing), panel (incl. control-panel), matrix (i.e. row-column—not furniture—table; incl. a list, calendar or game-board); pl. לוּחוֹת (lūkh•ōtꞋ).


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לוּלָבPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2008.07.15]

Lulav Teimani & Pomegranate
Lu•lãvꞋ Tei•mãn•iꞋ and ri•mōnꞋ (pomegranate, not post-500 C.E. Ët•rōgꞋ)

masc . n. lū•lãvꞋ לולב, lulav a bunch consisting of a budding date-palm frond to which is tied (by slats from the date-palm frond) two branches of a special variety of willow and, in the Yemenite lu•lãvꞋ, a generous bunch (a minimum of three are required) of a special variety of myrtle. The lu•lãvꞋ is especially associated with Suk•otꞋ. See wa-Yi•qᵊr•ãꞋ 23.40, 43.


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LXX [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

Codex Sinaiticus (earliest extant source of Septuagint)
LXX — in Codex Sinaiticus with the Christian Διαθηκη Καινη (Diathækæ Kainæ; NT)

The Septuagint / 70; Greek translation of Ta•na״khꞋ translated by 70 (LXX) Hellenist Jews in Yᵊru•shã•layꞋim ca. B.C.E. 200 for Hellenist Jews of the tᵊphutz•ãhꞋ in Alexandria, Egypt).


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מַעֲרִיבPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2020.07.16]

masc . n. Ma•a•rivꞋ;מעריב,maariv,ma'ariv evening — routinely understood to refer to the first tᵊphil•ōtꞋ of the new day, thus beginning the new day with praise.

Mi•nᵊkh•ãhꞋ is popularly recited late in the afternoon, yet early enough to allow congregants to finish in time to take a couple of minutes break and still begin reciting Ma•a•rivꞋ a bit before sunset, timing the service so that it's dark, having begun the new day, before reciting the Shᵊm•aꞋ.


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מַעֲשֶׂהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2018.09.02]

masc . n. Ma•as•ëhꞋמעשה, maaseh, ma'aseh, Essenes — a practice, doing or making; from עָשָׂה (ãs•ãhꞋ; he/​it did; i.e. "to do").

Ma•as•ëhꞋ was also the name of the corpus of case law—stare decisis—court adjudications (i.e. interpretations) of the Biblically commanded khuq•imꞋ and mi•shᵊpãt•imꞋ, comprising the Oral Law of the Qum•rãnꞋ Kha•sid•imꞋ Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ.

When the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ priest, Iason (Yәho•shuꞋa Bën-Shim•onꞋ Jr.), purchased control over the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ and priesthood from the Hellenist Syrian overlord, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, in B.C.E. 165, the Ma•as•ëhꞋ served as the blueprint that was subsequently re-interpreted, and adopted as Oral Law, by the Hellenized pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ (i.e. Χειρόγραφον Τοις Δόγμασιν) and "Enlightened"/​"Reformed" (of their day) Pᵊrush•imꞋ (i.e. Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ).

Together, khuq•imꞋ and mi•shᵊpãt•imꞋ comprised MiꞋshᵊnãh, the Oral (interpretations of the) Law until the codification of all three:

  1. the Qum•rãnꞋ Kha•sid•imꞋ-Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ interpretations as documented in Dead Sea Scroll 4Q MMT,

  2. the post-B.C.E. 165 Hellenized Pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ interpretations, in their Χειρόγραφον Τοις Δόγμασιν, and

  3. the rabbinic Pᵊrush•imꞋ interpretations—the interpretations endorsed by RibꞋi Yᵊho•shuꞋa in The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu (NHM, in English) 23:1-3—in Tal•mudꞋ. See also Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ.


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מַעֲשֵׂרPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

irreg. n. (m.s./​f.p.) ma•a•seirꞋ, pl. מַעַשׂרוֹת (ma•a•sᵊr•ōtꞋ); מעשרות, maaseir, ma'aseir, maasrot, ma'asrot tenths (or tithes). “Each year, a person [was required] to tithe all the newborn offspring of his cattle, sheep, and goats. Each tenth animal automatically [became] consecrated as a מַעֲשֵׂר, maaser [tithe] offering.” See also qãrᵊbãnꞋ more


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Πράξεις Αποστόλων Pronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2011.04.04]

PraxꞋeis A•pös•tölꞋōnמעבר, maavar, ma'avar — the praxis of the emissaries; Anglicized to "Acts." More accurately rendered in Hebrew as מַעֲבָר (Ma•a•vãrꞋ; transition [ongoing consequent to the death of RibꞋi Yᵊhō•shūꞋa and the events from 70 CE to 135 CE]). For details on provenance, etc., see also Acts

The απόστολοι (A•pösꞋtöl•öi; "apostles") are the Hellenist (i.e. Christian) interpretation/​perversion of the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ שְׁלִיחִים (shᵊlikh•imꞋ; emissaries).

Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Ma•a•vãrꞋ (Transition) is a more accurate title for the Καινής Διαθήκης book Hellenized (de-Judaized) to "Acts." Ma•a•vãrꞋ records the transition of the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ from the direct and personal supervision of historical RibꞋi Yᵊhō•shūꞋa to the operation of the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ branch of the Beit Hi•leilꞋ Beit Din, under the first Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Pã•qidꞋ, Pã•qidꞋ Ya•a•qōvꞋ "ha-Tza•diqꞋ" (the brother of RibꞋi Yᵊhō•shūꞋa) in the RūꞋakh ha-QōꞋdësh.


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מַבּוּלPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Ma•būlꞋ; מבול, mabulthe Deluge (popularly "Flood")


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מד"אPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

MDA ambulance
Click to enlargeMDA ambulance

masc . n. MadꞋ"a; מד"א, מד''א, Magein David Adom, Magen David Adomacronym for מָגֵן דָוִד אָדֹם (Mã•geinꞋ Dã•widꞋ ÕdomꞋ; Red Shield—NOT star, which is כּוֹכָב—of David), the Judaic (in contrast with Christian Red Cross and Muslim Red Crescent) emergency rescue service. Note: while the International and American Red Cross have long recognized the Islamic Red Crescent, they STILL do NOT recognize מד"א.


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מַדְרִיךְPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2013.03.25]

masc . n. Ma•dᵊrikhꞋ; מדריך, madrikh, madrich guide (the Way) — subst. use of the part. of the hiph•ilꞋ of דרך, from which derives dërꞋëkh.


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𐎶𐎦𐎢𐏁  ("Magi") [Glos_K-M, updated: 2024.02.18]

Old Persian Ma•gū•ū•shã or 𐎶𐎦𐎢 ; Hellenized to Μάγος  ("Magi"; modern Iran & India "Mobed"); Achaemenid Neo-Persian (BCE 550–330) Zoroastrian, aka Mazda(n), astronomer-astrologer (ancients knew no distinction) priest.

Prior to the 21st century advent of actual and increasingly extensive, scientific involvement in archaeology—particularly extensive radiocarbon dating (extensively annotated in my Chron ), Christian- and Muslim-apologist explorer-adventurers ("Indiana Jones"-style "archaeologists"—in truth only religious apologists—trivialized the "OT" Roll eyes chronologies; helped enormously by silly rabbinic datings "from Creation". World History Encyclopedia vacuously boldly boasts "Zoroastrianism, in fact, is the first monotheistic faith to advance the concepts of individual responsibility for salvation, judgment after death, a messiah, an end-time, and a heaven and hell, and should rightly be regarded as the precursor to the later religions which claim an original vision which was actually established centuries before by Zoroaster and was so confident of its truth that it never needed to try to silence any others."

In fact, Zoroaster birth claims range from only cBCE 1500 to as recent as BCE 500! Again, if not entirely mythical, his questionable birth must be taken as no later than BCE 500. The earliest extant mss. (K1) of any Avestan language is dated to 1323 CE! Thus, even the Muslims' Quran is older than that, and the DSS, corroborating every book in Ta•na״khꞋ except Ës•teir, are millennium older than the Muslims' knock-off Quran!!!

By enormous contrast, earliest extant mss. of Ta•na״khꞋ, the DSS, date back a full millennium earlier than any Avestan ms. Moreover, Ta•na״khꞋ presents a full chronology from the birth of AvᵊrãmꞋ in Ūr in BCE 21st century—cBCE 2039! AvᵊrãmꞋ emigrated to Aram (enroute to Kᵊna•anꞋ) where, about the chronological age of 35         (cBCE 2004), his name changes to Avᵊrã•hãmꞋ—signalling his eureka moment vision of monotheism from which all else sprouted. Subsequent history and 21st century CE scientific archaeology continually corroborates Biblical dating from these points uninterruptedly through today (see my Chron )


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מָג֔וֹג Pronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2023.03.21]

Mã•gōgꞋ;Magog מָגּוֹג; i.e. the homeland nation or empire of Gog.


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מַכַּבִּיםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2022.12.12]

masc . n. (pl.) Ma•kab•imꞋ; מכבים, Makabimfrom כִּבָּה — Extinguishers (Hellenized & Anglicized to "Maccabees"). more


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מַכָּה pl. מַכּוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. mak•ãhꞋ, plural mak•ōtꞋ; מכה, מכות, makah, makot strike, hit, smite, lash (from a whip); popularly "plague" more


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מָחַלPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2012.01.29]

mã•khalꞋ; מחל, makhal absolve, to remit a debt.

See also סָלַח (sã•lakhꞋ) and חָנַן (khã•nanꞋ).


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מַחֲזוֹרPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2016.07.03]

masc . n. ma•kha•zōrꞋ; מחזור, makhzor, machzorcycle — liturgical guide for Yōm Tᵊrū•ãhꞋ and Yōm ha-Ki•pūr•imꞋ.


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מְעָרַת הַמַּכפֵּלָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

M'arat ha-Makhpeilah (Cave of the Patriarchs), Khevron (corrupted to ''Hebron'')
Pã•qidꞋ Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu, Karen & Yã•eilꞋ visiting and praying at מְעָרַת הַמַּכפֵּלָה ‭ ‬(1996)

fem. n. Mᵊ•ãr•atꞋ ha-Makh•peil•ãhꞋ; מערת המכפלה, Ma'arat ha-Makhpeilah, Ma'arat ha-Machpelah The Cave of Makh•peil•ãhꞋ, i.e., The Cave of the Tomb of the Patriarchs, located in Khë•vᵊr•onꞋ


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מַלְאָךְPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2018.12.03]

Kenaani Neolithic ritual mask
≈BCE 7000—Kᵊna•an•iꞋ Neolithic anthropomorphist ritual mask

masc . n. ma•lᵊãkhꞋ, pl. מַלְאָכִים (ma•lᵊãkh•imꞋ), pl. conn. -מַלְאֲכֵי (ma•lᵊakh•eiꞋ-…); מלאך, מלאכים, malakhim messenger, one who has been dispatched on a mission, a missionary, Hellenized (simultaneously de-Judaized) to αγγελος (aggelos or angelos; messenger—anglicized to "angel." This is the most probable origin of the terms "Angles," "Anglos" and "English"; all of which trace back to Germanic tribes that migrated to today's England. This etymology may also have contributed to the Germans, seeing themselves as the original Germanic "Angles" (angels) and various other "supremacy" groups.

Anubis Tutankhamun Tomb wall Getty
Click to enlarge≈BCE 1338 Egyp­tian priest in animist  mask (Tut-​ankh-​amun Tomb, Getty)

The מַלְאָךְ traces back to Neolithic times when the tribal leader or village shaman-priest would don a mask representing their primary god, which, they believed, transformed the wearer of the mask into the priest-Spokesman/​Voice of their deity — the "Angel" of their deity speaking through the Unchanging Eyes and Mouth of their deity.

At Har Sin•aiꞋ, soon after the Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ (c. B.C.E. ), Mōsh•ëhꞋ relayed an absolute prohibition on the idolatry of anthropomorphism — which banned such ritual masks. However, in his absence, his priest-brother, A•ha•ronꞋ, produced and used a gold mask that was familiar to them from Egypt, of Hãt-HōrꞋ — the calf-faced Egyptian goddess with cow horns (usually framing a solar disk representing their sun-god).

The unused root verb is לאך, meaning to send. To distinguish this connotation from שָׁלַח (shã•lakhꞋ; to send [something or someone]), לאך seems closer to the English "dispatch."

מַלְאָכִי (Ma•lᵊãkh•iꞋ; My ma•lᵊãkhꞋ; Hellenized to "Malachi" or "My angel," is the last of the twelve minor Nᵊviy•imꞋ in Ta•na״khꞋ.

See also the cognate mᵊlᵊãkh•ãhꞋ


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מַלַאווַחPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2008.07.27]

Teimani malawakh
Malawakh

Ma•laꞋwakh; מלאווח, malawakh(borrowed from Arabic) . Most people buy this but here is a basic recipe (you can refine it each time you make it):

  • 2½ cups pastry (or white) flour

  • 1 cup warm water

  • 1 teaspoon salt

  • ¼ lb butter


  1. Put flour and salt in food processor and add water. (Use plastic blade.)

  2. Process until dough forms a ball

  3. Add more flour or water as needed. Dough should be very soft, but not sticky

  4. Transfer dough to a bowl, cover and let stand 1 hour

  5. Divide it into 2 parts

  6. Roll out 1 part and spread with half the butter.

  7. Fold in thirds, roll out and fold in thirds again. Do this 1 more time

  8. Let stand covered with a damp towel for 1 hour.

  9. Do the same with rest of dough

  10. Divide dough in thirds

  11. Roll out each piece thinly

  12. Heat skillet add 1 tsp butter and fry bread until golden brown. Flip over and cook second side until golden too

Serve with a sauce of mashed tomatoes with skhug and salt to taste


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מַלְשִׁיןPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2017.12.22]

masc . n. ma•lᵊshinꞋ, pl. מַלְשִׁינִים (ma•lᵊshin•imꞋ); מלשין, מלשינים, malshin, maleshinimderived from לשון: tongue-wagging slanderers, defamers, besmirchers — shorthand for lᵊshonꞋ hã-rãꞋ (term used in Bi•rᵊk•atꞋ ha-Min•imꞋ along with min and mã•sōrꞋ).


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מַמָּשׁPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.25]

ma•mãshꞋ; ממש, mamash palpably, substantially, concretely, really (adv.).


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מַמְלָכָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.25]

fem. n. ma•mᵊlãkh•ãhꞋ, ממלכה, mamlakhahconnective form מַמְלֶכֶת (ma•mᵊlëkhꞋët); kingdom of…, domain of…, realm of…, reign of….


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מָןPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2017.12.05]

manna Sinai Haloxylon salicornicum Avinoam Danin 1968
Click to enlargeManna/​رمت in Sin•aiꞋ — "Fig. 5.7.1: White drops rich in minute air-bubbles on Haloxylon salicornicum from the Sinai desert." photo: Avinoam Danin 1968)

masc . n. Mãn ("what"; corrupted to "manna") — A plethora of botanists and other scholars have suggested identifying מָן with the sweet exudations of aphids (scale insects, mealybugs) found on Haloxylon salicornicum (aka salicornia), which is reportedly abundant around the salty marshes and waters along the northern coast of the Sinai peninsula.

Not knowing what מָן was, Scripture (and modern scholars) seem to confuse and conflate the bread/​dough source(s), the honeydew sweetener and the resulting combined (and then baked) מָןmore


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mapsPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2016.03.12]

Chronologically ordered history in maps: more


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מַפטִירPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2010.06.27]

masc . n. Ma•phᵊtirꞋ; מפטיר, maphtir, maftir the one who reads the Ha•phᵊtãr•ãhꞋ). Excepting special Shab•ãt•otꞋ, this refers to the last paragraph of the concluding (seventh) section of the weekly Tōr•ãhꞋ portion, which precedes the Ha•phᵊtãr•ãhꞋ. The person about to read the Haphtãr•ãhꞋ begins by first repeating the Maph•tirꞋ.


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מַקֵּלPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2017.02.05]

Egyptian heqa (l) & sekhem (r) scepters
Click to enlargeEgyptian heqa (l) & שְׂכֶם (r) scepters. Rulers would hold one in each hand when adjudicating a matter; the שְׂכֶם in the right hand and the heqa in the left hand.

masc . n. ma•qeilꞋ; מקל, maqeil, maqel stick, walking cane, shepherd's staff, rod, fighting stick. (See also ma•tëhꞋ and sheivꞋët.)


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יהוה = הַמָּקוֹםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2015.10.04]

masc . n. הַ (ha-; the) + מָקוֹם המקום, ha-Maqom (mã•qōmꞋ; fixed or standing place, location, locale, venue); lit. the Place; namely, Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim. Like "the White House" refers to the American president,הַמָּקוֹם (ha-Mã•qōmꞋ = Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim) is often used to refer metonymically to the Creator-Singularity Who has associated His Name with the Place (Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim)—namely, י‑‑ה.

Note: Only the prepositional prefix changes for "in, at or by" the place: בַּ (ba-; in the) + מָקוֹם (mã•qōmꞋ; fixed or standing place, location), where בַּ is the contraction of בְּ + הַ.

מָקוֹם derives from קוּם, to stand-up. (Compare and contrast קוּם with its synonym עָמַד (ã•madꞋ; to be standing).


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מָרוֹרPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2023.12.22]

Maror-5 Sow Thistle Sonchus oleraceus (Maror)
Click to enlarge
מָרוֹר

masc . n. מרור,maror,takhema,ulshin pl. מְרֹרִים; salad green leaves of the Mustard & Daisy-Sunflower families, which one could pick nearly everywhere in Biblical Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ in the spring. These included wild salad "greens" like the False Sowthistle (Reichardia tingitana, which produces a dandelion-like puffball seed head) and the Dwarf Chicory (Cichorium pumilum) and the Spanish Thistle (Centaurea iberica, though these are only representative of the group of Biblical מְרֹרִים.

Ultra-Orthodox rabbis of Christian-era, Dark Ages Europe syncretized (assimilated into Ta•lᵊmudꞋ) local European traditions, producing new, reformed redefinitions of מָרוֹר—including horseradish, which didn't even exist in Biblical Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ.

Eastern Aramaic Gᵊmãr•ãꞋ to Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ Bã•vᵊl•iꞋ Ma•sëkꞋët Pᵊsãkh•imꞋ 39a listed 5 varieties of מָרוֹר; the 5th being מָרוֹר itself. Since most rabbis hold that these are listed in order of diminishing efficacy, it's oxymoronic that they hold מָרוֹר to be the least satisfactory variety of מָרוֹר!

Although Mã•rōrꞋ is described as a stipulation from earlier, pre-rabbinic times, as the bitter leafy-green (which included other leafy greens such as mustard and collard greens, kale, chard, spinach and Romaine lettuce) to be dipped (in the second dipping of the PësꞋakh SæꞋdër), that doesn't imply the Christian-era European rabbinic assumption that Mã•rōrꞋ was intended to be an exclusive course, much less a repellant taste!

The special, additional, dipping of the PësꞋakh SæꞋdër) is inserted as the first dipping: a sprig of fresh hyssop dipped in red-wine vinegar—commemorating the original dipping of hyssop in the blood of the PësꞋakh sëh and brushing it on their mëzūz•ōtꞋ! Thus, the customary everyday dipping (thought by earlier historians to be a salt-water or olive-oil, garlic and salt mixture) then became the second dipping in the PësꞋakh SæꞋdër.

These two dippings became confused and conflated over the centuries; resulting in salt-water becoming associated with the wrong dip, leading to an explanatory-attempt symbolism of crying salty tears. This distancing from red-wine/blood symbolism was an attempt by early Orthodox rabbis to assimilate a disconnect from blood symbolism at a time when pogroms accusing Jews of "blood libel" were rampant and it was deemed pi•qūꞋakh nëphꞋësh.

In fact, however, the list of available, plentiful, ingredients in Mi•tzᵊr•ayꞋim inform us that even a modest traditional household dip recipe was likely customary as a garnish or savory sauce condiment, enhancing the main course of their usual meals.

Although the Tei•mãn•iꞋ have the oldest extant traditional dip (DūkꞋã), and modern Ashkenazim introduced European Kha•rōꞋsët, customary ancient dips probably emphasized olive oil, crushed garlic, chopped onions, salt and perhaps some ground hot chili peppers. Household dip recipes today can range from a garlic dip to a khūmꞋūs or relish sauce dip, to a hot chili sauce dip—adding sliced or chopped garden veggies (tomatos, onions, etc.) & pickles, relishes and veggie condiments, and any combination of these, as your (kã•shærꞋno dairy ingredient or utensils for a meat meal!) household tradition may prefer. Ideally, each participant at the SæꞋdër should be able to garnish the Mã•rōrꞋ in their Hi•lælꞋ  with their favorite veggie dip; from khūmꞋūs to garlic, onion, pickles and/or hot chili peppers, to salsa or BBQ sauce—as long as Mã•rōrꞋ remains prominent. See more


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מַסֵכָהPronunciation Table [Glos_K-M, updated: 2022.05.11]

Anubis Tutankhamun Tomb wall Getty
Click to enlarge≈BCE 1338 Egyp­tian priest in animist  mask (Tut-​ankh-​amun Tomb, Getty)
Kenaani Neolithic ritual mask
≈BCE 7000—Kᵊna•an•iꞋ Neolithic anthropomorphist ritual mask

ma•sækh•ãhꞋmaseikhaha mask; particularly as worn by animist and anthropomorphist priests (e.g. archaeological artifacts and painted on walls of Egyptian tombs). HH used figuratively of a treatise illustrating a topic, "tractate".


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מַסֶּכֶת אֳהָלוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

IDF tents
IDF Tents

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Õhãl•otꞋ; מסכת אהלות, Maseket Ahalot Mask (i.e. Tractate) Tents (if uncleanness is introduced under a common roof), in SeiꞋdër Tã•hãr•otꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת עֲרָכִיןPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët A•rãkh•inꞋ; מסכת ערכין, Maseket Arakhin Mask (i.e. Tractate) Measures (vows concerning valuations), in SeiꞋdër Qã•dãsh•inꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת עָרלָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.09.02]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Õrᵊl•ãhꞋ; מסכת ערלה, Maseket Arlah Mask (i.e. Tractate) Õrᵊl•ãhꞋ, in SeiꞋdër Tã•hãr•otꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת עֲבוֹדָה זָרָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët A•vōd•ãhꞋ Zãr•ãhꞋ; מסכת עבודה זרה, Maseket Avodah Zarah Mask (i.e. Tractate) Strange Service (i.e., idolatry), in SeiꞋdër Nᵊziq•inꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת אָבוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Ãv•ōtꞋ; מסכת אבות, Maseket Avot Mask (i.e. Tractate) Fathers (i.e., Patriarchs), in SeiꞋdër Nᵊziq•inꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת בָּבָא בַּתרָאPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

property law
Property Law

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Bã•vãꞋ Bat•rãꞋ; מסכת בבא בתרא, Maseket Bava Batra Mask (i.e. Tractate) Portal, Closing (property law), in SeiꞋdër Nᵊziq•inꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת בָּבָא מְצִיעָאPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

civil law
Civil Law

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Bã•vãꞋ Mᵊtziy•ãꞋ; מסכת בבא מציעא, Maseket Bava Metziya, Maseket Bava M'tziya Mask (i.e. Tractate) Portal, Middle (civil law), in SeiꞋdër Nᵊziq•inꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת בָּבָא קַמָּאPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

tort law
Tort Law

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Bã•vãꞋ QamꞋãꞋ; מסכת בבא קמא, Maseket Bava Qama Mask (i.e. Tractate) Portal, Opening (tort law), in SeiꞋdër Nᵊziq•inꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת בֵּיצָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

Egg: post-70CE symbol of Pilgrims' Offering

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Beitz•ãhꞋ; מסכת ביצה, Maseket Beitzah Mask (i.e. Tractate) Egg (laws of pilgrimages), in SeiꞋdër Mo•eidꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת בְּכוֹרוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Bᵊkhōr•ōtꞋ; מסכת בכורות, Maseket Bekhorot, Maseket B'khorot, Maseket Bechorot Mask (i.e. Tractate) Firstlings, in SeiꞋdër Qã•dãsh•inꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת בְּרָכוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Bᵊrãkh•ōtꞋ; מסכת ברכות, Maseket Berakhot, Maseket B'rakhot Mask (i.e. Tractate) Blessings, in SeiꞋdër Zᵊrã•imꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת בִּכּוּרִיםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Bi•kūr•imꞋ; מסכת בכורים, Maseket Bikurim Mask (i.e. Tractate) Firstfruits, in SeiꞋdër Zᵊrã•imꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת דְמַאיPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët DᵊmaiꞋ; מסכת דמאי, Maseket Demai, Maseket D'mai Mask (i.e. Tractate) Doubtfully-Tithed (corn), in SeiꞋdër Zᵊrã•imꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת עֵדֻיּוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Eid•ūy•ōtꞋ; מסכת עדיות, Maseket Eiduyot, Maseket Eduyot Mask (i.e. Tractate) Testimonies (of witnesses), in SeiꞋdër Nᵊziq•inꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת עֵרוּבִיןPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Ei•rūv•inꞋ; מסכת ערובין, Maseket Eiruvin, Maseket Eruvin Mask (i.e. Tractate) Mixings (boundaries of Shab•ãtꞋ travel), in SeiꞋdër Mo•eidꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת גִטִּיןPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27 ]

get
agunah (chained woman - husband refuses to grant get)
A•gun•ãhꞋ (chained woman — husband refuses to grant get)

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Git•inꞋ מסכת גטין, Maseket Gitin (Aramaic pl. of geit); Mask (i.e. Tractate) Divorce-Contracts, in SeiꞋdër Nash•imꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת הוֹרָיוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

oops
undo

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Hō•rãy•ōtꞋ; מסכת הוריות, Maseket Horayot Mask (i.e. Tractate) Teachings (erroneous rulings of the Beit-Din), in SeiꞋdër Nᵊziq•inꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת כֵּלִיםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

keilim (kitchenware & utensils)
Kitchenware & Utensils

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Keil•imꞋ; מסכת כלים, Maseket Keilim, Maseket Kelim Mask (i.e. Tractate) Utensils (uncleanness of), in SeiꞋdër Tã•hãr•otꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת כְּרִיתוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

the axe

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Kᵊrit•ōtꞋ; מסכת כריתות, Maseket Keritot, Maseket K'ritot Mask (i.e. Tractate) Excisions, in SeiꞋdër Qã•dãsh•inꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת כְּתֻבּוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

ketubah
Kᵊtub•ãhꞋ

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Kᵊtūb•ōtꞋ; מסכת כתבות, Maseket Ketubot, Maseket K'tubot Mask (i.e. Tractate) Marriage-Contracts, in SeiꞋdër Nash•imꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת חֲגִיגָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2020.06.04]

Har Megido (corrupted to ''Armageddon''), Control Point of Damascus-Egypt Trade Route
Click to enlargeNorthern Khag RouteHar MᵊgidꞋo (Hellenized to ''Arma­geddon''), choke/​control point in EiꞋmëq Yiz•rᵊëlꞋ  of the Trunk Road connecting to the King's Highway on the ancient trade (& Khag) routes between Africa & Egypt via DërꞋëkh ha-Yãm  to Damascus, Turkey, Europe, Iraq & Persia (Iran).

fem. n.חגיגה,Khagigah,chagigah Ma•sëkꞋët Khag•ig•ãhꞋ; 12th century C.E. European (Italian) Ta•lᵊmudꞋ Mask (i.e. Tractate) "Khaging"—annual pilgrimaging to Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim (verbal noun of חָגַג).

Contrary to this European (not Holy Land) Dark Ages Orthodox reform (a priori syncretizing the Romans' traditional Easter egg on the SeiꞋdër plate), the "Pilgrim's/​Peace Offering" was nothing other than the Khag-ShëlꞋëm (pl. shᵊlãm•imꞋ; Khag-completion) yearling lamb/​goat-kid qã•rᵊb•ãnꞋ for each triannual Khag-Shᵊlãm•imꞋ—i.e. the qã•rᵊb•ãnꞋ celebrating the shëlꞋëm (completion) of a Khagmore


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חַֽיִל Pronunciation Table [Glos_K-M, updated: 2022.04.22]

KhaꞋyil khayil — m.n. warrior, soldier; adj. soldiering-on, persevering, valiant.


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מַסֶּכֶת חַלָּהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

Pitah Iraqit (haShipudia)
Pita Iraqit (ha-Shipudia)

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Khal•ãhꞋ; מסכת חלה, Maseket Khalah, Maseket Khallah Mask (i.e. Tractate) Dough Portion For Kō•heinꞋ, in SeiꞋdër Zᵊrã•imꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת חֻלִּיןPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

Kasheir deli counter St Pete, Florida
Kã•sheirꞋ deli counter where I ate in St Pete, Florida

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Khūl•inꞋ; מסכת חלין, Maseket Khulin Mask (i.e. Tractate) Seculars (animals slaughtered for food), in SeiꞋdër Qã•dãsh•inꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת כִּלאַיִםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Ki•layꞋim; מסכת כלאים, Maseket Kilayim Mask (i.e. Tractate) Hybrids, in SeiꞋdër Zᵊrã•imꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת קִנִּיםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

columbarium (dove pigeon cote rookery) Beit-Guvrin, Israel
Columbarium (dove pigeon cote rookery) Beit-Guvrin Click to enlarge

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Kin•imꞋ; מסכת קנים, Maseket Qinim Mask (i.e. Tractate) Nests (bird offerings), in SeiꞋdër Qã•dãsh•inꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִיPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Ma•a•seirꞋ Shein•iꞋ; מסכת מעשר שני, Maseket Maaseir Sheini, Maseket Ma'aseir Sheini Maseket Maaseir Sheni, Maseket Ma'aseir Sheni Mask (i.e. Tractate) Second-Tithe, in SeiꞋdër Zᵊrã•imꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת מַעַשׂרוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Ma•a•sᵊr•ōtꞋ; מסכת מעשרות, Maseket Maasrot, Maseket Ma'asrot Mask (i.e. Tractate) Tithes, in SeiꞋdër Zᵊrã•imꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת מַכשִׁירִיןPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

(certificate of fitness - dairy only) תעודת כשרות - חלבי בלבד
Typical Certificate of Kash•rutꞋ:
Khã•lãv•iꞋ
(certificate of fitness - meat only) תעודת הכשר - בשרי בלבד
Typical Certificate of Kash•rutꞋ:
Bᵊsãr•iꞋ

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Ma•khᵊshir•inꞋ; מסכת מכשירין, Maseket Makhshirin, Maseket Makh'shirin Mask (i.e. Tractate) Ka•shᵊr•utꞋ, in SeiꞋdër Tã•hãr•otꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת מַכּוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

Egyptian (crook &) flabellum - 3 stranded flail
Egyptian (crook &) flabellum — 3 stranded flail

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Mak•ōtꞋ; מסכת מכות, Maseket Makot, Maseket Makkot Mask (i.e. Tractate) Beatings (whipstrokes, flagellations), in SeiꞋdër Nᵊziq•inꞋ.

"It appears that, where no other punishment was expressly prescribed, flogging was in biblical law the standard punishment for all offenses (Deut. 25:2)… There is no record of the manner in which floggings were administered in biblical times. Various instruments of beating are mentioned in the Bible (Judg. 8:7, 16; Prov. 10:13; 26:3; I Kings 12:11, 14; et al.), but any conclusion that they (or any of them) were the instruments used in judicial floggings is unwarranted." ( Jewish Virtual Library; 2012.05.06).

Thus, the method and instrument likely derived from their Gãl•utꞋ in Egypt.

"The flail was a rod with three attached beaded, strands. The strands could [vary] considerably, using different types of beads and the lengths between the beads could be broken up into several segments." (touregypt; 2012.05.06).


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מַסֶּכֶת מְגִלָּהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

Megilat Esteir (nosachteiman.co.il)
Mᵊgil•atꞋ ës•teirꞋ (nosachteiman.co.il)

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Mᵊgil•ãhꞋ; מסכת מגלה, מסכת מגילה, Maseket Megilah, Maseket M'gilah, Maseket Megillah, Maseket M'gillah Mask (i.e. Tractate) Scroll (Pur•imꞋ; lots), in SeiꞋdër Mo•eidꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת מְעִילָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Mᵊ•il•ãhꞋ; מסכת מעילה, Maseket Meilah, Maseket M'ilah Mask (i.e. Tractate) Sacrileges, in SeiꞋdër Qã•dãsh•inꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת מְנָחוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Mᵊnãkh•ōtꞋ; מסכת מנחות, Maseket Menakhot, Maseket M'nakhot Mask (i.e. Tractate) Presentations (meal offerings), in SeiꞋdër Qã•dãsh•inꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת מִדּוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Mid•ōtꞋ; מסכת מדות, מסכת מידות, Maseket Midot, Maseket Middot Mask (i.e. Tractate) Measurements (of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ), in SeiꞋdër Qã•dãsh•inꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת מִקוָאוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

Miqweh steps adjacent to Har ha-Bayit
1st-century Mi•qᵊwëhꞋ beside Har ha-•BaꞋyit

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Miq•wã•ōtꞋ; מסכת מקואות, Maseket Miqwaot, Maseket Miqvaot Mask (i.e. Tractate) Ablution-Pools, in SeiꞋdër Tã•hãr•otꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת מוֹעֵד קָטָןPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Mō•eidꞋ Qã•tãnꞋ; מסכת מועד קטן, Maseket Moeid Qatan, Maseket Mo'eid Qatan Mask (i.e. Tractate) Little Appointeds (intermediate days of pilgrimages), in SeiꞋdër Mo•eidꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת נָזִירPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Nã•zirꞋ; מסכת נזיר, Maseket Nazir Mask (i.e. Tractate) Nazirite, in SeiꞋdër Nash•imꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת נְדָרִיםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Nᵊdãr•imꞋ; מסכת נדרים, Maseket Nedarim, Maseket N'darim Mask (i.e. Tractate) Vows, in SeiꞋdër Nash•imꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת נְגָעִיםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Nᵊgã•imꞋ; מסכת נגעים, Maseket Negaim, Maseket N'gaim Mask (i.e. Tractate) Infections, in SeiꞋdër Tã•hãr•otꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת נִדָּהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Nid•ãhꞋ; מסכת נידה, מסכת נדה, Maseket Nidah, Maseket Niddah Mask (i.e. Tractate) Menstruant, in SeiꞋdër Tã•hãr•otꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת פָּרָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

American Red Brangus Grand Champion Heifer, 2012 Houston Livestock Show & Rodeo
Click to enlargeRed Heifer (American Brangus, 2012 Grand Champion)

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Pãr•ãhꞋ; מסכת פרה, Maseket Parah Mask (i.e. Tractate) Cow (chestnut-red), in SeiꞋdër Tã•hãr•otꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת פֵּאָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

Emeq Yizr'el looking NE from foot of Har Megido toward mountains of Afula
NE EiꞋmëq Yiz•rᵊëlꞋ (corrupted to "Jezreel Valley"): hay at foot of Har MᵊgidꞋo (corrupted to "Armageddon")

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Pei•ãhꞋ; מסכת פאה, Maseket Peiah Mask (i.e. Tractate) Edge (gleaning of fields), in SeiꞋdër Zᵊrã•imꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת פְּסָחִיםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

Pesakh Table (Teimani)
PësꞋakh Table

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Pᵊsãkh•imꞋ; מסכת פסחים, Maseket Pesakhim, Maseket P'sakhim Mask (i.e. Tractate) Skip-overs (Hellenized to "Passovers"), in SeiꞋdër Mo•eidꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת קִדּוּשִׁיןPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

wedding khupah
Click to enlargeרַב קָאפֵח (next to the groom) performing the marriage of my friend. (1998)

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Qi•dūsh•inꞋ; מסכת קדושין, Maseket Qidushin Mask (i.e. Tractate) Sanctifications (relative to weddings), in SeiꞋdër Nash•imꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

Shophar (ayal-ram)

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Rōsh ha-Shãn•ãhꞋ; מסכת ראש השנה, Maseket Rosh ha-Shanah, Maseket Rosh haShanah Mask (i.e. Tractate) Head-of-the-Year (New Year), in SeiꞋdër Mo•eidꞋ.


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Συνέδριον מַסֶּכֶתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

Lishkat ha-Gazit (red dot)
Beit-Din ha-Jã•dolꞋ (red dot)

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Συνέδριον מסכת Sanhedrin, Maseket Sanhedrin (Greek-Hellenist Sunedrion, Angliciized to "Sanhedrin"); Mask (i.e. Tractate) Assembly (i.e., the Beit-Din ha-Jã•dolꞋ), in SeiꞋdër Nᵊziq•inꞋ.

Interestingly, although this is one of the few Hellenist (Greek) words that made it into wide Jewish usage, the KJ/V buries the reference to the Beit-Din ha-Ja•dolꞋ by rendering "council" instead of "Sanhedrin." This demonstrates the lengths to which Christians go to conceal the Judaism they displaced.


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מַסֶּכֶת שַׁבָּתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

Shabat collage
Shab•ãtꞋ Collage

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Shab•ãtꞋ; מסכת שבת, Maseket Shabat, Maseket Shabbat Mask (i.e. Tractate) Shab•ãtꞋ, in SeiꞋdër Mo•eidꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת שְׁקָלִיםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

Sheqel Tetradrachm Bar-Kokhva (Obverse: Temple facade w-rising star; Reverse: Lulav, To freedom of Jerusalem)
Sheqel Tetradrachm Bar-Kokhva (Obverse: Temple facade w-rising star; Reverse: Lulav, "To freedom of Jerusalem")

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Shᵊqãl•imꞋ; מסכת שקלים, Maseket Sheqalim, Maseket Sh'qalim Mask (i.e. Tractate) Shᵊqãl•imꞋ, in SeiꞋdër Mo•eidꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת שְׁבִיעִיתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

Shemitah year fallow field
Shᵊmit•ãhꞋ year fallow field

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Shᵊvi•itꞋ; מסכת שביעית, Maseket Sheviyit, Maseket Sh'viyit Mask (i.e. Tractate) Seventh (Shᵊmit•ãhꞋ), in SeiꞋdër Zᵊrã•imꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת שְׁבוּעוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Shᵊvū•ōtꞋ; מסכת שבועות, Maseket Shevuot, Maseket Sh'vuot Mask (i.e. Tractate) Sevens / Oaths / Weeks, in SeiꞋdër Nᵊziq•inꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת סֹוטָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Sōt•ãhꞋ; מסכת סוטה, Maseket Sotah Mask (i.e. Tractate) Suspected-Adulteress, in SeiꞋdër Nash•imꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת סֻכָּהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

Ben-David Family's Sukah
Bën-Dã•widꞋ Family Suk•ãhꞋ

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Sūk•ãhꞋ; מסכת סכה, מסכת סוכה, Maseket Sukah, Maseket Sukkah Mask (i.e. Tractate) Hut, in SeiꞋdër Mo•eidꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת תַּעֲנִיתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fast

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Ta•an•itꞋ; מסכת תענית, Maseket Taanit Mask (i.e. Tractate) Fast, in SeiꞋdër Mo•eidꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת טָהֳרוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

Miqweh steps adjacent to Har ha-Bayit
1st-century Mi•qᵊwëhꞋ beside Har ha-•BaꞋyit

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Tã•hãr•ōtꞋ; מסכת טהרות, Maseket Taharot Mask (i.e. Tractate) Tã•hãr•otꞋ, in SeiꞋdër Tã•hãr•otꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת תָּמִידPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Tã•midꞋ; מסכת תמיד, Maseket Tamid Mask (i.e. Tractate) Forever (daily qor•bãnꞋ), in SeiꞋdër Qã•dãsh•inꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת תְּמוּרָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Tᵊmūr•ãhꞋ; מסכת תמורה, Maseket Temurah, Maseket T'murah Mask (i.e. Tractate) Exchange (substitute qor•bãnꞋ), in SeiꞋdër Qã•dãsh•inꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת תְּרוּמוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Tᵊrum•ōtꞋ; מסכת תרומות, Maseket Terumot, Maseket T'rumot Mask (i.e. Tractate) Offerings (wave), in SeiꞋdër Zᵊrã•imꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת טְבוּל יוֹםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

miqweh, Har Noph, Yerushalayim
Click to enlargeמִקְוֶה

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët TᵊvūlꞋ Yōm; מסכת טבול יום, Maseket Tevul Yom, Maseket T'vul Yom Mask (i.e. Tractate) Immersion of the Day (i.e., one who has immersed and awaits evening to become clean), in SeiꞋdër Tã•hãr•otꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת עוּקְצִיןPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

Caustics

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Ū•qᵊtz•inꞋ; מסכת עוקצין, Maseket Uqetzin, Maseket Uq'tzin Mask (i.e. Tractate) Sting, thorn (i.e., stinging remark, sarcasm), in SeiꞋdër Tã•hãr•ōtꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת יָדַיִםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

netilat yadaim
Cup for washing hands

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Yãd•ayꞋim; מסכת ידים, מסכת ידיים, Maseket Yadayim Mask (i.e. Tractate) Pair-of-Hands (contaminations of), in SeiꞋdër Tã•hãr•otꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת יְבָמוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Yᵊvãm•ōtꞋ; מסכת יבמות, Maseket Yevamot, Maseket Y'vamot Mask (i.e. Tractate) Widows-of-Deceased-Childless-Brothers, in SeiꞋdër Nash•imꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת יוֹמָאPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fast

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Yōm•ãꞋ; מסכת יומא, Maseket Yoma Mask (i.e. Tractate) Yom (Ki•purꞋ), in SeiꞋdër Mo•eidꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת זָבִיםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Zãv•imꞋ; מסכת זבים, Maseket Zavim Mask (i.e. Tractate) Discharges, in SeiꞋdër Tã•hãr•otꞋ.


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מַסֶּכֶת זְבָחִיםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.27]

fem. n. Ma•sëkꞋët Zᵊvãkh•imꞋ; מסכת זבחים, Maseket Zevakhim, Maseket Z'vakhim Mask (i.e. Tractate) Sacrifices, in SeiꞋdër Qã•dãsh•inꞋ.


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מָשָׁלPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.01.14]

masc . n.משלי שלומוה, משלי שלמה, mashal, Mishlei Shlomoh, Mishlei Shelomoh mã•shãlꞋ; allegory, simile, metaphor or parable.

Pl. מְשָׁלִים (mᵊshãl•imꞋ) and pl. connective …מִשְׁלֵי (mi•shᵊl•eiꞋ…, allegories, similes, metaphors or parables of…).

מִשְׁלֵי שְׁלֹמֹה (Mi•shᵊl•eiꞋ ShᵊlōmꞋōh; the allegories, similes, metaphors or parables of ShᵊlōmꞋōh ha-MëlꞋëkh); a book of Kᵊtuv•imꞋ in Ta•na״khꞋ de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Proverbs (of Solomon).'


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מָשִׁיחַPronunciation TableHear it! [Glos K-M, updated: 2023.03.20] 

masc . n.mã•shiꞋakh (pl. מְשִׁיחִים),משיח,משחה,­mashiakh,­mishkhah,mashakh,messiah an anointee, specifically one anointed by a leader among world Jewry (not by goy•imꞋ, which includes every Christian) as a mëlꞋëkh or kō•heinꞋ.

There’s no ancient physicomorphic (mystical supernatural, explicitly prohibited in Tōr•ãhꞋ); neither in the olive-oil, nor in any bᵊrãkh•ãhꞋ ("approved holy" precise incantation), nor in the ceremony—which is merely recognition, by legitimate Jews within recognized world Jewry, publicly commissioning and demonstrating their support of the anointee.

מָשַׁח (verb), he anointed.

fem. n. מִשְׁחָה, pure olive-oil tinctured by at least a Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ-specified minimum of pure-olive oil that has been properly dedicated for sacred use. (This is how a small amount of sacred olive-oil stretched for 8 days, inspiring Kha•nūkh•ãh.)

Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ Bã•vᵊl•iꞋ, interpreting ZᵊkharᵊyãhꞋ 12.10, recognizes two Mᵊ•shikh•imꞋ (see PësꞋakh Ha•gãd•ãhꞋ: יַחַץ):

  1. מב"י•shiꞋakh Bën-Yō•seiphꞋ, i.e. the Riyb"y &

  2. מב"ד•shiꞋakh Bën-Dã•widꞋ.more


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מִטְבָּל Pronunciation Table [Glos_K-M, updated: 2023.12.30]

mi•tᵊbãlꞋ,dip,sauce pl. מִטְבָּלִים; from טָבַל.

Ancient Mediterranean-Basin peoples customarily dipped meat (on special occasions), vegetables and bread in a dip (sauce) consisting of combinations and household recipes of olive oil, red wine vinegar, garlic, onions, chopped leeks or scallions, hot chili or sweet peppers, mustard, pickles and tomatoes, hyssop (Origanum syriacum, a Syrian variety of the oregano genus), herbs & spices of the day to enhance their meals.

However, for Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ, who sojourned in Mi•tzᵊr•ayꞋim, Scripture fairly sparkles and effervesces over the bounty of garlic, leeks, olive oil and melons. (Even the hedjet crown of Upper Mi•tzᵊr•ayꞋim was modeled after a ripe white Cucumis melo Conomon melon.) Together, this suggests that ancient Mediterranean-Basin recipes to augment everyday meals were quite sophisticated.


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מַטֶּהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2017.02.05]

Egyptian heqa (l) & sekhem (r) scepters
Click to enlargeEgyptian heqa (l) & שְׂכֶם (r) scepters. Rulers would hold one in each hand when adjudicating a matter; the שְׂכֶם in the right hand and the heqa in the left hand.

masc . n. ma•tëhꞋ; מטה, mateh police baton, nightstick, billy club, truncheon, bat; used metaphorically as a symbol of authority. (See also sheivꞋët and ma•qeilꞋ.)


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מַתִּתְיָהוּ הַלֵּוִיPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu ha-Lei•wiꞋ מתתיהו הלוי, Matityahu ha-Leiwi, Matityahu ha-Leivi (the Levite), an eye-witness tal•midꞋ of RibꞋi Yᵊho•shuꞋa and author of the pre-Christian (pre-62 C.E.) Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ account, in Hebrew, of the halakhically Judaic life and teachings of the historical Pharisee RibꞋi Yᵊho•shuꞋa. This was later extensively redacted to reflect Hellenist and Christian Displacement Theology, the Hellenized—misojudaic anthetical—product known as "Gospel of St. Matthew" in the NT. Even the first Church historians acknowledged that the original followers of historical RibꞋi Yᵊho•shuꞋa accepted only their own Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu, rejecting the later NT and excising Paul as an apostate (Eusebius, Eccl. Hist. III.xxvii.4).

Extant Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ source documents underlying Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu comprise Greek codices from the 3rd -4th century (א and β), Aramaic PᵊshitᵊtãꞋ, Latin a-3, and earlier Greek papyri, some of which may date back into the 1st century C.E. Other mss. are either of later vintage—and, hence, more extensively redacted to reflect Christian doctrines—or spurious.


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מַצָּהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2021.07.02]

Biblical-style (soft) barley matzah
Click to enlargeBiblical-style (soft) barley מַצָּה (Karen Ben-David; photo © 2021 Yirmeyahu Ben-David)

fem. n. Matz•ãhꞋ;מצה,מצות,matzah,matzot pl. מַצּוֹת — the original flatbread dating from the discovery of bread c. BCE 13,000. (The practice of resting dough to bake leavened flatbread was a later innovation; still later, loaves, cakes, etc.) Indians still make this flatbread to eat with curry. Just make it like the video (except, if it's for PësꞋakh, from barley flour and don't allow the dough to rest before cooking): "chapati".

Following the Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ c. BCE , the annual week-long celebration of Khag ha-Matz•ōt was established, making matz•ãhꞋ the central symbol of the Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋmore

In Biblical ancient Israel, before the existence of yeast was even identified, מַצָּה was a soft flatbread. During the Babylonian Exile it became (unleavened) Babylonian (now Iraqi) pita, in Arabic countries, it was called (unleavened) لَفَّ (Laffa).

"[B]y the end of the 18th century [CE]," Medieval European (Spanish & Russian) rabbis evolved "our thin cracker-like [מַצָּה]"—and the cracker was born. Subsequently, the "start-to-finish" deadline of 18 minutes, producing a cracker, is an even more recent reform-innovation of the late 18th century C.E. introduced by a Lithuanian European Rebbe (see חָמֵץ). more


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מַיִםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2017.11.30]

Yam Kinneret (''Violin Sea / Lake'' - corrupted to Sea of Galilee)
Click to enlargeAbba & Yael on rock, shore of Yãm Ki•nërꞋët (1992)

masc . n. (pl.) maꞋyim, מים, מיים, mayim a pair of waters – the □aꞋyim ending (see, inter alia, ha-shã•maꞋyim) is a dual (paired) form. The ancients perceived water (the waters) as twofold: what we understand today as the lakes and seas (which we sail and in which fish swim) and the clouds above that rained. There was no concept, nor word expressing, a single water.

See also the phrase מַיִם חַיִּים (maꞋyim khaꞋyim; lit. "living water(s)".


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מְגִלָּהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

Megilat Esteir (nosachteiman.co.il)
Mᵊgil•atꞋ ës•teirꞋ (nosachteiman.co.il)

fem. n. Mᵊgil•ãhꞋ; מגלה, מגילה, Megilah, Megillah, M'gilah, M'gillah scroll, primarily referring to one of the five Mᵊgil•ōtꞋ (plural) in Ta•na״khꞋ: Shir ha-Shir•imꞋ, Rut, Eikh•ãhꞋ, Qo•hëlꞋët, and Ës•teirꞋ. The English phrase, "the whole megillah," derives from Jews using this Hebrew term.


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מֵי נִדָּהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. mei nid•ãhꞋ; מי נדה, מי נידה, mei nidah, mei niddah water of the menstruant. This is the title of the decontaminating ointment made by adding water to the ashes from the Pãr•ãhꞋ A•dum•ãhꞋ, which contained crimson dye (making the water blood-red), oregano (hyssop) and cedar. The explanation of the symbolism of the operation of the mei nid•ãhꞋ and the Pãr•ãhꞋ A•dum•ãhꞋ, which has remained a mystery to all of the Jewish Sages until this author published the explanation, is found in my paper (in English or Hebrew): "Pãr•ãhꞋ A•dum•ãhꞋ — 'Red Heifer' Finally Explained (English)."


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מְכִירַת חָמֵץPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.10.02]

Mᵊkhir•atꞋ Khã•meitzꞋ,מכירת חמץ,מכירה,mekhirah,mekhirat khameitz,mechirat the sham “sale” of one’s khã•meitzꞋ to a gentile, via a rabbi acting as an agent, before PësꞋakh for a token price (with the understanding that it is to be “purchased” back after PësꞋakh at the same, token, price). This sham is a brazenly sanctimonious fraud reform by Dark Ages European rabbis; a blatant rabbinic leading-astray not only of all Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ from Ta•na״khꞋ (Tōr•ãhꞋ); gentiles are no less required to adhere to Tōr•ãhꞋ than Jews. Goy•imꞋ differ from Jews only in refusing to live according to Tōr•ãhꞋ! Consequently, the practice of Mᵊkhir•atꞋ Khã•meitzꞋ, like the “Shabbos goy”, is also racist!!!


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מְעִילPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2020.03.08]

mᵊil;מעיל,meil short-robe or dinner-jacket, with elbow-length sleeves.


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מְלָאכָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2020.08.07]

person at work

fem. n. mᵊlãkh•ãhꞋ מלאכה,melakhah,m'lakhah (from the root verb לאך) — all עֲבוֹדָה motivated by (i.e. with a mission of) kheiꞋphëtz; ergo, work that does not logically qualify as קֹדֶשׁ.

Secular, temporal/​material-worldly—i.e. khōl (profane)—effort (work, service) in pursuit of primarily worldly gain; efforts primarily oriented to goals or pursuits in this ephemeral and evanescent corporeal (physical, material) world as contrasted against the incorporeal, eternal, supernal (i.e., spiritual) Realm of י‑‑ה. Work that is primarily related to the pursuit of worldly needs and goals, including worldly-related work that may reasonably be done or prepared before Sha•bãtꞋ, or deferred without suffering unreasonable damage until after Sha•bãtꞋ.

Includes 1. work, trade, skill, art or occupation; a practical profession in which a person works. 2. worker and work products, objects, tools and appurtenant movable property.

מְלָאכָה is energy, effort or exertion expended in this-worldly (secular, profane, ordinary — khol) pursuits that can reasonably be done during week-days, in contrast to energy, effort or exertion expended pursuant to incorporeal spiritual, קֹדֶשׁ, missions (goals). מְלָאכָה includes income-related, occupational or non-imperative worldly work, including preparations that can be done during week-days. מְלָאכָה also includes work performed as a result of being dispatched or paid by, or in the employ of, human beings, including preparation, education and training for such work, all, lᵊ-hav•dilꞋ (as distinguished from), work for י‑‑ה, i.e., work that is קֹדֶשׁ.

Since קֹדֶשׁ is appropriate and encouraged at all times while מְלָאכָה, alone, is prohibited on Sha•bãtꞋ, it's imperative to be able to differentiate מְלָאכָה from other types of עֲבוֹדָה that are not only permitted on Sha•bãtꞋ but are often unavoidable (e.g., picking up a glass of water or a fork, carrying food to the table) and even commanded by Tōr•ãhꞋ to be performed on Sha•bãtꞋ (e.g., picking up a Qi•dūshꞋ goblet or lifting and carrying a SeiphꞋër Tōr•ãhꞋ in order to read it).

It is מְלָאכָה, i.e., מְלֶאכֶת-עֲבוֹדָה, not exertion or עֲבוֹדָה generally, that is prohibited on Shab•ãtꞋ

עֲבוֹדָה‎ = קֹדֶשׁ‎ + מְלָאכָה Ergo, מְלָאכָה‎ = עֲבוֹדָה‎ - קֹדֶשׁ

There are a number of cognates deriving from the same root verb לאך.

  • The combinative form, …-…-מְלֶאכֶת

  • מְלָאכָה is the fem. noun counterpart of מַלאָך

  • the adj. formed from the f.n. מְלָאכָה is מְלָאכוּתִי

Logical fallacy ex falso quodlibet
What a tangled web is weaved, when first we reason upon fallacies received

From the contra-science rabbinic-supposed date of creation (exactly BCE 3760) to science-ignorant assumptions about electricity and fire, rabbinic argumentation, at its most fundamental level, typically reasons from post-Biblical, logical fallacies (rabbinic interpretations) comprised of invalid generalizations and naked assumptions frequently contradicting science and the archaeological-historical record. Unsurprisingly, the product of this mass ex falso quodlibet routinely presumes to contradict the Laws of the Creator-Singularity — reality; which, science demonstrates, define and operate His universe.more

Next time you're asked what you "are" (i.e., what you do for a living, your zodiac sign, your sexual or political orientation, your citizenship, fraternal affiliation, etc.), will you answer "I'm a [truck driver, chef, plumber, doctor, accountant, Jew, Pisces, American, liberal, conservative, Labor, Likud, Ashkenazi, Sephardi, Democrat, Republican, fraternity or sorority affiliation, Mason, Marine, vet, etc. — all profane מְלָאכָה]?" Or are you more? Have you the nëphꞋësh to answer: "I'm a servant of י‑‑ה" (e.g., merely earning a living as a [truck-driver, et al.] to enable me and my family to serve the incorporeal קֹדֶשׁ Realm י‑‑ה)? So what are you really?


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מֶלֶךְPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2009.06.14]

masc . n. MëꞋlëkh, מלך,מלכים,melekh,melakhim,m'lakhim,Molekh,Molakh,Molech,Molach pl. מְלָכִים (mᵊlãkh•imꞋ); "king(s)"; including the two books of the Ta•na״khꞋ (ÃlꞋëph = first; Beit = second). Connective plural -מַלכֵי (malkh•eiꞋ-; kings of…).

The possessive form, מַלכִּי (malk•iꞋ; my king) is connected to צֶדֶק (tzëdꞋëq; justice) to form the name מַלְכִּי-צֶדֶק (Ma•lᵊk•iꞋ-TzëdꞋëq), Hellenized to "Melchizadek."

Cognate 1: מַלְכוּת (ma•lᵊkh•utꞋ; kingship, monarchy, kingdom)

Cognate 2: מֽׂלֶךְ (MōꞋlëkh (or MōꞋlãkh), a Semitic king-god to which Kᵊna•an•imꞋ and other Shæm•imꞋ sacrificed their first-born sons by fire in a tōꞋphët.


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מְנַשֶּׁהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2017.02.02]

masc . n. Mᵊnash•ëhꞋ מנשה, Menasheh, M'nasheh — because ël•oh•imꞋ na•shaꞋni of all my labor and all of my father's house. (Hellenized to "Manasseh.") more


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מְנוֹרָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.01.08]

Menorah, most accurate found (source unknown)
Mᵊnōr•ãhꞋ (most historically accurate depic­tion found as of 2019.01; source unknown).

fem. n. mᵊnōr•ãhꞋ; מנורה, menorah, m'norah candelabra. The seven-branched Mᵊnōr•ãhꞋ was placed on the south side  of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ.

מְנוֹרַת הַמָּאוֹר (Mᵊnor•atꞋ ha-Mã•ōrꞋ; "The Candelabra of the Luminary") is the text codifying Middle Ages Yemenite views on Talmudic Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ, was authored by יִצְחָק אֲבּוּהָב (Yi•tzᵊkhãqꞋ A•bu•hãvꞋ), a Jew who was perhaps in contact with the Tei•mãn•imꞋ (as Maimonides was), and may have been Tei•mãn•iꞋ himself. A•bu•hãvꞋ lived in the Netherlands, or perhaps Spain, at the end of the 14th century. His grandson lived in the Netherlands.

"His use of passages from aggadic works now lost and the variants in the talmudic and midrashic texts he cites make the Mᵊnor•atꞋ ha-Mã•orꞋ of great importance for establishing the text of the Tal•mūdꞋ used in the Spanish-North African [i.e., Sᵊpha•rad•iꞋ; ybd] academies as distinct from that of the Franco-German [i.e. Ash•kᵊnazꞋi; ybd] school" ("Aboab, Isaac I," Ency. Jud., 2.91). more


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מֶרְכָּבָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2021.04.21]

Keruv / Merkhavah - Assyria 9th or 8th century Ivory
Click to enlargeKᵊruv — Assyria, B.C.E. 9th-8th century ivory perception of animated figure that powered a celestial Më•rᵊkãv•ãhꞋ
Merkavah Tut-ankh-amun tomb gold-plated royal
Click to enlargeMë•rᵊkãv•ãhꞋ Tut-ankh-amun tomb; gold-plated royal

fem. n. Më•rᵊkãv•ãhꞋ; מרכבה,merkavah ancient winged-lion or winged-chariot; also a war chariot, especially Egyptian, which could travel up to 60 km (37 mi) /day. It is as misleading to insist that Më•rᵊkãv•ãhꞋ be interpreted only as a chariot — or only as a symbolic heavenly vehicle — as to insist that modern automobiles still be called "horseless carriages."


The Më•rᵊkãv•ãhꞋ is the subject of the visions in chapter 1 of Yᵊkhëz•qeilꞋ ha-Nã•viꞋmore


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מְשֻׁמָּדPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.01.23]

masc . n.BH: mᵊshū•mãdꞋ (pl. מְשֻׁמָּדִים); משומד,משמד, meshumad, m'shumad, meshummad, m'shummadmale forced to convert from Tōr•ãhꞋ. Adopted from Jewish Levantine Aramaic שַׁמֵּד — a contraction of שעמד. Thus, מְשֻׁמָּד "is an inexact vocalization of מְשׁוּעְמָד, and lit. means 'forcibly baptized; converted forcibly (from Judaism)'…"

While widely misused in PEMRH: among Israeli and Tᵊphutz•ãhꞋ Jews today, this term is not appropriate to describe willful apostasy by choice (for which see mū•mãrꞋ), whether of tō•ãhꞋ neglect/​backsliding, or by hitᵊbō•leilꞋ acculturation or intermarriage.

fem. n.Fem. מְשֻׁמֶּדֶת (mᵊshu•mëdꞋët).

fem. n.מְשֻׁמָּדוּת (mᵊshu•mãd•utꞋ) — n. forced apostasy from Tōr•ãhꞋ.

DAEH: Consequent to mass forced-conversions of Jews coupled with the genocide of refuser-Jews in Dark Ages Spain and Portugal of 1391 C.E., Jews began to refer to the forced-converts as victims of (religious) rape — אָנוּסִים.

See also mū•mãrꞋ, geir, hitᵊbō•leilꞋ, kheit and tō•ãhꞋ.


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"Messianic" Jews / "Messianic" Judaism [Glos K-M, updated: 2013.09.20]

For the legitimate use and historically accurate meaning of the term messianic, see a legitimate Judaic authority, e.g. Gershom Scholem, The Messianic Idea in Judaism. Historically, "messianic" implies a non-divine Mã•shiꞋakh who must (Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 13.1-6) unalterably oppose Displacement Theology.

Lᵊ-hav•dilꞋ— According to Christian theology, "Christ" purportedly displaced the OT—what the Christian "Fathers" referred to as "the law of sin and death."

Lᵊ-hav•dilꞋ— The Mã•shiꞋakh, by contrast, refines, repairs the breaches (Yᵊkhëz•qeilꞋ 22.30) and restores Tōr•ãhꞋ. The Mã•shiꞋakh is a mortal Jew who serves יהוה. References to the Davidic נָשִׂיא (corrupted to "Prince"; cryptonym for the Mã•shiꞋakh) officiating in a Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ forever (inter alia, Yᵊkhëz•qeilꞋ 44.1-4; 45.7-9; 46.4-18) refer to the after-life of a physically ordinary mortal human being descendant of Dã•widꞋ ha-MëlꞋëkhnot a man-god! more


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מְצֹרָעPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. (adjectival n.) mᵊtzōr•ãꞋ; מצורע, מצרע, metzora, m'tzora person afflicted with tzã•raꞋat.


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מְזוּזָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

qlaph mezuzah Teimani
Qᵊlaph Mᵊzuz•ãhꞋ Tei•mãn•iꞋ

fem. n. mᵊzūz•ãhꞋ; מזוזה, mezuzah, m'zuzah doorpost, plural מְזוּזוֹת (mᵊzuz•otꞋ)


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מִדָּהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2011.04.07]

fem. n. mid•ãhꞋ; מידה, מדה, midah, middah dimension, measurement, size, ration, attribute, characteristic; plural מִידּוֹת (mid•ōtꞋ)

"Rules of hermeneutics" or "rules for interpreting Scripture" are called מִידּוֹת. Contrast מִידּוֹת against the Hebrew term popularly understood as logic: הִגָּיוֹן (hi•gã•yonꞋ; common sense, intuition), which is inadequate to express mathematically precise logic, though popularly rendered as such despite its inadequacy.

Notice that the Hebrew theological meaning differs significantly from Aristotelian analytics and mathematical logic—which the rabbis dismiss as "Hellenist." This is one of the two unreliable pillars of rabbinic evolution that has, in a number of significant cases, caused logically-incompetent rabbis to stray far from Tōr•ãhꞋ.


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מִדבָּרPronunciation TableHear it! [Glos K-M, updated: 2007.03.06]

Negev, Midbar Paran (Mark A. Wilson, Wooster.com)
NëgꞋëv, Mi•dᵊbarꞋ Pa•ranꞋ

masc . n. mid•bãrꞋ; מדבר, במדבר, Midbar, Mid'bar, be-Midbar, beMidbar badlands, arid hills. בְּמִדבָּר (bᵊ-Mid•barꞋ; in the badlands); fourth book of Tōr•ãhꞋ shë-bikh•tãvꞋ, Hellenized / de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Numbers."


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מִדרָשׁPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2017.09.16]

Beit Midrash Teiman (Rav Amram, WIZO mitaiman.com)
Beit Mid•rãshꞋ Tei•mãnꞋ (Rav Amram, WIZO mitaiman.com)

masc . n. Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ מדרש רבה, בראשית רבה, שמות רבה, ויקרא רבה, במדבר רבה, דברים רבה, שיר רבה, רות רבה, איכה רבה, קוהלת רבה, אסתר רבה, Midrash Rabbah, Midrash Rabah, beReishit Rabah, Shemot Rabah, wa-Yiqra Rabah, wa-Yiqera Rabah, be-Midbar Rabah, Shir Rabah, Shir ha-Shirim Rabah, Rut Rabah, Eikhah Rabah, Qohelet Rabah, Esteir Rabah — homiletics; the content of preaching, a sermon; typically a rabbinic homiletical commentary on specific books of Ta•na״khꞋ; as found, for example, in Ta•lᵊmudꞋ. The preacher is the דַּרְשָׁן.

Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ was originally oral and conducted in a Beit ha-Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ.

The earliest extant Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ is embedded in the Ta•lᵊmudꞋ.

מִדרָשׁ רַבָּה, collection of 10 Babylonian agadic legends and homilies allegorized, by different authors in different eras of the C.E., from the 5 books of Tōr•ãhꞋ and the 5 Mᵊgil•ōtꞋ:

  1. bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ RabãhꞋ — redacted in 5th century C.E.
  2. Shᵊm•ōtꞋ RabãhꞋ — 11-12th century C.E.
  3. wa-Yi•qᵊr•ãꞋ RabãhꞋ — 7th century C.E.
  4. bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbarꞋ RabãhꞋ — 12th century C.E.
  5. Dᵊvãr•imꞋ RabãhꞋ — 10th century C.E.
  6. Shir ha-Shir•imꞋ RabãhꞋ — 9th century C.E.
  7. Rut RabãhꞋ — 9th century C.E.
  8. Eikh•ãhꞋ RabãhꞋ — 7th century C.E.
  9. Qō•hëlꞋët RabãhꞋ — 6th-8th centuries C.E., much of it based on earlier works.
  10. ës•teirꞋ RabãhꞋ — parts date from ca. 500 C.E.; redactions continued up through the 11th century C.E.

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מִדְיָןPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.08.01]

Mi•dᵊyãn•imꞋ; מדין, מדינים, MidyanimDescendants of Avᵊrã•hãmꞋ and his Egyptian wife, QᵊtūrꞋãh, inhabiting what is, today, western Saudi Arabia along the Gulf of Eil•atꞋ.


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מִגְבַּעַתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2018.10.09]

fem. n. mi•gᵊba•atꞋ;מגבעת, migbaat hill-like ("turban'' is MH) — this seems to have been a mi•tzᵊnëphꞋët wound, untwisted (bandage-like, not rope-like), atop the head in a turban style, as Arabs sometimes do today. The mi•gᵊba•atꞋ was worn by ordinary kō•han•imꞋ. Contrasts with twisted (rope-like) mi•tzᵊnëphꞋët worn by the kō•heinꞋ ha-Jã•dolꞋ.

Ordinary Yi•sᵊr•ã•eil•imꞋ seem to have worn a mi•tzᵊnëphꞋët draped over their shoulders, typical of all ancient Egyptians and Middle-Easterners; the style preserved by modern Arab native dress.


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מִיכָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

Mikh•ãhꞋ; מיכה, Mikhah "Who is like" [Eil being understood; probably a diminutive of מִיכָאֵל (Mi•khã•eilꞋ)]; sixth of the twelve minor Nᵊviy•imꞋ in Ta•na״khꞋ (de-Judaized to Micah).


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מִלְחָמָה לַי‑‑הPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

מִלְחָמָה לַי‑‑ה (Mi•lᵊkhãm•ãhꞋ la-​י‑‑ה;‎ י‑‑ה has a war, there is a war for/​[belonging] to י‑‑ה; i.e. ha-SheimꞋ's War), Shᵊm•ōtꞋ 17.16.

Pl. מִלחָמוֹת הַשֵּׁם (Mi•lᵊkhãm•ōtꞋ ha-SheimꞋ; Wars of י‑‑ה); bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbarꞋ 21.14; Shᵊmu•eilꞋ ãlꞋëph 18.17 and 25.28. Also, commentary polemicizing the Christian NT by Ya•a•qovꞋ Bën-Rᵊu•veinꞋ in 1170 C.E.מלחמות השם, Milkhamot haSheim, Milkhamot haShem


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מִלּוּאִיםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.06.11]

masc . n.mi•lū•imꞋ;מלואים,miluim a filling-up, filling, fulfilling. PEMRH: serving (lit. fulfilling) annual TzaꞋh"l reserve duty; derived from מָלֵא.

Biblical מִלּוּאִים‎—7-Day Wine-Fest of “Commissioning” (Not “Consecrating” ) Kō•han•imꞋ

ShëvꞋa (seven/​swearing-in) -day commissioning (i.e. filling one’s hand; i.e. ena­bling) i.e. Hi•lūl•ãꞋ.

The qãr•bãnꞋ מִלּוּאִים, which was a type of שְׁלָמִים, was preceded by a khat•ãtꞋ and an ōl•ãhꞋ.


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מִנְהָגPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2009.10.15]

masc . n. mi•nᵊhãgꞋ; מנהג, Minhag custom, manner.


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מִינִיםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.03.31]

masc . n. (pl.) min•imꞋ; מינים, מין,minim,7 Species,Seven Species,5 Species,Five Species,4 Species,Four Species kinds, species, genders, sexes, denominations, sectarians or cults. The singular form is מִין (min).

Min tracks, via LXX, to the Greek αἵρεσις, the origin of the English "heresy"—see בִּרְכַּת הַמִּינִים.

אַרְבַּעַת הַמִּינִים—The Four Species (Of Suk•ōtꞋ Flora Native To Biblical Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ): ët•rōgꞋ, ha•dasꞋ, a•rãv•ãhꞋ and lū•lãvꞋ.

חֲמֵשֶׁת הַמִּינִים—The Five Species (of grain native to Biblical Israel).

שִׁבְעַת הַמִּינִים—The Seven Species (Of Grains & Fruits Native To Biblical Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ): wheat, barley, vines, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates. (Further details see ët•rogꞋ.)


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מִנחָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2020.07.16]

fem. n. Mi•nᵊkh•ãhꞋ;מנחה,Minkhah,Mincha,Minha — Originally the formal presentation of a gift to an important personage, in modern times, Mi•nᵊkh•ãhꞋ refers to the last tᵊphil•ōtꞋ of the day (starting from half an hour after noon, but early enough to conclude before sunset). more


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מִנּוּיPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2017.10.30]

masc . n. min•ūꞋi (unvowelled מנוי); מינוי, minuimeasured allocation or portion; apportionment; from the verb מִנָּה (min•ãhꞋ; to weigh-out a portion {see Dãn•iy•eilꞋ 5}, reckon, allocate, apportion).

"After the *Bar-KōkhꞋvã Revolt (132–35 C.E.), the Roman emperor Hadrian attempted to end the spiritual authority still wielded by the Great (Judean) Συνέδριον, which had been shorn of all government support, by forbidding the granting of [sᵊmikh•ãhꞋ] to new scholars. It was declared that 'whoever performed [a sᵊmikh•ãhꞋ] should be put to death, and whoever received [sᵊmikh•ãhꞋ] should be put to death, the city in which the [sᵊmikh•ãhꞋ] took place demolished, and the boundaries wherein it had been performed uprooted'."  

Consequently, in 135 CE yet another reform, מנוי, was devised to replace the eliminated sᵊmikh•ãhꞋ.


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מִניָןPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2018.10.19]

masc . n. mi•nᵊyãnꞋ; מנין, minyan a quorum of ten adult Jews, is required for

  1. the public recitation from the SeiꞋphër Tōr•ãhꞋ and

  2. Ha•phᵊtãr•ãhꞋ,

  3. the Bi•rᵊk•atꞋ ha-Kō•han•imꞋ,

  4. the Qa•dishꞋ,

  5. the public (i.e. aloud) recitation of the A•mid•ãhꞋ and

  6. the Bã•rᵊkh•uꞋ.

  7. Also, when saying the Bi•rᵊk•atꞋ ha-Mã•zōnꞋ, if a mi•nᵊyãnꞋ is lacking the parts marked "בַּעֲשָׂרָה" (ba-a•sãr•ãhꞋ; by 10) or "וּ)מַעֲשָׂרָה)" ((u-)ma-a•sãr•ãhꞋ; (and) from [at least] 10) in the si•durꞋ Tei•mãn•iꞋ are skipped.

Ancient Middle-Eastern societies considered women to be female human livestock property of men. Ancient Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ correspondingly, and understandably from their ancient societal perspective, interpreted Tōr•ãhꞋ from that world perspective. As a result, Orthodox rabbis today typically additionally stipulate 10 adult male Jews.

While Tōr•ãhꞋ is as Immutable as its Author, י‑‑ה the Creator-Singularity, human interpretations are fallible and often proven vastly inferior. הָעוֹלָם הִשְׁתַּנָּה (mundus mutatus), women are not livestock, they are not owned by men and neither their status nor their rights may be adjudicated by res judicata or stare decisis that have been derived from property law. While reflecting biological differences in gender, laws governing women must also reflect societal advancements in medicine, science and sanitariness (abandoning Dark Ages superstitions of evil spirits) and be rederived, not from property law, but from the same set of Tōr•ãhꞋ Principles as are applied to men.


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מִקְדָּשׁPronunciation TableHear it! ‭ ‬ [Glos K-M, updated: 2017.08.13]

Beit ha-Miqdash
Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ ha-Shein•iꞋ

masc . n. Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ; בית מקדש, Beit Miqdash, Bet Miqdash, Beit ha-Miqdash, Bet ha-Miqdash, Beit haMiqdash, Bet haMiqdash Holyplace.

בֵּית-הַמִקְדָּשׁ / ביהמ"ק (Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ; The House of the Holy Place) Hellenized / de-Judaized, to the Greek ιερον (ieron; an idolatrous pagan temple), to "Temple." (See also Hei•khãlꞋ.)

  1. Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ hã-Rish•ōnꞋ (corporeal)

  2. Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ ha-Shein•iꞋ (corporeal)

  3. Beit Tᵊphil•ãhꞋ (eternal incorporeal "'House of Prayer' for all kindreds"; Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 56.7; Yᵊkhë•zᵊq•eilꞋ 40-47; Qum•rãnꞋ DSS 11QTa).

"ה' cannot dwell in a physical palace or temple like an idol. Ergo, any reference to qōꞋdësh dwelling in a Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ can only refer to the Shᵊkhin•ãhꞋ / RuꞋakh ha-QoꞋdësh dwelling in the hearts of His human ma•lãkh•imꞋ who serve within the complex [e.g., the human ma•lãkhꞋ Mã•shiꞋakh]." (quoted from soon-to-be-published "Science-Friendly Tōr•ãhꞋ Family Bedtime Bible Stories."more


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מִקְרָא קֹדֶשׁPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.07.24]

masc . n.מקרא קדש,מקרא קודש,Miqra Qodesh,Miq'ra Qodesh MiꞋqᵊrã QōꞋdësh (pl. mi•qᵊrã•eiꞋ qōꞋdësh); miꞋqᵊrã, meaning "call-to-[Tōr•ãhꞋ]-recitation" and qōꞋdësh, [of] holiness; popular­ly shortened to "a holy convocation," which loses the centrality of both the callings and Tōr•ãhꞋ-recitation.

מִקְרָא refers to that which is read (in the call-to-reading); the liturgical reading of the most pristine text of Ta•na״khꞋ, chanted according to the most ancient and pristine tradition—No•sakhꞋ Tei•mãnꞋ. Thus, מִקְרָא means the oral recitation of Ta•na״khꞋ. This is the Mi•shᵊnaic term for Scripture or "Bible".


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מִקוֶהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.08.24]

miqweh, Har Noph, Yerushalayim
Click to enlargeמִקְוֶה

masc . n. miq•wëhꞋ; מקוה, מקווה, miqweh, miqveh pool meeting halakhic criteria for tᵊvil•ãhꞋ, one requirement of which is mayꞋim khayꞋim. In English, the term is often inaccurately distorted to mean the act of tᵊvil•ãhꞋ rather than correctly referring to the halakhically-qualified pool, in the phrase: 'to take a' (tᵊvil•ãhꞋ in a) miq•wëhꞋ.


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מִרְיָםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2013.09.20]

MiꞋrᵊyãm מרים, מירים, Miryam (Aramaic, same spelling; cf. Shᵊm•otꞋ 15.23), anglicized to "Miriam."

In the NT, it is transliterated into Greek as Μαριαμ, Hellenized to Μαρια, then anglicized to "Marian" — and "Mary".

The Aramaic name so often associated with her, מַרְתָּא, may well derive from the adverb מָרָתָה, in this same verse (15.23).

The etymology of her name is unclear. Some mistakenly connect her name with the incident of מָרִים, interpreting her name as some form of "bitter." However… more


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מִי שֶׁבֵּרַךְPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

Mi shë-beir•akhꞋ; מי שברך, mi she-beirakh, mi sh'beirakh "[May He] Who Blesses…" Special Tᵊphil•otꞋ in Beit ha-KᵊnësꞋët for government leaders and, in addition to other special occasions, particularly those individuals who have:

  • Recovered from an illness,

  • Been released from prison,

  • Returned safely from a trip (all trips are dangerous these days), and /or

  • Returned safely from the sea.


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מִשְׁכָּןPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.03.24]

Mishkan / Ohel Moeid, model
Mishkan / Ohel Moeid full-scale replica, Timna Park Mishkan / Ohel Moeid full-scale replica, Timna Park - Courtyard Altar & Tent Mishkan / Ohel Moeid full-scale replica, Timna Park - Courtyard Tent of Meeting
Mi•shᵊkãnꞋ / OꞋhël Mo•eidꞋ (click photos to enlarge)

masc . n. Mi•shᵊkãnꞋ; משכן, Mishkan Neighbor's-Dwelling; the mobile "Neighboring Complex" erected Firstmonth 01, year 2 after the Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ.

The Mi•shᵊkãnꞋ consisted of the

שְׁכִינָה is the verbal noun of שָׁכַן and the gerund לִלִשׁכֹּן.

This was the pre-fab Traveling Sanctuary which served as the nomadic pre-Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ while bivouacking in the arid-wilderness. Popularly de-Judaized (Hellenized, then Anglicized) to "Tabernacle."


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מִשְׁנָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2021.01.06]

fem. n. MiꞋshᵊnãh; משנה,Mishnah repetition; pl. מִשְׁנָיוֹת ׁׂ(Mi•shᵊnã•yotꞋ).

Not to be confused with מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה

The term MiꞋshᵊnãh derives from שָׁנָה (shãn•ãhꞋ; he memorized by rote).

MiꞋshᵊnãh is the oldest part of Ta•lᵊmudꞋ. The final redaction of MiꞋshᵊnãh was compiled by R. YᵊhudꞋãh ha-Nã•siꞋ ca. 200 C.E. (greatx4-grandson of Hi•leilꞋ Sr. "the Babylonian", of the Royal Beit-Dã•widꞋ) and comprises the Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ taught by the Tanã•imꞋ.

The Tannaitic exposition in Ta•lᵊmudꞋ contrasts with Gᵊmãr•ãꞋ, To•sëphꞋtã and Bã•ra•yᵊtãꞋ, which, in that order, follow the statement of MiꞋshᵊnãh in the Ta•lᵊmudꞋ.

MiꞋshᵊnãh is often used, inaccurately, to describe the complete body of oral tradition, including the Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ, Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ and Ha•gãd•ãhꞋ. This confusion arises because Jews regularly abbreviate (or confuse) the מִשְׁנֶה תּוֹרָה of Ram•ba"mꞋ with MiꞋshᵊnãh.

For further details, see box in The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu (NHM, in English) note 7.1.1.


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מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2012.07.08]

(also called סֵפֶר יָד הַחֲזָקָה) משנה תורה, Mishneih Torah, Mishneh Torah

Rambam's Mishneh Torah, autograph draft in cursive Sephardic (Cairo Genizah)
Rambam's Mishneh Torah, autograph draft in cursive Sephardic (Cairo Genizah)

masc . n. Mi•shᵊn•eihꞋ Tōr•ãhꞋ, not to be confused with the מִשְׁנָה (MiꞋshᵊnãh), is a comprehen­sive compendium, in י"ד books (hence the recursive backronym יָד abbreviating סֵפֶר יָד הַחֲזָקָה), of Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ.

Composed by Ram•ba"mꞋ ca. 1180 C.E., after having moved from Israel to Cairo, Egypt, it was designed to be everyman's "FAQ" complement of Tōr•ãhꞋ shë-bikh•tãvꞋ for interpretive explanations.


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מִשְׁפָּחָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2010.08.01]

fem. n. Mi•shᵊpãkh•ãhꞋ, משפחה, mishpakhah pl. Mi•shᵊpãkh•otꞋ; family


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מִשׁפָּטPronunciation Table Hear it![Updated: 2018.07.06]

mishpat
Civil Law

masc . n. mi•shᵊpãtꞋ;משפט, mishpat, mish'pat, mishepat BH: a sentence (in both senses: jurisprudence & grammar); adjudication/​judgment of a Beit Din (court of law); especially a judicial precedent serving for Stare Decisis; pl. מִשׁפָּטִים.

In modern usage, מִשׁפָּט has been corrupted to refer exclusively to a trial or court hearing, in a "secular" court, but not in a Beit Din.

On the other hand, a מִשְׁפְּטָן is recognized in both courts.

מִשׁפָּט derives from the shōrꞋësh שָׁפַט, a cognate of שׁוֹפֵט. (The connective plural is …מִשׁפְּטֵי).

This term has been Hellenized (de-Judaized, Christianized) and anglicized to "judgment" and various other renderings to avoid recognition of the historic Biblical Beit-Din system. In Biblical times, מִשׁפָּט concerned the definitive, authoritative and just interpretation of Tōr•ãhꞋ applied to real life situations—case law. All other interpretations are "following one's own heart and one's own eyes" (Shᵊm•ōtꞋ 15:39; Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 17:9-13). Although מִשׁפָּטִים became corrupted by the post-70 C.E. European Gãl•utꞋ Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ during the Dark Ages and Medieval times, they had, until then, been handed down by the Beit-Din in a chain uninterrupted from MoshꞋëh at Har Sin•aiꞋ. more


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Misojudaism/​MisojudaicPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2020.10.17]

misojudaism

μισο-, from μισεω + Judaism or Judaic, which is intrinsic to the Διαθηκη Καινη (NT): Lu 19.27; Jn 8.44-47; 14.6; Rom. 8.1-7; 1 Corinthians 16:22; I Thes. 2.15-16; I Jn 2.22.

For the primary cause of, & solution to, miso-Judaism see Kha•reid•imꞋ.

As our Arab cousins are correct in pointing out, being Semites themselves, hatred of Jews or Israel on their part cannot be anti-Semitism because they are not anti-themselves or anti- other Arabs. Even non-Arab Muslims and racists argue that they don't hate Arabs, therefore they are not anti-Semitic—and they are right! They hate Israel and Jews, not Semites. Not even all Jews are Semites (viz., converted Jews); certainly, not all Semites are Jews.

Judeophobic, "an irrational fear of Judaism / Jews" is even more inaccurate than anti-Semitism.

The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ borrow from the authoritative definition that the International Holocaust Remembrance Association (IHRA) carelessly termed "anti-Semitism", to neologically define miso-Judaism and miso-Judaic:

“Miso-Judaism and miso-Judaic is

  • the perception of Tanakh-centrism or Biblical Judaism, the nation of Israel, Jews or other Tanakh-centric individuals or community institutions

  • that may find expression in hatred toward Tanakh-centrism, Jews, Israel or anyone who is Tanakh-centric.

Rhetorical and physical manifestations directed toward

  • anyone who is Tanakh-centric and/or their property or their Tanakh-centric symbols (e.g., a mᵊzuz•ãhꞋ), toward Jewish community or Israel-oriented institutions or Tanakh-centric religious facilities

  • comprise miso-Judaic views and miso-Judaism.

These include, inter alia,


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מִשׂרַד הַחוּץPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Mis•radꞋ ha-KhutzꞋ; משרד החוץ, Misrad ha-Khutz, Misrad haKhutz Office of the Exterior (i.e., Foreign Ministry, Ministry of Foreign Affairs)


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מִשׂרַד הַקְּלִיטָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

merkaz qlitah Raanana
Livingroom-bedroom, Merkaz Qlitah Raanana Entire Kitchen (note fridge behind Karen), Merkaz Qlitah Raanana Bathroom, Merkaz Qlitah Raanana No-stall, open shower area (bathroom), Merkaz Qlitah Raanana
Spartan conditions — Më•rᵊkãzꞋ ha-Qᵊlit•ãhꞋ (Absorption Center) Ra•a•nanꞋã(h) (Our first home in Yi•sᵊrã•eilꞋ)

masc . n. Mis•radꞋ ha-Qlit•ãhꞋ; משרד הקליטה, Misrad ha-Qlitah, Misrad haQlitah Office of Absorption (i.e., Absorption Ministry, Ministry of Reception)


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מִצְנֶפֶתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2018.10.08]

Paroh Tut-ankh-amun gold mask
Par•ohꞋ Tut-ankh-Amun gold burial mask wearing a mi•tzᵊnëphꞋët simulating a weave of tᵊkheilꞋët and gold threads, held in place by a tō•tëphꞋët.

fem. n. mi•tzᵊnëphꞋët, pl. מִצְנָפוֹת (mi•tzᵊnãph•ōtꞋ, from צָנַף‎;) —מיצנפת,מיצנפות,מצנפת,mitznaphot,mitznephet a rec­tan­gu­lar scarf folded into a triangle, forming the ancient head­dress universal throughout Egypt & and the Middle-East, affording protection from the Middle-Eastern sun, dust and blowing sand.

The mi•tzᵊnëphꞋët was worn either as shown in the burial mask or wound atop the head in a turban. In either case, it was held in place by a tō•tëphꞋët.

Egyptian nemes scarf (front)Egyptian nemes scarf (back)
Click to enlargeEgyptian nemes striped headscarf: front (polkadotpanther.com)Click to enlargeEgyptian nemes striped headscarf: back (polkadotpanther.com)
מִצְנֶפֶת Middle-Eastern head scarf headdress of the kō•heinꞋ ha-Jã•dolꞋ follows the Egyptian style of the striped scarf of the Par•ohꞋ, held in place by a tō•tëphꞋët royal tiara-diadem crown).

To protect the head from chafing under the tō•tëphꞋ­ët, a kip•ãhꞋ was worn under the mi•tzᵊnëphꞋët.

ghutrah-agal Arab head scarf Trump NBC News 20170520
Ghutrah-agal Arab head scarf (Trump visiting Saudi palace; NBC News 2017.05.20)

This ancient Middle-East practice is evidenced today in the Arab طاقية‎ (taqiyah; dome), worn by Arabs under their غُترَة (ghutrah; head scarf) and عقال‎ (agal; black goat-hair rope).

By the end of the Talmudic period (5th century C.E.), the rabbinic "Sages" assimilated and reformed the ancient fringed kaftan, conflating it with the mi•tzᵊnëphꞋët, resulting in today's ta•litꞋ.

In Biblical Hebrew this is not a shtreimel, nor a fur hat, nor a mitre, nor any modern "Jewish" head covering, all of which, except for the kip•ãhꞋ, are relatively recent reforms entirely alien to Biblical Israel and Jews!

Thus, it would appear that (in addition to wearing a fringed-kaftan, probably not much different than modern Arab dress, with a thread of tᵊkheilꞋët on each corner), Jews should be wearing the mi•tzᵊnëphꞋët-ta•litꞋ over their kip•ãhꞋ, held in place by their tō•tëphꞋët-tᵊphil•inꞋ.


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hieroglyph: Tawᵊ (Land-land {2 Lands, Upper & Lower}; Hellenized by disputed means to Αἴγυπτος (Aiguptos), Anglicized to Egypt; N16 ta landx2 dual) מִצרַיִםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2021.09.06]

hieroglyphs Inebu-hedj (White Walls, Memphis, Cairo) White Chapel Karnak
Click to enlargeInebu-hedj ("White Walls"), i.e. Memphis, modern Cairo (White Chapel, Karnak)

Egypt (in ancient Egyptian language): Khawet-ka-Pᵊtakh (house-temple of the ka of Pᵊtakh) — the name of the temple of Ptakh, in Inebu-hedj ("White Walls"), i.e. Memphis, modern Cairo, Egypt. The Hellenist Greeks transliterated Khawet-ka-Pᵊtakh into Greek as Αἴγυπτος; which morphed to Latin Aegyptus to French Egypte and English Egypt.

Hebrew: Mi•tzᵊr•ayꞋim; מצרים, Mitzrayim "a pair of מֵצַר" (first Yō•seiphꞋ sold into bondage, later the enslavement of the entire am Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ). This etymology predates the contra-historic, silly misojudaic Arabic claim of Quran by more than a millennium.

Adj. & m.s. מִצרִי (Mi•tzᵊr•iꞋ; Egyptian); pl. מִצרִים (Mi•tzᵊr•imꞋ; Egyptians).


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מִצְוָהPronunciation Table Hear it! [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Mi•tzᵊwãhꞋ, מצוה, מצווה, מצוות, mitzvah, mitzwah, mitzvot, mitzwotpl. מִצְווֹת (mi•tzᵊwōtꞋ); a directive or military-style order, pop. de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "commandment," specifically of Tōr•ãhꞋ.

מִצְוָה derives from the verb צִוָּה (tzi•wãhꞋ; he commanded as a Mi•tzᵊwãhꞋ), with its various conjugations.

A Bar Mi•tzᵊwãhꞋ (son of the Mi•tzᵊwãhꞋ) is a young male Jew who has reached the religious age of majority (12), becoming responsible and accountable in his own right for keeping Tōr•ãhꞋ.


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מִזבֵּחַPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2011.04.05]

View of Har Zeitim fm approx Mizbeiakh ha-Qetoret on Har ha-Bayit
Har ha-•BaꞋyit: view of Har ha-Zeit•imꞋ from ancient site of the Mi•zᵊbeiꞋakh ha-QᵊtorꞋët

masc . n. Mi•zᵊbeiꞋakh; מזבח, mizbeiakh altar.

  • מִזְבַּח הַנְּחשֶׁת, also called מִזְבַּח הָעוֹלָה

  • מִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב, also called מִזְבַּח הַקְּטֹרֶת

Among all ancient peoples, their מִזבֵּחַ was the dining table of their deity—and all other altars were dining tables of rival demons. A diner's religion and nëphꞋësh was determined by which מִזבֵּחַ his or her table identified — to which they offered blessings.more


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מִזְרָחPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2009.09.29]

masc . n. Mi•zᵊrãkhꞋ; מזרח, mizrakh East, lit. "from the shining," referring to the rising sun . (See also Ãd•otꞋ.)

Also adjective m.s. מִזרָחִי (Miz•rãkhꞋi), m.p. מִזְרָחִיִּים (Miz•rãkhꞋi•yimꞋ); easterner(s); Eastern (i.e., "Middle Eastern" or "Oriental").


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Discoveries in the Judaean Desert X Qumran Cave 4 V Miqsat Maase Ha-Torah

מִקצָת מַעֲשֶׂה הַתּוֹרָהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.07.11]

מִקצָת מַעֲשֶׂה הַתּוֹרָה Pronunciation Table
(Mi•qᵊtzãt Ma•as•ëhꞋ ha-Tōr•ãhꞋ; "some Ma•as•ëhꞋ of Tōr•ãhꞋ.") conventionally abbreviated to MMT; ca. B.C.E. 156).

MMT is the only insider’s view of the Yᵊhud•imꞋ community predating Hellenist influences of the Apostate Paul. Familiarity with MMT is, therefore, essential—square one—to the undistorted understanding of 1st-century “Jewish” community and Judaism in which RibꞋi Yᵊhō•shūꞋa was born, educated in Mi•tzᵊraꞋyim (most likely in the ancient world’s greatest university in Alexandria) and taught! 

The writer of MMT is thought to have been Yᵊkhōn•yãhꞋ Bën-Shim•ōnꞋ II Bᵊn-Tzã•dōqꞋ (Hellenized to “Khonyo”)—the last Tōr•ãhꞋ-faithful Kō•heinꞋ ha-Jã•dōlꞋ, who subsequently became the MōrꞋeih TzëꞋdëq, founder of the Ōs•inꞋ (see also Kha•sid•imꞋ). MMT was written only 9 years or so after his brother, Yᵊhō•shūꞋa Bën-Shim•ōnꞋ II Bën-Tzã•dōqꞋ (Hellenized to “Jason”; who became the first Kō•heinꞋ hã-RëshꞋa in the resulting succession) Hellenized the Temple. MMT was a plea for his rabidly Hellenist brother to make tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ.

No less important, MMT acknowledges the Jewish community in which RibꞋi Yᵊhō•shūꞋa was born as comprising only his own min (true Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ = Ōs•inꞋ), his Hellenist brother’s min (Hellenist Pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ) and the “slippery sophist” Pᵊrush•imꞋ min—the 3 min•imꞋ counted by Josephus.more


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מוֹאָבPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

Amaleiq
Click to enlargeMap: Israel ca. B.C.E. 1000

Mō•ãvꞋ מואב, Moav ("from father"); nation east of the southern half of Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh.


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מוֹעֵדPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.07.24]

Soft MatzahOmer (barley or wheat) - ShavuotBen-David family's Sukah
Khag ha-Matz•ōtꞋ (PësꞋakh)Khag ha-Shãvu•ōtꞋKhag ha-Suk•ōtꞋ

masc . n.מועדים,Moeid,Mo'eid,Moed,Mo'ed,Moadim Mō•eidꞋ; pl. מוֹעֲדִים (mō•ad•imꞋ), convoked, convoking(s), convocation(s); usually referring to the 1st & 7th "Convoked" days of Khag ha-Matz•ōtꞋ and the 1st & 8th "Convoked" days of Suk•ōtꞋ.

חֹל הַמּוֹעֵד (khōl ha-mō•eidꞋ; profane [days contained in] the convocation) refers to the intermediate "profane" days between the 1st & 7th "Convoked" days of Khag ha-Matz•ōtꞋ and between the 1st & 8th "Convoked" days of Suk•ōtꞋ.

מוֹעֲדִים לְשִׂמחָה (mō•ad•im lᵊ-si•mᵊkh•ãhꞋ; convocations for rejoicing), the greeting for Khaj•imꞋ, refers to the convoked Khaj•imꞋ being days "convoked" specifically and explicitly "convoked" for rejoicing.

אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד (ŌꞋhël Mō•eidꞋ; Tent of Convoking, Convocation) demonstrates that מוֹעֵד (convoked) can refer to the place of convocation as well as the time or event.

סֵדֶר מוֹעֵד (SeiꞋdër Mō•eidꞋ—Order: Convocation, Convoking), 2nd order of the MiꞋshᵊnãh (i.e., Tal•mūdꞋ)


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מוֹהֵלPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2013.12.30]

masc . n. mōꞋheil; מוהל, moheil, mohel halakhic circumciser (HH)


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מוׂפֵת Pronunciation Table [Glos_K-M, updated: 2023.11.12]

mō•phætꞋ;mopheit,mofeit,wonders,marvels an inducement, portent, omen, prognostic, wondrous-sign; pl. מֽוֹפְתִ֔ים (mō•phᵊt•imꞋ). From פָּתָּה (pãt•ãhꞋ); to open wide, make wide-open, (vacant or empty) spacious, vacuous; faulty inductive thought such as omens, portents, signs, superstitions, mysterious powers, astrology, etc.; broad-minded, liberal.


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מָר/מָרָאPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2020.03.05]

masc . n. mãr/​mãr•ãꞋ;מר,מרא,mar,mori,mara,Marta,Moreih Tzedeq,Moreh Tzedeq instructor or master (used in the same sense as "master" in martial arts or chess; i.e. a master of Tōr•ãhꞋ, not the student's master). Also masc. מוֹרֶה and fem. מוֹרַה. These terms derive from the same root as Tōr•ãhꞋ (Instruction). Thus, whenever found in the context of Ta•na״khꞋ, Tōr•ãhꞋ is the implied Instruction.  more

See also MōrꞋeih  ha-TzëdꞋëq; "The Teacher of Justness" (universally mistranslated "Teacher of Righteousness") more


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מוֹרֶשֶת אָבוֹתPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Mō•rëshꞋët Ãv•ōtꞋ; מורשת אבות, Moreshet Avot (Legacy of the Patriarchs)

Name of the largest Beit ha-KᵊnësꞋët ha-Tei•mãn•iꞋ (Orthodox) in Ra•a•nanꞋa, perhaps in the world.


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הַר הַמּוֹרִיָּהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

Har ha-Mōr•i•yãhꞋ; הר המוריה, Har Moriyah, Har Moriah the Mount MorꞋi + Yãh (a Name of ha-Sheim).

Some translate this as "the Mount of Myrrh." However, this name more likely derives because it is from this same mount (also symbolizing a principal, leader or power in the Bible) that Av•rã•hãmꞋ and Yi•tzᵊkhãqꞋ Ãv•iꞋnu were yãr•ãhꞋ concerning the A•qeid•ãhꞋ—the paradigm for the mor•ëhꞋ (instructor) in every generation, the Bible promises, binding Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ to Tōr•ãhꞋ, causing Tōr•ãhꞋ to go forth (Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 2.3; Mikh•ãhꞋ 4.2).


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מוֹשָׁבPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2010.10.05]

masc . n. mō•shavꞋ; מושב, moshav settlement (pl. מוֹשָׁבִים mo•shav•imꞋ; settlements).


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[Glos K-M, updated: 2018.02.07]

Cartouche: ''Moses'' (in original Egyptian)
Hover over glyph for xlit & xlatn
3 jackal pelts = ''M▫s'' (as in MOS[es] and [Ra]MES[es], properly Ra-Moses) door-bolt = ''z''

□-M▫s▫zמושה, משה, Mosheh 

□-incarnate — demigod born of [deity], [deity]-reborn.

Scripture records that Egypt's Royal Pharaonic Princess adopted M▫s▫z into Egypt's Royal Pharaonic Household, Palace and Karnak Temple in the Egyptian capital of WãsꞋët on the east bank of the Nile River.

Karnak Temple Complex ruins
Click to enlargeMoses' Hometown — Karnak Temple Complex ruins, New Kingdom capital of WãsꞋët, Upper (i.e. Southern) Egypt. (Note: most Israelis were settled in the Delta, on the northern coast, Lower Egypt.)
ccc
Click to enlargeAncient Egypt

Scipture documents that M▫s▫z was perceived by those around him not as a Hebrew but as "an Egyptian"! He grew up as the adopted little-brother of the Egyptian Royal Pharaonic Princess, in the Egyptian Royal Pharaonic Palace, in the Egyptian capital of WãsꞋët, speaking Egyptian as his first language (learning "halting" Hebrew as a second language) — so much so that all those who saw him, even those who personally interacted with him, identified him as a Royal Egyptian Pharaonic Prince of Egypt! M▫s▫z was educated, dressed, groomed, militarily trained in weaponry, tactics and strategy as an Egyptian Prince-General, and behaved as a culturally-educated Egyptian Royal Prince in Par•ohꞋ's Palace. Moreover, aside from the fact that this name had no precedent in Hebrew, Scripture explicitly specifies, that it was the Egyptian Royal Pharaonic Princess, not his Hebrew birth parents, who named him, i.e. according to her, Egyptian surname—"□-M▫s▫z"!

The realization that M▫s▫z was the surname of the Pharaonic Princess is a critical piece of information essential to homing in on when M▫s▫z lived and, therefore, when the Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ occurred. Searchers have never found a shred of evidence to support the Biblical Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ because they've been looking in the wrong places and ruling-out evidence from the correct period.more


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□-מוׂצָאֵיPronunciation Table [Glos_K-M, updated: 2022.09.29]

Mō•tzã•æꞋ-□;Motzaei,Motzaæ Aramaic: culminations of…; including departures, leavings, exits, goings-forth, goings-out of….; m. pl. construct of יָצָא  (root of Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ). Most often found in the phrase "Mō•tzã•æꞋ-Sha•bãtꞋ", marked by Ha•vᵊdãl•ãhꞋ.

Jastrow (ibid.) points out, regarding the Aramaic origin, that Shãv•ū•ōtꞋ is the parallel, or corollary, of ShᵊminꞋi A•tzërꞋët; as each are distinct and constitute the culmination of their respective theme--barley to wheat (with their debated symbolisms) & temporary shelters to permanent homeland. Thus, "culmination" (which subsumes a cessation) is more apt than merely cessation.


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מוֹצִיא שֵם רַעPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2018.08.22]

Mō•tziꞋ sheim rã; מוציא שם רע, motzi sheim ra, motzi shem ra publish or broadcast defamation, slander or libel; disclosing defamation of character or slander to others (lit. "Issuing a bad name"). See also the lesser transgression of defamation— Lᵊshon hã-Rã


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𝕸 or MT [Glos K-M, updated: 2012.06.10]

Masoretic Text; the vowelized version of the Hebrew text of Ta•na״khꞋ.

MT was primarily compiled, edited and distributed by a group of Jews known as the Masoretes, derived from מָסוֹרָה (mã•sor•ãh′ ), between the 7th-10th centuries C.E. (though the consonants differ little from the text generally accepted in the early 2nd century C.E.). By contrast, MT differs often from LXX, sometimes significantly.

Klein holds that, contrary to popular misconception, מָסוֹרָה is "A secondary form of מָסֹרֶת [mã•sorꞋët]. The word מָסֹרֶת is prob. contracted from מַאֲסוֹרֶת and is formed with instr. suff. ❏מַ from אָסַר (= to bind). Later, however, the word מָסוֹרָה was explained as the summary of traditions concerning the correct writing and reading of the Bible and, accordingly, was regarded as a derivitave of the verb מָסַר (= to hand down, hand over)." (Ernest Klein. A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language For Readers of English. Jerusalem & Haifa: Carta & Univ. of Haifa, 1987. p. 360). more


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מוּלPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2007.09.02]

mūl; מול, mul to circumcise; secondary form מָהַל (mã•halꞋ), from which מוֹהֵל (mo•heilꞋ; circumciser) derives.


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מוּםPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.06.20]

masc . n. mūm (rhymes with "broom," not "dumb"); מום, mum point, spot, dot, defect; popularly "blemish."


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מוּמָרPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2019.01.18]

masc . n.mū•mãrꞋ;מומר,mumar participle of hōphil of מור. BH: a Jew who exchanges, as in exchanging currency or importing something — esp. religion. From the Jews' perspective, that means one who converts-out from Tōr•ãhꞋ to another religion (historically Christianity). However, in contrast to mᵊshū•mãdꞋ, there is no implication of coercion or force.

fem. n.מוּמָרִית (mū•mãr•itꞋ; a Jewess who changes (converts-out) from Tōr•ãhꞋ to another religion.

See also geir, hitᵊbō•leilꞋ, kheit, mᵊshū•mãdꞋ and tō•ëhꞋ.


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מָסוׂרPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2017.12.22]

irreg. n. (m.s./​f.p.) mã•sōrꞋ, pl. מָסוׂרוׂת (mã•sōr•ōtꞋ); מסורות, masorot informer, snitch (term used in Bi•rᵊk•atꞋ ha-Min•imꞋ along with min and ma•lᵊshinꞋ).


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מֻקצֶהPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2007.07.30]

mū•qᵊtz•ëhꞋ; מקצה, מוקצה, muqtzeh(adj.) — cut off, removed, set apart; especially an item forbidden to be used on Shab•ãtꞋ. An item that is mu•qᵊtz•ëhꞋ shouldn't even be left out where it can be seen on Shab•ãtꞋ and remind one of profane weekday matters, much less be handled or touched on Shab•ãtꞋ.


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מוּסָףPronunciation Table [Glos K-M, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Mū•sãphꞋ; מוסף, Musaph, Musaf additional, refers to the "Additional" sacrifice (and, therefore, liturgy) on Shab•ãtꞋ and holy days in the Beit ha-KᵊnësꞋët, paralleling the Mu•sãphꞋ services of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ. The Mu•sãphꞋ service follows the Sha•khar•itꞋ service. In modern liturgy, there is little discernible break, making Sha•khar•itꞋ and Mu•sãphꞋ services seem, to the uninitiated, to merge into one service.


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